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Sacciolepis indica
(glen woodgrass)

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Datasheet

Sacciolepis indica (glen woodgrass)

Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Sacciolepis indica (Glenwood grass); habit. MISC LZ Piiholo, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January, 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionSacciolepis indica (Glenwood grass); habit. MISC LZ Piiholo, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January, 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 3.0
Sacciolepis indica (Glenwood grass); habit. MISC LZ Piiholo, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January, 2009.
HabitSacciolepis indica (Glenwood grass); habit. MISC LZ Piiholo, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January, 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 3.0
Sacciolepis indica (Glenwood grass); habit. West Maui, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionSacciolepis indica (Glenwood grass); habit. West Maui, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 3.0
Sacciolepis indica (Glenwood grass); habit. West Maui, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2009.
HabitSacciolepis indica (Glenwood grass); habit. West Maui, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 3.0
Sacciolepis indica (Glenwood grass); close-up of nodes, ligules and leaves. Kaapahu Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2009.
TitleClose-up of nodes, ligules and leaves
CaptionSacciolepis indica (Glenwood grass); close-up of nodes, ligules and leaves. Kaapahu Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 3.0
Sacciolepis indica (Glenwood grass); close-up of nodes, ligules and leaves. Kaapahu Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2009.
Close-up of nodes, ligules and leavesSacciolepis indica (Glenwood grass); close-up of nodes, ligules and leaves. Kaapahu Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 3.0
Sacciolepis indica (Glenwood grass); seedheads. Wailua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2014.
TitleSeedheads
CaptionSacciolepis indica (Glenwood grass); seedheads. Wailua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2014.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2014 - CC BY 3.0
Sacciolepis indica (Glenwood grass); seedheads. Wailua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2014.
SeedheadsSacciolepis indica (Glenwood grass); seedheads. Wailua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2014.©Forest & Kim Starr-2014 - CC BY 3.0
Sacciolepis indica (Glenwood grass); close-up of seedheads. Wailua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2014.
TitleSeedheads
CaptionSacciolepis indica (Glenwood grass); close-up of seedheads. Wailua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2014.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2014 - CC BY 3.0
Sacciolepis indica (Glenwood grass); close-up of seedheads. Wailua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2014.
SeedheadsSacciolepis indica (Glenwood grass); close-up of seedheads. Wailua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2014.©Forest & Kim Starr-2014 - CC BY 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Sacciolepis indica (L.) Chase

Preferred Common Name

  • glen woodgrass

Other Scientific Names

  • Aira indica L. (1753)
  • Hymenachne indica (L.) Buse (1854)
  • Hymenachne phalarioides (Roem. & Schut) Nees (1829)
  • Neurachne peekelii Lauterb. (1911)
  • Panicum angustum Trin. (1835)
  • Panicum arcuatum R. Br. (1810)
  • Panicum conglomeratum L. (1771)
  • Panicum contractum Wright & Arn. ex Nees (1836)
  • Panicum glaucidulum Peter (1930)
  • Panicum glomeratum (L.) Salisb. (1798)
  • Panicum glomeratum Trin. (1826)
  • Panicum incurvum L. ex Munro (1862)
  • Panicum indicum (L.) L. (1771)
  • Panicum indicum Mill. (1768)
  • Panicum indicum var. angustum (Trin.) Hook. f. (1897)
  • Panicum indicum var. brachiatum Hook. f. (1900)
  • Panicum indicum var. elatum Hook. f. (1896)
  • Panicum indicum var. oryzetorum Makino (1910)
  • Panicum indicum var. pilosum Hook. f. (1896)
  • Panicum indicum var. villosum Hook. f. (1896)
  • Panicum johannae L. ex Munro (1862)
  • Panicum microstachyum Lam. (1791)
  • Panicum myuros Lam. (1791)
  • Panicum oryzetorum Makino ex Honda (1923)
  • Panicum pergracile Chiov. (1928)
  • Panicum phleoides R. Br. (1810)
  • Panicum spicatum (L.) Farw. (1930)
  • Sacciolepis angusta (Trin.) Stapf (1920)
  • Sacciolepis auriculata Stapf (1920)
  • Sacciolepis brachiata (Hook. f.) Senaratna (1956)
  • Sacciolepis claviformis B. K. Simon (1921)
  • Sacciolepis contracta (Wright & Arn. ex Nees) Hitchc. (1922)
  • Sacciolepis glabra Santos (1943)
  • Sacciolepis gracilis Stent & J.M. Rattray (1933)
  • Sacciolepis indica subsp. oryzetorum (Makino) T. Koyama (1987)
  • Sacciolepis indica var. intermedia S. M. Almeida (1986)
  • Sacciolepis indica var. oryzetorum (Makino) Ohwi (1953)
  • Sacciolepis indica var. turgida (Ridl.) Gilliland (1964)
  • Sacciolepis indica var. villosa (Hook. f.) Ohwi (1971)
  • Sacciolepis inidica var. angusta (Trin.) Keng (1957)
  • Sacciolepis oryzetora (Makino) Honda (1923)
  • Sacciolepis oryzetorum (Makino) Honda (1923)
  • Sacciolepis pergracilis Chiov. (1928)
  • Sacciolepis spicata (L.) Honda (1930)
  • Sacciolepis spicata (L.) Honda ex Masam. ([1929] 1930)
  • Sacciolepis turgida Ridl. (1925)
  • Sacciolepis turgida var. repens Ridl. (1925)
  • Sporobolus setarioides Peter (1928)

International Common Names

  • English: Chase's glenwood grass; glenwood grass; glenwoodgrass; Indian cupscale grass
  • Chinese: nang ying cao

Local Common Names

  • Japan: hai-numeri-gusa
  • Papua New Guinea: doehoet ihoer tihoes; nongo
  • Philippines: buntot-pusa

Summary of Invasiveness

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S. indica is an annual C3 grass (Aliscioni et al., 2003; De Gennaro, 2011). It is highly variable in size, spikelet length and pubescence, and it flowers sporadically throughout the year (Simon and Alfonso, 2012). S. indica is found in tropical and subtropical rainforests, tropical and subtropical sub-humid woodlands, and coastal grasslands.

