Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Cananga odorata
(ylang-ylang)

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Datasheet

Cananga odorata (ylang-ylang)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 09 July 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cananga odorata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • ylang-ylang
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Cananga odorata is a fast growing tree, native to Southeast Asia. It was introduced by humans to the Americas, China, India and Africa for a variety of commercial purposes, including as an ornamental, a source of timber and for its fragra...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Vettikuzhi, Kerala, India.
TitleTree habit
CaptionVettikuzhi, Kerala, India.
CopyrightK.C. Chacko/KFRI
Vettikuzhi, Kerala, India.
Tree habitVettikuzhi, Kerala, India.K.C. Chacko/KFRI
Ylang-ylang, tree, Madagascar.
TitleTree
CaptionYlang-ylang, tree, Madagascar.
CopyrightRuth Ibbotson
Ylang-ylang, tree, Madagascar.
TreeYlang-ylang, tree, Madagascar.Ruth Ibbotson
Close-up of bark.
TitleBark
CaptionClose-up of bark.
CopyrightK.C. Chacko/KFRI
Close-up of bark.
BarkClose-up of bark.K.C. Chacko/KFRI
Ylang-ylang, flower, Madagascar.
TitleFlower
CaptionYlang-ylang, flower, Madagascar.
CopyrightRuth Ibbotson
Ylang-ylang, flower, Madagascar.
FlowerYlang-ylang, flower, Madagascar.Ruth Ibbotson
C. odorata leaves.
TitleLeaves
CaptionC. odorata leaves.
CopyrightK.C. Chacko/KFRI
C. odorata leaves.
LeavesC. odorata leaves.K.C. Chacko/KFRI
C. odorata flowers.
TitleFlowers
CaptionC. odorata flowers.
CopyrightK.C. Chacko/KFRI
C. odorata flowers.
FlowersC. odorata flowers.K.C. Chacko/KFRI
C. odorata fruits.
TitleFruits
CaptionC. odorata fruits.
CopyrightK.C. Chacko/KFRI
C. odorata fruits.
FruitsC. odorata fruits.K.C. Chacko/KFRI

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook. f. & Thomson

Preferred Common Name

  • ylang-ylang

Other Scientific Names

  • Canangium odoratum (Lam.) Baill. ex King
  • Canangium scortechinii King
  • Uvaria odorata Lam.

International Common Names

  • English: cadmia; macassar oiltree; perfume tree; wooly-pine; ylang-ylang tree
  • Spanish: cadmia; cananga
  • French: canang odorant; ilang-ilang
  • Chinese: xiao yi lan; yi lan; yuan bian zhong

Local Common Names

  • : motoi
  • Cambodia: chhke sreng
  • Caroline Islands: lengileng
  • China: yi lan
  • Cook Islands: mata'oi; mato'oi; moto'oi
  • Fiji: makasoi; makasui; makosoi; makosui; makusui
  • French Polynesia: muto'i; mutui
  • Germany: ylang-ylangbaum; Ylang-ylang-Baum
  • Honduras: Ilán-ilán
  • India: apurvachampaka; chettu sampangi; karumugai
  • Indonesia: kenanga ; kernanga; sepalen
  • Indonesia/Java: kananga; kananga wangoa
  • Indonesia/Moluccas: lomulihano
  • Indonesia/Nusa Tenggara: bunga kaeik; kananga; sandat; sandat kananga; sandat wangsa; tenaga
  • Indonesia/Sulawesi: amok; kananga; lalingiran; raringidan; wonggulita
  • Indonesia/Sumatra: kenanga
  • Japan: iraniran
  • Malaysia: chenanga ; kenanga ; kenanga utan; ylang-ylang
  • Marshall Islands: ilanlan
  • Micronesia: pwalang; pwanang; pwuur
  • Micronesia/Pohnpei: pur-n-wai; pwurenwai; sair-n-wai; seiren wai; seirin wai
  • Myanmar: kadapgnam; kadatngan; kadat-ngan; kadatnyan; sagasein; saga-sein
  • Nauru: derangerang; derangirang
  • Nicaragua: flor de Ilán
  • Niue: motoi; motooi
  • Palau: chirang; chirang; chirang; irang; irang
  • Philippines: alangilang
  • Portugal: cananga
  • Puerto Rico: alang ilang; alingilang; Ilanilan
  • Samoa: moso‘oi
  • Solomon Islands: sa‘o sa‘o
  • Thailand: kradangnga-songkhla ; kradangnga-thai; kradangnga-thai; sabannga-ton
  • Tonga: mohokoi
  • USA/Hawaii: lanalana
  • Vietnam: ho[af]ng lan; ng[oj]c lan t[aa]y
  • Wallis and Futuna Islands: mosokoi

EPPO code

  • CANOD (Cananga odorata)

Trade name

  • ilang-ilang
  • kenanga wood
  • perfume tree
  • sananga oil
  • ylang-ylang

Summary of Invasiveness

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Cananga odorata is a fast growing tree, native to Southeast Asia. It was introduced by humans to the Americas, China, India and Africa for a variety of commercial purposes, including as an ornamental, a source of timber and for its fragrant perfume oils. Its use as a perfume oil have deemed it an important agroforestry species.

Although not currently considered to be a high-risk invasive species, it is listed as invasive to many parts of the Pacific and is considered weedy in Central Africa and Pohnpei, and ‘persistent’ in Puerto Rico. It is also listed as a cultivation escape in Saint Lucia and Costa Rica. As it is pioneering in disturbed areas, a fast grower and can reach heights of up to 30 m tall, the species does possess invasive characteristics that could pose a negative environmental impact.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Annonales
  •                         Family: Annonaceae
  •                             Genus: Cananga
  •                                 Species: Cananga odorata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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A genus consisting of two tree species native to the Old World tropics (Wagner and Lorence, 2014), Cananga is a member of the Annonaceae, or custard-apple, family. The genus name derives from the word ‘kananga’, the Malayan vernacular name for one of the species that produces fragrant essential oil in its flowers (Stearn, 1992). This oil-producing species is Cananga odorata is a cash crop that is both locally and commercially cultivated (FAO EcoCrop, 2014). Two groups of C. odorata are distinguished in commercial cultivation, cv group cananga, which yields cananga oil, and cv group ylang-ylang, which yields ylang-ylang oil (Yusuf and Sinohin, 1999). 

Description

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The following description is from Wagner and Lorence (2014) :

Tree reaching 15-20 m tall, trunk to 40 cm dbh, bark smooth, gray, branches spreading horizontally, new growth minutely puberulent, glabrate, branchlets brown, lenticellate. Leaves distichous, blade narrowly ovate to oblong-elliptic, (5-)10-22 cm long, 2.5-9 cm wide, chartaceous, dark green when fresh, oblong to lanceolate or elliptic, with 5-10 pairs of lateral veins, glabrous or glabrate above, hirtellous-strigulose especially along costa and veins beneath, apex acute to short acuminate, base rounded or obtuse. Flowers axillary or ramigerous on spur shoots, solitary or usually in loose, sometimes branched cymes of 4-20 flowers, fragrant when fresh, axes hirtellous, pedicels 30-40 mm long; sepals 3, 5-6 mm long, 4-5 mm wide, ovate, apex acute, both surfaces densely and finely puberulent; petals 6, 5-8 cm long, 0.3-0.8 cm wide, yellowish green, linear-oblong, somewhat narrowed at base, apex acute, long tapering, both surfaces finely hirtellous-strigulose; stamens numerous, 2 mm long, clavate with conical apiculate apex; gynoecium apocarpus with numerous, hirtellous carpels borne on flat receptacle surface. Carpels few to many per receptacle, on stipes 15-20 mm long, each fruit 1.5-2 cm long, 1.3-1.4 cm in diam., broadly ellipsoid to broadly obovoid, purple-black and juicy when ripe. Seeds 6-12, small, ovoid-discoid, pale brown.

Plant Type

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Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

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Cananga odorata is native to the Philippines, southern Asia, Malesia and Australia, and is cultivated in the Neotropics. It is known to be a persistent species in Puerto Rico (Liogier and Martorell, 2000; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012). Wagner et al. (2014) list the species as naturalized on several Micronesia islands and report its common name across Asia Pacific nations. PIER (2014) reports the species to be invasive to several non-native Pacific Islands. 

The species has not been recorded in Brazil, Hawaii, the Guiana Shield, eastern Caribbean or Europe (Broome et al., 2007; Funk et al., 2007; Forzza et al., 2010; Euro+Med, 2014; Wagner et al., 2014).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jul 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Planted Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentIntroduced
CameroonPresentPlanted
ComorosPresentIntroduced
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroducedPlanted
KenyaPresentIntroducedNaturalized
MadagascarPresentIntroduced
RéunionPresentIntroduced1770Introduced from Philippines
SenegalPresentIntroduced
SeychellesPresentIntroduced
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced

Asia

CambodiaPresentNative
ChinaPresentIntroducedCultivated
-FujianPresentIntroducedCultivated
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedCultivated
-GuangxiPresentIntroducedCultivated
-HainanPresentIntroducedCultivated
-SichuanPresentIntroducedCultivated
-YunnanPresentIntroducedCultivated
Hong KongPresentIntroducedCultivated
IndiaPresentNative
-Andhra PradeshPresentPlanted
IndonesiaPresentNative
-Irian JayaPresent
-JavaPresent
-Maluku IslandsPresent
-SulawesiPresent
-SumatraPresent
JapanPresentIntroducedNaturalized
LaosPresentNative
MalaysiaPresentNative
-SabahPresent
-SarawakPresent
MyanmarPresentNative
PhilippinesPresentNative
SingaporePresentIntroduced
Sri LankaPresentPlanted
TaiwanPresentIntroducedCultivated
ThailandPresentNative
VietnamPresentNative

North America

BelizePresentIntroducedNaturalized
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivation escape
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated
HaitiPresentIntroduced
HondurasPresentIntroducedCultivated
JamaicaPresentPlanted
MexicoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalized. Yucatan, Chiapas
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated
PanamaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated. Found in Bocas del Toro, Canal Area, Coclé, Panamá
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedCommonly planted and persistent
Saint LuciaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveEscape from cultivation. Common on Piton Springs - Pacience road. Potential threat in lower montane rainforest and riparian systems
United StatesPresentPresent, based on regional distribution
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedCultivated

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedInvasive
AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Northern TerritoryPresent
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentNative and IntroducedInvasivePossibly native to some islands but considered an introduced species to most of Micronesia. Cultivated on many islands. Invasive on Pohnpei
-ChuukPresentIntroduced
-KosraePresentIntroduced
-PohnpeiPresentIntroduced
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasive
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWidely cultivated abd now naturalized in the Marquesas. Naturalized on Nuku Hiva, Ua Huka, Ua Pou,, Hiva Oa, Tahuata, Fatu Hiva.
GuamPresentIntroducedInvasive
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedRatak Chain (Mejit)
NauruPresentIntroduced
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveRecent introduction
NiuePresentIntroduced
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedRota, Saipan
PalauPresentIntroducedCultivated. Caroline Islands
Papua New GuineaPresentNative
SamoaPresentIntroduced
Solomon IslandsPresentNative
TongaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Wallis and FutunaPresentIntroducedInvasive

South America

BrazilPresentIntroduced
ColombiaPresentIntroduced
EcuadorPresentIntroducedLos Rios

History of Introduction and Spread

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The species is native to the Philippines and possibly other parts of Melanesia. It is speculated to have been introduced to most of the Pacific Islands either by migration of Polynesians in ancient times, or more recently by Europeans during the age of exploration, as is thought to be the case for Micronesia, Nauru and the Mariana Islands (Manner and Elevitch, 2006). Commercial cultivation of the species for its essential oils reportedly began in the Philippines and later in Indonesia. In 1770, the species was reportedly introduced from the Philippines to Reunion for cultivation, but commercial plantations were essentially decimated during World War I. The species was also brought to the Comoro Islands in the early 1900s and to Madagascar for the same purpose. Today the main producers of Cananga odorata are Guangdong province in China, Indonesia, the Comoro Islands, Java, Fiji and Madagascar (Yusuf and Sinohin, 1999). The species was introduced at some point in the past from the Philippines to Guam, where it is now naturalized (Stone, 1970).

Date of introduction to the West Indies is unknown but may have occurred relatively recently. The species was not listed in Macfadyen’s work on Jamaica in 1837, Bello’s work on Puerto Rico (1881; 1883), or Britton’s 1918 flora of Bermuda, but was present in Puerto Rico by 1924 as it was listed (as synonym Canangium odoratum in volume 5 of Britton and Wilson’s work on Puerto Rico (1923-1926), which reported the species as ‘commonly planted in Porto Rico and occasionally in the Virgin Islands’. Today the species has become persistent in Puerto Rico and is also cultivated (Liogier and Martorell, 2000).

Risk of Introduction

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Risk of introduction for this species is currently low, but this may rise in time considering its invasive characteristics which include viable seed production, ability to be propagated by vegetative cuttings (although there does not seem to be evidence of this in the wild), its tolerance of a wide range of soil types and pH, fast growth, and ability to pioneer and outcompete other species for sunlight (Manner and Elevitch, 2006; PIER, 2014).

According to PIER (2014), the species is thought to be an aboriginal introduction throughout much of Polynesia. PIER (2014) suggest it can be invasive here, and that it is invasive on several non-native Pacific islands. They recommend introductions to new locations should be avoided.

Habitat

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Cananga odorata thrives in moist forest habitats like those of its native tropical Southeast Asia. In the Philippines, the species can be found growing in cultivation and naturally in some forested areas up to an elevation of 800 m (Merrill, 1923; Pelser et al., 2014). The species is cultivated in Fiji and is reportedly naturalized in gullies, on slopes, in forest and on its edges (Smith, 1981; PIER, 2014). In Colombia the species occurs in very humid pre-montane and montane forests and has also been reported to grow in the coastal region of Ecuador (Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014; Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014). It is also known to be pioneering species (Manner and Elevitch, 2006), and specimens have been collected in common places like gardens, house yards and college campuses in Honduras and on roadsides in Costa Rica (Flora Mesoamericana, 2014). 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Sporophytic count for this species is 16 (IPCN Chromosome Reports, 2014).

Longevity

Cananga odorata is a vigorous, pioneering and fast growing tree. As it is capable of growing more than 2 m per year in its early years, it can quickly outcompete surrounding species for light (Manner and Elevitch, 2006).

Activity Patterns

The species can fruit and flower continuously throughout the year once mature. Cultivated trees can reportedly begin flowering once they reach 9-12 m in height, although in places with seasonal rainfall, flowering and fruiting appears associated with the rainy season (Manner and Elevitch, 2006).

Associations

It often grows as part of a mixed or teak forest (Manner and Elevitch, 2006). 

Environmental Requirements

Cananga odorata prefers humid lowland tropics, in tropical moist to semi-dry evergreen and teak forest. Deep, well-drained soils are required for the plant’s long taproot but the species can tolerate a wide range of soils including rich volcanic, fertile sands, clay loams and clays, with a pH from 4.5-8 (Yusuf and Sinohin, 1999; Manner and Elevitch, 2006). It can tolerate shallow and infertile soils as well as short-term waterlogging but cannot tolerate permanent marshy or wetland conditions, or saline or alkaline soil (Yusuf and Sinohin, 1999; USDA-NRCS, 2014). The wood of the species is brittle and cannot handle strong winds but may recover quickly from less severe damage (Manner and Elevitch, 2006).

The species has a general elevation range of 0-800 m but up to 1200 m near the equator (Manner and Elevitch, 2006). In Fiji, the species grows at elevations up to 800 m and in Ecuador between 0-500 m. While in Colombia, it is reported to grow at slightly higher elevations of 500-1000 m, and in Panama and Nicaragua it occurs between 0-1000 m (Smith, 1981; Flora de Nicaragua, 2014; Panama Checklist, 2014; PIER, 2014; Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014; Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014).

The rainfall and temperature data in the Environmental Requirements section is derived from Manner and Elevitch (2006).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tolerated Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
15 -5 0 1800

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 5
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 18 28
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 28 35
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 10 18

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration2number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall7005000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • shallow

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bactrocera neohumeralis
Bactrocera tryoni
Bephratelloides cubensis
Ceratitis capitata
Ceratitis rosa
Pinnaspis strachani
Psilogramma increta

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal 

The species can reproduce by seed and can also propagate by cuttings. 

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Cananga odorata is dispersed by birds, squirrels, bats and monkeys that eat its oily fruit (Yusuf and Sinohin, 1999; Flora de Nicaragua, 2014).

Accidental Introduction

The species is known to have accidentally escaped from cultivation and is now naturalized in many places where it is cultivated (Manner and Elevitch, 2006; Flora de Nicaragua, 2014; Flora Mesoamericana, 2014; PIER, 2014).

Intentional Introduction

It has been and continues to be intentionally and repeatedly introduced by humans as it is commercially grown for its flowers which produce fragrant essential oil (Manner and Elevitch, 2006; Flora de Nicaragua, 2014; Flora Mesoamericana, 2014; PIER, 2014). 

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionSpecies was introduced from Philippines to other Pacific Islands for crop production as early as 1770 Yes Yes Yusuf and Sinohin, 1999
Digestion and excretionSpecies is dispersed by bats, monkeys, birds and squirrels that eat fruit Yes Flora de Nicaragua, 2014
Escape from confinement or garden escapeSpecies is known to escape from cultivated areas Yes PIER, 2014
Medicinal useTraded locally for use in medicine; species grown commercially for essential oils which are used in perfume and traditional medicine Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Ornamental purposesSpecies grown in gardens and public areas as ornamentals Yes Yes Manner and Elevitch, 2006

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSpecies is known to escape from cultivated areas; species can reproduce by both seeds and cuttings Yes PIER, 2014
Machinery and equipmentSpecies is grown locally and commercially as cash crop and ornamental; species known to escape from cultivated areas; species can reproduce by both seeds and cuttings Yes Yes PIER, 2014

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

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Although not currently considered to be a high risk invasive species, Cananga odorata is listed as invasive to many parts of the Pacific (PIER, 2014). It is considered weedy in Central Africa and Pohnpei (Randall, 2012), and ‘persistent’ in Puerto Rico (Liogier and Martorell, 2000). As it is pioneering in disturbed areas, a fast grower and can reach heights of up to 30 m tall, the species does possess invasive characteristics that could pose a negative environmental impact.

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Fast growing
  • Gregarious
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - shading
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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The species is commonly cultivated in tropical regions for its use as an ornamental roadside or garden tree, in food flavouring, as a timber source and for the essential oils which are extracted from its fully opened flowers (USDA-ARS, 2014). It is for the essential oils that the species is considered a good agroforestry species and was introduced to non-native places including Guam, Comoros Island, Reunion Island and Fiji (Manner and Elevitch, 2006; FAO EcoCrop, 2014). The flowers provide two essential oils, ylang-ylang oil, used in expensive perfumery and cananga oil, used in cheaper perfumes and for scenting soaps (FAO EcoCrop, 2014). Statistics from the late 1980s reported the world production of Cananga odorata oil to be an estimated $7 billion for ylang-ylang oil and $1.35 billion for cananga oil (Yusuf and Sinohin, 1999). 

Locally, the flowers of Cananga odorata are often used in traditional ceremonies, to adorn and scent hair, and as decorations in celebrations and festivals (Yusuf and Sinohin, 1999). The bark can be used to make coarse rope in Sulawesi but its wood is non-durable and mainly used to make boxes (Yusuf and Sinohin, 1999).

The species is also known to be sold and used for folk medicine. Medicinal uses include treatment of boils, as a carminative, for treatment of cephalgia, diarrhoea, gout, malaria, eye problems, rheumatism and as an emmenagogue (Duke, 2014).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Agroforestry

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

Human food and beverage

  • Food additive
  • Spices and culinary herbs

Materials

  • Bark products
  • Essential oils

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Christmas tree
  • Cut flower
  • garden plant
  • Potted plant
  • Propagation material
  • Seed trade

Wood Products

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Boats

Plastics from wood

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • For light construction

Woodware

  • Matches

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

As this species has not been deemed high risk, little is known on the effective methods of chemical or biological control in the event of an invasion. However, introductions of Cananga odorata to new locations in the Pacific have been discouraged (PIER, 2014).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Considering the species is known to be invasive, persistent, or weedy in a number of non-native places, recommended areas for further research include a review of its invasiveness and potential negative impact on the environment, particularly in countries where it has already been identified as naturalized and weedy. Further research could also look into methods of detection, diagnosis and control of the species.

References

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Abdurrohim S, Martawijaya A, 1987. Dip diffusion treatment of ten wood species from Irian Jaya. Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan, 4(3):65-70; 10 ref

Acevedo-Rodriguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Anon, 1986. Medicinal herb index in Indonesia. PT Eisai Indonesia. 428 pp

Auzay Hamid, Djisbar A, 1989. Current work on essential oils and spices in Indonesia. Industrial Crops Research Journal, 2(1):16-21; 6 ref

Bello Espinosa D, 1881. Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico first part. Anal. Soc. Española de Hist. Nat, 10, 223-304. https://ia700701.us.archive.org/11/items/mobot31753002360201/mobot31753002360201.pdf

Bello Espinosa D, 1883. Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico, second part. Anal. Soc. Española de Hist. Nat, 12, 103-130.

Brandis D, 1906. Indian Trees. London, UK: Archibald Constable & Co Ltd

Britton, N. L., Wilson, P., 1924. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin islands, Volume V, Botany of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, Pandanales to Thymeleales. In: Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin islands, Volume V, Botany of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, Pandanales to Thymeleales . New York, USA: New York Academy of Sciences.277.

Broome, R., Sabir, K., Carrington, S., 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. In: Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database , Barbados: University of the West Indies.http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Chalchat JC, Garry RP, Menut C, Lamaty G, Malhuret R, Chopineau J, 1997. Correlation between chemical composition and antimicrobial activity. VI. Activity of some African essential oils. Journal of Essential Oil Research 9(1): 67-75

Chong, K. Y., Tan, H. T. W., Corlett, R. T., 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species, Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore.273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Clarke WC, Thaman, RR, eds, 1993. Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands: systems for sustainability. Tokyo, Japan; United Nations University Press: x + 297 pp

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Denq YJ, Hsu ST, Tzeng KC, 1996. Reaction of some annonaceous plants to the bacterial wilt pathogen, Pseudomonas solanacearum. Plant Pathology Bulletin 5(3): 129-136

Deroin T, 1988. Floral biology of an Annonaceae introduced into the Ivory Coast: Cananga odorata. Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia, 10(4):377-393

Duke J, 2014. Dr. Dukes Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases online resource. Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory .https://phytochem.nal.usda.gov/phytochem/search/list

Elevitch CR, 2006. [ed. by Elevitch CR]. Honualoa, Hawaii, USA: Permanent Agriculture Resources.800 pp.

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FAO EcoCrop, 2014. Eco-Crop Online Database. Rome, Italy: Land and Water Development Division, Food and Agricultural Organization of the UN (FAO).http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/

Flora de Nicaragua, 2014. (Flora de Nicaragua). In: Tropicos website St. Louis, MO, Missouri Botanical Garden.http://tropicos.org/Name/34500581?projectid=7

Flora Mesoamericana, 2014. Flora Mesoamericana. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FM

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Forzza RC, Leitman PM, Costa AF, Carvalho Jr AA, Peixoto AL, Walter BMT, Bicudo C, Zappi D, Costa DP, Lleras E, Martinelli G, Lima HC, Prado J, Stehmann JR, Baumgratz JFA, Pirani JR, Sylvestre L, Maia LC, Lohmann LG, Queiroz LP, Silveira M, Coelho MN, Mamede MC, Bastos MNC, Morim MP, Barbosa MR, Menezes M, Hopkins M, Secco R, Cavalcanti TB, Souza VC, 2010. Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil. Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/

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Laxamana NB, 1982. Charcoal production with by-product recovery. Forpride Digest, 11(1-2):47-52; 8 ref

Liao YQ, 1984. A preliminary report on the introduction of Cananga odorata. Forest Science and Technology Linye Keji Tongxun, No. 3, 5-6

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Manner, HI, Elevitch, CR, 2006. Cananga odorata (ylang-ylang), ver 2.1. In: Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry [ed. by Elevitch, CR]. Holualoa, Hawaii, USA: Permanent Agriculture Resources (PAR).http://www.agroforestry.net/images/pdfs/Cananga-ylang-ylang.pdf

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Nadel H, Pena J, 1991. Hosts of Bephratelloides cubensis (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) in Florida. Florida Entomologist, 74(3):476-479

Negi SS, 1992. Minor Forest Products. Delhi, India; PEBA (Periodical Experts Book Agency)

Panama Checklist, 2014. Flora of Panama Checklist, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://tropicos.org/Project/PAC

Pelser, PB, Barcelona, JF, Nickrent, DL, 2014. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PROTA, 2014. PROTA4U web database. Wageningen, Netherlands and Nairobi, Kenya Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.https://www.prota4u.org/database/

Randall, R. P., 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. In: A Global Compendium of Weeds , (Edn 2) . Perth, Western Australia, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia.1119 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Sabangan FV, Alipon MA, Floresca AR, 1986. The mechanical and related properties of ilang-ilang (Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook f. & Thoms.) from Makiling, Laguna. Philippine Lumberman, 32(6):30-32; BL; 9 ref

Shieh JC, 1986. The variation of yield and components of essential oil in ylang ylang [Cananga odorata] from different provenances grown in Taiwan. Bulletin of the Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, No. 470, 8 pp.; 6 ref

Smith, A. C., 1981. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji (spermatophytes only). Volume 2. In: Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji (spermatophytes only). Volume 2 . Kauai, Hawaii, USA: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden.818 pp.

Stashenko EE, Quiroz Prada N, Martínez JR, 1996. HRGC/FID/NPD and HRGC/MSD study of Colombian ylang-ylang (Cananga odorata) oils obtained by different extraction techniques. HRC, Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 19(6): 353-358

Stearn, W. T., 1992. How many species of Allium are known?. Kew Magazine, 9(4), 180-182.

Stone, B. C., 1970. The flora of Guam. A manual for the identification of the vascular plants of the island, Guam: University of Guam.vi + 659 pp.

USDA-ARS, 2014. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

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Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of the Department of Antioquia (Colombia), Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://tropicos.org/Project/CV

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Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Tornabene MW, Weitzman A, Lorence DH, 2014. Flora of Micronesia website. Washington DC, Smithsonian Institution.http://botany.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/micronesia/index.htm

Wagner, WL, Lorence, DH, 2014. Flora of the Marquesas Islands website. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/index.htm

Wigono B, Rosid M, 1989. Comparative study of the properties of cananga oil from Blitar, Boyalali and Cirebon. [Studi perbandingan sifat-sifat minyak kenanga dari Blitar, Boyolali dan Cirebon.] Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan, 6(5):288-291; 9 ref

Witt, A., Luke, Q., 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa, [ed. by Witt, A., Luke, Q.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI.vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 doi:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

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Yao CE, 1993. Species trial of some indigenous species in Siquijor. Canopy International, publications. 1995, 19(6):7-10

Yusuf, UK, Sinohin, VO, 1999. Cananga odorata (Lamk) Hook.f. & Thomson. In: Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) No. 19: Essential-oil plants, [ed. by Oyen, LPA, Nguyen, XD]. Leiden, The Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher. 70-74. http://proseanet.org/prosea/e-prosea_detail.php?frt=&id=654

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

CABI, 2020. CABI Distribution Database: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, 2020a. CABI Distribution Database: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chong K Y, Tan H T W, Corlett R T, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Deroin T, 1988. Floral biology of an Annonaceae introduced into the Ivory Coast: Cananga odorata. (Biologie florale d'une Annonacée introduite en Côte d'Ivoire: Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook f. & Thoms.). Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia. 10 (4), 377-393.

Flora de Nicaragua, 2014. (Flora de Nicaragua). In: Tropicos website, St. Louis, MO, Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Name/34500581?projectid=7

Flora Mesoamericana, 2014. Flora Mesoamericana., St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FM

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Graveson R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). In: The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean), http://www.saintlucianplants.com

Hanelt P, Buttner R, Mansfeld R, 2001. Mansfeld's Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops (except Ornamentals). Berlin, Germany: Springer. 539 pp.

Kress W J, Defilipps R A, Farr E, Kyi D Y Y, 2003. A checklist of the trees, shrubs, herbs, and climbers of Myanmar. 590 pp.

Liogier H A, Martorell L F, 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis. San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico. 382 pp.

Manner HI, Elevitch CR, 2006. Cananga odorata (ylang-ylang), ver 2.1. In: Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry, [ed. by Elevitch CR]. Holualoa, Hawaii, USA: Permanent Agriculture Resources (PAR). http://www.agroforestry.net/images/pdfs/Cananga-ylang-ylang.pdf

Panama Checklist, 2014. Flora of Panama Checklist, Tropicos website., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/PAC

Pelser PB, Barcelona JF, Nickrent DL, 2014. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines., http://www.philippineplants.org

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Randall R P, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. In: A Global Compendium of Weeds, Perth, Western Australia, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia. 1119 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Tan LohTengHern, Lee LearnHan, Yin WaiFong, Chan ChimKei, Habsah Abdul Kadir, Chan KokGan, Goh BeyHing, 2015. Traditional uses, phytochemistry, and bioactivities of Cananga odorata (Ylang-Ylang). Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Article ID 896314. http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/896314/

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of the Department of Antioquia (Colombia), Tropicos website., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/CV

Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Tornabene MW, Weitzman A, Lorence DH, 2014. Flora of Micronesia website., Washington DC, Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/micronesia/index.htm

Wagner WL, Lorence DH, 2014. Flora of the Marquesas Islands website., Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/index.htm

Witt A, Luke Q, 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa. [ed. by Witt A, Luke Q]. Wallingford, UK: CABI. vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 DOI:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

Yusuf UK, Sinohin VO, 1999. Cananga odorata (Lamk) Hook.f. & Thomson. In: Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) No. 19: Essential-oil plants. [ed. by Oyen LPA, Nguyen XD]. Leiden, The Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher. 70-74. http://proseanet.org/prosea/e-prosea_detail.php?frt=&id=654

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Smithsonian Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm
Smithsonian Flora of the Marquesas Islandshttp://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/query.cfm
USFS Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)http://www.hear.org/pier/

Contributors

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02/02/15 Updated by:

Marianne Jennifer Datiles, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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