Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cassia javanica
(pink shower)

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Datasheet

Cassia javanica (pink shower)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cassia javanica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • pink shower
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. javanica is an attractive small tree widely commercialized for its wood and as a shade and ornamental tree. It has escaped from cultivation and naturalized in many regions of the world, but especially in the tropics. Currently, it is l...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleShade tree
Caption
Copyright©Rafael T. Cadiz
Shade tree©Rafael T. Cadiz
TitleBole
Caption
Copyright©Rafael T. Cadiz
Bole©Rafael T. Cadiz
TitleFoliage
Caption
Copyright©Rafael T. Cadiz
Foliage©Rafael T. Cadiz
TitleFlower and pods
Caption
Copyright©Rafael T. Cadiz
Flower and pods©Rafael T. Cadiz
1. tree habit
2. flowering twig
3. flower
4. pod
TitleLine artwork
Caption1. tree habit 2. flowering twig 3. flower 4. pod
CopyrightPROSEA Foundation
1. tree habit
2. flowering twig
3. flower
4. pod
Line artwork1. tree habit 2. flowering twig 3. flower 4. podPROSEA Foundation

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cassia javanica L.

Preferred Common Name

  • pink shower

Other Scientific Names

  • Cassia agnes (de Wit) Brenan
  • Cassia bacillus Gaertn.
  • Cassia bacillus Roxb.
  • Cassia bartonii F. M. Bailey
  • Cassia fistula “sensu Blanco, non Merr."
  • Cassia javanica subsp. bartonii F.M.Bailey
  • Cassia javanica subsp. pubiflora (Merr.) K.Larsen
  • Cassia javanica subsp. renigera (Wall. ex Benth.) K. Larsen
  • Cassia megalantha Decne.
  • Cassia nodosa Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb.
  • Cassia renigera Wall. ex Benth.
  • Cathartocarpus javanicus Pers.

International Common Names

  • English: apple blossom; apple blossom shower; Burmese-senna; Javanese cassia; pink cassia; rainbow shower
  • Spanish: acacia rosada; cassia rosada; lluvia de rosas
  • Chinese: zhao wa jue ming

Local Common Names

  • Cambodia: bo pruk; bôprùk
  • India: apple blossom cassia; Java cassia; Java rani; nodding cassia
  • Indonesia: bobondelan; boking-boking; trengguli
  • Indonesia/Java: trengguli
  • Indonesia/Sumatra: bobondelan; boking-boking
  • Laos: khoun loy
  • Lesser Antilles: stinking toe
  • Malaysia: bebusok; busok-busok
  • Philippines: antsoan
  • Thailand: kalalphruk; kalapaphruk; lak khoei lak kluea
  • Uganda: apple-blossom cassia
  • USA: Java shower; pink lady
  • Vietnam: b(ut)c(aj)b

EPPO code

  • CASJA (Cassia javanica)
  • CASJN (Cassia javanica subsp. nodosa)

Subspecies

  • Cassia javanica subsp. agnes
  • Cassia javanica subsp. javanica
  • Cassia javanica subsp. nodosa
  • Cassia javanica subsp. renigera

Trade name

  • johar

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. javanica is an attractive small tree widely commercialized for its wood and as a shade and ornamental tree. It has escaped from cultivation and naturalized in many regions of the world, but especially in the tropics. Currently, it is listed as invasive in Mexico, Nicaragua and the Dominican Republic (Kairo et al., 2003; Villaseñor and Garcia-Espinosa, 2004; FAO, 2014). Even when C. javanica is not very aggressive, it has the potential to displace and out-compete native vegetation in invaded areas. 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Caesalpinioideae
  •                                 Genus: Cassia
  •                                     Species: Cassia javanica

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Fabaceae is one of the largest families of flowering plants. This family includes about 745 genera and 19,500 species which can be found throughout the world growing in a great variety of climates and environments (Stevens, 2012). The genus Cassia is included in the subfamily Caesalpinioideae. This genus contains about 300 species occurring in all continents. Cassia species show a great diversity in habit, ranging from annual herbs to perennial trees. The species Cassia javanica is very polymorphic with a wide distribution across Asia. Irwin and Barneby (1982) consider C. javanica as a complex series of geographical varieties that are found across their areas of natural distribution. Within its natural distribution range, C. javanica forms vary in the shape of their leaves, the colour and size of their flowers, and their chromosomal number. Currently, seven subspecies of C. javanica are recognized (Flora of China, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014):

1.    Cassia javanica subsp. agnes: India, Laos, Thailand
2.    Cassia javanica subsp. bartonii: New Guinea
3.    Cassia javanica subsp. javanica: From Indonesia to the Philippines
4.    Cassia javanica subsp. microcalyx: Indonesia including Kalimantan and Sumatra
5.    Cassia javanica subsp. nodosa: From Myanmar to Malaysia
6.    Cassia javanica subsp. pubiflora: Philippines
7.    Cassia javanica subsp. renigera: Myanmar.

Description

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Deciduous tree, usually more than 10 m tall, sometimes to 30 m. Leaves 15-40 cm; leaflets 5-12 pairs, 2-8 × 1.2-3.3 cm, both surfaces pilose or abaxially pilose, adaxially sparsely puberulent, base slightly asymmetric, apex acute, obtuse, or shortly acuminate. Inflorescence a raceme or panicle, terminal on leafy shoots or lateral on short side branches, up to 16 cm long, many-flowered; flowers with sepals 4-10 mm long, green to dark red, petals 15-35 mm long, whitish to reddish or buff, stamens 10, 3 longer ones with filaments 2 cm long, 4 shorter with filaments about 1 cm long and 3 reduced with filaments about 1 cm long and minute anthers. Fruit a pendent, terete legume, 20-60 cm long, 1-1.5(-2.5) cm in diameter, indehiscent. Seeds numerous, embedded in a flat disk, 6.5-8.9 mm long, 5.6-7.0 mm wide, and 2.5-5.5 mm thick (Orwa et al., 2009; Flora of China, 2014). 

Plant Type

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Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree

Distribution

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C. javanica is native to Asia including China, Indonesia, and Malaysia (ILDIS, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014). It is widely cultivated all over the tropics and is naturalized in Africa, Asia, Australia, America, the West Indies and on several islands in the Pacific Ocean (see distribution table for details; Broome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; ILDIS, 2014; PROTA, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014). 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Planted Reference Notes

Africa

CameroonPresentIntroduced
ChadPresentIntroduced
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentIntroduced
GabonPresentIntroduced
LiberiaPresentIntroduced
MauritiusPresentIntroduced
-RodriguesPresentIntroduced
MozambiquePresentIntroduced
NigeriaPresentIntroduced
SeychellesPresentIntroduced
Sierra LeonePresentIntroduced
South AfricaPresentIntroduced
TogoPresentIntroduced
UgandaPresentIntroduced
ZimbabwePresentIntroduced

Asia

BangladeshPresentNative
BhutanPresentIntroduced
CambodiaPresent
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-GuangdongPresentNative
-GuangxiPresentNative
-YunnanPresentNative
IndiaPresentIntroducedPlanted
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentNative
-Andhra PradeshPresentIntroduced
-AssamPresentIntroduced
-BiharPresentIntroduced
-DelhiPresentIntroduced
-GoaPresentIntroduced
-GujaratPresentIntroduced
-HaryanaPresentIntroduced
-Himachal PradeshPresentIntroduced
-KeralaPresentIntroduced
-Madhya PradeshPresentIntroduced
-MaharashtraPresentIntroduced
-ManipurPresentIntroduced
-MizoramPresentIntroduced
-NagalandPresentIntroduced
-PunjabPresentIntroduced
-RajasthanPresentIntroduced
-SikkimPresentIntroduced
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroduced
-TripuraPresentIntroduced
-Uttar PradeshPresentIntroduced
-West BengalPresentIntroducedInvasive
IndonesiaPresentNative
-JavaPresentNative
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresentNative
-Maluku IslandsPresentNative
-SulawesiPresentNative
-SumatraPresentNative
LaosPresentIntroduced
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentNative
-SabahPresentNative
-SarawakPresentNative
MyanmarPresentNative
PakistanPresentIntroduced
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedPlanted
Sri LankaPresentIntroduced
TaiwanPresentIntroduced
ThailandPresentIntroduced
VietnamPresentIntroduced

North America

BarbadosPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
BelizePresentIntroduced
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedCultivated
DominicaPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
Dominican RepublicPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
El SalvadorPresentIntroduced
GuatemalaPresentIntroduced
HaitiPresentIntroduced
HondurasPresentIntroduced
MexicoPresentIntroducedInvasive
MontserratPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced
Saint LuciaPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedSt Croix
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroduced
-HawaiiPresent

Oceania

Cook IslandsPresentIntroduced
FijiPresentIntroduced
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedSociety Islands
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroduced
SamoaPresentIntroduced
Solomon IslandsPresent

South America

BrazilPresentIntroduced
-BahiaPresentIntroduced
EcuadorPresentIntroduced
GuyanaPresentIntroduced
VenezuelaPresentIntroduced

History of Introduction and Spread

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C. javanica has been commercialized worldwide. It is widely cultivated as an ornamental in India and Africa, where it has become naturalized. In Mexico it was first recorded in the wild in 1976 (Sanchez-Blanco et al., 2012). In the West Indies, it was collected in 1906 in Barbados, 1909 in Trinidad and Tobago, 1923 in Puerto Rico, 1930 in St Thomas, 1959 in Cuba and the Dominican Republic and in 1967 in Bermuda (New York Botanical Garden Herbarium records). 

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of C. javanica is moderate. This species is widely cultivated mainly in tropical countries and has successfully escaped from cultivation. Plants produce large numbers of seeds which can remain viable even after more than 3 years in hermetic storage at room temperature (Niembro, 2002; PROTA, 2014). 

Habitat

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C. javanica has a wide ecological amplitude and can be found growing at lower elevations (up to 400 m) in open forest but it can also occur in closed evergreen primary forest, deciduous monsoon forest and in savanna-like habitats. It is often cultivated as an ornamental in gardens and along roadsides and is naturalized in secondary forest and disturbed sites close to locations where it has been planted (Toruan-Purba, 1999; Orwa et al., 2009). 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for C. javanica is 2n=28 (George and Bhavanandan, 1993). C. javanica is a very polymorphic species and several subspecies are distinguished (Toruan-Purba, 1999).

Reproductive Biology

In East Java, C. javanica flowers in October-December and fruits in the dry season. In Peninsular Malaysia it has been observed flowering and fruiting in a mast fruiting year (Orwa et al., 2009). In Florida, (USA) it has been recorded flowering from April to September (USDA-NRCS, 2014).

Physiology and Phenology

C. javanica is a perennial tree. Seeds average 5700-8400 dry seeds/kg. Seed storage is variable and storing dry seeds for over one year is also reported. Seeds start to germinate after 7 days and 80% of the seedlings appear within 14-30 days (Orwa et al., 2009).

Environmental Requirements

C. javanica thrives best in humid places with well-drained and deep soils. It grows best in areas up to 400 m elevation with mean annual temperature ranging from 19°C to 25°C and mean annual rainfall ranging from 650 to 2400 mm (Orwa et al., 2009). It is not resistant to fire, but tolerates drought and shade. The different subspecies of C. javanica show preferences for either dry or moist habitats on a wide variety of soil (Toruan-Purba, 1999; Orwa et al., 2009). Within its native distribution range, C. javanica has been reported growing on fertile volcanic loams, and on marshy, sandy and limestone soils (Orwa et al., 2009). 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
4 21 0 400

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 12
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 19 25
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 24 34
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 14 19

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration13number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall6502400mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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C. javanica spreads by seed. Each reproductive tree may produce numerous seeds. The germination rate varies from 50% to 80% under optimized conditions (Niembro, 2002; Orwa et al., 2009). 

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
DisturbanceNaturalized in disturbed places near cultivation Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Medicinal useUsed in traditional Malesian medicine Yes Yes Toruan-Purba, 1999
Ornamental purposesWidely used as an ornamental and roadside tree Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Timber tradeOften planted for its timber Yes Yes Toruan-Purba, 1999

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Environmental Impact

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C. javanica is considered an invasive woody plant in Mexico, the Dominican Republic and Nicaragua (Kairo et al., 2003; Villaseñor and Garcia-Espinosa, 2004; FAO, 2014). It has the potential to invade both disturbed and natural undisturbed areas in lowland tropical forests where it can displace and outcompete native vegetation. Because it is a shade tolerant species, it also has the potential to invaded mature undisturbed forests (Orwa et al., 2009). 

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Allelopathic
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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C. javanica is widely cultivated as a shade and ornamental tree along streets and in parks and gardens. It is also planted as shade trees in agroforestry systems and plantations (PROTA, 2014). The wood is used for general construction, furniture and cabinet making. It yields a lightweight to heavy hardwood with a density of 400-875 kg/m3 at 15% moisture content. The wood is hard and strong. It works well and finishes well. The bark is used for tanning leather, but the amount of tannin is comparatively low (Orwa et al., 2009). C. javanica is also used in traditional medicine. The ripe pods and seeds are used as a traditional laxative throughout the Malesian area. In Thailand, bark and seeds are also used as antipyretics (Toruan-Purba, 1999; Orwa et al., 2009).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Amenity

Materials

  • Dyestuffs
  • Tanstuffs
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Seed trade

Wood Products

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Charcoal

Roundwood

  • Building poles

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Carpentry/joinery (exterior/interior)
  • For light construction

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Anon., 1960. Silvicultural characters of Cassia spp. and plantation techniques. [Cassia spp. Caracteres sylvicoles et methodes de plantation.] Bois et Forets des Tropiques, No. 70, (43-8). 10 refs.

Balick MJ; Nee M; Atha DE, 2000. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 85:1-246.

Berendsohn WG; Gruber AK; Monterrosa JA, 2009. [English title not available]. (Nova Silva Cuscatlanica. Árboles nativos e introducidos de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae. Familias A a L.) Englera, 29(1):1-438.

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

FAO, 2014. Invasive and introduced tree species: Nicaragua. http://www.fao.org/forestry/27179/en/nic/

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

George SM; Bhavanandan KV, 1993. Cytological studies in some species of Cassia from south India. Journal of Cytology and Genetics, 28:1-5.

Gupta RK, 1993. Multipurpose trees for agroforestry and wasteland utilization. New Delhi, India: Oxford & IBH.

Guzman E de; Umali RM; Sotalbo ED, 1986. Guide to Philippine flora and fauna. Natural Resources Management Center, Ministry of Natural Resources and University of the Philippine. Manila, Philippines: JMC Press Inc.

Hocking D, ed. , 1993. Trees for drylands. New Delhi, India: Oxford and IBH.

ILDIS, 2014. International Legume Database and Information Service. Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, University of Reading. http://www.ildis.org/

Irwin HS; Barneby RC, 1982. The American Cassiinae: a synoptical revision of Leguminosae tribe Cassieae subtribe Cassiinae in the New World. 1982, v + 918 pp.; Memoirs of the New York Botanical Gardens 35, 2 parts.

Jørgensen PM; León-Yánez S, 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden. 75:1-1182.

Kairo M; Ali B; Cheesman O; Haysom K; Murphy S, 2003. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International, 132 pp. http://www.issg.org/database/species/reference_files/Kairo%20et%20al,%202003.pdf

Lewis GP, 1987. Legumes of Bahia. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens.

Luna RK, 1996. Plantation trees. Delhi, India: International Book Distributors.

Merrill ED, 1912. A Flora of Manila. Manila, Philippines: Bur. Printing.

Molina RA, 1975. Enumeration of the plants of Honduras. (Enumeración de las plantas de Honduras) Ceiba, 19(1):1-118.

Niembro A, 2002. Cassia javanica L. Fabaceae (Bean Family). In: Tropical tree seed manual [ed. by Vozzo, J. A.]. Washington DC, USA: USDA Forest Service. [Forest Service. Agriculture Handbook 721.]

ORSTOM, 1988. List of vascular plants of Gabon.

Orwa C; Mutua A; Kindt R; Jamnadass R; Simons A, 2009. Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. World Agroforestry Centre. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/af/treedb/

Pancho JV, 1983. Kalikasan. The Philippines Journal of Biology. Vascular Flora of Mt. Makiling and Vicinity. Part I. Quezon City: New Mercury Printing Press, 440-441.

PROTA, 2014. PROTA4U web database. Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

Sánchez-Blanco J; Sánchez-Blanco C; Sousa S M; Espinosa-García FJ, 2012. Assessing introduced leguminosae in Mexico to identify potentially high-impact invasive species. Acta Botanica Mexicana, No.100:41-77. http://www1.inecol.edu.mx/abm/resumenes/Acta100(41-78).pdf

Singh SP, 1989. Wasteland development. New Delhi, India: Agricole.

Sosef MSM; Hong LT; Prawirohatmodjo S; eds, 1998. Plant resources of southeast Asia. Timber trees: lesser-known timbers. Leiden, The Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers, 5(3).

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Streets RJ, 1962. Exotic forest trees in the British Commonwealth. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.

Talukdar D; Talukdar T, 2012. Alien invasive legumes and allelopathy: A case study at Gangetic West Bengal, India. International Journal of Current Research, 4:32-40.

Todaria NP; Negim AK, 1992. Pretreatment of some Indian Cassia seeds to improve their germination. Seed Science and Technology, 20(3):583-588; 10 ref.

Toruan-Purba AV, 1999. Cassia javanica L. In: Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 12(1): Medicinal and poisonous plants 1 [ed. by Padua, L. S. de \Bunyapraphatsara, N. \Lemmens, R. H. M. J.]. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher, 185.

Troup RS; Joshi HB, 1983. The Silviculture of Indian Trees. Vol IV. Leguminosae. Delhi, India; Controller of Publications.

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Villaseñor JL; Espinosa-Garcia FJ, 2004. The alien flowering plants of Mexico. Diversity and Distributions, 10(2):113-123.

von Carlowitz PG, 1991. Multipurpose Trees and Shrubs - Sources of Seeds and Inoculants. Nairobi, Kenya: ICRAF.

Zamora N, 2010. Fabaceae. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica, 119(5):395-775.

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Balick MJ, Nee M, Atha DE, 2000. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. In: Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 85 1-246.

Berendsohn WG, Gruber AK, Monterrosa JA, 2009. [English title not available]. (Nova Silva Cuscatlanica. Árboles nativos e introducidos de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae. Familias A a L). In: Englera, 29 (1) 1-438.

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean., Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

FAO, 2014. Invasive and introduced tree species: Nicaragua., http://www.fao.org/forestry/27179/en/nic/

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

ILDIS, 2014. International Legume Database and Information Service., Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, University of Reading. http://www.ildis.org/

Irwin H S, Barneby R C, 1982. The American Cassiinae: a synoptical revision of Leguminosae tribe Cassieae subtribe Cassiinae in the New World. Bronx, New York, USA: New York Botanical Garden. v + 918 pp.

Jørgensen P M, León-Yánez S, 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. 1182 pp.

Kairo M, Ali B, Cheesman O, Haysom K, Murphy S, 2003. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. In: Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International. 132 pp. http://www.issg.org/database/species/reference_files/Kairo%20et%20al,%202003.pdf

Lewis GP, 1987. Legumes of Bahia., Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens.

Molina R A, 1975. Enumeration of the plants of Honduras. (Enumeración de las plantas de Honduras). Ceiba. 19 (1), 1-118.

ORSTOM, 1988. List of vascular plants of Gabon.,

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
International Legume Database and Information Servicehttp://www.ildis.org/
Plant Resources for Tropical Africahttp://www.prota.org/

Contributors

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25/11/14 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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