S. indica is native to the south-east Asian tropics. PIER (2013) also reports it as native to East Asia, Australia and some Pacific islands. It has been introduced to tropical regions of Africa, to India, New Zealand, several Pacific islands, south-east USA, the Caribbean and parts of South and Central America. S. indica is recognized as an agricultural and naturalized weed (Randall, 2012). It is a weed of rice in Indonesia, the Philippines and Malaysia (Moody, 1989).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Sacciolepis
  •                                 Species: Sacciolepis indica

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Sacciolepis indica (L.) Chase belongs to the large tribe of Paniceae. The genus name Sacciolepis Nash (1901) is derived from the Greek sakkion (a small bag) combined with lepis (scale), alluding to the saccate upper glume. The species name comes from the Latin word for Indian, indica.

S. indica (L.) Chase has 49 synonyms ranging through 6 genera. Aria indica is the basionym for Sacciolepis indica (IPNI, 2012; Tropicos, 2012). S. indica is in the family Poaceae, subfamily Panicoideae, and tribe Paniceae. The genus Sacciolepis is occasionally, though rarely, spelled Saccolepis (Simon, 1972; Weakley, 2012).

Linnaeus described Sacciolepis indica (L.) as Aira spicata L. 1753 (Sp. PI. 63). In the Errata at the end of Vol. 2, Linnaeus noted that ‘spicatum’ is changed to ‘indicum’, presumably because of another Aira spicata on page 64. Chase (1908) records an entry by Hitchcock in his notebook: ‘The specimen in the Linnaean herbarium is a delicate creeping or spreading plant with many spikes about 1 cm long with only a few spikelets’. The entry is labelled in Linnaeus' hand ‘Panicum indicum’. Aira has been crossed out and indica changed to indicum (Chase, 1908).

S. indica is monophyletic with high support. It is established in a clade in Paniceae with S. clatrata, S. indica, S. myosuroides and S. vilvoides (Gennaro and Scataglini, 2012).

Description

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S. indica is a tufted mostly glabrous annual that can grow to 0.6 m high.

Descriptions of S. indica are widely varied in detail. The following description is taken from Flora Zambesiaca (1989):

S. indica is a decumbent or ascending annual. Culms 10-100 cm high, often with aerial roots from the lower nodes. Leaf laminae broadly linear, not papillose nor the nerves raised, with or without sheath auricles up to 2 mm long. Panicle 1-13 cm long, cylindrical to oblong. Spikelets 1.5-3 mm long, narrowly ovate, glabrous or pubescent.

Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; linear, or oblong; 1-13 cm long. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with lateral stumps on axis. Panicle axis with rounded ribs. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; gibbous; 2-3 mm long; falling entire.

Glumes reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 0.33-0.66 times the length of spikelet; hyaline; without keels; 3-5-veined. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume elliptic; gibbous; 1.3-2 times the length of adjacent fertile lemma; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 5-7-veined. Upper glume lateral veins ribbed. Upper glume surface glabrous, or pubescent. Upper glume apex acute.

Basal sterile florets male, or barren; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; elliptic; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5-7-veined; ribbed; glabrous, or pubescent; acute. Palea of lower sterile floret 0.1-0.2 the length of lemma. Fertile lemma elliptic; dorsally compressed; 1-2 mm long; coriaceous; shiny; without keel; 5-veined. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea involute; coriaceous (Clayton et al., 2012).

The following description is taken from The Flora of North America (Barkworth et al., 2007):

S. indica is cespitose. Culms 5-100 cm, decumbent, spreading, trailing, often rooting at the lower nodes; nodes glabrous. Sheaths and collars glabrous; ligules 0.1-0.7 mm long, membranous, truncate; blades 1-14.3 cm long, 1.5-5.5 mm wide, glabrous, not cordate at the base. Panicles 0.5-9(13) cm long, 4-7 mm wide, contracted; primary branches fused to the rachises for at least 3/4 of their length; lower branches 0.1-0.5 cm; pedicels 0.3-1.8 mm. Spikelets 2.1-3.3 mm, with or without papillose-based hairs on the upper glumes and lower lemmas, green to dark purple. Lower glumes 1.1-1.9 mm, glabrous, 3-5(7)-veined, margins hyaline; upper glumes 2-3.3 mm, slightly saccate, glabrous adaxially, 9-veined; lower florets sterile (rarely staminate); lower lemmas 1.9-3.1 mm, 7-9-veined, veins equidistant; lower paleas 0.5-1 mm long, 0.1-0.2 mm wide, 1/2 or less as long as the lower lemmas, narrow, membranous, white, not veined; upper lemmas 1.3-1.6 mm, subcoriaceous, glabrous, shiny, white, with 3-5 obscure veins, acute; anthers 3, 0.5-0.8 mm, dark reddish-brown to reddish-purple; styles purple. Caryopses 1-1.3 mm long, 0.5-0.7 mm wide, glabrous (Barkworth et al., 2007).

Plant Type

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Annual
Grass / sedge
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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S. indica is native to the southeast Asian paleotropics (Barkworth et al., 2007; Gennaro and Scataglini, 2012). PIER (2013) also reports it as native to Australia, East Asia and some Pacific islands. The report of the species being native to the Korean peninsula and the Himalayas is questionable, based on the physiology and biology of the species.

S. indica has been introduced to tropical regions of Africa, to India, New Zealand, several Pacific islands (including Hawaii), south-east USA, the Caribbean and parts of South and Central America.

In southeast Asia and the Pacific region, it is possible that it was introduced to the islands of the East Indies and Polynesia as well as the Philippines, Guam and Japan. However, most sources treat S. indica as native to islands close to the continental mainland and introduced to the other islands of Polynesia.

Sacciolepis is a pan-tropical genus with a distribution centered on Africa. S. indica is also found in Africa where it may be easily confused with other Sacciolepis species. Older authorities occasionally treated S. indica as native to Africa, but more recent examinations have found it to be introduced there.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BeninPresentIntroducedAtacora, Natitingou; Original citation: National Herbarium of Benin (2012)
Burkina FasoPresentIntroducedPeni, between Banfora and Bobo Diullasso, 500m; Original citation: Herbarium of Aarhus University (2012)
CameroonPresentIntroducedOriginal citation: SANBI (South African National Biodiversity Institute) (2012)
Central African RepublicPresentIntroducedTerr. Chari, Dar Benda, Ndelle; Ubangi River; Ombella
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedAmhara-Dambia, Gondor
GabonPresentIntroducedCrystal Mountains, 450m; Original citation: Netherlands National Herbarium (2012)
GhanaPresentIntroducedOriginal citation: Ghana Herbarium (2012)
GuineaPresentIntroducedNzerekore; Weyakore
KenyaPresentIntroducedPlants cultivated in greenhouses (1974); Original citation: Tropicos (2012)
LiberiaPresentIntroducedYekepa. Grassfield
MadagascarPresentIntroducedToamasina; Perinet reserve, 830m
MalawiPresentIntroduced
MaliPresentIntroducedBamako village, Scotuba; Yanfolia
MozambiquePresentIntroducedOriginal citation: SANBI (South African National Biodiversity Institute) (2012)
NigeriaPresentIntroducedOriginal citation: SANBI (South African National Biodiversity Institute) (2012)
RéunionPresentIntroduced
Sierra LeonePresentIntroducedOriginal citation: Ghana Herbarium (2012)
South AfricaPresentIntroducedOriginal citation: SANBI (South African National Biodiversity Institute) (2012)
TanzaniaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveIringa, Njombe; Dar es Salaam; Mwera. Rice fields, marshy ground and wet and sandy soil
TogoPresentIntroduced
UgandaPresentIntroducedMengo; Kyadondo; Bukoto Valley; between Nkoko and Nakaswa; low grassland swamp
ZambiaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedWeed in rice paddies
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedSalisbury

Asia

BangladeshPresentNativeChittagong; Original citation: De Gennaro (2011)
BhutanPresentIntroducedOriginal citation: Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh (2012)
BruneiPresentNativeEast, near the junction of the Temburong and Belalang rivers, 500m; Original citation: Australian National Herbarium (2012)
CambodiaPresentNative
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AnhuiPresent
-FujianPresentNative
-GuangdongPresent, WidespreadNativeChong Uen Shan near Kau Fung (Loh Ch'ang District); Shang-sze District
-GuizhouPresentNative
-HainanPresentNativeKwong Tung Province, Hainan Island
-HeilongjiangPresentNative
-HenanPresentNative
-HubeiPresentNative
-JiangxiPresentNative
-ShandongPresentNative
-SichuanPresentNative
-YunnanPresentNative
-ZhejiangPresentNative
Hong KongPresentInvasiveOriginal citation: Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden (2012)
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-BiharPresent, WidespreadNativeWet places
-ChhattisgarhPresentNativeOriginal citation: De Gennaro (2011)
-KarnatakaPresentNativeOriginal citation: De Gennaro (2011)
-MeghalayaPresentNativeShillong, 1768m
-OdishaPresent, WidespreadNativeWet places
-Tamil NaduPresentNativeOriginal citation: De Gennaro (2011)
-West BengalPresentNativeOriginal citation: De Gennaro (2011)
IndonesiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-JavaPresentNativeWest Java, environs of Tjibodas (Mt Gede); Kampong Rawah Gede in Tji Koendoel River valley, 400m; Original citation: Australian National Herbarium (2012)
-SumatraPresentNativeEast coast, South Siboeatan, near guesthouse Lae Pondom, 500m; Original citation: Australian National Herbarium (2012)
JapanPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HokkaidoPresentNativeOriginal citation: De Gennaro (2011)
-HonshuPresentKyoto Prefecture; Gifu Prefecture
-KyushuPresentNativeKagoshima Prefecture; Original citation: De Gennaro (2011)
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentNativeOriginal citation: De Gennaro (2011)
LaosPresentNativeKhammouan, Tham Mot Ngam, 20 miles downstream of bridge at Ban Thalong on Nam Theun, 556m; Original citation: Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh (2012)
MalaysiaPresentNative
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentNativePulau Penang, Watu fall; Pahang
-SarawakPresentNativeMarudi; Original citation: De Gennaro (2011)
MyanmarPresentNativeKyaukpyi, Ramree Island, wet muddy ground
NepalPresentIntroducedWestern Chitwan
North KoreaPresentNative
PhilippinesPresent, WidespreadNativeNorthern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao
SingaporePresentNativeOriginal citation: De Gennaro (2011)
South KoreaPresentNativeJeju-do; Gyeongsangbuk-do, Cheongdo-gun
Sri LankaPresentNativeInvasiveKandy, 4 miles SW of Maskeliya; Moray Group Tea Estates, Adams Peak; Original citation: Tropicos (2012)
TaiwanPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasiveTaipei Hsien, Wulai Hsiang, bewteen Szukanshui and Tatungshan mountain, 600m
ThailandPresent, WidespreadNativeIn rice paddies, disturbed moist areas, deciduous forest and common in savannah. Samoeng, Chiang Mei; Phu Krading, Loei
VietnamPresent, WidespreadNativeKon Tum, Kon Plong Dist., Hieu Municipality, Mang La forest enterprise. Open forest roadside

Europe

SwedenAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)Lapland, Tarna, Artfjall; incorrect species synonym correlation; Original citation: CBIF (Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility) (2012)

North America

Costa RicaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveAlajuela, San Carlos; Fortuna; Heredia; Perez Zeledon canton, San Jose province; Santa Elena
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedPetit-Bourg; Original citation: Guadaloupe Herbier (2012)
JamaicaPresentIntroducedMason River field station, Clarendon
MexicoPresentIntroducedJalisco, hills near Guadelajara; Original citation: De Gennaro (2011)
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedRio San Juan, San Juan del norte, mostly swampy field along river; La Cangrejera
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedNorth Aripo Savanna, on ridge of rutted road
United StatesPresent
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedDauphin Island; Original citation: Troy University Herbarium (2012)
-FloridaPresentSarasota, Pasco County, Franklin, Middleburg
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedSandy roadbank alongside Highway 221, 3.4 miles SSW of Lakeland, Coastal Plain Province
-HawaiiPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveHawaii; Kauai; Lanai; Maui; Molokai; Oahu
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedAllen Parish, Oberlin, around 4 miles north of Oberlin just east of US 165; Original citation: The Herbarium of Louisiana State University (2012)
-MississippiPresentIntroducedInvasiveStone County; Harrison County; Forrest County; Pearl River
-North CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedCharleston; Original citation: Clemson University Herbarium (2012)
-TexasPresentIntroducedOriginal citation: Jones and Wipff (1993)

Oceania

American SamoaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedTutuila Island; locally common in open places atop Mt. Matafao, 650 m; Original citation: National Tropical Botanical Garden (2012)
AustraliaPresent, WidespreadNative
-New South WalesPresentNative
-Northern TerritoryPresentNativeBerry Springs; Original citation: Australian National Herbarium (2012)
-QueenslandPresentNative
-Western AustraliaPresentNativeKimberley; Original citation: Australian National Herbarium (2012)
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentKosrae Island; Pohnpei Island; Yap (Waqab)
FijiPresentIntroducedNandronga and Navosa (formerly Tholo North); Thuvu, Singatoka district, Viti Levu Island, sea level; Prince's Road, Colo-i-Suva; Vanau Levu Island
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedTahiti Island; Vallee de Faaroa and Taravao Plateau, Society Islands
GuamPresentNativeGuam Island
New CaledoniaPresent
New ZealandPresentIntroducedInvasiveNorth Auckland land district; Original citation: Allen Herbarium (2012)
PalauPresentNative
Papua New GuineaPresentNativeSepik District; Western District
SamoaPresentNativeInvasiveUpolu Island (native); Savai Island (invasive)

South America

BoliviaPresentIntroducedLa Paz, 1200m; Bautista Saavedra Province, 1020m
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-BahiaPresentIntroduced
-ParanaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: De Gennaro (2011)
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: De Gennaro (2011)
EcuadorPresentIntroducedInvasiveZamora-Chinchipe; Valley de Rio Quime; Esmeraldas, San Lorenzo
French GuianaPresentIntroducedTresor and Kaw nature reserves; Original citation: Herbarium of French Guiana (2012)
GuyanaPresentIntroducedShea Rock
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedEdo Bolivar, near El Puajil, Rio Cabass and Salto

History of Introduction and Spread

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S. indica is relatively new to North America and the Caribbean; it was first recorded in the USA in a pecan orchard in 1950, in Jamaica in 1978 and Guadeloupe in 1979 (Hitchcock, 1971; Proctor, 1982). Proctor (1982) believed that seeds of S. indica were accidentally introduced among the roots of the Venus flytrap Dionaea muscipula.

Habitat

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Adapted from PIER (2013):

S. indica is found in tropical and subtropical rainforests, tropical and subtropical sub-humid woodlands and coastal grasslands. It is also found at streamsides and marshy places and occurs in dense swards in swamps and stagnant water. S. indica is found at elevations up to1700 m above sea level (Flora Zambesiaca, 1989).

In Hawaii, it is described as ‘naturalized and common in open, wet areas such as grasslands, crests of ridges, openings in wet forest, and along trails’.

In Fiji it is moderately common on ‘open hillsides, sand and gravel banks in stream beds, in weedy thickets along roadsides and trails, and as a weed of cultivation and waste places’.

In New Caledonia, S. indica is found in wet areas, forest edges and in some degraded forests.

In Zambia, Tanzania and Thailand it has been recorded as a weed in rice paddies (De Gennaro, 2011; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2012b; Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012SANBI, 2012).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Secondary/tolerated habitat
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Secondary/tolerated habitat
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Secondary/tolerated habitat
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Principal habitat Natural

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain

    Biology and Ecology

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    Genetics

    2n = 18 (Zhengyi et al., 2006).

    Reproductive Biology

    S. indica will seed readily as an annual but it also can propagate via its aerial roots. This clonal method of propagation may have given rise to the perennial classification S. indica has been given in some sources.

    Physiology and Phenology

    S. indica has a wide phenotypic plasticity displayed in many ecotypes.

    Associations

    S. indica was found as an associated species of sedge Bulbostylis barbata (Jones and Wipff, 1993).

    Climate

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    ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
    Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
    Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
    As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
    Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
    Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
    Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
    Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

    Soil Tolerances

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    Soil drainage

    • impeded
    • seasonally waterlogged

    Soil texture

    • heavy
    • medium

    Means of Movement and Dispersal

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    S. indica is spread by its seed, which are often dispersed by sticking to animal fur. Seed and rhizome fragments are also dispersed by water (PIER, 2013).

    Anecdotal information suggests that the spread and establishment of S. indica globally is due to accidental introductions. Proctor (1982) believed that seeds of S. indica may have been accidentally introduced to North America and the Caribbean among the roots of the Venus flytrap Dionaea muscipula.

    Pathway Causes

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    CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
    Forage Yes Mallett and Orchard (2002)
    HitchhikerMultiple inferences Yes Hitchcock (1971); Mallett and Orchard (2002); Proctor (1982)

    Impact Summary

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    CategoryImpact
    Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
    Environment (generally) Negative

    Economic Impact

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    S. indica is a low value forage crop (Mallett and Orchard, 2002). It is a weed of rice in Indonesia, the Philippines and Malaysia (Moody, 1989).

    Environmental Impact

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    Impact on Habitats

    S. indica may compete with other plants for resources, although no species-specific research has been conducted on this.

    Impact on Biodiversity

    S. indica may impact native rare and endangered species on island habitats, although no species-specific research has been conducted on this.

    Threatened Species

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    Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
    Phyllostegia hispida (hispid phyllostegia)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2011)

    Risk and Impact Factors

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    Invasiveness
    • Proved invasive outside its native range
    • Has a broad native range
    • Abundant in its native range
    • Highly adaptable to different environments
    • Is a habitat generalist
    • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
    • Pioneering in disturbed areas
    • Tolerant of shade
    • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
    • Has high reproductive potential
    • Reproduces asexually
    • Has high genetic variability
    Impact outcomes
    • Changed gene pool/ selective loss of genotypes
    • Damaged ecosystem services
    • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
    • Reduced native biodiversity
    • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
    • Threat to/ loss of native species
    Impact mechanisms
    • Competition - monopolizing resources
    • Pest and disease transmission
    • Hybridization
    • Rapid growth
    Likelihood of entry/control
    • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
    • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

    Uses

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    S. indica is a low value forage crop (Mallett and Orchard, 2002).

    Uses List

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    Animal feed, fodder, forage

    • Forage

    Detection and Inspection

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    As the only cosmopolitan species within the genus, S. indica is best described by length of its spikelet, the length if its upper glume, the length of the inferior lemma, the length of its anther upper flower, its hyaline ligules and its having an apex acute upper glume (Gennaro and Scataglini, 2012). Simon (1972) wrote that it is ‘characterized by a spikelet containing two florets of which the lower is male or barren, and the upper hermaphrodite. It is delimited from the type genus Panicum by the strongly saccate nature of the base of the upper glume and to a lesser extent of the lower lemma, and by the inflorescence ... being a false spike (morphologically a much contracted panicle)’ (Simon, 1972). S. indica can also be distinguished from the rest of Paniceae by the presence of spiciform panicle with ribbed glumes and gibbous upper glumes (Teerawatananon et al., 2011).

    S. indica is very similar to other Sacciolepis species such as S. spiciform (Flora Zambesiaca, 1989). Flora Zambesiaca conserves that S. indica ‘can usually be distinguished by spikelet length and habit, but absence of leaf papillae is the most reliable character though it requires use of a microscope.’ Spikelet length and smooth pedicels can be used to quickly distinguish S. indica from S. myosuroides (Simon and Alfonso, 2012).

    African specimens of S. indica often have little auricles. These specimens have been described as S. auriculata in the past. However, according to Flora Zambesiaca (1989), S. indica intergrades completely from forms with auricles to the commoner form that lacks auricles (Scholz, 1980; Flora Zambesiaca, 1989).

    Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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    Sacciolepis spp. can be easily confused with Hymenachne spp., but S. indica has a saccate second glume which members of Hymenachne lack. These genera can also be distinguished because pith aerenchyma is abundant in the internodes of species of Hymenachne but absent or fragmentary in species of Sacciolepis (Pohl and Lersten, 1975).

    S. indica is very similar to other Sacciolepis species such as S. spiciform (Flora Zambesiaca, 1989). Flora Zambesiaca conserves that S. indica ‘can usually be distinguished by spikelet length and habit, but absence of leaf papillae is the most reliable character though it requires use of a microscope.’ Spikelet length and smooth pedicels can be used to quickly distinguish S. indica from S. myosuroides (Simon and Alfonso, 2012).

    Simon (1972) wrote that it is ‘delimited from the type genus Panicum by the strongly saccate nature of the base of the upper glume and to a lesser extent of the lower lemma, and by the inflorescence ... being a false spike (morphologically a much contracted panicle)’ (Simon, 1972). S. indica can also be distinguished from the rest of Paniceae by the presence of spiciform panicle with ribbed glumes and gibbous upper glumes (Teerawatananon et al., 2011).

    African specimens of S. indica often have little auricles. These specimens have been described as S. auriculata in the past. However, according to Flora Zambesiaca (1989), S. indica intergrades completely from forms with auricles to the commoner form that lacks auricles (Scholz, 1980; Flora Zambesiaca, 1989).

    Prevention and Control

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    Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

    PIER (2013) reported that S. indica is 'probably sensitive to glyphosate'.

    Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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    Research on the economic and biodiversity impacts of S. inidca are needed.

    References

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    (Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility) CBIF, 2012. CBIF (Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility). CBIF. Canada: Government of Canada. http://www.cbif.gc.ca/home_e.php

    Aliscioni SS; Giussani LM; Zuloaga FO; Kellogg EA, 2003. A molecular phylogeny of Panicum (Poaceae: Paniceae): tests of monophyly and phylogenetic placement within the Panicoideae. American Journal of Botany, 90(5):796-821.

    Allen Herbarium (CHR), 2012. Allen Herbarium (CHR). Lincoln, New Zealand: New Zealand National Herbarium Network. http://www.nzherbaria.org.nz/herb_details.asp?NZHerb_ID=1

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    Australian Plant Name Index, 2013. Australian National Botanic Gardens, Canberra, Australia. http://www.anbg.gov.au/cgi-bin/apni

    Barkworth ME; Anderton LK; Capels KM; Long S; Piep MB, 2007. Manual of Grasses for North America [ed. by Barkworth, M. E. \Anderton, L. K. \Capels, K. M. \Long, S. \Piep, M. B.]. Utah, USA: Intermountain Herbarium and Utah State University, 628.

    Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, 2012. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum. http://www.bishopmuseum.org/

    Britton N, 1901. Manual of the flora of the northern states and Canada. H. Holt and Company. 89 pp.

    Bryson CT; Lockley TC, 1993. Sacciolepis indica (Poaceae) new to Mississippi. SIDA, Contributions to Botany, 15(3):555.

    Chase A, 1908. Notes on genera of Paniceae. Volume II, 21:308.

    Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore. http://rmbr.nus.edu.sg/raffles_museum_pub/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

    Clayton WD; Vorontsova MS; Harman KT; Williamson H, 2012. GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. London, UK: The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html

    Clemson University Herbarium, 2012. Clemson University Herbarium. Clemson, South Carolina, USA: Clemson University. http://www.clemson.edu/cafls/herbarium/

    Dangol DR, 2005. Species Composition, Distribution, Life Forms and Folk Nomenclature of Forest and Common Land Plants of Western Chitwan, Nepal. Forest and Common Land Plants of Western Chitwan, Nepal, 26:93-105.

    De Gennaro D 2011. Revision of the genus Sacciolepis (Poaceae: panicoideae: paniceae) in terms of taxonomy, foliage and phylogenetis. (Revision del genero Sacciolepis (Poaceae: panicoideae: paniceae) en sus aspectos taxonomicos, histofoliares y filogeneticos.) Revision of the genus Sacciolepis (Poaceae: panicoideae: paniceae). Buenos Aires, Argentina: Universidad de Buenos Aires, 330.

    Flora Zambesiaca, 1989. Sacciolepis indica. http://apps.kew.org/efloras/namedetail.do?qry=namelist&flora=fz&taxon=8458&nameid=21623

    GBIF, 2012. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). http://data.gbif.org

    Ghana Herbarium, 2012. Ghana Herbarium (GhaBIF)., Ghana: Ghana Biodiversity Information Facility. http://data.gbif.org/portal/datasets/provider/454

    Greenwood W, 1944. Supplementary notes on the adventive and weed flora of the leeward coasts of Fiji. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum, 25:397-405.

    Guadaloupe Herbier, 2012. Guadaloupe Herbier., Guadaloupe.

    Haselfoot HH, 1922. The botany of Bihar and Orissa. London, UK: Adlard, Indian Official Publications, 640.

    Herbarium of Aarhus University, 2012. Herbarium of Aarhus University. Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus University. http://bios.au.dk/en/research/faciliteter-en/the-herbarium/

    Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden, 2012. Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden. New York, USA: Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden. http://sciweb.nybg.org/science2/userguide.asp.html

    Herbarium Togoense, 2012. Herbarium Togoense. Lome, Togo: University of Lome. http://data.gbif.org/datasets/resource/12767

    Herbier de Guyane, 2012. Herbier de Guyane. Cayenne, French Guiana. http://www.cayenne.ird.fr/aublet2/

    Herbier National du Benin, 2012. Herbier National du Benin, Benin. http://www.herbier.bj.refer.org/

    Hitchcock AS, 1920. Revisions of North American grasses: Isachne, Oplismenus, Echinochloa, and Chaetochloa. Washington DC, USA: United States Government Printing Office, 93.

    Hitchcock AS, 1922. The Grasses of Hawaii. Memoirs of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Volume VIII, Number 3. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Bishop Museum.

    Hitchcock AS, 1971. Manual of the Grasses of the United States. New York, USA: Dover Publications.

    IBIS, 2012. IBIS (Integrated Biodiversity Information System). http://www.anbg.gov.au/ibis/index.html

    INBio Costa Rica, 2012. National Biodiveristy Institute, Costa Rica. INBio Costa Rica. http://www.inbio.ac.cr/en/

    IPNI, 2012. International Plant Names Index. Kew\Cambridge, MA\Canberra, UK\USA\Australia. Royal Botanic Gardens\The Harvard University Herbaria\Australian National Herbarium. http://www.ipni.org/

    ISSG, 2012. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Auckland, New Zealand: University of Auckland. http://www.issg.org/database

    Jones and Wipff, 1993. Bulbostylis barbata (Cyperaceae), previously unreported for Texas. Bulbostylis barbata, previously unreported for Texas, 73(5):381-383.

    Kamal-Uddin M; Juraimi AS; Begum M; Ismail MR; Rahim AA; Othman R, 2009. Floristic composition of weed community in turf grass area of west peninsular Malaysia. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 11(1):13-20.

    Korea National Arboretum, 2012. Korea National Arboretum. Gyeonggi-Do, Korea. http://www.bgci.org/garden.php?id=570

    Mallett K; Orchard AE, 2002. Flora of Australia [ed. by Mallett K, Orchard AE]. Collingwood, Victoria, Australia: Csiro Publishing, 406.

    Merill ED, 1923. An Enumeration of Philippine Flowering Plants. Manila, Philippines: Bur. Printing.

    Missouri Botanical Garden, 2012. Flora of Pakistan. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?pagename=Home&projectid=32

    Missouri Botanical Garden, 2012. Herbarium. St Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/media/fact-pages/herbarium.aspx

    Missouri Botanical Garden, 2012. Tropicos database. St Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

    Moody K, 1989. Weeds reported in Rice in South and Southeast Asia. Manila, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute.

    National Biodiversity Institute, 2012. National Biodiversity Institute. Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica. http://www.inbio.eas.ualberta.ca/en/default.html

    National Museum of Natural History, 2012. National Museum of Natural History. Paris, France: National Museum of Natural History. http://www.mnhn.fr/museum/foffice/transverse/transverse/accueil.xsp?cl=en

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    Netherlands National Herbarium, 2012. Netherlands National Herbarium (Nationaal Herbarium Nederland). Leiden, Netherlands: University of Leiden. http://www.nhn.leidenuniv.nl/index.php/

    Noosa Parks Association Botany Group, 2012. Sacciolepsis indica. http://www.noosanativeplants.com.au/articles/credits/

    PIER, 2010. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. HEAR, Hawaii, USA. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

    PIER, 2013. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

    Plantas Vasculares, 2012. Vascular Plants. Mexico City, Mexico: National Autonomous University of Mexico (online). http://www.unibio.unam.mx

    Pohl RW; Lersten NR, 1975. Stem aerenchyma as a character separating Hymenachne and Sacciolepis (Gramineae, Panicoideae). Brittonia, 27(3):223-227.

    Proctor GR, 1982. More Additions to the Flora of Jamaica. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum, 63(3):199-316.

    Prof Summer's Web Garden, 2006. Sacciolepis indica. http://flowers.la.coocan.jp/Poaceae/Sacciolepis indica.htm

    Pullen Herbarium, 2005. Pullen Herbarium. Mississippi, USA: University of Mississippi. http://www.herbarium.olemiss.edu/

    Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

    Real Jardin Botanico, 2012. Real Jardin Botanico. Madrid, Spain. http://data.gbif.org/datasets/resource/240

    Royal Botanic Garden, 2012. Edinburgh, UK. http://www.rbge.org.uk/

    Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012. The Herbarium Catalogue. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. http://apps.kew.org/herbcat/navigator.do

    Scholz H, 1980. New and rare grasses from Togo (West Africa). (Neue und seltene Gramineen aus Togo (West-Afrika).) New and rare grasses from Togo, 10(2):157-160.

    Simon BK, 1972. A revision of the genus Sacciolepis (Gramineae) in the 'Flora Zambesiaca' area. Kew Bulletin, 27(3):387-406.

    Simon BK; Alfonso Y, 2012. AusGrass2. http://ausgrass2.myspecies.info

    Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2012. Smithsonian Museum of Natural History Botany Collections. Botany Collections. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Museum of Natural History. http://collections.mnh.si.edu/search/botany/?qt=Sacciolepis+indica

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    Stone BC, 1970. The flora of Guam. Micronesica 6:218.

    Teerawatananon A; Jacobs SWL; Hodkinson TR, 2011. Phylogenetics of Panicoideae (Poaceae) based on chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences. Telopea, 13(1/2):115-142. http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/Telopea

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    The Herbarium of Louisiana State University, 2012. LSU online Herbarium. Louisiana, USA: Louisiana State University. http://data.cyberfloralouisiana.com/lsu/

    The Plant List, 2010. The Plant List Version 1. UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Missouri Botanical Gardens. http://www.theplantlist.org/

    The Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust, 2012. Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. http://www.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/

    Troy University Herbarium, 2012. Troy University Herbarium. Troy, Alabama, USA: Troy University. http://spectrum.troy.edu/herbarium/

    University of South Carolina, 2012. AC Moore Herbarium. South Carolina, USA: University of South Carolina. http://herbarium.biol.sc.edu/

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Draft Recovery Plan for Phyllostegia hispida: addendum to the Molokai Plant Cluster Recovery Plan. Draft Recovery Plan for Phyllostegia hispida: addendum to the Molokai Plant Cluster Recovery Plan. 38 pp. http://www.fws.gov/pacific/ecoservices/endangered/recovery/documents/Phyllostegia%20hispida%20DRP%204.25.11_VSCWebReadyVersion.pdf

    USDA-ARS, 2012. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

    USDA-NRCS, 2012. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

    WCSP, 2012. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. London, UK: Royal Botanical Gardens Kew (online). http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/home.do

    Weakley AS, 2012. Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States. Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA: University of North Carolina, 1072 pp. URL: http://www.herbarium.unc.edu/flora.htm [Accessed 04 September 2013]

    Wunderlin RP; Hansen BF, 2012. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. Tampa, Florida, USA: Institute for Systematic Botany, University of South Florida. www.plantatlas.usf.edu

    Zhengyi W; Raven PH; Deyuan H, 2006. Flora of China. Vol. 22. Poaceae. Louis, MI, U. Flora of China. St Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Gardens.

    Distribution References

    Atlas of Living Australia, 2012. Atlas of Living Australia., Canberra ACT, Australia: GBIF. http://www.ala.org.au

    Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, 2012. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: http://www.bishopmuseum.org/

    CABI Data Mining, 2011. Invasive Species Databases.,

    CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

    CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

    CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

    Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. In: A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore, http://rmbr.nus.edu.sg/raffles_museum_pub/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

    Dangol DR, 2005. Species Composition, Distribution, Life Forms and Folk Nomenclature of Forest and Common Land Plants of Western Chitwan, Nepal. In: Forest and Common Land Plants of Western Chitwan, Nepal, 26 93-105.

    Flora Zambesiaca, 1989. (Sacciolepis indica)., http://apps.kew.org/efloras/namedetail.do?qry=namelist&flora=fz&taxon=8458&nameid=21623

    Greenwood W, 1944. Supplementary notes on the adventive and weed flora of the leeward coasts of Fiji. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum. 397-405.

    Haselfoot HH, 1922. The botany of Bihar and Orissa., London, UK: Adlard, Indian Official Publications. 640.

    Herbarium Togoense, 2012. Herbarium Togoense., Lome, Togo: University of Lome. http://data.gbif.org/datasets/resource/12767

    Hitchcock A S, 1971. Manual of the grasses of the United States. Second edition revised by Agnes Chase. In: Manual of the grasses of the United States. Second edition revised by Agnes Chase. New York, Dover Publications, Inc. USA: 1051pp.

    IBIS, 2012. IBIS (Integrated Biodiversity Information System)., http://www.anbg.gov.au/ibis/index.html

    INBio Costa Rica, 2012. National Biodiveristy Institute, Costa Rica. In: INBio Costa Rica, http://www.inbio.ac.cr/en/

    ISSG, 2012. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD)., Auckland, New Zealand: University of Auckland. http://www.issg.org/database

    Korea National Arboretum, 2012. Korea National Arboretum., Gyeonggi-Do, Korea: http://www.bgci.org/garden.php?id=570

    Merill ED, 1923. An Enumeration of Philippine Flowering Plants., Manila, Philippines: Bur. Printing.

    Missouri Botanical Garden, 2012. Flora of Pakistan., St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?pagename=Home&projectid=32

    PIER, 2010. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Hawaii, USA: HEAR. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

    PIER, 2013. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

    Plantas Vasculares, 2012. Vascular Plants., Mexico City, Mexico: National Autonomous University of Mexico (online). http://www.unibio.unam.mx

    Proctor GR, 1982. More Additions to the Flora of Jamaica. In: Journal of the Arnold Arboretum, 63 (3) 199-316.

    Pullen Herbarium, 2005. Pullen Herbarium., Mississippi, USA: University of Mississippi. http://www.herbarium.olemiss.edu/

    Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012. The Herbarium Catalogue., London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. http://apps.kew.org/herbcat/navigator.do

    Scholz H, 1980. New and rare grasses from Togo (West Africa). (Neue und seltene Gramineen aus Togo (West-Afrika)). In: New and rare grasses from Togo, 10 (2) 157-160.

    Tela Botanica, 2012. (Tela Botanica)., http://www.tela-botanica.org/site:accueil

    The Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust, 2012. The Royal Botanic Garden., Sydney, Australia: http://www.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/

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    Weakley AS, 2012. Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States., Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA: University of North Carolina. 1072 pp. http://www.herbarium.unc.edu/flora.htm

    Wunderlin RP, Hansen BF, 2012. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants., Tampa, Florida, USA: Institute for Systematic Botany, University of South Florida. http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu

    Xie X M, Tang W, Zhong P T, Shiyomi M, 2008. Analysis of spatial heterogeneity of the weed community in a manilagrass lawn using power-law. Acta Horticulturae. 529-534. http://www.actahort.org

    Zhengyi W, Raven PH, Deyuan H, 2006. Flora of China. In: Poaceae, 22 Louis, MI; St Louis, Missouri, USA: U. Flora of China, Missouri Botanical Gardens.

    Links to Websites

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    WebsiteURLComment
    GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

    Contributors

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    06/09/12 Original text by:

    John Peter Thompson, Consultant, USA

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