Buddleja asiatica (dog tail)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Pathway Vectors
- Impact Summary
- Environmental Impact
- Threatened Species
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Buddleja asiatica Lour.
Preferred Common Name
- dog tail
International Common Names
- English: asian butterfly bush; white butterfly bush; winter lilac
- Chinese: bai bei feng
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
B. asiatica is native to eastern Asia and was introduced into Hawaii prior to 1908 where it has become widespread and locally abundant on all the main islands. B. asiatica isn’t as widely cultivated/naturalized compared to its congeners, possibly because it is less showy/desirable as an ornamental. The spread of B. asiatica is facilitated by its numerous tiny (0.3 mm) winged seeds that are dispersed in the wind and watercourses. In Hawaii, B. asiatica competes with several rare endemic plants such as those on wet windward cliffs (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1997; Wood and Oppenheimer, 2008). B. asiatica is naturalized in Guam and present in Australia, but its impacts are unclear or yet to be fully realized (PIER, 2013).
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Gentianales
- Family: Loganiaceae
- Genus: Buddleja
- Species: Buddleja asiatica
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
The Plant List (2013) lists 20 synonyms of B. asiatica. Most published synonyms are from the early 1800s and therefore no modern phylogenetic studies call into question the validity of the taxon (Kay et al., 2008). The position of Buddleja at the family level has been given as Scrophulariaceae, Buddlejaceae (Oxelman and Bremer, 1999), and Loganiaceae (Moore, 1949); current thinking places it in Scrophulariaceae (The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, 2003).
DescriptionTop of page
Shrubs or small trees, 1-8 m tall; young branchlets, leaves abaxially, petioles, and inflorescences spiciform densely stellate pubescent/tomentose or woolly with white, gray, or tawny hairs. Branchlets terete or subterete. Leaves opposite, sometimes alternate towards branchlet apex. Petiole 2-15 mm; leaf blade narrowly to very narrowly elliptic never abruptly narrowed or cordate, 6-30 X 1-7 cm, adaxially stellate pubescent or glabrous, base cuneate to decurrent, margin subentire or remotely serrate-dentate, apex acuminate, lateral veins 10-14 pairs. Inflorescences terminal and/or axillary, 1-3 or more seemingly racemose cymes together, 5-25 X 0.7-2 cm; bracteoles linear. Pedicel to 2 mm. Calyx campanulate, 1.5-4.5 mm; lobes triangular, outside stellate pubescent or tomentose, inside glabrous. Corolla straight (not curved) white, rarely pale violet or greenish; tube 2.5-4.8 mm, outside densely to sparsely stellate pubescent; lobes suborbicular, 1-1.7 X 1-1.5 mm, spreading. Stamens inserted above middle of corolla tube to nearly at mouth, included; anthers oblong. Ovary ovoid to narrowly ovoid, 1-1.5 X 0.8-1 mm, glabrous or scaly. Style short; stigma capitate. Capsules ellipsoid, 3-5 X 1.5-3 mm, glabrous or sparsely and minutely scaly. Seeds pale brown, elliptic, 0.8-1 X 0.3-0.4 mm, short winged at both ends. Fl. Jan-Oct; fr. Mar-Dec (Li and Leeuwenberg, 1996).
Plant TypeTop of page
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|China||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|Singapore||Present, Only in captivity/cultivation||Introduced|
|United States||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Hawaii||Present, Widespread||Introduced||Invasive||Impacting on threatened species|
|Australia||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Victoria||Present||Introduced||Identified as potential invader|
|Papua New Guinea||Present||Native|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
B. asiatica was first recorded in Hawaii in 1908 and has now been recorded on all islands (first recorded on Oahu, Molokai, and Hawaii, and more recently Maui, Lanai and Kauai (Wester, 1992; Wagner et al., 1999; Oppenheimer and Bartlett, 2002; Wood and Oppenheimer, 2008). The introduction of B. asiatica into Hawaii was most likely human mediated and intentional; as an ornamental, for use as either a medicinal plant or for perfume, or associated with Asian immigration to the islands (Houghton, 1984; Wester, 1992; Li and Leeuwenberg, 1996; Imada, 2012). The means of dispersal of B. asiatica between the Hawaiian islands is unclear but is most likely linked to the regular movement of goods, ornamental plants, construction equipment and vehicles between islands (or intentional planting) (Frohlich and Lau, 2007).
Stuart (2006) states that B. asiatica was intentionally introduced into the UK in 1874 and later awarded the RHS Award of Garden Merit in 1993.
B. asiatica has been recorded in cultivation in Victoria, Australia, where it is regarded as a potential weed (Groves et al., 2003).
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
B. asiatica produces a large number of winged seeds that are easily dispersed by the wind and in watercourses. Long distance dispersal is believed to occur via human mediated actions such as the movement of goods, ornamental plants, construction equipment and vehicles. Given that B. asiatica is not currently used as an ornamental plant and that knowledge of its medicinal uses is limited, the risk of introduction into new areas is low. A risk assessment for Hawaii conducted by PIER (2013) however gives B. asiatica a high risk score of 9.
HabitatTop of page
B. asiatica is versatile, occurring in disturbed habitats such as mesic to wet pastures, on lava and cinder, in wet forests, roadsides and waste areas throughout its native range at altitudes of 100-1200 m (Wester, 1992; Wagner et al., 1999; Motooka et al., 2002).
Outside of its native range B. asiatica is mainly restricted to tropical or subtropical areas, occurring from sea level to more than 2000 m in altitude. B. asiatica is drought tolerant but more successful in wet sites (a facultative wetland plant).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial||Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Industrial / intensive livestock production systems||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Industrial / intensive livestock production systems||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Disturbed areas||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Disturbed areas||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Urban / peri-urban areas||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Natural forests||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Natural forests||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Natural grasslands||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Natural grasslands||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Riverbanks||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Riverbanks||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Wetlands||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Wetlands||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Scrub / shrublands||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Scrub / shrublands||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Littoral||Coastal areas||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Littoral||Coastal areas||Principal habitat||Natural|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Ananas comosus (pineapple)||Bromeliaceae||Main|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
B. asiatica is insect pollinated. Gong et al. (2015) confirmed that the floral scent of B. asiatica is dominated by substances that attract certain large bees, which they have observed visiting the flowers. It is presumed to be self-infertile, as are other species in the genus. Bromus produces a large number of small wind dispersed seeds relatively quickly after germination and seedling establishment (Kay et al., 2008). Seeds may also be transported in watercourses (Säumel and Kowarik, 2010). B. asiatica can reproduce asexually by vegetative fragmentation.
Physiology and Phenology
Peñuelas et al. (2010a; 2010b) showed that B. asiatica has lower construction costs for its leaves, higher nitrogen allocation for photosynthesis and perhaps a more efficient method of capturing nutrients when compared to native taxa. They concluded that B. asiatica occupies a different geochemical niche to native species in Hawaii (Peñuelas et al., 2010a).
In its native range B. asiatica is known to co-occur with other Buddleja species such as B. crispa, B. macrostachya, B. myriantha and B. officinalis on Cangshan Mountain, near Dalizhen, Yunnan Province, China (Schreiter et al., 2011).
B. asiatica is highly mycotrophic; this has been offered as one factor that facilitates its invasiveness in Hawaii (Gemma and Koske, 1990; Koske et al., 1992; Dickie et al., 2007; Brundrett, 2009). A number of endophytic fungi have been identified from the twigs of B. asiatica in Nepal (Chhetri et al., 2013).
B. asiatica can tolerate a broad range of soils but is regarded as a facultative wetland plant (USDA-NRCS, 2013). B. asiatica can cope well with any mesic site with a reasonable level of light but prefers disturbed sites such as muddy pig wallow areas, and wet cliffs, land slide areas and canopy gaps (Katie Cassel, Kokee Natural History Museum, Hawaii, personal communication, 2013).
ClimateTop of page
|A - Tropical/Megathermal climate||Preferred||Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually|
|Am - Tropical monsoon climate||Preferred||Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))|
|C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate||Preferred||Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C|
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Cleopus japonicus||Herbivore||Leaves||to genus||Used in New Zealand for control of B. davidii. Does not provide good control for B. asiatica.|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
In Hawaii, B. asiatica was associated with lower than expected levels of the nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis in fallow fields of pineapple where the potential for infestation is very high. This suggests that B. asiatica may have some anti-nematodal capability, or at least, is not a good host for R. reniformis (Wang et al., 2002).
The weevil Cleopus japonicus is used for the control of Buddleja davidii in New Zealand and has been shown to complete its development on nine of 12 Buddleja species, including B. asiatica. However, B. asiatica is not ranked as highly vulnerable to the weevil.
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
B. asiatica produces a large number of tiny, winged seeds that are dispersed naturally in the wind.
It is possible that seeds of B. asiatica may be transported by vehicles, construction equipment and inter-island movement of ornamental plants with their soils.
B. asiatica may be introduced intentionally as an ornamental due to its sweet smelling flowers. Stuart (2006) states that B. asiatica was intentionally introduced into the UK in 1874 and later awarded the RHS Award of Garden Merit in 1993.
Pathway CausesTop of page
|Crop production||Inter-island movement of ornamental plants, farming equipment and vehicles etc.||Yes||Yes|
|Escape from confinement or garden escape||Yes||Yes|
|Horticulture||In Hawaii inter-island movement of ornamental plants has been blamed for the movement of B. asiatica||Yes||Yes|
|Internet sales||For ornamental and medicinal purposes||Yes||Yes||Plants for a Future, 2013|
|Landscape improvement||In Hawaii inter-island movement of ornamental plants has been blamed for the movement of B. asiatica||Yes||Yes|
|Medicinal use||Yes||Yes||Plants for a Future, 2013|
|Nursery trade||For use as medicinal plant or ornamental||Yes||Plants for a Future, 2013|
|Seed trade||Especially since the species is an ornamental and a medicinal plant||Yes||Yes||Plants for a Future, 2013|
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Impact SummaryTop of page
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Colonizationof B. asiatica alters the course of succession. It could also be argued that B. asiatica exacerbates the impacts of ungulates by quickly colonizing sites after they have caused disturbance and destruction through grazing.
B. asiatica forms dense thickets, and is rapidly spreading into wet forest and even lava and cinder substrate areas in Hawaii where it displaces native vegetation. B. asiatica was identified as an invader on the wet windward cliffs of Kauai where it competes with a number of rare and endangered species (USFWS, 2008), see Threatened Species table.
Threatened SpeciesTop of page
|Threatened Species||Conservation Status||Where Threatened||Mechanism||References||Notes|
|Cyanea dolichopoda||EX (IUCN red list: Extinct); USA ESA listing as endangered species||Hawaii||Competition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shading; Interaction with other invasive species; Rapid growth||USFWS, 2008|
|Cyrtandra heinrichii||EN (IUCN red list: Endangered)||Hawaii||Competition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shading; Interaction with other invasive species; Rapid growth||USFWS, 2008|
|Cyrtandra paliku||USA ESA listing as endangered species||Hawaii||Competition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shading; Interaction with other invasive species; Rapid growth||USFWS, 2008|
|Dubautia plantaginea subsp. magnifolia||USA ESA listing as endangered species||Hawaii||USFWS, 2008|
|Euphorbia remyi (Remy's sandmat)||CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered)||Hawaii||USFWS, 2008|
|Lysimachia iniki||USA ESA listing as endangered species||Hawaii||USFWS, 2008|
|Lysimachia venosa||USA ESA listing as endangered species||Hawaii||USFWS, 2008|
|Platydesma rostrata||CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species||Hawaii||USFWS, 2008|
|Pritchardia hardyi (Makaleha pritchardia)||CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species||Hawaii||USFWS, 2008|
|Stenogyne kauaulaensis||USA ESA listing as endangered species||Hawaii||Wood and Oppenheimer, 2008|
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Has a broad native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Is a habitat generalist
- Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
- Pioneering in disturbed areas
- Highly mobile locally
- Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
- Long lived
- Fast growing
- Has high reproductive potential
- Damaged ecosystem services
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Modification of successional patterns
- Monoculture formation
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Threat to/ loss of endangered species
- Threat to/ loss of native species
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Competition - shading
- Interaction with other invasive species
- Rapid growth
- Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
- Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
- Difficult/costly to control
UsesTop of page
Buddleja species are traditionally used in folk medicine as a topical antiseptic and a diuretic (Houghton, 1984). Other reputed, and less reliable, properties include protecting the liver from toxic substances (El-Domiaty et al., 2009), and use as an abortive (Shah et al., 2009).
B. asiatica is also used in perfumes as it produces a sweet freesia-like fragrance (Li and Leeuwenberg, 1996).
B. asiatica may also be used as a fish poison (Mabberley, 1997).
There is no indication that B. asiatica is cultivated for the purpose of providing fodder. However in Nepal, its native range, B. asiatica, is documented as a good incidental fodder for sheep and goats (Thapa et al., 1997).
Uses ListTop of page
Animal feed, fodder, forage
- Fodder/animal feed
- Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
Detection and InspectionTop of page
The winged seeds of Buddleja species are reasonably distinctive, but are tiny and difficult to detect. Plant keys such as the Flora of China can be used for identification of whole plants (Li and Leeuwenberg, 1996).
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
B. asiatica is morphologically similar to Buddleja myriantha; both species are in the same couplet. The distinguishing characters are that unlike B. asiatica, B. myriantha has a cylindrical inflorescence, lower branches exceed others, leaf blades are mostly serrate and the corolla is usually purple (Li and Leeuwenberg, 1996).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
B. asiatica was identified as potential weed for Australia and is banned from intentional introduction as part of the weed risk assessment protocol. Similarly it would likely not be accepted in New Zealand due to its high risk (Pheloung et al., 1999; Groves et al., 2003).
Eradication of B. asiatica is notoriously difficult to achieve but if detected early it should be eradicated while feasible.
Hand pulling of B. asiatica seedlings is effective.
Hygiene of weed control equipment, vehicles generally and clothing may help to prevent the inadvertent spread of B. asiatica seeds. Preferential control of B. asiatica on windward slopes may be worthwhile to prevent the winged seeds from being transported on lift created by incoming winds. This method was recommended to control the spread of pine trees and could also be applicable to B. asiatica. (Buckley et al., 2005).
Host-specificity tests concluded that the biocontrol agent Cleopus japonicus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), for the congener Buddleja davidii, was safe to release in New Zealand (Kay et al., 2008). This leaf feeding weevil proved capable of utilizing a few non-target plants within the same clade as Buddleja including B. asiatica but exhibited increased mortality and development times. In conclusion it is unlikely to be an effective agent against B. asiatica.
Grazing by goats may prevent seeding or establishment of B. asiatica.
With thick stands and large bushes of B. asiatica girdling it at the base and applying a triclopyr ester, 10-20% in biodiesel provides effective control. For small plants 2% triclopyr amine in water used as a foliar application can be applied (Motooka et al., 2003). It is also susceptible to glyphosate and hormone-type herbicides (PIER, 2015).
After control efforts are completed desirable native species should be planted to prevent or slow the re-establishment of B. asiatica.
Gaps in Knowledge/Research NeedsTop of page
The source of introduced plants of B. asiatica in Hawaii and the pattern of spread could be investigated by looking at the population and phylogeographic patterns using DNA sequencing.
ReferencesTop of page
Brundrett MC, 2009. Mycorrhizal associations and other means of nutrition of vascular plants: understanding the global diversity of host plants by resolving conflicting information and developing reliable means of diagnosis. Plant and Soil, 320(1/2):37-77.
Chhetri BK; Maharjan S; Budhathok U, 2013. Endophytic fungi associated with twigs of Buddleja asiatica Lour. Kathmandu University Journal of Science Engineering and Technology, 9:90-95.
Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species., Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp.
Cordell S; Ostertag R; Rowe B; Sweinhart L; Vasquez-Radonic L; Michaud J; Cole TC; Schulten JR, 2009. Evaluating barriers to native seedling establishment in an invaded Hawaiian lowland wet forest. Biological Conservation, 142(12):2997-3004.
Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2013. Australia's virtual herbarium. Australia: Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria. http://avh.ala.org.au
El-Domiaty MM; Wink M; Abdel Aal MMA; Abou-Hashem MM; Abd-Alla RH, 2009. Antihepatotoxic activity and chemical constituents of Buddleja asiatica Lour. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung. Section C, Biosciences, 64(1/2):11-19.
Frohlich D; Lau A, 2007. New plant records from O'ahu for 2006. Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2006. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, 96:8-13.
Gong WC; Chen G; Vereecken NJ; Dunn BL; Ma YP; Sun WB, 2015. Floral scent composition predicts bee pollination system in five butterfly bush (Buddleja, Scrophulariaceae) species. Plant Biology, 17(1):245-255. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/plb.12176/full
Groves RH; Hosking JR; Batianoff GN; Cooke DA; Cowie ID; Johnson RW; Moerkerk M, 2003. Weed categories for natural and agricultural ecosystem management. Canberra, Australia: Bureau of Rural Sciences, 200 pp.
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Kay MK; Gresham B; Hill RL; Zhang X, 2008. The disintegration of the Scrophulariaceae and the biological control of Buddleja davidii. In: Proceedings of the XII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds [ed. by Julien, M. H. \Sforza, R. \Bon, M. C. \Evans, H. C. \Hatcher, P. E. \Hinz, H. L. \Rector, B. G.]. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 287-291.
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Moore RJ, 1949. Cytotaxonomic studies in the Loganiaceae. III. Artificial hybrids in the genus Buddleja L. American Journal of Botany:511-516.
Motooka P; Castro L; Nelson D; Nagai G; Ching L, 2003. Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas; an identification and management guide. Manoa, Hawaii, USA: College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii.
Motooka P; Ching L; Nagai G, 2002. Herbicidal weed control methods for pasture and natural areas of Hawaii. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Cooperative Extension Service, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii, 36 pp. http://www2.ctahr.hawaii.edu/oc/freepubs/pdf/wc-8.pdf
Oxelman B; Backlund M; Bremmer B, 1999. Relationships of Buddlejaceae s.l. investigated using parsimony jackknife and branch support analysis of chloroplast ndhF and rbcL sequences. Systematic Botany, 24:164-182.
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PIER, 2013. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html
PIER, 2015. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html
Plants for a Future, 2013. Plants for a Future database., UK: Plants for a Future. http://www.pfaf.org/user/plantsearch.aspx
The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, 2003. An update of the angiosperm phylogeny group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 141:399-436.
The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org
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USDA-NRCS, 2013. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/
USFWS, 2008. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 48 Species on Kauai as Endangered and Designating Critical Habitat; Proposed Rule (Federal Register No. 50 CFR Part 17). Fish and Wildlife Serivice. https://www.federalregister.gov/regulations/1018-AV48/endangered-and-threatened-wildlife-and-plants-listing-determination-and-critical-habitat-designation
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Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species., Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.
Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2013. Australia's virtual herbarium., Australia: Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria. http://avh.ala.org.au
Groves RH, Hosking JR, Batianoff GN, Cooke DA, Cowie ID, Johnson RW, Moerkerk M, 2003. Weed categories for natural and agricultural ecosystem management., Canberra, Australia: Bureau of Rural Sciences. 200 pp.
Imada CT, 2012. Hawaiian Native and Naturalized Vascular Plants Checklist. In: Bishop Musem Technical Report, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Bishop Museum.
Li PT, Leeuwenberg AJM, 1996. Loganiaceae. In: Flora of China, 15 [ed. by Wu ZY, Raven PH]. Beijing, China: Science Press.
Motooka P, Castro L, Nelson D, Nagai G, Ching L, 2003. Weeds of Hawai'i's Pastures and Natural Areas; an identification and management guide. In: Weeds of Hawai'i's Pastures and Natural Areas; an identification and management guide, Hawaii, USA: College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.
Pelser PB, Barcelona JF, Nickrent DL, 2013. Co's digital flora of the Philippines., http://www.philippineplants.org
ContributorsTop of page
05/09/2013 Original text by:
Christopher E. Buddenhagen, Department of Biological Sciences, Florida State University, Florida, USA
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