Invasive Species Compendium

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Nymphaea lotus
(white Egyptian lotus)

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Datasheet

Nymphaea lotus (white Egyptian lotus)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Nymphaea lotus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • white Egyptian lotus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • N. lotus is a floating leafed macrophte and water lily, native to Africa and specific areas in Europe. It has a number of medicinal properties and is often introduced into new areas as an ornamental. This species has become naturalized in...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Nymphaea lotus (white Egyptian lotus); close view of flower. April 2006.
TitleFlower
CaptionNymphaea lotus (white Egyptian lotus); close view of flower. April 2006.
Copyright©Réginald Hulhoven (Meneerke bloem), Veltem-Beisem near Louvain, Belgium/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Nymphaea lotus (white Egyptian lotus); close view of flower. April 2006.
FlowerNymphaea lotus (white Egyptian lotus); close view of flower. April 2006.©Réginald Hulhoven (Meneerke bloem), Veltem-Beisem near Louvain, Belgium/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Nymphaea lotus (white Egyptian lotus); habit, with flower. April 2006.
TitleHabit
CaptionNymphaea lotus (white Egyptian lotus); habit, with flower. April 2006.
Copyright©Réginald Hulhoven (Meneerke bloem), Veltem-Beisem near Louvain, Belgium/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Nymphaea lotus (white Egyptian lotus); habit, with flower. April 2006.
HabitNymphaea lotus (white Egyptian lotus); habit, with flower. April 2006.©Réginald Hulhoven (Meneerke bloem), Veltem-Beisem near Louvain, Belgium/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Nymphaea lotus (white Egyptian lotus); habit, with partially open flowers. Cultivated specimen. Switzerland. July 2007.
TitleHabit
CaptionNymphaea lotus (white Egyptian lotus); habit, with partially open flowers. Cultivated specimen. Switzerland. July 2007.
Copyright©Rl - Eget verk-2007/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Nymphaea lotus (white Egyptian lotus); habit, with partially open flowers. Cultivated specimen. Switzerland. July 2007.
HabitNymphaea lotus (white Egyptian lotus); habit, with partially open flowers. Cultivated specimen. Switzerland. July 2007.©Rl - Eget verk-2007/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Nymphaea lotus L.

Preferred Common Name

  • white Egyptian lotus

Other Scientific Names

  • Castalia edulis Salisb.
  • Castalia lotus Tratt.
  • Castalia mystica Salisb.
  • Castalia pubescens Wood
  • Castalia sacra Salisb.
  • Nymphaea dentata Schumach. & Thonn.
  • Nymphaea liberiensis A. Chev.
  • Nymphaea lotus var. rogeonii A. Chev

International Common Names

  • English: Egyptian water-lily; tiger lotus; white lotus; white water-lily
  • French: lotier d’Egypte

Local Common Names

  • Angola: mbandu
  • Benin: sotodyame
  • Burkina Faso: béli
  • Congo: itookopeli; kilonga-longa; mitoko-toko
  • Czech Republic: leknín posvátný
  • Egypt: bashneen abiad
  • Gabon: lotus tigré; nénuphar blanc
  • Germany: ägyptische Lotosblume; weiße ägyptische Seerose; weiße ägyptischer Lotus
  • Ghana: kùlchí
  • India: aambal; alli; kumud
  • Japan: nettai suiren
  • Korea, DPR: sulyeon
  • Madagascar: agoagga; retsimilana; voahirana
  • Niger: bâdo; baloli; bödo; dundu; nénuphar; tikindint
  • Nigeria: ira; osibata
  • Norway: bokmål
  • Poland: grzybienee egipskie
  • Portugal: golfão-vermelho
  • Senegal: agname; bakoyo
  • Serbia: Egyptowska lotoska
  • Slovakia: lekno Egyptské
  • Spain: lirio de agua egipcio; loto; lotus egipci
  • Sri Lanka: ambal; olu
  • Sudan: suteib
  • Sweden: egyptisk vitlotus
  • Thailand: bua kin saai
  • Uganda: lora
  • Vietnam: súng

Summary of Invasiveness

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N. lotus is a floating leafed macrophte and water lily, native to Africa and specific areas in Europe. It has a number of medicinal properties and is often introduced into new areas as an ornamental. This species has become naturalized in North America and some countries in South America and Asia, but no published reports of it being invasive were found other than presence (without further details) on an invasive species list for Louisiana (Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, 2015). There are limited reports of the impact of this species, although in newly reclaimed wetlands in the Nile Delta, Egypt, N. lotus has been observed colonizing rice fields causing a significant decrease in growth and yield. Khedr and Hegazy (1998) describe it here as having "rampant behaviour as an aquatic weed invading the newly reclaimed ricefields," with its aggressiveness related to being able to spread through both vegetative and sexual reproduction.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Nymphaeales
  •                         Family: Nymphaeaceae
  •                             Genus: Nymphaea
  •                                 Species: Nymphaea lotus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Nymphaeaceae is made up of approximately 75 species across six genera. The genus Nymphaea is the most important horticulturally, containing 44 accepted species names (The Plant List, 2013) and nearly 250 cultivars, 80 of which are tropical day-bloomers and 15 tropical night-bloomers (Les, 2003).

Nymphaea lotus, a floating leafed macrophyte, is a perennial aquatic herb with large white flowers held above the water and was named by Linnaeus in 1753. Nymphaea originates via Latin from Greek meaning a grotto or shrine dedicated to a nymph or nymphs. Lotus originates via Latin from Greek Lotos, of Semitic origin (Annang and Addo-Boadu, 2012; Oxford Dictionary, 2015).

An outlying population in Romania, southeastern Europe is recognised as N. lotus var. thermalis (DC.) Tuzson (The Plant List, 2013), however USDA-ARS (2016) lists N. lotus L. forma thermalis (DC.) Tuzson as a synonym of N. lotus.

Description

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The following description is taken from Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016):

Rhizomes branched or unbranched, erect, ovoid; stolons slender. Leaves: petiole sparsely to densely puberulent. Leaf blade abaxially purplish, adaxially green, nearly orbiculate, to ca. 3 × 3 dm, margins spinose-dentate; venation radiate and prominent centrally, without web-like pattern, principal veins ca. 15; surfaces abaxially sparsely to densely puberulent. Flowers emersed, 12-25 cm diam., opening nocturnally, many flowers not closing until late morning, only sepals and outermost petals in distinct whorls of 4; sepals abaxially uniformly green, prominently veined, lines of insertion on receptacle not prominent; petals 16-20, white; stamens ca. 75, yellow, outer with connective appendage projecting less than 2 mm beyond anther; filaments widest below middle, slightly shorter to longer than anthers; pistil ca. 20(-30)-locular, appendages at margin of stigmatic disk linear, 6-12 mm. Seeds ellipsoid, 1.4-1.8 × 0.9-1.2 mm, ca. 1.5-1.6 times as long as broad, with longitudinal ridges bearing papillae 20-150 µm. Flowering spring-summer.

Plant Type

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Annual
Aquatic
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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N. lotus is widespread in Africa and parts of temperate and tropical Asia to which it is native (Plant Gene Resources of Canada, 2016). An outlying population in Romania, southeastern Europe is recognised as N. lotus var. thermalis (DC.) Tuzson (The Plant List, 2013), however USDA-ARS (2016) lists Nymphaealotus L. forma thermalis (DC.) Tuzson as a synonym of N. lotus. This population has been thought to be Tertiary relict flora by some, that has persisted in warm thermal springs (Veler, 2008) and could be considered native, however this theory has been brought into question (Veler et al., 2010).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentNative
BeninPresent
BotswanaPresentNative
BurundiPresentNative
CameroonPresentNative
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentNative
Côte d'IvoirePresentNative
EgyptPresentNativeOriginal citation: Plant Gene Resources of Canada (2016
Equatorial GuineaPresentNativeRio Muni
EswatiniPresentNativeSouthern
GabonPresent
GambiaPresentNative
Guinea-BissauPresentNative
KenyaPresentNative
LiberiaPresentNative
MadagascarPresentNative
MalawiPresentNative
MaliPresentNative
MauritiusPresent
MozambiquePresentGaza, Inhmabane, Manica, Maputo, Niassa, Sofala, Tete Provinces; Original citation: PROTA (2015)
NamibiaPresentNativeGrootfontein, Okavango and Caprivi Strip Districts; Original citation: PROTA (2015)
NigerPresent
NigeriaPresentNative
RwandaPresentNative
SenegalPresentNative
Sierra LeonePresentNative
SomaliaPresentNative
South AfricaPresentNativeGauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga
SudanPresentSouthern
TanzaniaPresentMany areas including Zanzibar and Pemba but not in the central part; Original citation: PROTA (2015)
-Zanzibar IslandPresentNativeNorthern and southern provinces; Original citation: PROTA (2015)
TogoPresentNative
UgandaPresentNative
ZambiaPresentNative
ZimbabwePresentNativeNorth and south floristic provinces; Original citation: PROTA (2015)

Asia

BangladeshPresentNativeOriginal citation: Plant Gene Resources of Canada (2016)
CambodiaPresentNativeOriginal citation: Plant Gene Resources of Canada (2016)
ChinaPresent, LocalizedNativeSouth Yunnan; Original citation: Plant Gene Resources of Canada (2016)
-YunnanPresentNativeSouth Yunnan
IndiaPresentNativeOriginal citation: Plant Gene Resources of Canada (2016)
-AssamPresentMorigaon district of Brahmaptura valley of Assam
-Jammu and KashmirPresentIntroducedKashmir Himalaya, Altitude:1700-2200m
IndonesiaPresentNative
LaosPresentNative
MalaysiaPresentNative
MyanmarPresentNative
PakistanPresentNative
PhilippinesPresentNative
TaiwanPresentNative
ThailandPresentNative
VietnamPresentNative

Europe

HungaryPresentIntroduced
RomaniaPresentNativeNorthwest (hot springs)

North America

Costa RicaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
PanamaPresentIntroduced
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced
United StatesPresentIntroduced
-FloridaPresentIntroduced1979Reference records find in March, 1980, north of Ft. Myers, growing in a roadside drainage canal. Material collected in November, 1979
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced

Oceania

AustraliaPresentNative
-QueenslandPresentNative
Papua New GuineaPresentNative

South America

BrazilPresentIntroduced
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedReferences sample collected in 1956.
-Sao PauloPresentIntroduced
ColombiaPresentIntroducedReference sample collected from central Colombia (1961
GuyanaPresentIntroducedThe author suggested that samples collected in 1945 lend credibility to a sample collected in 1824 being N. lotus
VenezuelaPresentIntroduced

History of Introduction and Spread

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There are records from Loddiges Nursery in the UK that N. lotus was first introduced into western cultivation in 1802 (Encyclopedia of Life, 2015).

According to Wiersema (1982), prior to 1940 no records of N. lotus exist from the American tropics, though this may be due to it being overlooked by collectors as herbarium records indicate that it was being cultivated. Wiersema suggests that the appearance of N. lotus in South and Central America can be attributed to local introduction through cultivation, probably in the last century, with it then becoming naturalized.

Habitat

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Plants of the order Nymphaeles typically require calm, shallow (<2 m) water, full sunlight and neutral to slightly alkaline pH (Les, 2003). N. lotus occurs in both mesotrophic and oligotrophic waters, its nutrient requirements being obtained from the organic detritus into which it is rooted (Denny, 1985).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Freshwater
FreshwaterLakes Principal habitat Natural
FreshwaterRivers / streams Principal habitat Natural
FreshwaterPonds Principal habitat Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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N. lotus is recorded as a weed in rice fields in Egypt where it can significantly reduce the growth and grain yield of the crop (Khedr and Hegazy, 1998; Hegazy et al., 2001).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain

    Biology and Ecology

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    Genetics

    Widespread in its native Africa and Asia, N. lotus also persists over a very limited distribution in thermal springs in Romania, southeastern Europe. This population is recognised as N. lotus var. thermalis (DC.) Tuzson on The Plant List (2013), however USDA-ARS (2016) and Plant Gene Resources Canada (2016) list N.lotus L. forma thermalis (DC.) Tuzson as a synonym of N. lotus. The European population has been considered by some to be a tertiary relict that has persisted in warm thermal springs in northwestern Romania having once been more widespread on a warmer European continent (Veler, 2008). Molecular analysis of N. lotus samples from South Africa, the Nile Delta and Petea, Romania, however, found that the 676 bp long nrITS sequences that were compared could be aligned unambiguously across all samples (Veler et al., 2010). The nrITS region exhibits one of the highest substitution rates among plants and the absence of differences in this marker led the authors to conclude (accounting for the findings of Löhne et al., 2008) that the Romanian plant was not isolated from the other populations of N. lotus long ago, certainly not as historically as the onset of the of the Quaternary era (~2.5 Mya) when glaciations moved through the subtropical Central European region (Veler et al., 2010). The authors state that the lack of difference between the N. lotus samples from South Africa, the Nile Delta and Romania might be indicative of recent intra-specific isolation and/or recent expansion of the species, i.e. relatively recent introduction of N. lotus into the thermal springs in Romania. Higher resolution molecular analysis may be necessary to test the scenario of recent introduction to Romania.

    Reproductive Biology

    Species of Nymphaea reproduce sexually though show variability between species e.g. flower opening times, flower colour and function of the various flower parts. Agamospermous reproduction is not seen in species of Nymphaea, however several modes are exhibited e.g. detachable tubers and stolon formation. This enables them not to be completely reliant on pollinators (Wiersema, 1988). Pollination occurs by beetles and bees (Krell et al., 2003; Les, 2003) and limited seed production in naturalized populations in Florida was attributed to the lack of insect visitation (Wiersema,1982). Löhne et al. (2008) detail the beetle Rutelorcytes morio as the pollinator of N. lotus, while Hirthe and Porembski (2003) describe both this beetle and several diurnal bee species as pollinators of the plant.

    Associations

    In Ghana, Annang and Addo-Boadu (2012) recorded twenty-eight genera of algae belonging to five phyla in association with N. lotus.

    Climate

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    ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
    Af - Tropical rainforest climate Tolerated > 60mm precipitation per month
    Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tolerated Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
    Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
    BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
    BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
    Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
    Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

    Notes on Natural Enemies

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    Floating leaves are damaged by beetles, burrowing flies, caterpillars, fungi and snails (Les, 2003).

    Means of Movement and Dispersal

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    Natural Dispersal

    Propagation of N. lotus occurs by seed, suckers or rhizomes (PROTA, 2016). The seeds of N. lotus are dispersed by water (Les, 2003). In Egypt, it has rapidly invaded newly created rice fields from neighbouring irrigation canals (Khedr and Hegazy, 1998).

    Vector Transmission

    Seeds of the plant can be dispersed by animals (Les, 2003).

    Intentional Introduction

    Lozano and Brundu (2018) report that N. lotus has escaped after being intentionally introduced into South America as an ornamental.

    Pathway Causes

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    CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
    Interconnected waterways Yes
    Medicinal use Yes
    Ornamental purposes Yes

    Pathway Vectors

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    VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
    Floating vegetation and debris Yes
    Plants or parts of plants Yes
    Water Yes

    Impact Summary

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    CategoryImpact
    Economic/livelihood Negative

    Economic Impact

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    N. lotus produces a dense mat-like canopy that is heavy enough to break tillers of rice during vegetative growth periods and can reduce crop yield, particularly in direct seeded rice (Mohamed and Serag, 2003). However, Khedr and Hegazy (1998) suggest that this is likely due to the equilibrium between weed communities and rice husbandry not yet being met. The plant has also been reported as a weed of fish ponds in Nigeria (Adesina et al., 2015).

    Environmental Impact

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    In Louisiana, USA, the plant is listed as a Tier II invasive species, (having moderate negative impacts on wildlife or natural communities in Louisiana, but of limited concern and/or extent), but with no further details provided (Lousiana Department of Widlife and Fisheries, 2015).

    Social Impact

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    N. lotus was significant to pharaonic Egypt. It has been found on a limestone relief on a tomb dating 2500 BC, in the burial tomb of Ramesses II and Herodotus (464-425 B.C.) described the annual harvest during the flooding of the River Nile plains. The ancients believed that the lotus flower gave them strength and power and it was significant in their lives as food, for the treatment of ailments and as a perfume (Kandeler and Ullrich, 2009; Encyclopedia of Life, 2015).

    Its usage medicinally and for food has continued (Mohamad and Serag, 2003) and it is now also traded as a freshwater aquarium plant.

    Risk and Impact Factors

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    Invasiveness
    • Invasive in its native range
    • Proved invasive outside its native range
    Impact outcomes
    • Negatively impacts agriculture
    • Negatively impacts livelihoods
    Impact mechanisms
    • Competition - monopolizing resources
    • Competition - shading
    Likelihood of entry/control
    • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
    • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

    Uses

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    Economic Value

    N. lotus has many uses as a human food; the flower stalks are eaten raw or cooked, seeds are pickled or roasted, unripe fruits are eaten raw and tubers are consumed raw or roasted for the starch, or ground into flour after drying. Once dried the stems can be used as a herbal tea (Irvine and Trickett, 1953; Paul and Barbaruah, 2013; Encyclopedia of Life, 2015). Flour from the pounded tubers can be stored for a number of months (PROTA, 2016).

    Social Benefit

    The leaves, petioles, roots and seeds are all used in medicine in Nigeria (Lim, 2014) and both menthanolic and ethanolic extracts from the plant have been shown to have antimicrobial activity (Abu Ziada et al., 2008; Akinjogunia et al., 2009). Antibacterial activity against fish pathogens has also been reported for N. lotus extract (Adelakun et al., 2015). The use of N. lotus rhizome as an antidiarrhoeal agent, for which it is commonly employed in Nigeria, was investigated by Bello et al. (2016) who found that the methanol rhizome extract of the plant contains pharmacologically active substances with antidiarrhoeal properties.

    Environmental Services

    N. lotus could possibly be used for the removal of heavy metals from polluted water sources (Mohamed and Serag, 2003).

    Uses List

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    General

    • Pet/aquarium trade

    Medicinal, pharmaceutical

    • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
    • Traditional/folklore

    Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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    Wiersema (1982) states that “Plants of Nymphaea lotus are distinguishable from other neotropical Nymphaea by several characteristics. The mature leaves are regularly spinose-dentate, very strongly peltate (pelta 2-5 cm) and usually covered with short pubescence, which is sometimes very dense, on the undersurfaces and petioles. The penduncles are often pubescent as well and project the flowers up to 20 cm above the water surface. The normally white-petaled flowers are distinctive in having very prominently veined sepals, stamens with only minute connective appendages and long (ca 10-15 mm) linear carpellary processes. Of other species with dentate leaves, Nymphaea ampla is glabrous, has stamens with prominent connective appendages and has short conical carpellary processes. Nymphaea rudgeana is glabrous with very irregularly indulate or dentate leaves, has sepals lacking prominent venation and has clavate carpellary processes.”

    Prevention and Control

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    Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

    Physical/Mechanical Control

    Populations of N. lotus can be removed by digging, however all tubers must be removed to prevent regrowth (Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, 2016).

    Chemical Control

    There are reports that N. lotus is susceptible to control by aquatic herbicides (Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, 2016). However, chemical control carries the risk of non-target effects and contamination of water supplies. In earthern fish ponds in Nigeria, Adesina et al. (2015) report that manual weed control of weeds including N. lotus is most common, with few farmers using herbicides because of a fear of water contamination and fish poisoning.

    References

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    Adelakun KM, Mustapha MK, Muazu MM, Omotayo OL, Olaoye O, 2015. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activities of crude extract of Nymphaea lotus (water lily) against fish pathogens. Journal of Biomedical Sciences, 3(4), 38-42.

    Adesina, G. O., Adelasoye, K. A., Ogunmokun, F. A., 2015. Survey of earthen fish ponds for aquatic weed problems in selected states of Southwestern Nigeria. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 9(5), 7-13. http://www.aensiweb.net/AENSIWEB/aejsa/aejsa/2015/July/7-13.pdf

    Akinjogunla, O. J., Adegoke, A. A., Udokang, I. P., Adebayo-Tayo, B. C., 2009. Antimicrobial potential of Nymphaea lotus (Nymphaeaceae) against wound pathogens. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 3(3), 138-141. http://www.academicjournals.org/jmpr/abstracts/abstracts/abstracts2009/Mar/Akinjogunla%20et%20al.htm

    Annang, T. Y., Addo-Boadu, A. M., 2012. Periphyton associated with Nymphaea lotus Linn. in two different types of freshwater bodies in southern Ghana. West African Journal of Applied Ecology, 20(1), 89-95. http://www.ajol.info/index.php/wajae/article/view/86325/76151

    Bello, F. H., Maiha, B. B., Anuka, J. A., 2016. The effect of methanol rhizome extract of Nymphaea lotus Linn. (Nymphaeaceae) in animal models of diarrhoea. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 190, 13-21. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874116303130 doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.05.036

    Boggan J, Funk V, Kellof C, Hoff M, Cremers G, Feuillet C, 1997. Checklist of the plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). 2nd Edition. Biological Diversity of the Guinanas Program, Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., USA, 151. http://botany.si.edu/bdg/pdf/guilist2nd.pdf

    Denny P, 1985. The ecology and management of African wetland vegetation: A botanical account of African swamps and shallow waterbodies, Netherlands: Springer.

    Encyclopedia of Life, 2015. Encyclopedia of Life. http://www.eol.org

    Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of North America North of Mexico. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1

    Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of North America North of Mexico. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1

    GBIF, 2015. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. http://www.gbif.org/species

    Hegazy, A. K., Amer, W. M., Khedr, A. A., 2001. Allelopathic effect of Nymphaea lotus L. on growth and yield of cultivated rice around Lake Manzala (Nile Delta). Hydrobiologia, 464, 133-142. doi: 10.1023/A:1013943318230

    Hirthe, G., Porembski, S., 2003. Pollination of Nymphaea lotus (Nymphaeaceae) by rhinoceros beetles and bees in the Northeastern Ivory Coast. Plant Biology, 5(6), 670-675. doi: 10.1055/s-2003-44717

    Hussner, A., 2012. Alien aquatic plant species in European countries. Weed Research (Oxford), 52(4), 297-306. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3180.2012.00926.x/full doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3180.2012.00926.x

    Irvine, F. R., Trickett, R. S., 1953. Kew Bulletin, (3), 363-70 pp. doi: 10.2307/4115519

    Kandeler, R., Ullrich, W. R., 2009. Symbolism of plants: examples from European-Mediterranean culture presented with biology and history of art. Journal of Experimental Botany, 60(15), 4217-4218. http://jxb.oxfordjournals.org/ doi: 10.1093/jxb/erp253

    Khedr, A. H. A., Hegazy, A. K., 1998. Ecology of the rampant weed Nymphaea lotus L. Willdenow in natural and ricefield habitats of the Nile delta, Egypt. Hydrobiologia, 386, 119-129. doi: 10.1023/A:1003587202272

    Khuroo, A. A., Irfan Rashid, Zafar Reshi, Dar, G. H., Wafai, B. A., 2007. The alien flora of Kashmir Himalaya. Biological Invasions, 9(3), 269-292. http://www.springerlink.com/content/p47k291348887h31/?p=3f7396e4601240f4a981389077081fd3&pi=3 doi: 10.1007/s10530-006-9032-6

    Krell, F. T., Hirthe, G., Seine, R., Porembski, S., 2003. Rhinoceros beetles pollinate water lilies in Africa (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae; Magnoliidae: Nymphaeaceae). Ecotropica, 9(1/2), 103-106.

    Les DH, 2003. Nymphaeales. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chicester. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1038/npg.els.0003697

    Lim TK, 2014. Nymphaea lotus. In: Edible Medicinal and Non Medicinal Plants: Volume 8, Flowers, [ed. by Lim TK]. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer Science+Business Media. 514-518.

    Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, 2015. Chapter 6. Invasive Species. In: Louisiana Wildlife Action Plan, http://www.wlf.louisiana.gov/wildlife/wildlife-action-plan

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    Löhne C, Yoo M-J, Borsch T, Wiersema J, Wilde V, Bell CD, Barthlott W, Soltis DE, Soltis PS, 2008. Biogeography of Nymphaeales: Extant Patterns and Historical Events. Taxon, 57(4), 1123-1146.

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, 2016. Non-native waterlilies (Nymphaea spp.). http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/invasives/aquaticplants/waterlilies.html

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    Mohamed ZA, Serag MS, 2003. Ecology and anatomy of Nymphaea lotus L. in the Nile delta. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 26(2), 1-20.

    Muhammad Akmal, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman, Sana Ullah, Naima Younus, Khan, K. J., Muhammad Qayyum, 2014. Nutritive value of aquatic plants of Head Baloki on Ravi River, Pakistan. International Journal of Biosciences (IJB), 4(10), 115-122. http://www.innspub.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/IJB-V4No10-p115-122.pdf

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    Paul S, Barbaruah AD, 2013. Studies of some important wetland plants with their growth form and uses from Monoha beel of Morigaon, Assam. The Clarion, 2(1), 37-40.

    PIER, 2017. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

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    PROTA, 2016. PROTA4U web database. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.info

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    Udomsri, C., Premcharoen, S., Thawatphan, C., Vidthayanon, C., Vajrodaya, S., 2005. Community structure of aquatic plants in Bung Khong Long, Nongkhai province, a Ramsar site of Thailand. Kasetsart Journal, Natural Sciences, 39(1), 64-75.

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    Distribution References

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    Khedr A H A, Hegazy A K, 1998. Ecology of the rampant weed Nymphaea lotus L. Willdenow in natural and ricefield habitats of the Nile delta, Egypt. Hydrobiologia. 119-129. DOI:10.1023/A:1003587202272

    Khuroo A A, Irfan Rashid, Zafar Reshi, Dar G H, Wafai B A, 2007. The alien flora of Kashmir Himalaya. Biological Invasions. 9 (3), 269-292. http://www.springerlink.com/content/p47k291348887h31/?p=3f7396e4601240f4a981389077081fd3&pi=3 DOI:10.1007/s10530-006-9032-6

    Lim TK, 2014. Nymphaea lotus. In: Edible Medicinal and Non Medicinal Plants: Volume 8, Flowers, [ed. by Lim TK]. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer Science+Business Media. 514-518.

    Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

    Muhammad Akmal, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman, Sana Ullah, Naima Younus, Khan K J, Muhammad Qayyum, 2014. Nutritive value of aquatic plants of Head Baloki on Ravi River, Pakistan. International Journal of Biosciences (IJB). 4 (10), 115-122. http://www.innspub.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/IJB-V4No10-p115-122.pdf

    Paul S, Barbaruah AD, 2013. Studies of some important wetland plants with their growth form and uses from Monoha beel of Morigaon, Assam. In: The Clarion, 2 (1) 37-40.

    Plant Gene Resources of Canada, 2016. Plant Gene Resources of Canada., http://pgrc3.agr.gc.ca/index_e.html

    Randall R P, 2012. A global compendium of weeds. [ed. by Randall R P]. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia. 1124 pp. http://www.agric.wa.gov.au

    Udomsri C, Premcharoen S, Thawatphan C, Vidthayanon C, Vajrodaya S, 2005. Community structure of aquatic plants in Bung Khong Long, Nongkhai province, a Ramsar site of Thailand. Kasetsart Journal, Natural Sciences. 39 (1), 64-75.

    USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

    Wiersema JH, 1982. Distributional records for Nymphaea lotus (Nymphaeaceae) in the western hemisphere. In: SIDA, 9 (3) 230-234.

    Links to Websites

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    GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

    Contributors

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    26/02/2016, Original text by:

    Corin Pratt and Emma Thompson, CABI, Egham, UK

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