Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ipomoea hederifolia
(scarlet-creeper )

Toolbox

Datasheet

Ipomoea hederifolia (scarlet-creeper )

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 15 June 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ipomoea hederifolia
  • Preferred Common Name
  • scarlet-creeper
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Ipomoea hederifolia is an annual climbing vine species, native to the tropical and warm temperate parts of the Americas, which has been introduced to many parts of the world as an ornamental plant.  It has escaped from cultivation to beco...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Ipomoea hederifolia (scarlet-creeper); flower. Jawahar, Uttar Pradesh, India. December 2009.
TitleFlower
CaptionIpomoea hederifolia (scarlet-creeper); flower. Jawahar, Uttar Pradesh, India. December 2009.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Ipomoea hederifolia (scarlet-creeper); flower. Jawahar, Uttar Pradesh, India. December 2009.
FlowerIpomoea hederifolia (scarlet-creeper); flower. Jawahar, Uttar Pradesh, India. December 2009.©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Ipomoea hederifolia (scarlet-creeper); flowering habit. Khargar Hills, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. November 2007.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionIpomoea hederifolia (scarlet-creeper); flowering habit. Khargar Hills, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. November 2007.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Ipomoea hederifolia (scarlet-creeper); flowering habit. Khargar Hills, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. November 2007.
Flowering habitIpomoea hederifolia (scarlet-creeper); flowering habit. Khargar Hills, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. November 2007.©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Ipomoea hederifolia (scarlet-creeper); flowering and scrambling habit. Khargar Hills, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. November 2007.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionIpomoea hederifolia (scarlet-creeper); flowering and scrambling habit. Khargar Hills, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. November 2007.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Ipomoea hederifolia (scarlet-creeper); flowering and scrambling habit. Khargar Hills, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. November 2007.
Flowering habitIpomoea hederifolia (scarlet-creeper); flowering and scrambling habit. Khargar Hills, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. November 2007.©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Ipomoea hederifolia (scarlet-creeper); leaves and vines. Jawahar, Uttar Pradesh, India. December 2009.
TitleLeaves and vines
CaptionIpomoea hederifolia (scarlet-creeper); leaves and vines. Jawahar, Uttar Pradesh, India. December 2009.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Ipomoea hederifolia (scarlet-creeper); leaves and vines. Jawahar, Uttar Pradesh, India. December 2009.
Leaves and vinesIpomoea hederifolia (scarlet-creeper); leaves and vines. Jawahar, Uttar Pradesh, India. December 2009.©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ipomoea hederifolia L.

Preferred Common Name

  • scarlet-creeper

Other Scientific Names

  • Convolvulus acutangulus (Ruiz & Pav.) Spreng.
  • Convolvulus angulatus (Lam.) Spreng.
  • Convolvulus hederifolius (L.) Spreng.
  • Convolvulus luteolus (Jacq.) Spreng.
  • Convolvulus phoeniceus (Roxb.) Spreng.
  • Convolvulus sanguineus (Vahl) Spreng.
  • Doxema sanguinea (Vahl) Raf.
  • Ipomoea angularis Willd.
  • Ipomoea angulata Lam.
  • Ipomoea brevipedicellata (Hallier f.) Hallier f.
  • Ipomoea hephrophylla Meisn.
  • Ipomoea luteola Jacq.
  • Ipomoea nephrophylla Meisn.
  • Ipomoea phoenicea (Roxb.) Choisy
  • Ipomoea phoenicea Roxb.
  • Ipomoea sanguinea Vahl
  • Mina hederifolia (L.) Bello
  • Quamoclit acutangula (Ruiz & Pav.) Choisy
  • Quamoclit angulata (Lam.) Bojer
  • Quamoclit brevipedicellata Hallier f.
  • Quamoclit dichotoma (Kunth) G. Don
  • Quamoclit hederifolia (L.) G. Don
  • Quamoclit luteola (Jacq.) G. Don
  • Quamoclit phoenicea (Roxb.) Choisy
  • Quamoclit sanguinea (Vahl) G. Don

International Common Names

  • English: ivy-leaf morning glory; scarlet creeper; scarlet morning glory; star ipomoea
  • Spanish: trompetilla roja; trompillo
  • French: liseron hallier; liseron rouge
  • Portuguese: jitirana-vermelha; amarra-amarra; corda-de-viola; jetirana

Local Common Names

  • Australia: red convolvulus; redstar
  • Brazil: batatarana; corriola; jitirana
  • Cuba: manto de la virgen
  • Dominican Republic: cambustera
  • Haiti: bejuco de tabaco
  • India: kasiratnam; mookuthichedi; red star morning-glory
  • Mexico: campanita; hiedra colorada
  • Puerto Rico: cambustera
  • Thailand: chingcho daeng; khruea titae

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

Ipomoea hederifolia is an annual climbing vine species, native to the tropical and warm temperate parts of the Americas, which has been introduced to many parts of the world as an ornamental plant.  It has escaped from cultivation to become naturalized and invasive mostly in disturbed sites and riparian areas (PIER, 2016; Queensland Government, 2016).  It also behaves as a weed in cultivated fields (such as sugarcane and soybean fields) in areas within and outside its native distribution range (Kissmann and Groth, 1999; Randall, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2016). It has the potential to outcompete other plant species for nutrients, water and sunlight. Currently it is listed as a serious agricultural weed in Brazil (Kissmann and Groth, 1999; Silva et al., 2009; Calore et al., 2014) and as an invasive species in Cuba, Australia, Hawaii, Fiji, New Caledonia and other islands in the Pacific region (Wagner et al., 1999; Oviedo et al., 2012; PIER, 2016; Queensland Government, 2016).

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Solanales
  •                         Family: Convolvulaceae
  •                             Genus: Ipomoea
  •                                 Species: Ipomoea hederifolia

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Ipomoea is a large and complex genus of vines and shrubs within the Convolvulaceae (Stevens, 2012). This family comprises approximately 700 species in 55–60 genera. The family is nearly cosmopolitan in distribution, but its members are primarily tropical (Stefanovic et al., 2003). The genus Ipomoea includes more than 600 species distributed worldwide, with approximately 500 species occurring in tropical and warm temperate regions of the Americas (Miller et al., 1999).  The taxonomy of Ipomoea hederifolia is still unclear. It has been considered conspecific with I. coccinea L., and botanists cannot agree if there are two species (Ipomoea hederifolia and I. coccinea), or just one (Lowell and Lucansky, 1986). In the last version of The Plant List (2013), Ipomoea hederifolia appears as an accepted species native to tropical America, while Ipomoea coccinea is listed as a synonym of Ipomoea rubriflora O'Donell, a species with a native distribution restricted to South America (Staples, 2016), although some names that appear to be subspecies of I. coccinea are listed as synonyms of I. hederifolia. World Flora Online (2020) agrees with this taxonomy, and this is what is followed in this datasheet.

Description

Top of page

Vine; stems slender and herbaceous, annuals, glabrous to sparsely pubescent. Leaves ovate to suborbicular, 2-15 cm long, entire, dentate, trilobate or rarely with 5 or 7 lobes, basally cordate, acute to acuminate apically, glabrous or remotely pubescent. Flowers in few- to several-flowered cymes or solitary; sepals oblong to elliptic, 1.5-3 mm long, apically obtuse or truncate, the outer sepals with a 1.6-6 mm long subterminal arista, glabrous; corollas red or red-yellow, 2.5-4.5 cm long, the tube 1-2 mm in diameter, the limb 1.8-2.5 cm in diameter. Fruits capsular, subglobose, 6-8 mm in diameter; seeds dark brown or black, pyriform, with usually 2 lines of short dark trichomes on the dorsal face (Flora of Panama, 2016). The vines can grow to 3-5 m long (Witt and Luke, 2017)

Plant Type

Top of page
Annual
Herbaceous
Seed propagated
Vine / climber

Distribution

Top of page

The native distribution range of Ipomoea hederifolia includes the southern United States, the West Indies, Mexico, Central America and South America (Staples, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016). It has been introduced into parts of Asia, Africa, Australia and several Pacific islands (e.g. Fiji, Nauru, Hawaii, Palau, New Caledonia and Tonga: PIER, 2016; PROTA, 2016; Staples, 2016).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 12 Jun 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentIntroduced
Burkina FasoPresentIntroduced
CameroonPresentIntroduced
Central African RepublicPresentIntroduced
ComorosPresentIntroduced
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentIntroduced
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroduced
Equatorial GuineaPresentIntroduced
GhanaPresentIntroduced
GuineaPresentIntroduced
KenyaPresent, LocalizedIntroduced
MadagascarPresentIntroduced
MalawiPresentIntroduced
MauritaniaPresentIntroduced
MauritiusPresentIntroduced
-RodriguesPresentIntroduced
MayottePresentIntroducedInvasive
MozambiquePresentIntroduced
NigeriaPresentIntroduced
RéunionPresentIntroduced
SenegalPresentIntroduced
SeychellesPresentIntroduced
SudanPresentIntroduced
TanzaniaPresent, LocalizedIntroduced
TogoPresentIntroduced
UgandaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
ZambiaPresentIntroduced
ZimbabwePresentIntroduced

Asia

BangladeshPresentIntroduced
IndiaPresentIntroduced
-AssamPresentIntroduced
-KeralaPresentIntroduced
-MaharashtraPresentIntroduced
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroduced
MyanmarPresentIntroduced
NepalPresentIntroduced
North KoreaPresentIntroduced
PakistanPresentIntroduced
South KoreaPresentIntroduced
Sri LankaPresentIntroduced
TaiwanPresentIntroducedCultivated
ThailandPresentIntroduced
VietnamPresentIntroduced

Europe

BelgiumPresentIntroducedCultivated

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentNative
BahamasPresentNative
BarbadosPresentNative
BelizePresentNative
Cayman IslandsPresentNative
Costa RicaPresentNative
CubaPresentDifferent sources report it as either native, or introduced and invasive
DominicaPresentNative
Dominican RepublicPresentNative
El SalvadorPresentNative
GrenadaPresentNative
GuadeloupePresentNative
GuatemalaPresentNative
HaitiPresentNative
HondurasPresentNative
JamaicaPresent
MartiniquePresentNative
MexicoPresentNative
MontserratPresentNative
NicaraguaPresentNative
PanamaPresentNative
Puerto RicoPresentNative
Saint BarthélemyPresentNative
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentNative
Saint LuciaPresentNative
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNative
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentNative
United StatesPresentNative and IntroducedIntroduced in Hawaii
-AlabamaPresentNative
-FloridaPresentNative
-GeorgiaPresentNative
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasive
-LouisianaPresentNative
-MississippiPresent
-New MexicoPresentNative
-TexasPresentNative
-VermontPresent
-VirginiaPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Northern TerritoryPresentIntroducedInvasive
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Christmas IslandPresentIntroducedInvasive
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasive
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced
NauruPresentIntroducedInvasive
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroduced
PalauAbsent, EradicatedEradicated by 2009
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedInvasive
TongaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Wallis and FutunaPresentIntroducedInvasive

South America

ArgentinaPresentNative
BoliviaPresentNative
BrazilPresentNative
-AlagoasPresentNative
-AmazonasPresentNative
-BahiaPresentNative
-CearaPresentNative
-Distrito FederalPresentNative
-Espirito SantoPresentNative
-GoiasPresentNative
-MaranhaoPresentNative
-Mato GrossoPresentNative
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNative
-Minas GeraisPresentNative
-ParaPresentNative
-ParaibaPresentNative
-ParanaPresentNative
-PernambucoPresentNative
-PiauiPresentNative
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNative
-Rio Grande do NortePresentNative
-RondoniaPresentNative
-RoraimaPresentNative
-Santa CatarinaPresentNative
-Sao PauloPresentNative
-SergipePresentNative
-TocantinsPresentNative
ColombiaPresentNative
EcuadorPresentNative
GuyanaPresentNative
ParaguayPresentNative
PeruPresentNative
SurinamePresentNative
VenezuelaPresentNative

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

Ipomoea hederifolia has been introduced to many parts of the world as an ornamental plant, and often escaped from cultivation (USDA-ARS, 2016; PIER, 2016; PROTA, 2016). In Cuba, its status is unclear; it first appears in a herbarium collection made in 1909 (US National Herbarium, undated), but while some authors list it as native (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012), others consider it as introduced (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012). For the islands in the Pacific, I. hederifolia appears in herbarium collections made in 1924 in Fiji, 1926 in Tonga, and in 1946 on the Northern Mariana Islands (Bishop Museum, undated; Wagner et al., 1999).

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

The risk of introduction of Ipomoea hederifolia is high. It is still widely cultivated as an ornamental around the world, and its seeds can easily be obtained online on horticulture websites.  

Habitat

Top of page

Within its native distribution range in Central America, Ipomoea hederifolia grows in dry forests, wet forests, and rainforests at elevations from sea level to 1200-1800 m (Correa et al., 2004). It is a common element in disturbed sites and secondary forests (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016).  In the West Indies it grows in thickets, forest margins, and disturbed sites in coastal and inland areas (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005).

Outside its native distribution range, Ipomoea hederifolia can be found escaped from cultivation and naturalized in bushland and riparian areas, along roadsides, and in gardens, and disturbed sites in Australia (Queensland Government, 2016). In India, it grows along stream sides, and in degraded forest areas and disturbed ground close to plantations at elevations above 750 m (India Biodiversity Portal, 2016).  In Hawaii, it can be found naturalized in disturbed sites (Wagner et al., 1999).  In Fiji, it grows along roadsides and as a weed in sugarcane fields (Smith, 1991), and elsewhere it is also considered a weed of sugarcane, maize and soyabean crops (Kissmann and Groth, 1999; Silva et al., 2009; Calore et al., 2014).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

Ipomoea hederifolia is considered a weed of several crops, hampering the harvest and causing damage to sugarcane, maize and soyabeans among other crops (Kissmann and Groth, 1999; Silva et al., 2009; Calore et al., 2014).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeMain
    SaccharumPoaceaeMain
      Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeMain

        Growth Stages

        Top of page
        Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

        Biology and Ecology

        Top of page

        Genetics

        The chromosome number reported for Ipomoea hederifolia varies from 2n = 28 (Sampathkumar, 1979) to 2n = 30 (Wagner et al., 1999).

        Reproductive Biology

        The red flowers of Ipomoea hederifolia have tubular corollas and produce large quantities of relatively dilute nectar. In Georgia (USA), flowers are visited by hummingbirds and sulfur butterflies (Wolfe and Sowell, 2006).

        Physiology and Phenology

        In Panama, Ipomoea hederifolia flowers from November to April (Correa et al., 2004). In Puerto Rico, it has been recorded with flowers and fruits from October to January (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005). In India it has been recorded flowering and fruiting from October to December (India Biodiversity Portal, 2016).

        Longevity

        Ipomoea hederifolia is a short-lived (annual) fast-growing vine (Wagner et al., 1999).

        Climate

        Top of page
        ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
        Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
        Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
        As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
        Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
        Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
        Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
        Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

        Air Temperature

        Top of page
        Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
        Mean annual temperature (ºC) 18 35

        Rainfall

        Top of page
        ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
        Mean annual rainfall800>2000mm; lower/upper limits

        Rainfall Regime

        Top of page
        Bimodal
        Uniform

        Soil Tolerances

        Top of page

        Soil drainage

        • free

        Soil reaction

        • acid
        • alkaline
        • neutral

        Soil texture

        • light
        • medium

        Means of Movement and Dispersal

        Top of page

        Ipomoea hederifolia spreads by seeds which are most likely gravity-dispersed (Lowell and Lucansky, 1986; PIER, 2016). They can also be transported in soil or other materials (Queensland Government, 2016). Introduction of the species to new countries is mostly deliberate because of its use as an ornamental plant.

        Pathway Causes

        Top of page
        CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
        Escape from confinement or garden escapeEscaped from cultivation, gardens urban parks Yes Queensland Government, 2016
        HorticultureOften cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
        Internet salesSeeds sold online Yes Yes ,
        Nursery tradeOften cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
        Ornamental purposesOften cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016

        Pathway Vectors

        Top of page
        VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
        Debris and waste associated with human activitiesEscaped from cultivation, gardens, urban parks Yes Queensland Government, 2016
        MailSeeds sold online Yes Yes ,
        Soil, sand and gravelSeeds Yes Queensland Government, 2016

        Impact Summary

        Top of page
        CategoryImpact
        Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
        Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
        Environment (generally) Negative

        Economic Impact

        Top of page

        Ipomoea hederifolia is considered a weed of sugar cane, maize, soyabean and other crops, reducing the harvest and causing damage to plants (Kissmann and Groth, 1999; Silva et al., 2009; Calore et al., 2014).

        Environmental Impact

        Top of page

        Once naturalized, Ipomoea hederifolia has the potential to outcompete native plant species for nutrients, water and sunlight.  It climbs using other plants for support, and grows to form a dense canopy that shades out native vegetation (Wagner et al., 1999; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; PIER, 2016; Queensland Government, 2016). In Australia, it is becoming increasingly abundant and is regarded as an environmental weed in Queensland and a potential environmental weed in northern Western Australia and the Northern Territory (Queensland Government, 2016).

        Risk and Impact Factors

        Top of page
        Invasiveness
        • Invasive in its native range
        • Proved invasive outside its native range
        • Has a broad native range
        • Abundant in its native range
        • Highly adaptable to different environments
        • Is a habitat generalist
        • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
        • Pioneering in disturbed areas
        • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
        • Fast growing
        • Gregarious
        • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
        Impact outcomes
        • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
        • Modification of successional patterns
        • Negatively impacts agriculture
        • Reduced native biodiversity
        • Threat to/ loss of native species
        Impact mechanisms
        • Competition - monopolizing resources
        • Competition - shading
        • Competition - strangling
        • Rapid growth
        Likelihood of entry/control
        • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

        Uses

        Top of page

        Ipomoea hederifolia has been widely commercialized as an ornamental plant. In Pakistan it is grown as a medicinal plant (USDA-ARS, 2016).

        Uses List

        Top of page

        Environmental

        • Amenity

        General

        • Botanical garden/zoo

        Medicinal, pharmaceutical

        • Traditional/folklore

        Ornamental

        • garden plant
        • Seed trade

        Prevention and Control

        Top of page

        Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

        Chemical Control

        The herbicides paraquat and glyphosate have been used in Brazil to control infestations of Ipomoea hederifolia in agricultural fields (e.g. sugarcane and soybean fields) (Silva et al., 2009; Calore et al., 2014).

        References

        Top of page

        Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., 2005. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution 51, 483 pp.

        Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

        Bishop Museum, undated. Herbarium Pacificum - Bishop Museum. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Bishop Museum.http://www.bishopmuseum.org/

        Broome, R., Sabir, K., Carrington, S., 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. In: Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database , Barbados: University of the West Indies.http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

        CABI, 2020. CABI Distribution Database: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI.

        Calore, R. A., Ferreira, M. C., Rodrigues, N. E. L., Otuka, A. K., 2014. Effect of herbicides associated with adjuvants in surface tension and contact angle in leaves of Ipomoea hederifolia. Aspects of Applied Biology, (No.122), 425-429.

        Correa, A., Galdames, M. D. C., Stapf, M. N. S., 2004. Catalogo de Plantas Vasculares de Panama, Panama: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.599 pp.

        DAISIE, 2016. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. In: Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe . http://www.europe-aliens.org/

        Flora do Brasil, 2020. Brazilian flora 2020. In: Brazilian flora 2020 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden.http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br

        Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

        Flora of Panama, 2016. Flora of Panama (WFO). In: Flora of Panama (WFO) St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, MA, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FOPWFO

        Florence, J, Chevillotte, H, Ollier, C, Meyer, J-Y, 2013. Nadeaud botanical database of the Herbarium of French Polynesia. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP)). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

        India Biodiversity Portal, 2016. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity . http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

        Kissmann KG, Groth D, 1999. Plantas infestantes e nocivas (Tomo II), (ed. 2) . São Paulo, Brazil: BASF Brasileira.798 pp.

        Lowell C, Lucansky TW, 1986. Vegetative anatomy and morphology of Ipomoea hederifolia (Convolvulaceae). Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 1, 382-397.

        MacKee, H. S., 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle.unpaginated.

        Miller, R. E., Rausher, M. D., Manos, P. S., 1999. Phylogenetic systematics of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) based on ITS and Waxy sequences. Systematic Botany, 24(2), 209-227. doi: 10.2307/2419549

        Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/

        Oviedo Prieto, R., Herrera Oliver, P., Caluff, M. G., et al., 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

        PIER, 2016. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

        PROTA, 2016. PROTA4U web database. In: PROTA4U web database Wageningen and Nairobi, Netherlands\Kenya: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.https://www.prota4u.org/database/

        Queensland Government, 2016. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. In: Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition , Australia: Queensland Government.

        Randall, R. P., 2012. A global compendium of weeds, (Ed.2) [ed. by Randall, R. P. ]. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia.1124 pp. http://www.agric.wa.gov.au

        Sampathkumar R, 1979. Karyomorphological studies on some South Indian Convolvulaceae. Cytologia, 44, 275-286.

        Silva, I. A. B., Kuva, M. A., Alves, P. L. C. A., Salgado, T. P., 2009. Interference of a weed community with predominance of Ipomoea hederifolia on sugar cane ratton. (Interferência de uma comunidade de plantas daninhas com predominância de Ipomoea hederifolia na cana-soca). Planta Daninha, 27(2), 265-272. doi: 10.1590/S0100-83582009000200008

        Smith, A. C., 1991. Flora vitiensis nova. A new flora of Fiji, Vol. 5, Lawaii, Hawaii, USA: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden.626 pp. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.44033 doi:10.5962/bhl.title.44033

        Space, J. C., Lorence, D. H., LaRosa, A. M., 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on invasive plant species. In: Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on invasive plant species . Hilo, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry.227 pp. http://www.hear.org/pier/pdf/Palau_report_2008.pdf

        Space, JC, Flynn, T, 2001. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on invasive plant species of environmental concern. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, USDA Forest Service.

        Staples, G., 2016. World Checklist of Convolvulaceae. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

        Stefanovic S, Austin DF, Olmstead RG, 2003. Classification of Convolvulaceae: a phylogenetic approach. Systematic Botany, 28, 791-806.

        Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

        Thaman, R. R., Fosberg, F. R., Manner, H. I., Hassall, D. C., 1994. The flora of Nauru. In: Atoll Research Bulletin , 392. 1-223. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00775630.392.1

        The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. In: The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1 Richmond, London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://www.theplantlist.org

        US National Herbarium, undated. Specimen record from the collection in the United States National Herbarium. Washington, DC, USA: National Museum of Natural History.https://naturalhistory.si.edu/research/botany/overview-us-herbarium

        USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

        USDA-NRCS, 2020. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team.https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

        Wagner, W. L., Herbst, D. R., Sohmer, S. H., 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, Vols. 1 and 2, (Edn 2) . Honolulu, USA: University of Hawai'i and Bishop Museum Press.xviii + 1919 pp.

        Witt, A., Luke, Q., 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa, [ed. by Witt, A., Luke, Q.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI.vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 doi:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

        Wolfe, L. M., Sowell, D. R., 2006. Do pollination syndromes partition the pollinator community? A test using four sympatric morning glory species. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 167(6), 1169-1175. doi: 10.1086/507651

        World Flora Online, 2020. World Flora Online. In: World Flora Online : World Flora Online Consortium.http://www.worldfloraonline.org

        Distribution References

        Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

        Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. In: Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

        CABI, 2020. CABI Distribution Database: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

        DAISIE, 2016. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. In: Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. http://www.europe-aliens.org/

        Flora do Brasil, 2020. Brazilian flora 2020. In: Brazilian flora 2020, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br

        Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

        Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer J-Y, 2013. Nadeaud botanical database of the Herbarium of French Polynesia. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP))., https://nadeaud.ilm.pf/

        India Biodiversity Portal, 2016. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

        MacKee H S, 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. unpaginated.

        Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

        PIER, 2016. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

        Queensland Government, 2016. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. In: Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. Australia: Queensland Government. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/media/Html/search.html

        Smith A C, 1991. Flora vitiensis nova. A new flora of Fiji, Vol. 5. Lawaii, Hawaii, USA: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden. 626 pp. DOI:https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.44033

        Space J C, Lorence D H, LaRosa A M, 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on invasive plant species. In: Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on invasive plant species. Hilo, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. 227 pp. http://www.hear.org/pier/pdf/Palau_report_2008.pdf

        Space JC, Flynn T, 2001. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on invasive plant species of environmental concern., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, USDA Forest Service.

        Staples G, 2016. World Checklist of Convolvulaceae., London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

        Thaman R R, Fosberg F R, Manner H I, Hassall D C, 1994. Atoll Research Bulletin. 392, 1-223. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00775630.392.1

        USDA-NRCS, 2020. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database, Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

        Wagner W L, Herbst D R, Sohmer S H, 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, Vols. 1 and 2. Honolulu, USA: University of Hawai'i and Bishop Museum Press. xviii + 1919 pp.

        Witt A, Luke Q, 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa. [ed. by Witt A, Luke Q]. Wallingford, UK: CABI. vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 DOI:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

        Links to Websites

        Top of page
        WebsiteURLComment
        Convolvulaceae Unlimitedhttp://convolvulaceae.myspecies.info//
        GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
        Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
        Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)http://www.hear.org/pier

        Contributors

        Top of page

        22/08/16: Original text by:

        Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany, Smithsonian NMNH, Washington, DC, USA

        Distribution Maps

        Top of page
        You can pan and zoom the map
        Save map
        Select a dataset
        Map Legends
        • CABI Summary Records
        Map Filters
        Extent
        Invasive
        Origin
        Third party data sources: