Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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Ocimum tenuiflorum
(holy basil)

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Datasheet

Ocimum tenuiflorum (holy basil)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ocimum tenuiflorum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • holy basil
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • O. tenuiflorum is an annual or short-lived perennial plant that has been used as a culinary and medicinal herb for centuries. It is considered an agricultural and environmental weed (

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Ocimum tenuiflorum (holy basil); flowers and seeds. Garden of Eden Keanae, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.
TitleFlowers and seeds
CaptionOcimum tenuiflorum (holy basil); flowers and seeds. Garden of Eden Keanae, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Ocimum tenuiflorum (holy basil); flowers and seeds. Garden of Eden Keanae, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.
Flowers and seedsOcimum tenuiflorum (holy basil); flowers and seeds. Garden of Eden Keanae, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Ocimum tenuiflorum (holy basil); flowers. Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
TitleFlowers
CaptionOcimum tenuiflorum (holy basil); flowers. Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Ocimum tenuiflorum (holy basil); flowers. Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
FlowersOcimum tenuiflorum (holy basil); flowers. Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Ocimum tenuiflorum (holy basil); habit and leaves. Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.
TitleHabit
CaptionOcimum tenuiflorum (holy basil); habit and leaves. Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Ocimum tenuiflorum (holy basil); habit and leaves. Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.
HabitOcimum tenuiflorum (holy basil); habit and leaves. Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

Preferred Common Name

  • holy basil

Other Scientific Names

  • Ocimum americanum sunsu Bello
  • Ocimum micranthum sensu A. Stahl
  • Ocimum sanctum L.

International Common Names

  • English: brush-leaf-tea; sacred basil; Thai basil
  • Spanish: albahaca cimarrona; albahaca morada
  • Chinese: sheng luo le

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: manjericao-branco
  • Cuba: albahaca violada; albahaquilla; ibahaca morada criolla
  • Dominican Republic: albahaca vaca
  • Guam: yerba buena
  • India: tulsi
  • Myanmar: kala-pi-sein; pin-sein-net
  • Nepal: krishna tulasi; surasa; tulasi
  • Sweden: helig basilica

Summary of Invasiveness

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O. tenuiflorum is an annual or short-lived perennial plant that has been used as a culinary and medicinal herb for centuries. It is considered an agricultural and environmental weed (Randall, 2012), and is reported to be invasive to Cuba (Oviedo-Prieto et al., 2012) and weedy in Puerto Rico, India, Palawan (Philippines), Guam, and Malaysia (Stone, 1970; Holm et al., 1979; Globinmed, 2014). The species can grow in a variety of soil conditions, propagates by its small and numerous seeds, and grows rapidly (Makri and Kintzios, 2008; NMPB, 2014). While not difficult to uproot, it can grow more strongly after pruning and cause trouble in places where it is weedy. 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Lamiales
  •                         Family: Lamiaceae
  •                             Genus: Ocimum
  •                                 Species: Ocimum tenuiflorum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The Lamiacae, or mint family, is a family of herbs, shrubs, and trees comprising about 200 genera and 3200 species, many with a long history of medicinal and food use (University of Hawaii, 2014). This family includes some of the most well-known herbs containing essential oils including lavender, sage, basil, mint and oregano. Many Lamiaceae species have square stems (although square stems are also found in other families), aromatic aerial parts when crushed, simple opposite leaves, and two-lipped flowers.

Ocimum is the Lamiaceae genus of basils, its taxonomic name likely deriving from the Greek word ‘okimon’ for a fragrant or aromatic herb (Smith, 1971; Stearn, 1992; Makri and Kintzios, 2008). As basils, Ocimum species are often referred to as the ‘king of the herbs’. The common name ‘basil’ is likely derived from either the Greek word ‘basileus’, meaning ‘king’, or ‘basilikon’, meaning ‘royal’ (Makri and Kintzios, 2008). Another possible root word is ‘basiliscus’, Latin for the mythical basilisk creature that could kill any human who looks up on it; according to a Roman legend, basil was the antidote to the creature’s venom (Makri and Kintzios, 2008). Members of the basil genus have been cultivated for thousands of years, particularly in the Mediterranean and southern Asian regions, and in some religions such as Hindism, these plants are considered sacred. The species O. tenuiflorum is one such sacred plant, so much so that one of its synonyms O. sanctum derives its species name from the Latin word for ‘sacred’. Its current accepted name, ‘tenuiflorum’, refers to its slender flowers (Smith, 1971; Stearn, 1992). 

Description

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Herb or subshrub to 1 m high, much-branched, with a pungent aromatic odour, the branchlets and new growth pubescent with soft white hairs. Leaves with blades elliptic to elliptic-oblong, 3–6 cm long, 1–2.5 cm wide, cuneate to attenuate at base, obtuse to acute at apex, entire to remotely serrate at margins, pubescent on both surfaces but especially on the nerves beneath; petioles 1–2.5 cm long, softly pubescent. Flowers terminal, slender racemes or panicles 4–12 cm long, 1–1.5 cm wide, the bracteoles 2–3 mm long, ovate, acuminate, ciliate; flowers in verticils, on pedicels 2–4.5 mm long; calyx c 2.5 mm long at anthesis, in fruit up to 5 mm long, glabrous within, the upper lip suborbicular, reflexed, short-apiculate, the lower lip longer than the upper lip, the teeth 4, lanceolate; corolla pale pink, pale lavender or white, to 4 mm long; filaments of stamens exserted, slender, the upper pair of each with a small, bearded basal appendage. Fruit with nutlets purple-green to brown, broadly ellipsoid, 0.8–1.2 mm long, smooth to minutely pitted, swelling in water (Wagner and Lorence, 2014).

Plant Type

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Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub

Distribution

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O. tenuiflorum is considered indigenous to the Indian subcontinent including the Himalayas, Malesia, and other tropical and subtropical parts of Asia, and is now widely cultivated and naturalized in places around the world, including the Caribbean, Pacific islands, and parts of Africa (Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014; Wagner and Lorence, 2014). Introduction of the species beyond Asia has primarily been for its medicinal and culinary use, as it has been used for these purposes for at least 3000 years. 

 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
Brunei DarussalamPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
CambodiaPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; Govaerts, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014
ChinaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014South-central China
-HainanPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; Govaerts, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014
-SichuanPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014
IndiaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
-AssamPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
-West BengalPresent only in captivity/cultivationNepal Checklist, 2014Often cultivated
IndonesiaPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; Govaerts, 2014
-JavaPresentRandall, 2012; Govaerts, 2014Agricultural weed
-MoluccasPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
-Nusa TenggaraPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014Lesser Sunda Is.
-SulawesiPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
-SumatraPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
LaosPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; Govaerts, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014
MalaysiaPresent
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
MyanmarPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; Govaerts, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014
NepalPresentNativeIUCN Nepal, 2000; Govaerts, 2014
PakistanPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
PhilippinesPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; Govaerts, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014; Pelser et al., 2014
Sri LankaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
TaiwanPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; Govaerts, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014; Taiwan Invasive Species Database, 2014
ThailandPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; Govaerts, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014
VietnamPresentRandall, 2012; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; Govaerts, 2014Common weed

Africa

KenyaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014Naturalised
MalawiPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014Naturalised
ZambiaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014Naturalised

Central America and Caribbean

BahamasPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; Govaerts, 2014
BarbadosPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; Govaerts, 2014
CubaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; Govaerts, 2014
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; Govaerts, 2014
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012

South America

BrazilPresentIntroducedMachado et al., 1999
VenezuelaPresentGovaerts, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014Bolivar, Delta Amacuro

Oceania

AustraliaPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012Naturalised
-QueenslandPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012Environmental weed, naturalised
FijiPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014Naturalised
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012; Wagner and Lorence, 2014Naturalised
GuamPresentIntroducedStone, 1970; Wagner et al., 2014
Marshall IslandsPresentWagner et al., 2014Ralik Chain (Ailinglaplap, Ebon, Jaluit, Lae, Ujae), Ratak Chain (Ailuk, Arno, Majuro, Utrik)
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012; Govaerts, 2014; Wagner et al., 2014Naturalised on Pohnpei
NauruPresentWagner et al., 2014
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentWagner et al., 2014Agrihan, Pagan, Saipan
PalauPresent
Papua New GuineaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014

History of Introduction and Spread

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O. tenuiflorum, holy basil, is an annual or short-lived perennial of Asian origin that has been used as a culinary and medicinal herb for thousands of years, first in India and Africa, then across Asia (Wyk and Wink, 2004). Historically, the species was frequently grown in large vessels in the courtyards of Hindu forts and temples to cleanse the body (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2014). The species has now been distributed pantropically as cultivated plants.

Date of introduction to the West Indies is uncertain but O. tenuiflorum was included in Bello Espinosa’s (1881) work on Puerto Rico, in which he identified it as Ocimum americanum. Specimens were collected in the Americas around the turn of the twentieth century, in Puerto Rico in 1885 and Cuba in 1909 (Smithsonian Herbarium collections), as well as in Mexico sometime before 1936 (as O. sanctum) and in Colombia in 1936 (JSTOR Global Plants, 2014). It was introduced to northeast Brazil in 1970 (Machado et al., 1999).

Risk of Introduction

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Risk of introduction for O. tenuiflorum is moderate and likely to rise as it continues to be widely cultivated around the world for food and medicinal purposes. The species is listed as an agricultural and environmental weed in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012), is included in the Taiwan Invasive Species Database (2014), and is reported to be invasive to Cuba (Oviedo-Prieto et al., 2012) and weedy in Malaysia (Globinmed, 2014), Puerto Rico, India, and Palawan (Philippines) (Holm et al., 1979). The species can grow in a variety of soil conditions, propagates by its small and numerous seeds, and grows rapidly (Makri and Kintzios, 2008; NMPB, 2014), and while not difficult to uproot, can grow more strongly after pruning and cause trouble to places where it is weedy. Monitoring and preparation of a risk assessment for this species is recommended.

Habitat

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O. tenuiflorum grows in tropical and subtropical regions and is now primarily cultivated in agricultural settings and home gardens, as well as around temples and places of worship, especially in India and Malaysia (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; Globinmed, 2014; NMPB, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014). No data was found regarding specific habitats where the species has been found naturally, as a weed or a cultivation escape.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Buildings Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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O. tenuiflorum is often cultivated as an annual, but can grow for several years as a short-lived perennial. In Malaysia it grows as a small shrub and is easily recognized for its strong, clove-like scent (Globinmed, 2014). In Pakistan there are various cultivated forms of O. tenuiflorum with combinations of purple or green calyces and purple or white corollas (Flora of Pakistan, 2014).

In India, where it is native, the species reportedly thrives in cultivation in areas with relatively high rainfall and humid temperatures (NMPB, 2014). It can grow in soils ranging from rich loam to poor laterite, and is tolerant of salt as well as of soils with pH from alkaline to moderately acidic, but has low tolerance for waterlogged soil (NMPB, 2014). In India it is found at low altitudes up to 900 m (NMPB, 2014).

Chromosome number of O. tenuiflorum is 2n=36 (Mukherjee and Datta, 2005).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Tolerated > 60mm precipitation per month
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Soil Tolerances

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Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • saline

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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O. tenuiflorum has been primarily spread by humans around the world as a cultivated plant for use as a culinary and medicinal plant. Cultivation escape, intentional release, or accidental introduction through human waste and garden debris are possible but unconfirmed reasons the species has become reportedly weedy in some introduced places, and even invasive, such as the case is in Cuba (Oviedo-Prieto et al., 2012). The species propagates by its seeds, which are relatively small, numerous, and encased in nutlets (Stone, 1970; Wagner et al., 2014) that might possibly be dispersed by animals which graze on the edible leaves. 

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionCultivated both commercially and locally for use as culinary and medicinal herb Yes Yes
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes Yes
Garden waste disposal Yes Yes
Medicinal use Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activities Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Negative

Social Impact

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O. tenuiflorum is known to be capable of minor negative impacts on human health; it can cause skin reactions and temporarily lower male fertility, although no clinical trials have shown adverse effects (WHO, 2004Globinmed, 2014; Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2014).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Fast growing
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact mechanisms
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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O. tenuiflorum is a medicinal, culinary and essential oil plant, stated by Ravi et al. (2012) to be the ‘most sacred herb in India’. In China, the leaves of O. tenuiflorum, as well as other members of the basil genus are used as a condiment in salads and other foods, and as a substitute for tea (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). Similarly, in Guam the species is reportedly used as both a condiment and medicine (Stone, 1970).

Holy basil is widely used as a culinary spice in the cuisines of Thailand, Indonesia and other South-east Asian countries. In most countries its use is similar to that of the sweet basil. Thai cuisine uses of holy basil for many recipes such as Thai basil chicken, holy basil chicken, chicken stir fry with holy basil, Thai krapow gai and many others, In South-east Asian countries its use is similar to the use of sweet basil in Western countries (Ravindran, 2017).

Holy basil is used in many dishes, including simple stir-fries. Substituting holy basil with any other basil will not give the same taste to the original dish. When freshly picked, the aromatic leaves hold a spicy, peppery bite and a delicious combination of basil and mint flavours. The zestful blend of fragrance and tastes becomes particularly pronounced in cooking; it is preferable to cook with holy basil rather than use it raw. The peppery spiciness of holy basil has earned it the name of ‘hot basil’ and it is identified as such in some Thai markets. Holy basil is not used in cooking in India because it is held as a highly sacred plant (Ravindran, 2017).

The species has a wide range of reported medicinal uses, mostly relating to stomach-related illnesses and skin problems. In Thailand, for example, it is used to alleviate nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and flatulence, and it is also used as a major flavouring ingredient in Thai cuisine (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2014). In Nepal, O. tenuiflorum is reportedly used as a stomachic, anthelmintic, alexcipharmic, antipyretic, as well as for diseases of the heart and blood, toothaches, earaches, headaches, chronic joint pain, ashthma, gonorrhoea, diarrhoea, and chronic dysentery, and is commonly used to reduce fevers, for coughs and colds, and for influenza (IUCN Nepal, 2000). In India it is regarded as having a versatile role in traditional medicine, with antimicrobial, antioxidant, heptaprotective, radio-protective, antistress, antiinflammatory, antidiabetic, antifertility, neuroprotective, antiulcer, cardio-protective, anticancer, immunomodulatory and mosquito repellent properties (Shivabasappa et al., 2014). Pingale et al. (2012) reported that the plant extract has recently been shown to have potent radioprotective activity, as well as a wide range of other uses.

Because O. tenuiflorum is regarded as sacred in Hinduism, the woody stems are used to make prayer beads for rosaries (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014) and the plant is often cultivated around Hindu temples and places of worship.

The essential oil in the leaves of O. tenuiflorum contains high levels of eugenol, and clinical trials have suggested the species’ potential for alleviating hepatic dysfunction (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2014). The leaf extract is effective as a mosquito repellent and in checking the spread of the fungal pathogens Pyricularia oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani, which cause blast disease and sheath blight disease of rice, with antibacterial activity and deterrent effects against the larvae of root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) also reported (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2014). Eugenol has been reported to be largely responsible for the therapeutic potentials of the plant, while methyl eugenol is a high value aroma chemical used as a flavouring agent (Raina et al., 2013). Other chemical constituents of the plant include methyl cinnamate, camphor and thymol (Ravi et al., 2012).

Uses List

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General

  • Ritual uses

Human food and beverage

  • Beverage base
  • Spices and culinary herbs
  • Vegetable

Materials

  • Beads
  • Essential oils
  • Pesticide

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Potted plant

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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O. tenuiflorum is closely related to sweet basil, O. basilicum, and several cultivated varieties of basil. O. tenuiflorum is distinguished by the spreading pedicels and the internally glabrous calyces; in Pakistan, there are various colour forms of the species, with combinations of purple or green calyces and purple or white corollas (Flora of Pakistan, 2014).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Further research is needed on the extent of the threat of the species’ potential, especially in areas where it has already been reported to be invasive or weedy. Risk assessment of the extent of its environmental and economic impacts is recommended.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Ambrose, D. C. P., Manickavasagan, A., Naik, R., 2016. Leafy medicinal herbs: botany, chemistry, postharvest technology and uses., In: Leafy medicinal herbs: botany, chemistry, postharvest technology and uses. CABI. xiii + 282 pp.. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20163250834

Bello Espinosa D, 1881. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Primera parte.) Anal. Soc. Española de Hist. Nat, 10:231-304.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Pakistan, 2014. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Flora of Taiwan Editorial Committee, 2014. Taiwan Plant Names. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=101

Globinmed, 2014. Medicinal Herbs and Plants online database. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Global Information hub on Integrative Medicine (Globinmed).

Govaerts R, 2014. World Checklist of Lamiaceae. Richmond, London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Holm LG, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, Plucknett DL, 1979. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. New York, USA: Wiley.

IUCN Nepal, 2000. National Register of Medicinal Plants. Kathmandu, Nepal: IUCN Nepal and His Majesty's Government Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation, 163 pp. https://portals.iucn.org/library/efiles/documents/2000-058.pdf

JSTOR Global Plants, 2014. JSTOR Global Plants Database. Ann Arbor, MI and New York, NY, USA: JSTOR. http://plants.jstor.org/

Khan, I. A., Abourashed, E. A., 2010. Leung's encyclopedia of common natural ingredients: used in food, drugs, and cosmetics., In: Leung's encyclopedia of common natural ingredients: used in food, drugs, and cosmetics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. xxix + 810 pp..

Kress WJ, Defilipps RA, Farr E, Kyi DYY, 2003. A checklist of the trees, shrubs, herbs, and climbers of Myanmar. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 45:1-590.

Machado MIL, Silva MGde V, Matos FJA, Craveiro AA, Alencar JW, 1999. Volatile constituents from leaves and inflorescence oil of Ocimum tenuiflorum L. f. (syn. O. sanctum L.) grown in northeastern Brazil. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 11(3):324-326.

Makri O, Kintzios S, 2008. Ocimum sp. (Basil): Botany, Cultivation, Pharmaceutical Properties, and Biotechnology. Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants, 13(3):123-150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J044v13n03_10

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Moumita Mukherjee, Datta AK, 2005. Secondary chromosome associations in Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. Cytologia, 70(2):149-152.

Nepal Checklist, 2014. Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=110

NMPB, 2014. Cultivation Practices of Some Commercially Important Medicinal Plants (online datasheets): Ocimum sanctum. Delhi, India: Government of India National Medicinal Plants Board (NMPB). http://www.nmpb.nic.in/WriteReadData/links/615264999tulsi.pdf

Oviedo-Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011), Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96

Palla Ravi, Elumalai A, Eswaraiah MC, Raju Kasarla, 2012. A review on Krishna tulsi, Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn. International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy (IJRAP), 3(2):291-293. http://www.ijrap.net

Pelser PB, Barcelona JF, Nickrent DL, 2014. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

Pingale SS, Firke NP, Markandeya AG, 2012. Therapeutic activities of Ocimum tenuiflorum accounted in last decade: a review. Journal of Pharmacy Research, 5(4):2215-2220. http://jpronline.info/index.php/jpr/article/view/12835

Raina AP, Ashok Kumar, Dutta M, 2013. Chemical characterization of aroma compounds in essential oil isolated from "Holy Basil" (Ocimum tenuiflorum L.) grown in India. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 60(5):1727-1735. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10722

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Ravindran PN, 2017. Encyclopedia of herbs and spices. Wallingford, UK: CAB international.

Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2014. Ocimum tenuiflorum (Holy Basil) webpage. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.kew.org/science-conservation/plants-fungi/ocimum-tenuiflorum-holy-basil

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm
Flora of Micronesiahttp://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/micronesia/index.htm
Flora of the Marquesas Islandshttp://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Familieshttp://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
Myanmar Researchhttp://botany.si.edu/myanmar/

Contributors

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23/8/2014 Original text by:

Marianne Jennifer Datiles, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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