Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Euphorbia hypericifolia
(graceful spurge)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Euphorbia hypericifolia
  • Preferred Common Name
  • graceful spurge
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • E. hypericifolia is a herbaceous shrub native to the Americas. It is regarded as an invasive weed in many of the Pacific Islands in which it occurs, especially Hawaii, where it is rated ‘high risk’. It is also a weed in Singapore and Taiw...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); habit. Mangrove Nature Park, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionEuphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); habit. Mangrove Nature Park, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); habit. Mangrove Nature Park, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.
HabitEuphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); habit. Mangrove Nature Park, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); habit. Mangrove Nature Park, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionEuphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); habit. Mangrove Nature Park, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); habit. Mangrove Nature Park, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.
HabitEuphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); habit. Mangrove Nature Park, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); mature habit. Piilani Villages Shopping Center, Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2007.
TitleHabit
CaptionEuphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); mature habit. Piilani Villages Shopping Center, Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); mature habit. Piilani Villages Shopping Center, Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2007.
HabitEuphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); mature habit. Piilani Villages Shopping Center, Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); habit, showing leaves, flowers and fruit. Radar Hill Field, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.
TitleLeaves, flowers and fruit
CaptionEuphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); habit, showing leaves, flowers and fruit. Radar Hill Field, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); habit, showing leaves, flowers and fruit. Radar Hill Field, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.
Leaves, flowers and fruitEuphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); habit, showing leaves, flowers and fruit. Radar Hill Field, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); close-up of flowers, fruits and leaves. Commodore Avenue,  Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.
TitleFlowers, fruits and leaves
CaptionEuphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); close-up of flowers, fruits and leaves. Commodore Avenue, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2008 - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); close-up of flowers, fruits and leaves. Commodore Avenue,  Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.
Flowers, fruits and leavesEuphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); close-up of flowers, fruits and leaves. Commodore Avenue, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.©Forest & Kim Starr-2008 - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); close-up of flowers and fruits. Mokuauia, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. February 2005.
TitleFlowers and fruits
CaptionEuphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); close-up of flowers and fruits. Mokuauia, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. February 2005.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2005 - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); close-up of flowers and fruits. Mokuauia, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. February 2005.
Flowers and fruitsEuphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); close-up of flowers and fruits. Mokuauia, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. February 2005.©Forest & Kim Starr-2005 - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); close-up of flowers and fruits Nr Ave Maria, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
TitleFlowers and fruits
CaptionEuphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); close-up of flowers and fruits Nr Ave Maria, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); close-up of flowers and fruits Nr Ave Maria, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
Flowers and fruitsEuphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); close-up of flowers and fruits Nr Ave Maria, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 4.0

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Euphorbia hypericifolia L.

Preferred Common Name

  • graceful spurge

Other Scientific Names

  • Anisophyllum hypericifolium (L.) Haw.
  • Chamaesyce bolivianat (Rusby) Croizat
  • Chamaesyce glomerifera Millsp.
  • Chamaesyce hypericifolia (L.) Millsp.
  • Ditritea obliqua Raf.
  • Euphorbia boliviana (Rusby)
  • Euphorbia decumbens W.
  • Euphorbia glomerifera (Millsp.) L.C. Wheeler
  • Euphorbia papilligera Boiss.

International Common Names

  • English: black purslane; chickenweed; flux weed; garden spurge; large spotted spurge; milk purslane; tropical euphorbia

Local Common Names

  • China: tong nai cao
  • France: herbe colique
  • Marshall Islands: bwilbwilikkaj
  • Palau: karkar
  • Portugal: canchlagua
  • Spain: golondrina; lechera; lechosa
  • USA: graceful sandmat

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

E. hypericifolia is a herbaceous shrub native to the Americas. It is regarded as an invasive weed in many of the Pacific Islands in which it occurs, especially Hawaii, where it is rated ‘high risk’. It is also a weed in Singapore and Taiwan, though the situations in which it is causing problems are not well documented. It is recognized as a weed in soyabean, sugar cane and cotton in some countries and is presumably also threatening native flora in others.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Euphorbiales
  •                         Family: Euphorbiaceae
  •                             Genus: Euphorbia
  •                                 Species: Euphorbia hypericifolia

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Euphorbia hypericifolia was named by Linnaeus, based on a specimen from Jamaica. It is native to the Americas, but the name has been loosely applied to an aggregate of closely related species with a much wider distribution. The mainly Old World taxa such as E. parviflora,E. reniformis, E. braeolaris and E.indica are now treated as separate species (e.g. Raju and Rao, 1979). The synonym Chamaesyce hypericifolia is still in use by some authorities, especially in the USA.

E. hypericifolia belongs to subgenus Chamaesyce section Hypericifoliae, a group of annual herbs with obvious stipules, further characterized by the main stem aborting at the seedling stage (PROTA, 2013).

E. hypericifolia is widely available as an ornamental. Commercial varieties include ‘Breathless Blush Euphorbia,’ with red tinged leaves and white flowers, and ‘Diamond Frost,’ with slender green leaves and delicate white flowers. ‘Diamond Frost’ was a random mutation, found in a collection of E. hypericifolia in Germany in 2004, with more uniform growth with a lot of branching, and more numerous and smaller flowers . However, whether these derive from E. hypericifolia sensu stricta or from other species in the E. hypericifolia aggregate is not completely certain.

Description

Top of page

From PROTA (2013):

Glabrous annual, branched herb, spreading or erect, up to 60 cm tall, apex of branches drooping, with latex. Leaves opposite, simple; stipules triangular, 1–2 mm long, one pair often fused, hairy at margins; petiole 1–2 mm long; blade elliptical-oblong to oblong, 1–2(–3.5) cm × 0.5–1(–1.5) cm, base cuneate, asymmetric, apex obtuse, margin obscurely toothed. Inflorescence an axillary cluster of flowers, called a ‘cyathium’, cyathia densely clustered into a head c. 1.5 cm in diameter; peduncle up to 3 cm long; cyathia almost sessile, c. 1 mm long, with a cup-shaped involucre, lobes triangular, minute, glands 4, tiny, almost round, stiped, with circular, white to pink appendage, each involucre containing 1 female flower surrounded by many male flowers. Flowers unisexual; male flowers sessile, bracteoles linear, perianth absent, stamen c. 0.5 mm long; female flowers with short pedicel, perianth a rim, ovary superior, glabrous, 3-celled, styles 3, minute. Fruit a 3-lobed capsule c. 1.5 mm in diameter, 3-seeded. Seeds ovoid, c. 1 mm long, 4-angled, slightly wrinkled, greyish purple, without caruncle.

Plant Type

Top of page
Annual
Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

Top of page

E. hypericifolia is native to the Americas, where it has been recorded from southern USA, the Caribbean and throughout South America. It is not certain whether all the records from the latter represent native populations or if they have arisen from introduction.

Elsewhere, E. hypericifolia has been widely introduced to the Pacific Islands, and to some extent in Africa and Southeast Asia. According to PROTA (2013), its distribution in tropical Africa is not clear as it is confused with E. indica, although ‘It occurs with certainty in West Africa, Burundi and on Mauritius.’ The distribution may be somewhat wider than has been indicated in the distribution table, but many records listed for Africa and Asia by GBIF (2013), including those for Madagascar, India, New Zealand, Thailand, Sri Lanka and Japan, have been ignored on the grounds of possible confusion with E. indica and other species previously included in the ‘E. hypericifolia aggregate.’

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BurundiPresentIntroduced
Cabo VerdePresentIntroduced
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroduced
GhanaPresentIntroducedAs E. glomerifera
LiberiaPresentIntroducedAs E. glomerifera
MauritiusPresentIntroduced
MayottePresentIntroduced
SenegalPresentIntroducedAs E. glomerifera
Sierra LeonePresentIntroducedAs E. glomerifera

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroduced
-BeijingPresentIntroduced
-GuangdongPresentIntroduced
-GuizhouPresentIntroduced
-HainanPresentIntroduced
-HunanPresentIntroduced
-JiangxiPresentIntroduced
-SichuanPresentIntroduced
-YunnanPresentIntroduced
SingaporePresentIntroducedInvasive
TaiwanPresentIntroducedInvasive

Europe

FrancePresent
ItalyPresentIntroduced

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentNative
ArubaPresentNative
BahamasPresentNative
BarbadosPresentNative
BelizePresentNative
British Virgin IslandsPresentNativeTortola
Costa RicaPresentNative
CubaPresentNative
DominicaPresentNative
Dominican RepublicPresentNative
El SalvadorPresentNative
GrenadaPresentNative
GuadeloupePresentNative
GuatemalaPresentNative
HaitiPresentNative
HondurasPresentNative
JamaicaPresentNative
MartiniquePresentNative
MexicoPresentNative
MontserratPresentNative
Netherlands AntillesPresentNative
NicaraguaPresentNative
PanamaPresentNative
Puerto RicoPresentNative
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentNative
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNative
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentNative
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentNative
-ArkansasPresentNative
-CaliforniaPresentNative
-FloridaPresentNative
-GeorgiaPresentNative
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasiveFrench Frigate, Big Island, Katua’I, Kure, Lana’I, Maui, Moloka’I, O’ahu islands
-LouisianaPresentNative
-MarylandPresentNative
-New MexicoPresentNative
-South CarolinaPresentNative
-TexasPresentNative

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedOfu, Tau, Tutuila Island
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedPenrhyn (Tongareva) isalnd
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveChuuk, Namoluk, Kosrae,, Pohnpei, Ulithi, Yap,
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasiveViti Levu
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveTahiti
GuamPresentIntroducedInvasive
KiribatiPresentIntroducedInvasiveFlint, Kiritimat, Enderbury, Kanton, Abemama, Bi=utaritair, Tarawa Islands
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveBikini, Enewetak, Jaluit, Kili, Kwajalein, Rongerik,Arno, Majuro, Mili islands
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveLoyalty, Ile Grande, New Caledonia islands
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveSaipan island
PalauPresentIntroducedInvasiveAngaur, Babeldaob, Kayangel islands
SamoaPresentIntroducedSavai’I, Upolu islands
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroduced
TongaPresentIntroduced

South America

ArgentinaPresentNative
BoliviaPresentNative
BrazilPresentNative
-AmazonasPresentNative
-ParaPresentNative
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNative
-Rio Grande do NortePresentNative
-RoraimaPresentNative
ChilePresentNative
ColombiaPresentNative
EcuadorPresentNative
French GuianaPresentNativeIle de Cayenne
ParaguayPresentNative
PeruPresentNative
SurinamePresentNative
UruguayPresentNative
VenezuelaPresentNative

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

Chen and Wu (2004) recorded the first occurrence of E. hypericifolia in Taiwan in 2012. No other records have been found which define exact dates of introduction outside the Americas, but for the Pacific islands, some of the earliest specimens listed by GBIF (2013) include Hawaii in 1924, Niue in 1965, Palau in 1970, Vanuatu in 1971, the US Virgin Islands in 1972, New Caledonia in 1975, Kiribati in 1976, Tonga in 1978, the Northern Mariana Islands in 1982, and the Marshall Islands in 1988. Elsewhere, China has a record from 1911, Indonesia from 1924 and Burundi from 1966.

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

The risk of introduction is moderate. E. hypericifolia is available as an ornamental, though it is not widely advertised on the internet. A small risk of spread through contaminated crop seed is possible.

Habitat

Top of page

E. hypericifolia occurs along roadsides, stony river sides, in waste places and as a weed in cultivation, from sea-level up to 600 m altitude (PROTA, 2013). In Guam, it is almost exclusively found on roadsides and vacant lots (Reddy, 2011). In Taiwan, it is found in gardens, on roadsides, waste ground and along borders of ponds and marshes (Chen and Wu, 2004).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Principal habitat

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

E. hypericifolia is recorded as a weed in soyabean, sugarcane and cotton.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeMain
    Gossypium hirsutum (Bourbon cotton)MalvaceaeMain
      Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)PoaceaeMain

        Growth Stages

        Top of page
        Flowering stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

        Biology and Ecology

        Top of page

        Genetics

        Chromosome number is apparently quite variable. Missouri Botanic Garden (2013) indicated a basic number of n = 8, although one reference is quoted for a somatic number of 32. PROTA (2013) indicated n = 7, 8, 16 or 28, and 2n = 16, 18, 22 or 32. Wang et al. (1999) reported that ‘the basic chromosome number of x = 8 is new for E. hypericifolia, in which x = 7 was previously reported, indicating that this species has both ploidy (2n = 4x = 48 and 8x = 56) and dysploidy (x = 7 or 8) variations.’

        Reproductive biology

        Pollination of E. hypericifolia is probably effected by small insects. Seeds have been seen to be dispersed by ants (PROTA, 2013).

        Physiology and phenology

        The Chamaesyce clade of Euphorbia is the largest lineage of C4 plants among the eudicots, with 350 species, including both narrow endemics and cosmopolitan weeds (Yang and Berry, 2011). Flowering and fruiting occur throughout the year (PROTA, 2013).

        Associations

        In Taiwan, E. hypericifolia grows in association with other weedy plants commonly found in disturbed areas, such as Aster subulatus,Bidens pilosa, Emilia sonchifolia, Chenopodium serotinum, Veronica undulata and Mazus pumilus (Chen and Wu, 2004).

        Environmental requirements

        In the USA, E. hypericifolia is associated with US hardiness zones 9b to 11. Soil pH requirements are from 6-8.

        Climate

        Top of page
        ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
        Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
        Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
        As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
        Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
        Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
        Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
        Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

        Latitude/Altitude Ranges

        Top of page
        Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
        35 35

        Rainfall Regime

        Top of page
        Bimodal
        Summer
        Uniform
        Winter

        Soil Tolerances

        Top of page

        Soil drainage

        • free

        Soil reaction

        • acid
        • alkaline

        Soil texture

        • medium

        Special soil tolerances

        • infertile
        • shallow

        Natural enemies

        Top of page
        Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
        Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. clidemiae Indonesia
        Phytomonas Venezuela, USA
        Pratylenchus brachyurus USA

        Notes on Natural Enemies

        Top of page

        A number of organisms are recorded attacking E. hypericifolia (see Natural Enemies Table), but none are apparently common or serious.

        Pathway Causes

        Top of page
        CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
        Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes
        Garden waste disposal Yes
        Horticulture Yes Yes
        Internet sales Yes
        Ornamental purposes Yes Yes

        Pathway Vectors

        Top of page
        VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
        Aircraft Yes
        Mail Yes Yes

        Impact Summary

        Top of page
        CategoryImpact
        Cultural/amenity Positive
        Economic/livelihood Negative
        Environment (generally) Negative
        Human health Negative

        Economic Impact

        Top of page

        E. hypericifola is a major weed in sugarcane and soyabean in Peru (Diaz, 1976; Doll and Piedrahita, 1975). It is also a ‘predominant’ weed of coffee in Puerto Rico (Semidey et al., 2002). No data have been found on economic losses caused.

        Environmental Impact

        Top of page

        Impact on biodiversity

        E. hypericifolia is listed among the top 20 invasive plants on Guam, which, although they may not be presently causing serious damage to wild ecosystems, are certainly not desirable species (Reddy, 2011).

        Social Impact

        Top of page

        All parts of the plant are poisonous if ingested, and handling the plant may cause skin irritation or an allergic reaction (Dave’s Garden, 2013).

        Risk and Impact Factors

        Top of page
        Invasiveness
        • Proved invasive outside its native range
        • Has a broad native range
        • Abundant in its native range
        • Pioneering in disturbed areas
        • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
        • Has high genetic variability
        Impact outcomes
        • Negatively impacts agriculture
        • Negatively impacts human health
        Impact mechanisms
        • Competition - monopolizing resources
        • Poisoning

        Uses

        Top of page

        Economic value

        E. hypericifolia products are widely traded in the USA in tablets and powders, mainly to treat bowel disorders. It is traded internationally through the internet. Aliphatic alcohols have been isolated from the aerial parts, as have the sterols taraxerol, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campestol and the flavonoids kaemferol, quercetin, quercetrin (quercetin-3-rhamnoside), rhamnetin-3-galactoside, rhamnetin-3-rhamnoside and ellagic acid (PROTA, 2013). Other medicinal uses listed by USDA-ARS (2013) include for treating toothache, asthma, bronchitis, conjunctivitis, dysentery, dysuria, fever and vaginitis. It is also used for the treatment of measles and skin rashes (Lans, 2007).

        Leaf extracts showed significant growth inhibitory effect against Aspergillus flavus in vitro, as well as inhibition of the production of aflatoxins almost completely, with greater inhibition at higher concentrations (PROTA, 2013).

        E. hypericifolia has shown inhibition of quorum sensing-controlled virulence factor production in Chromobacterium violaceum and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Koh et al. 2013) and in Psedomonas aeruginosa (Adonzio et al., 2008).

        E. hypericifolia may also have potential for renovation of contaminated soils. It was found to be thriving on a landfill site in Cote d’Ivoire (Messou et al., 2013).

        Uses List

        Top of page

        General

        • Sociocultural value

        Medicinal, pharmaceutical

        • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical

        Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

        Top of page

        E. hypericifolia, with which E. indica has been confused ever since early editions of the Flora of Tropical Africa, is a widespread species of the New World tropics and sub-tropics. The two species are very closely related, but distinguished by the larger, usually pubescent capsule of E. indica and its stipules which remain separated.

        E. hypericifolia is similar to Cuphea hyssopifolia. However, E. hypericifolia seeds are orange brown, ovate with a testa covered with an irregular, polygonal reticulum under SEM, whereas C. hyssopifolia seeds are blackish brown and oblong, with a testa covered with cuticular platelets. The capsules in E. hypericifolia are about 1 mm across, much smaller than those of C. hyssopifolia, which is usually distinguished by its larger, more ovoid capsules about 1.5-2 mm across. In addition, the stipules of E. hypericifolia are conspicuous, outspreading and as much as 2 mm long, making a considerable difference from the inconspicuous ones in C. hyssopifolia, in which the stipules are attached to the nodes and are hardly 1 mm in length. Also, in E. hypericifolia the usually purplish red coloration of fresh stipules is quite distinct (Chen and Wu, 2004).

        Prevention and Control

        Top of page

        Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

        Cultural control and sanitary measures

        In coffee in Puerto Rico, E. hypericifolia was among weeds better controlled by a live mulch of Paspalum dilatatum than by repeated glyphosate applications (Semidey et al., 2002).

        Chemical control

        Hexazinone is recommended by the manufacturers for control of E. hypericifolia in sugarcane. E. hypericifolia has also been controlled by prodiamine and by oxadiazon (Nagata, 2010). It is not controlled by linuron, which leads to an increase in broad-leaved weeds (primarily E. hypericifolia) in soyabean when applied for four consecutive seasons (Doll and Piedrahita, 1975).

        References

        Top of page

        Adonizio A; Kong KF; Mathee K, 2008. Inhibition of quorum sensing-controlled virulence factor production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by south Florida plant extracts. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 52(1):198-203.

        Chen ShihHuei; Wu MingJou, 2004. Chamaesyce hypericifolia (L.) Millsp., a newly naturalized spurge species in Taiwan. Taiwania, 49(2):102-108.

        Dave's Garden, 2013. Dave's Garden. California, USA: Internet Brands. http://davesgarden.com/

        Diaz CA, 1976. Identification and quantitative analysis of weeds in rice, sugar cane, cotton and chickpea. In: Trabajos y Resumenes, III Congreso Asociacion Latinoamericana de Malezas "ALAM" y VIII Reunion Argentina de Malezas y su Control, "ASAM", Mar del Plata, 1976, 1. 15-30.

        Doll J; Piedrahita W, 1975. The effects of crop and herbicide rotation on the complex of dominant weeds. In: Sociedad Colombiana de Control de Malezas y Fisiologia Vegetal "COMALFI". Resumenes de los Trabajos en el VII Seminario, Bogota, 1975. 54.

        Flora of China, 2013. Flora of China. http://www.efloras.org/

        GBIF, 2013. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). http://data.gbif.org/species/

        Hutchinson J; Dalziel JM, 1958. Flora of West Tropical Africa. Vol. 1 Part 2, 2nd ed. (rev.). Revised by Keay RWJ.

        Koh ChongLek; Sam ChoonKook; Yin WaiFong; Tan LiYing; Krishnan T; Chong YeeMeng; Chan KokGan, 2013. Plant-derived natural products as sources of anti-quorum sensing compounds. Sensors, 13(5):6217-6228. http://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/13/5/6217

        Lans C, 2007. Comparison of plants used for skin and stomach problems in Trinidad and Tobago with Asian ethnomedicine. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 3(3):(05 January 2007). http://www.ethnobiomed.com/content/pdf/1746-4269-3-3.pdf

        Messou A; Coulibaly L; Doumbia L; Gourene G, 2013. Plants diversity and phytoaccumulators identification on the Akouedo landfill (Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire). African Journal of Biotechnology, 12(3):253-264. http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB/PDF/pdf2013/16Jan/Messou%20et%20al.pdf

        Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013. Tropicos database. St Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

        Nagata NM, 2010. Efficacy of granular pre-emergent herbicide. Malaysian Association of Landscape Professionals Newsletter, Summer 2010. http://www.malp.org/efficacy-of-granular-preemergent-herbicides.html

        PIER, 2013. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

        PROTA, 2013. PROTA4U web database. Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

        Raju VS; Rao PN, 1979. Euphorbia indica Lamarck: hitherto little-known name of a much common Indian weed. Indian Journal of Botany, 2(2):202-208.

        Reddy GVP, 2011. Survey of invasive plants on Guam and identification of the 20 most widespread. Micronesica, 41(2). 263-274.

        Sciandrello S; Galdo GGdel; Minissale P, 2016. Euphorbia hypericifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae), a new alien species for Italy. Webbia, 71(1):163-168. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00837792.2016.1152669#aHR0cDovL3d3dy50YW5kZm9ubGluZS5jb20vZG9pL3BkZi8xMC4xMDgwLzAwODM3NzkyLjIwMTYuMTE1MjY2OUBAQDA=

        Semidey N; Orengo-Santiago E; Más EG, 2002. Weed suppression and soil erosion control by live mulches on upland coffee plantations. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 86(3/4):155-157.

        USDA-ARS, 2013. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

        USDA-NRCS, 2013. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

        Wang YanHong; Ma JinShuang; Liu QuanRu, 1999. Karyotypes of eight species of Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae) from China. Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica, 37(4):394-402.

        Yang Y; Berry PE, 2011. Phylogenetics of the Chamaesyce clade (Euphorbia, Euphorbiaceae): reticulate evolution and long-distance dispersal in a prominent C4 lineage. American Journal of Botany, 98(9):1486-1503. http://www.amjbot.org/content/98/9/1486.abstract

        Distribution References

        CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

        CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

        Flora of China, 2013. Flora of China., http://www.efloras.org/

        GBIF, 2013. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. http://www.gbif.org/species

        Hutchinson J, Daliziel J M, 1958. Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 1, Part 2. 296-828.

        Messou A, Coulibaly L, Doumbia L, Gourene G, 2013. Plants diversity and phytoaccumulators identification on the Akouedo landfill (Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire). African Journal of Biotechnology. 12 (3), 253-264. http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB/PDF/pdf2013/16Jan/Messou%20et%20al.pdf

        PIER, 2013. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

        PROTA, 2013. PROTA4U web database., [ed. by Grubben GJH, Denton OA]. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

        Quénéhervé P, Godefroid M, Mège P, Marie-Luce S, 2011. Diversity of Meloidogyne spp. parasitizing plants in Martinique Island, French West Indies. Nematropica. 41 (2), 191-199. http://journals.fcla.edu/nematropica/article/view/76630/74240

        Sciandrello S, Galdo G G del, Minissale P, 2016. Euphorbia hypericifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae), a new alien species for Italy. Webbia. 71 (1), 163-168. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00837792.2016.1152669#aHR0cDovL3d3dy50YW5kZm9ubGluZS5jb20vZG9pL3BkZi8xMC4xMDgwLzAwODM3NzkyLjIwMTYuMTE1MjY2OUBAQDA= DOI:10.1080/00837792.2016.1152669

        USDA-ARS, 2013. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

        USDA-NRCS, 2013. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

        Links to Websites

        Top of page
        WebsiteURLComment
        GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

        Contributors

        Top of page

        03/12/13 Original text by:

        Chris Parker, consultant, UK

        Distribution Maps

        Top of page
        You can pan and zoom the map
        Save map
        Select a dataset
        Map Legends
        • CABI Summary Records
        Map Filters
        Extent
        Invasive
        Origin
        Third party data sources: