Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Trifolium angustifolium
(narrow-leaf clover)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Trifolium angustifolium (narrow-leaf clover)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Documented Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Trifolium angustifolium
  • Preferred Common Name
  • narrow-leaf clover
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The narrow-leaf clover Trifolium angustifolium is an annual legume native to central, southern and eastern Europe, western Asia and North Africa. It has been introduced elsewhere and is valued for forage and pasture improvement. It has...

  • Principal Source
  • Draft datsheet under review

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Trifolium angustifolium (narrow-leaf clover); habit, showing flowers and leaves.
TitleHabit
CaptionTrifolium angustifolium (narrow-leaf clover); habit, showing flowers and leaves.
Copyright©Dick Culbert-2008, Gibsons, British Colombia, Canada/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Trifolium angustifolium (narrow-leaf clover); habit, showing flowers and leaves.
HabitTrifolium angustifolium (narrow-leaf clover); habit, showing flowers and leaves.©Dick Culbert-2008, Gibsons, British Colombia, Canada/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Trifolium angustifolium (narrow-leaf clover); flowers and leaves. Keila, Estonia. August 2013.
TitleFlowers
CaptionTrifolium angustifolium (narrow-leaf clover); flowers and leaves. Keila, Estonia. August 2013.
Copyright©Ivar Leidus-2013, Estonia/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Trifolium angustifolium (narrow-leaf clover); flowers and leaves. Keila, Estonia. August 2013.
FlowersTrifolium angustifolium (narrow-leaf clover); flowers and leaves. Keila, Estonia. August 2013.©Ivar Leidus-2013, Estonia/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Trifolium angustifolium L.

Preferred Common Name

  • narrow-leaf clover

International Common Names

  • English: narrow clover; narrowleaf crimson clover; narrow-leaf crimson clover; narrow-leaved clover; narrow-leaved crimson clover

Local Common Names

  • Sweden: luddklöver

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

The narrow-leaf clover Trifolium angustifolium is an annual legume native to central, southern and eastern Europe, western Asia and North Africa. It has been introduced elsewhere and is valued for forage and pasture improvement. It has become an environmental weed in a few countries such as Australia, Japan and Chile but has not been reported as an aggressive invader. It is included in the IUCN Red List (Least Concern) for its value as a genetic resource for forage legumes.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Papilionoideae
  •                                 Genus: Trifolium
  •                                     Species: Trifolium angustifolium

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Trifolium angustifolium is one of about 300 species in this genus of the Fabaceae and is a wild relative of the cultivated crops crimson clover (T. incarnatum) and red clover (T. pratense) (Osborne, 2013). The following subspecies are included in The Plant List (2013): T. angustifolium subsp. intermedium  (Guss.) Ponert and subsp. pamphylicum (Boiss. & Heldr.) Ponert. It is commonly referred to as narrow-leaf clover or narrow-leaved crimson clover (EPPO, 2014). The common name ‘white clover’ is listed in the IUCN Red List (Lopez Poveda, 2012; Osborne, 2013), but T. angustifolium has pink flowers and the name ‘white clover’ is usually reserved for T. repens.

Description

Top of page

T. angustifolium is an annual herb growing to about 0.1- 0.6 m high. Its inflorescence is a cylindrical spike of pale-pink flowers, 1-5 cm in height, each flower having a calyx of sepals that have long, needle-like lobes which harden into bristles when the plant dries. Its herbage is of a hairy texture with solid stems and alternate trifoliate leaves with linear to lance-shaped leaflets up to 4.5 cm long (Webb et al., 1988).  

Plant Type

Top of page
Annual
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

Top of page

T. angustifolium is native to central, eastern and southern Europe and the Mediterranean regions of Africa and Asia (Harshberger, 1922; Blake, 1923; Zohary and Heller, 1984; Osborne, 2013). There is some uncertainty about its native/introduced status in Belarus, Ukraine, Switzerland, Madeira and the Canary Islands (Lopez Poveda, 2012; Osborne, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2016). It has naturalized in some countries and is noted as an environmental weed in Australia and Japan (Auld et al., 2003) and Chile (Marticorena and Quezada, 1985). This species has not been reported as an aggressive invader.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 14 Dec 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNative
EgyptPresentNative
LesothoPresentIntroduced
LibyaPresentNative
MoroccoPresentNative
TunisiaPresentNative

Asia

ArmeniaPresentNative
AzerbaijanPresentNative
GeorgiaPresentNative
IranPresentNative
IraqPresentNative
IsraelPresentNative
JapanPresentIntroducedRecorded as a weed
JordanPresentNative
LebanonPresentNative
SyriaPresentNative
TurkeyPresentNative
TurkmenistanPresentNative

Europe

AlbaniaPresentNative
AustriaPresentNative
BelarusPresentNative
BulgariaPresentNative
CroatiaPresentNative
CyprusPresentNative
CzechoslovakiaPresentNative
FrancePresentNative
-CorsicaPresentNative
GibraltarPresentNative
GreecePresentNative
-CretePresentNative
ItalyPresentNative
-SardiniaPresentNative
-SicilyPresentNative
MaltaPresentNative
PortugalPresentNative
-AzoresPresentIntroduced
-MadeiraPresentNative
RomaniaPresentNative
RussiaPresentNative
-Southern RussiaPresentNative
SerbiaPresentNative
Serbia and MontenegroPresentNative
SloveniaPresentNative
SpainPresentNative
-Balearic IslandsPresentNative
-Canary IslandsPresentNative
SwitzerlandPresentOrigin uncertain
UkrainePresentNative

North America

United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentIntroduced
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced
-OregonPresentIntroduced
-South CarolinaPresentIntroduced

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedRecorded as a weed
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced
-South AustraliaPresentIntroduced
-TasmaniaPresentIntroduced
-VictoriaPresentIntroduced
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroduced
New ZealandPresentIntroduced

South America

ChilePresentIntroducedRecorded as a weed in central Chile
-Easter IslandPresentIntroduced

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

T. angustifolium was recorded for the first time in California, USA, in 1922 (Blake (1923).

Habitat

Top of page

T. angustifolium has been observed colonizing disturbed areas like roadsides, pastures, paddocks and coastal areas, generally on course-textured soils low in nutrients (Fletcher, 2007; Hackney et al., 2007).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRocky areas / lava flows Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRocky areas / lava flows Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Growth Stages

Top of page
Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

The chromosome number is 2n=16 (Löve, 1980; CCDB, 2015).

Reproductive Biology

T. angustifolium reproduces sexually through seed. The seed size is relatively small compared with other annual clovers and is associated with high fecundity (Norman et al., 2005).

Physiology and Phenology

The germination rate of T. angustifolium seed is low in unsuitable environments with growth being directly related to availability of water (Western Australian Herbarium, 2015). This species has long-term hardseededness which allows risk of failure to spread across seasons (Norman et al., 2005) as the hard coat makes this plant very tolerant of abiotic factors. Seeds of T. angustifolium have been found to persist in the soil of forests despite being absent above ground (Erfanzadeh et al., 2013). Studies on germination have shown that smoke and charred wood solutions enhance seed germination but this is negatively affected by exogenous applications of nitrogenous compounds and/or salts (Pérez-Fernández and Rodríquez-Echeverría, 2003).

Associations

T. angustifolium has a symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium bacteria in the soil which makes it possible for this plant to colonize disturbed areas and nutrient-poor soils (Driouech et al., 2008).

Environmental Requirements

T. angustifolium prefers dry, usually nutrient-poor, disturbed, acid soils (Fletcher, 2007). There is little information on tolerance of frost and drought, however, the closely related crimson clover T. incarnatum is considered sensitive to these abiotic factors (Frame, 2015).

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Top of page
Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
30 45

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -3
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15 16
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 22 35
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 0 18

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall400900mm; lower/upper limits

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline

Soil texture

  • light

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

T. angustifolium seeds are mainly dispersed by agricultural activities and, due to bristles on the seeds, adhesion to the fleece of sheep (Manzano and Malo, 2006; Fernández-Lugo et al., 2011, TERRAIN, 2015).

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionUsed as a green manure Yes Driouech et al. (2008)
ForageUsed in making hay as a protein source Yes Kamalak and Canbolat (2010)

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
LivestockSeeds attach to the fleece of sheep during grazing Yes Manzano and Malo (2006)
Plants or parts of plants Yes Yes

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
True seeds (inc. grain) seeds Yes

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Impact: Economic

Top of page

The positive economic impact of T. angustifolium relates to its forage value and use as a nitrogen-fixing green manure. No information has been found on economic impact when it is present as a weed.

Impact: Environmental

Top of page

Impact on Habitats

T. angustifolium is adapted to nutrient-poor soils (a characteristic of Mediterranean environments) (Muensher, 1955; Webb et al., 2003). This attribute enables it to establish in areas which have low levels of vegetation providing the potential for moderate changes in the density or cover of the herbaceous layer.

Through the symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium bacteria, there is also potential for T. angustifolium to alter the soil nutrient balance where introduced. It is able to fix between 131.7 and 146.7kg/ha/year (Driouech et al., 2008).

Impact on Biodiversity

T. angustifolium has a relatively large inflorescence, long flowering period and high nectar production which attracts bees. This may indirectly affect the pollination of domesticated crops and native plants.

The increased soil nitrogen resulting from an introduced legume may alter the plant community and aid the establishment of other alien plants that are more invasive. 

In California, USA, the threatened annual Halocarpha macradenia (Santa Cruz tarplant) is disadvantaged by overgrowth by non-native species including T. angustifolium (Holl and Hayes, 2005; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014).

Threatened Species

Top of page
Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Holocarpha macradenia (Santa Cruz tarplant)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaCompetitionUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2014)

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page
Invasiveness
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Increases vulnerability to invasions
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition (unspecified)
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

Top of page

Economic Value

T. angustifolium has long been utilized as self-seeding forage in making hay or direct grazing. Studies conducted by Kamalak and Canbolat (2010) on its nutritive value showed that it contains high levels of crude proteins. However with advancing maturity, its nutritive value decreases. Its low tannin levels enable it to be used as an alternative legume to reduce bloating risk in ruminants grazed on pastures.

Its rapid establishments and association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria make T. angustifolium suitable as a winter cover crop to produce green manure in organic or low-input vegetable production systems in Mediterranean regions (Driouech et al., 2008). It is also valued for honey production.

T. angustifolium is also recognized as a potential gene donor to other cultivated clovers (T. incarnatum and T. pratense) and it has been included in the IUCN Red List for this reason (Osborne, 2013).

Social Benefit

This plant is traditionally used to treat diarrhoea and relieve stomach aches (Rauter et al., 2002).

Uses List

Top of page

Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Forage

Genetic importance

  • Gene source

Human food and beverage

  • Honey/honey flora

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

T. angustifolium can be distinguished from other Trifolium species by its long pink flower heads and narrow leaflets. An identification key to the clovers of New Zealand was presented by Healy (1961).

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

Normal cultivation practices effectively control clovers, including T. angustifolium, in crops. When carried out before flowering, the seed bank is reduced (UC IPM, 2014). Mulching of invaded areas using compost, wood chips or organic mulch helps reduce weed spread by limiting the amount of light available. Mulch also preserves moisture for the cultivated crops giving them a competitive edge over T. angustifolium. Changing the fertilizer programme, by increasing the rates of nitrogen and reducing phosphorous, helps control re-infestation by T. angustifolium and other leguminous weeds (UC IPM, 2014).

T. angustifolium has a hard seed coat which means that composting and soil solarization do not reduce seed viability (UC IPM, 2014).

Physical/Mechanical Control

Where T. angustifolium has spread to new areas, especially cultivated plots, hand pulling before flowering or seed set may reduce spread (UC IPM, 2014).

Movement Control

As grazing sheep are known to disperse seeds which adhere to their fleece, avoid livestock in areas colonized by T. angustifolium after flowering (DiTomaso and Healy, 2007).           

Biological Control

Grazing animals will feed on T. angustifolium, however, as mentioned above, there is a risk that they aid seed dispersal (Manzano and Malo, 2006). No biological control using arthropods or pathogens has been considered as this plant is often used for pasture or soil improvement.

Chemical Control

Pre-emergent and/or post-emergent herbicides such as glyphosate have been used against clovers. However, these weeds tend to regrow after chemical treatment (UC IPM, 2014). Western Australian Herbarium (2015) recommends glyphosate before flowering and spot spray with clopyralid up to the 6-leaf stage for control of T. angustifolium.

 

References

Top of page

Auld B; Morita H; Nishida T; Ito M; Michael P, 2003. Shared exotica-plant invasions of Japan and south eastern Australia. Journal of Weed Science and Technology, 48(3):143-154.

AVH, 2015. Australia's Virtual Herbarium. Canberra, ACT, Australia: Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria. http://avh.chah.org.au/

Blake SF, 1923. Two Mediterranean clovers new to the United States. Science, 57(1484):665-665.

CCDB, 2015. Chromosome Counts Database. http://ccdb.tau.ac.il/home/

Denison RF, 2000. Legume sanctions and the evolution of symbiotic cooperation by rhizobia. American Naturalist, 156(6):567-576.

DiTomaso JM; Healy AH, 2007. Weeds of California and other Western States, Volume 1. USA: University of California Press.

Driouech N; Fayad FA; Ghanem A; Al-Bitar L, 2008. Agronomic performance of annual self-reseeding legumes and their self-establishment potential in the Apulia region of Italy. In: Cultivating the future based on science. Volume 1: Organic Crop Production. Proceedings of the Second Scientific Conference of the International Society of Organic Agriculture Research (ISOFAR), held at the 16th IFOAM Organic World Conference in Cooperation with the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) and the Consorzio ModenaBio in Modena, Italy, 18-20 June, 2008 [ed. by Neuhoff, D.\Halberg, N.\Alföldi, T.\Lockeretz, W.\Thommen, A.\Rasmussen, I. A.\Hermansen, J.\Vaarst, M.\Lueck, L.\Caporali, F.\Jensen, H. H.\Migliorini, P.\Willer, H.]. Bonn, Germany: International Society of Organic Agricultural Research (ISOFAR), 396-399.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Erfanzadeh R; Kahnuj SHH; Azarnivand H; Pétillon J, 2013. Comparison of soil seed banks of habitats distributed along an altitudinal gradient in northern Iran. Flora (Jena), 208(5/6):312-320. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03672530

Fernández-Lugo S; Nascimento Lde; Mellado M; Arévalo JR, 2011. Grazing effects on species richness depends on scale: a 5-year study in Tenerife pastures (Canary Islands). Plant Ecology, 212(3):423-432. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100328

Fletcher N, 2007. Mediterranean wildflowers. China: Sheck Wah Tong Printing Press.

Frame J, 2015. Trifolium incarnatum L. Grassland Species Profiles. Rome, Italy: FAO. http://www.fao.org/ag/agp/AGPC/doc/Gbase/data/pf000502.htm

Hackney B; Dear B; Crocker G, 2007. Naturalised pasture legumes. Primefacts No. 651. New South Wales, Australia: NSW Department of Primary Industries, 7 pp. http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/176688/Naturalised-pasture-legumes.pdf

Harshberger JW, 1922. Ecologic and morphologic study of the clovers (Trifolium). In: Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 61(2). 136-50.

Healy AJ, 1961. The identification of clovers in New Zealand. Proceedings of the 14th New Zealand Weed Control Conference 1961, pp. 22-39.

Holl DK; Hayes GF, 2005. Challenges to introducing and managing disturbance regimes for Holocarpha macradenia, an endangered annual grassland forb. Conservation Biology, 20(4):1121-1131.

ILDIS, 2010. International Legume Database and Information Service: World Database of Legumes. Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, University of Reading. http://www.ildis.org/

Kamalak A; Canbolat O, 2010. Determination of nutritive value of wild narrow-leaved clover (Trifolium angustifolium) hay harvested at three maturity stages using chemical composition and in vitro gas production. Tropical Grasslands, 44:128-133. http://www.tropicalgrasslands.asn.au/Tropical%20Grasslands%20Journal%20archive/PDFs/Vol_44%20(1_2_3_4)/Vol%2044%20(2)%20Adem%20et%20al%20128.pdf

Lopez Poveda L, 2012. Trifolium angustifolium. T176423A20120853. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T176423A20120853.en

Löve Á, 1980. Chromosome number reports LXVIII. Taxon, 29(4):533-547.

Manzano P; Malo JE, 2006. Extreme long-distance seed dispersal via sheep. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 4(5):244-248.

Marticorena C; Quezada M, 1985. Gayana, Botánica, 42. 1-157.

McFadyen CR, 1998. Biological control of weeds. Annual Review of Entomology, 43:369-393.

Merou TP; Papanastasis VP, 2009. Factors affecting the establishment and growth of annual legumes in semi-arid Mediterranean grasslands. Plant Ecology, 201(2):491-500. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100328

Muenscher WC, 1955. Weeds, 2nd edition. New York, USA: Macmillan, 560 pp.

Norman HC; Cocks PS; Galwey NW, 2005. Annual clovers (Trifolium spp.) have different reproductive strategies to achieve persistence in Mediterranean-type climates. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 56(1):33-43.

Osborne J, 2013. Trifolium angustifolium. e.T176423A7238416. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/176423/1

Pereira C; Barros L; Carvalho AM; Ferreira ICFR, 2013. Use of UFLC-PDA for the analysis of organic acids in thirty-five species of food and medicinal plants. Food Analytical Methods, 6(5):1337-1344. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12161-012-9548-6

Pérez-Fernández MA; Rodríguez-Echeverría S, 2003. Effect of smoke, charred wood, and nitrogenous compounds on seed germination of ten species from woodland in Central-Western Spain. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 29(1):237-251.

Pryor HN; Lowther WL, 2002. Symbiotic relationship between Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii and Trifolium nigrescens. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 45(3):145-149.

Rauter A; Palma FB; Justino J; Araújo ME; Santos SP, 2002. Natural Products in the new Millenium: Prospects and industrial application. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic publishers.

TERRAIN, 2015. Trifolium angustifolium. Taranaki Educational Resource: Research, Analysis and Information Network. New Zealand. http://www.terrain.net.nz/friends-of-te-henui-group/weeds-by-scientific-names/trifolium-angustifolium-narrow-leaved-clover.html

The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org

UC IPM, 2014. Pest in gardens and landscapes: Clovers. California, USA: University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources. http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/PESTNOTES/pn7490.html

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. Holocarpha macradenia (Santa Cruz tarplant). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. Ventura, California, USA: US Fish and Wildlife Service, 48 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc4365.pdf

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). National Plant Germplasm System. Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2016. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Webb CJ; Sykes WR; Garnock-Jones PJ, 1988. Flora of New Zealand, Volume IV: Naturalised pteridophytes, gymnosperms, dicotyledons. Christchurch, New Zealand: Botany Division, DSIR, 1365 pp.

Western Australian Herbarium, 2015. Trifolium angustifolium L. FloraBase - the Western Australian Flora. Western Australia: Department of Parks and Wildlife. https://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au/

Zohary M; Heller D, 1984. The genus Trifolium L. Jersusalem, Israel: The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities.

Distribution References

Auld B, Morita H, Nishida T, Ito M, Michael P, 2003. Shared exotica-plant invasions of Japan and south eastern Australia. Journal of Weed Science and Technology. 48 (3), 143-154. DOI:10.3719/weed.48.143

AVH, 2015. Australia's Virtual Herbarium., Canberra, ACT, Australia: Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria. http://avh.chah.org.au/

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

ILDIS, 2010. International Legume Database and Information Service: World Database of Legumes., Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, University of Reading. http://www.ildis.org/

Lopez Poveda L, 2012. Trifolium angustifolium. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, T176423A20120853. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T176423A20120853.en

Marticorena C, Quezada M, 1985. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Chile. (Catàlogo de la Flora Vascular de Chile.). Gayana, Botanica. 1-157 pp.

Osborne J, 2013. (Trifolium angustifolium). In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/176423/1

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2016. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Webb C J, Sykes W R, Garnock-Jones P J, 1988. Flora of New Zealand, Volume IV: Naturalised pteridophytes, gymnosperms, dicotyledons. Christchurch, New Zealand: Botany Division, DSIR. 1365 pp. http://floraseries.landcareresearch.co.nz/pages/Book.aspx?fileName=Flora%204.xml

Principal Source

Top of page

Draft datsheet under review

Contributors

Top of page

14/12/15 Original text by:

Fenadis Makale, CABI , UK

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map
Select a dataset
Map Legends
  • CABI Summary Records
Map Filters
Extent
Invasive
Origin
Third party data sources: