Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Emilia fosbergii
(Florida tassel-flower)

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Datasheet

Emilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Emilia fosbergii
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Florida tassel-flower
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • E. fosbergii is a cosmopolitan annual herb included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). It is fast-growing, with the capacity t...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Emilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower, Cupid's-shaving-brush); inflorescences.
TitleInflorescences
CaptionEmilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower, Cupid's-shaving-brush); inflorescences.
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
Emilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower, Cupid's-shaving-brush); inflorescences.
InflorescencesEmilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower, Cupid's-shaving-brush); inflorescences.©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
Emilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower, Cupid's-shaving-brush); inflorescences.
TitleInflorescences
CaptionEmilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower, Cupid's-shaving-brush); inflorescences.
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
Emilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower, Cupid's-shaving-brush); inflorescences.
InflorescencesEmilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower, Cupid's-shaving-brush); inflorescences.©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
Emilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower, Cupid's-shaving-brush); close-up of inflorescence.
TitleInflorescence
CaptionEmilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower, Cupid's-shaving-brush); close-up of inflorescence.
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
Emilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower, Cupid's-shaving-brush); close-up of inflorescence.
InflorescenceEmilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower, Cupid's-shaving-brush); close-up of inflorescence.©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Emilia fosbergii Nicolson

Preferred Common Name

  • Florida tassel-flower

Other Scientific Names

  • Emilia javanica (Burm. f.) C.B. Rob.
  • Emilia sagittata DC.
  • Emilia sonchifolia var. rosea Bello

International Common Names

  • English: Cupid's-shaving-brush; Flora's paintbrush; purple emilia; red sow thistle
  • Spanish: clavelito; lamparita; pincel de amor; pincel de poeta; pincelillo
  • Chinese: ying rong hua

Local Common Names

  • Colombia: clavelillo
  • Dominican Republic: pincelito
  • Lesser Antilles: Cupid's paintbrush; rabbit meat; red tassel
  • Puerto Rico: clavelito colorado; clavlitos del cafetal
  • Venezuela: hierba socialista

Summary of Invasiveness

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E. fosbergii is a cosmopolitan annual herb included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). It is fast-growing, with the capacity to grow as a weed and colonize disturbed areas, waste ground, gardens, abandoned farmland, coastal forests, forest edges, pastures, roadsides, rocky areas, and riverbanks (Wagner et al., 1999; Vibrans, 2011; Pruski 2014). It produces large amounts of wind-dispersed seeds (>5000 seeds per plant; Mejía et al., 1994) which is a feature facilitating the likelihood of spreading and colonizing new habitats. Currently, E. fosbergii is listed as invasive in Mexico, Central America, West Indies, and on several islands in the Pacific Ocean (see Distribution Table for details).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Emilia
  •                                 Species: Emilia fosbergii

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Asteraceae is one of the most species-rich families of flowering plants. The family includes 1620 genera and about 23,600 species (Stevens, 2012). Species within the Asteraceae are very variable in their growth form and habitat, but may be recognized by their “capitulate” and involucrate inflorescences in which numerous small flowers open first on the outside and are infrequently subtended by bracts. The anthers in this family are usually fused and form a tube through which the style extends before the two stigmatic lobes separate and become recurved. The rather small, single-seeded fruits usually have a plumose “pappus” and are frequently dispersed by wind (Stevens, 2012).

The genus Emilia comprises approximately 100 species distributed mainly in tropical regions of the Old World (Pruski, 2014). E. fosbergii is a cosmopolitan species spread throughout the tropical and humid subtropical regions, with wide distribution in tropical and subtropical America (Pruski, 2014).

Description

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E. fosbergii is an annual, erect or ascending herb, branched, 20 to 50 cm (up to 100 cm) tall. Stems glabrous to sparsely pilose or sometimes prominently villous-pilose near the axils of the middle cauline leaves. Leaves alternate, broadly ovate to oblanceolate, often tapering to a prominently winged petiole and therefore appearing pandurate, the base sessile to auriculate, the margin weakly serrate to dentate or sometimes lobed, the teeth callose-tipped, overall 5-10 cm long, 2-5 cm wide, about 2 times longer than wide, the uppermost leaves reduced to linear serrate clasping bracts. Inflorescence of one to several headed, loose, corymbiform cymes arising terminally or laterally in the axils of the upper cauline leaves. Heads turbinate or sometimes weakly urceolate or becoming weakly campanulate in age, robust, 2-3 times longer than wide, the florets prominently exserted approximately 2 mm beyond the involucre; involucral bracts 8-13, linear, (7-) 9-12 mm long; receptacle flat to convex, the carpopodia forming prominent tubercles after achenes have been shed; florets 15-30, varying greatly in size with the robustness of the plant, the corollas pink to light purple or red but not orange. Achene reddish brown to light tan, columnar, approximately 5 mm long with a row of strigose-hirsute pubescence on each of the 5 prominent ribs; pappus of abundant, white, capillary hairs (Flora of Taiwan Editorial Committee, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014).

Plant Type

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Annual
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

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The origin of E. fosbergii is uncertain, but most authors agree that it is native to the Old World (USDA-ARS, 2014). It has been suggested that it may have originated in Asia and Africa, but it is now widely distributed in warm regions of the world, principally throughout the New World (Wagner et al., 1999; Gargiullo et al., 2008; Flann, 2009; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; Pruski, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

JapanPresentIntroducedBonin Islands
TaiwanPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalised

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedWidespread
BahamasPresentIntroduced
BarbadosPresentIntroducedWidespread
BelizePresentIntroduced
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedGuana
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedInvasive
DominicaPresentIntroducedWidespread
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedInvasive
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedInvasive
GrenadaPresentIntroducedWidespread
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedWidespread
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalised
HaitiPresentIntroduced
MartiniquePresentIntroducedWidespread
MexicoPresentIntroducedInvasiveWeed
MontserratPresentIntroducedWidespread
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroducedWidespread
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalised
PanamaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalised. Canal, Chiriqui, Boquete, Cocle, Cerro Azul
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedInvasive
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroducedWidespread
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalised, very common
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedWidespread
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced
-FloridaPresentIntroduced
-GeorgiaPresentIntroduced
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasive
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced
-TexasPresentIntroduced

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroduced
AustraliaPresentIntroduced
FijiPresentIntroduced
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
GuamPresentIntroduced
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroduced

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedInvasiveMisiones, Iguazu, M. Belgano
BoliviaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalised, lowlands
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AcrePresentIntroduced
-AlagoasPresentIntroduced
-AmapaPresentIntroduced
-AmazonasPresentIntroduced
-BahiaPresentIntroduced
-CearaPresentIntroduced
-Espirito SantoPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-GoiasPresentIntroduced
-MaranhaoPresentIntroduced
-Mato GrossoPresentIntroduced
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentIntroduced
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroduced
-ParaPresentIntroduced
-ParaibaPresentIntroduced
-ParanaPresentIntroduced
-PernambucoPresentIntroduced
-PiauiPresentIntroduced
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroduced
-Rio Grande do NortePresentIntroduced
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroduced
-RondoniaPresentIntroduced
-RoraimaPresentIntroduced
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroduced
-Sao PauloPresentIntroduced
-SergipePresentIntroduced
-TocantinsPresentIntroduced
ColombiaPresentIntroduced
EcuadorPresentIntroducedGuayas, Los Rios
French GuianaPresentIntroduced
GuyanaPresentIntroduced
ParaguayPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalised. Alto Parna, Amambay, Caaguazu, Canindeyu, Canindeyu, Central Cordillera, Guaira
PeruPresentIntroduced
SurinamePresentIntroduced
VenezuelaPresentIntroduced

History of Introduction and Spread

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E. fosbergii was probably introduced and established in the New World in the latter part of the nineteenth century, probably intially in the USA and the West Indies and subsequently from Mexico to northern South America (Smith 1991; Wagner et al., 1999; Borges 2014; Pruski 2014). It was apparently introduced into islands in the Pacific Ocean in the early part of the twentieth century (Smith, 1991).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of E. fosbergii is high. The species produces large numbers of small wind-dispersed seeds and has the potential to grow as a weed in ruderal areas, gardens, and pasture lands. Consequently, this species has the potential to spread much further than it has to date.

Habitat

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E. fosbergii is a common weed in open and disturbed areas, cultivated land, pastures, coastal forests, forest edges, along roadsides and riverbanks, and in rocky areas in moist and seasonally dry areas (Gargiullo et al., 2008; Vibrans, 2011; Graveson, 2012). In Hawaii, where this species is listed as invasive, it is common in low elevation, dry, urban and disturbed habitats (Wagner et al., 1999). It can also be cultivated as a garden ornamental (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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E. fosbergii has been listed as a weed in rice plantations in Colombia and coffee plantations in Costa Rica. It is also listed as a weed in cassava and sugarcane plantations in Central and South America (Echegoyen-Ramos et al., 1996, Murillo et al., 2006; Vibrans, 2011).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Coffea arabica (arabica coffee)RubiaceaeMain
    Manihot esculenta (cassava)EuphorbiaceaeMain
      Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain
        SaccharumPoaceaeMain

          Growth Stages

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          Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

          Biology and Ecology

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          Genetics

          E. fosbergii is a tetraploid species (Moraes and Guerra, 2010) with a chromosome number of 2n = 20 (Guerra and Nogueira, 1990). 

          Longevity, Phenology and Reproduction      

          E. fosbergii is a fast-growing annual herb (Flann, 2009; Pruski et al., 2014). It is wind-pollinated and under favourable environmental conditions (warm and humid) it produces flowers and seeds for many months (Vibrans, 2011). In Panama, it has been collected in flower from August to December (Correa et al., 2004).        

          Environmental Requirements

          E. fosbergii grows as a weed, so it prefers areas with full sunlight and moderate to high water availability. This species prefers sandy-loam soils but can be found growing on a range of soils in wet to seasonally dry regions (Gargiullo et al., 2008; Vibrans, 2011).

          Climate

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          ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
          Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
          Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
          As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
          Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
          BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
          Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
          Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

          Soil Tolerances

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          Soil reaction

          • neutral

          Soil texture

          • heavy
          • light
          • medium

          Natural enemies

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          Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
          Meloidogyne incognita Parasite Whole plant not specific
          Pratylenchus Parasite Whole plant not specific

          Notes on Natural Enemies

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          E. fosbergii is reported as a host of the nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus spp. The whitefly species Bemisia tabaci, Aleurocanthus woglumi, Aleurotrachelus sp., Aleurothrixus sp., Aleuroplatus sp., and Trialeurodes have also been reported for this species (Alan et al., 1995). In Jamaica, the lethal yellowing (16Sr IV) group of phytoplasmas was recently reported affecting E. fosbergii (Brown et al., 2008).

          Means of Movement and Dispersal

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          E. fosbergii spreads by seeds. Each plant has the potential to produce >5000 wind-dispersed seeds (Mejía et al., 1994). Seeds may be secondarily dispersed as a contaminant in crop seeds, pasture seeds, soils, and in agricultural machinery (Vibrans, 2011).

          Pathway Causes

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          CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
          Medicinal useMedicinal herb Yes Yes Gargiullo et al., 2008
          Ornamental purposes Yes Yes Flora of Taiwan Editorial Committee, 2014

          Pathway Vectors

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          VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
          Land vehiclesSeeds Yes Yes Vibrans, 2011
          Machinery and equipmentSeeds Yes Yes Vibrans, 2011
          Soil, sand and gravelSeeds Yes Yes Vibrans, 2011
          WindSeeds Yes Yes Vibrans, 2011

          Impact Summary

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          CategoryImpact
          Economic/livelihood Negative
          Environment (generally) Positive and negative

          Economic Impact

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          E. fosbergii is a weed with economic impacts mainly in agriculture, pasture and garden activities. This species is listed as a weed in crops including rice, cassava, coffee, and sugarcane (Echegoyen-Ramos et al., 1996, Murillo et al., 2006; Vibrans, 2011).

          Environmental Impact

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          E. fosbergii has the potential to negatively impact natural and seminatural habitats in coastal areas, forest edges and natural grasslands (Wagner et al., 1999; Kairo et al., 2003; Villaseñor and Espinosa-Garcia, 2004; Vibrans, 2011; Chacon and Saborio, 2012; PIER, 2014; Pruski, 2014).

          Threatened Species

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          Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
          Scaevola coriacea (dwarf naupaka)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010

          Risk and Impact Factors

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          Invasiveness
          • Proved invasive outside its native range
          • Highly adaptable to different environments
          • Pioneering in disturbed areas
          • Highly mobile locally
          • Fast growing
          Impact outcomes
          • Reduced native biodiversity
          • Threat to/ loss of native species
          Impact mechanisms
          • Competition - monopolizing resources
          • Competition (unspecified)
          • Pest and disease transmission
          • Rapid growth
          Likelihood of entry/control
          • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
          • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

          Uses

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          E. fosbergii is occasionally cultivated as a garden ornamental (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014). In Central America (Costa Rica and Nicaragua) it is used medicinally to treat high blood pressure (Gargiullo et al., 2008).

          Uses List

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          Medicinal, pharmaceutical

          • Traditional/folklore

          Ornamental

          • Propagation material
          • Seed trade

          Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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          E. fosbergii can be vegetatively similar to Emilia sonchifolia and Emilia coccinea, but these species can be distinguished based on leaves and corolla features as described in the following key (Pruski, 2014): 

          • E. sonchifolia: Proximal leaves lyrate-pinnatifid; involucres narrow-cylindrical, corollas included to only slightly exserted; corollas usually pink or lavender, lobes 0.5-0.8 mm; disk floret styles indistinctly appendiculate, appendages to 0.1 mm, no longer than broad, convex.
             
          • E. coccinea: Proximal leaves not lyrate-pinnatifid; involucres broad-cylindrical to hemispherical, corollas moderately to well-exserted; corollas lobes 1.1-2.2 mm; disk floret styles obviously appendiculate, appendages 0.2-0.3 mm, caudate. Leaf margins nearly subentire; involucres campanulate, about as long as broad, corollas well-exserted; corollas bright orange to red, lobes 1.6-2.2 mm.
             
          • E. fosbergii: Proximal leaves not lyrate-pinnatifid; involucres broad-cylindrical to hemispherical, corollas moderately to well-exserted. Leaf margins usually coarsely dentate; involucres broad-cylindrical, (1-) 2× as long as broad, corollas moderately exserted; corollas usually pale red or pinkish-red, lobes 1.1-1.6 mm.

          References

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          Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, D.C., USA: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, 1192 pp. [Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98.]

          Alan E, Barrantes U, Soto A, Aguero R, 1995. Elementos para el Manejo de Malezas en Agroecosistemas Tropicales ([English title not available])., Costa Rica: Editorial Tecnológica de Costa Rica, 223 pp.

          Balick MJ, Nee M, Atha DE, 2000. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 85:1-246.

          Borges RAX, 2014. Emilia. (Emilia.) Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB16104

          Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

          Brown SE, Been BO, McLaughlin WA, 2008. First report of the presence of the lethal yellowing group (16Sr IV) of phytoplasmas in the weeds Emilia fosbergii and Synedrella nodiflora in Jamaica. Plant Pathology, 57(4):770. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

          Chacón E, Saborío G, 2012. Red Interamericana de Información de Especies Invasoras, Costa Rica ([English title not available]). San José, Costa Rica: Asociación para la Conservación y el Estudio de la Biodiversidad. http://invasoras.acebio.org

          Correa A, Galdames MDC, Stapf MNS, 2004. Catalogue of vascular plants of Panama (Catalogo de Plantas Vasculares de Panama.), Panama: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 599 pp.

          Davidse G, Sousa-Peña M, Knapp S, Chiang Cabrera F, 2014. Asteraceae. 5(2). In: Flora Mesoamericana [ed. by Davidse, G. \Sousa Sánchez, M. \Knapp, S. \Chiang Cabrera, F.]., Mexico: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

          Echegoyen -Ramos PE, Valverde-Mena BE, Garita-Cruz I, 1996. [English title not available]. (Acción conjunta del paraquat y el 2,4-D en malezas asociadas al café en Costa Rica.) Manejo Integrado de Plagas, 4:8-15.

          Flann C, 2009. Global Compositae Checklist. http://compositae.landcareresearch.co.nz/Default.aspx

          Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

          Flora of Taiwan Editorial Committee, 2014. Taiwan Plant Names. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=101

          Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer J-Y, 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP) (Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

          Fosberg FR, Sachet MH, Oliver RL, 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica, 15:222.

          Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp.

          Gargiullo M, Magnuson B, Kimball L, 2008. A field guide to plants of Costa Rica. New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press, 542 pp.

          Graveson R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). http://www.saintlucianplants.com

          Guerra MS, Nogueira MTM, 1990. The cytotaxonomy of Emilia spp. (Asteraceae: Senecioneae) occurring in Brazil. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 170:229-236.

          Hokche O, Berry PE, Huber O, 2008. Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela (New catalogue of the vascular flora of Venezuela). Caracas, Venezuela: Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela, 860 pp.

          I3N-Argentina, 2013. Base de Datos sobre Especies Invasoras (Database of invasive species)., Argentina: Universidad Nacional del Sur. www.inbiar.org.ar

          Idárraga-Piedrahita A, Ortiz RDC, Callejas Posada R, Merello M, 2011. Flora of Antioquia. (Flora de Antioquia.) Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares, vol. 2. Listado de las Plantas Vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia:939 pp.

          Jørgensen PM, León-Yànez S, 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard, 75. i-viii, 1-1182.

          Kairo M, Ali B, Cheesman O, Haysom K, Murphy S, 2003. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International, 132 pp. http://www.issg.org/database/species/reference_files/Kairo%20et%20al,%202003.pdf

          Mejía R, Ferman RL, Galdámez EL, 1994. Caracterización Botánica de Especies Consideradas Malezas en los Cultivos Anuales y Perennes de la Estación Experimental ([English title not available]). San Salvador, El Salvador: Universidad de El Salvador.

          Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

          Moraes AP, Guerra M, 2010. Cytological differentiation between the two subgenomes of the tetraploid Emilia fosbergii Nicolson and its relationship with E. sonchifolia (L.) DC. (Asteraceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution, 287(3/4):113-118. http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=104878

          Murillo E, Viña A, Pérez CA, Ruiz VH, 2006. [English title not available]. (Actividad Alelopática de las Arvenses Asociadas al Cultivo de Arroz (Oryza sativa L.) en el Tolima-Colombia.) Información Tecnológica, 17:15-24.

          PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

          Pruski JF, 2014. Asteraceae. Flora Mesoamericana [ed. by Davidse, G. \Sousa Sánchez, M. \Knapp, S. \Chiang Cabrera, F.]., Mexico: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. http://www.tropicos.org/docs/meso/asteraceae.pdf

          Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

          Raulerson L, 2006. Checklist of Plants of the Mariana Islands. University of Guam Herbarium Contribution, 37. 1-69.

          Smith AC, 1991. Flora Vitiensis nova: A new flora of Fiji. Lawai, Kauai, Hawai`i. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Volume 5, 626 pp.

          Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

          Thompson IR, 2006. A taxonomic treatment of tribe Senecioneae (Asteraceae) in Australia. Muelleria, 24:51-110.

          US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. In: Scaevola coriacea (dwarf naupaka). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 19 pp.

          USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

          USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

          Vibrans H, 2011. [English title not available]. (Malezas de México. Listado alfabético por familia, géneroy especie.) . http://www.conabio.gob.mx/malezasdemexico/2inicio/paginas/listaplantas

          Villaseñor JL, Espinosa-Garcia FJ, 2004. The alien flowering plants of Mexico. Diversity and Distributions, 10(2):113-123.

          Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press/Bishop Museum Press. [Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication.]

          Whistler WA, 1988. Checklist of the weed flora of Western Polynesia. An annotated list of the weed species of Samoa, Tonga, Niue, and Wallis and Futuna, along with the earliest dates of collection and the local names. Technical Paper, South Pacific Commission, No. 194:69 pp.

          Whistler WA, Steele O, 1999. Botanical survey of the United States of America Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Islands. Botanical survey of the Kwajalein Atoll Islands. 111 pp.

          Zuloaga FO, Morrone O, Belgrano MJ, 2008. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay). Volumen 1: Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae y Monocotyledoneae (Catalogue of the vascular plants of the southern cone (Argentina, southern Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay). Volume 1: Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae and Monocotyledoneae) [ed. by Zuloaga FO, Morrone O, Belgrano MJ]. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 983 pp.

          Distribution References

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          Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database., Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.htm

          CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

          CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

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          Davidse G, Sousa-Peña M, Knapp S, Chiang Cabrera F, 2014. Asteraceae. In: Flora Mesoamericana, 5 (2) [ed. by Davidse G, Sousa Sánchez M, Knapp S, Chiang Cabrera F]. Mexico: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

          Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer J-Y, 2013. Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP))., http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

          Fosberg F R, Sachet M H, Oliver R, 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica. 1-295.

          Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander S N, 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. 55, 584 pp.

          Graveson R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). In: The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean), http://www.saintlucianplants.com

          Hokche O, Berry PE, Huber O, 2008. New catalogue of the vascular flora of Venezuela. (Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela)., Caracas, Venezuela: Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela. 860 pp.

          I3N-Argentina, 2013. Database of invasive species. (Base de Datos sobre Especies Invasoras)., Argentina: Universidad Nacional del Sur. http://www.inbiar.org.ar

          Idárraga-Piedrahita A, Ortiz RDC, Callejas Posada R, Merello M, 2011. Flora of Antioquia. (Flora de Antioquia). In: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares, 2 Listado de las Plantas Vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia. 939 pp.

          Kairo M, Ali B, Cheesman O, Haysom K, Murphy S, 2003. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. In: Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International. 132 pp. http://www.issg.org/database/species/reference_files/Kairo%20et%20al,%202003.pdf

          Moraes M A, Borges R A X, Martins E M, Fernandes R A, Messina T, Martinelli G, 2014. Categorizing threatened species: an analysis of the Red List of the flora of Brazil. Oryx. 48 (2), 258-265. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayFulltext?type=6&fid=9202560&jid=ORX&volumeId=48&issueId=02&aid=9202559&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S003060531200018X DOI:10.1017/S003060531200018X

          PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

          Raulerson L, 2006. Checklist of Plants of the Mariana Islands. In: University of Guam Herbarium Contribution, 37 1-69.

          Silva M do C L da, Santos C D G, 2017. Distribution of Meloidogyne enterolobii in guava orchards in the state of Ceará, Brazil. Revista Caatinga. 30 (2), 335-342. https://periodicos.ufersa.edu.br/revistas/index.php/caatinga/article/view/4754/pdf

          Thompson IR, 2006. A taxonomic treatment of tribe Senecioneae (Asteraceae) in Australia. In: Muelleria, 24 51-110.

          USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

          USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

          Villaseñor J L, Espinosa-Garcia F J, 2004. The alien flowering plants of Mexico. Diversity and Distributions. 10 (2), 113-123. DOI:10.1111/j.1366-9516.2004.00059.x

          Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press/Bishop Museum Press. [Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication].

          Whistler W A, 1988. Checklist of the weed flora of Western Polynesia. An annotated list of the weed species of Samoa, Tonga, Niue, and Wallis and Futuna, along with the earliest dates of collection and the local names. In: Technical Paper, South Pacific Commission, 69 pp.

          Whistler WA, Steele O, 1999. Botanical survey of the United States of America Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Islands. In: Botanical survey of the Kwajalein Atoll Islands, 111 pp.

          Zuloaga F O, Morrone O, Belgrano M J, 2008. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay). Volumen 1: Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae y Monocotyledoneae. [ed. by Zuloaga F O, Morrone O, Belgrano M J]. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. xcvi + 983 pp.

          Links to Websites

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          Contributors

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          06/03/14 Original text by:

          Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

          Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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