Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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Bromus hordeaceus
(soft brome)

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Datasheet

Bromus hordeaceus (soft brome)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bromus hordeaceus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • soft brome
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • B. hordeaceus is a grass species native to Europe. It has several features shared by successful invasive species including a short life cycle as an annual species and an association with a predominantly autogamous breeding system...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Bromus hordeaceus (soft chess); single plant. Old Kula Hwy, Maui. April 18, 2003
TitleSingle plant
CaptionBromus hordeaceus (soft chess); single plant. Old Kula Hwy, Maui. April 18, 2003
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2003. CC-BY-3.0
Bromus hordeaceus (soft chess); single plant. Old Kula Hwy, Maui. April 18, 2003
Single plantBromus hordeaceus (soft chess); single plant. Old Kula Hwy, Maui. April 18, 2003©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2003. CC-BY-3.0
Bromus hordeaceus (soft chess); seedheads. Kula, Maui. June 28, 2011
TitleSeedheads
CaptionBromus hordeaceus (soft chess); seedheads. Kula, Maui. June 28, 2011
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2011. CC-BY-3.0
Bromus hordeaceus (soft chess); seedheads. Kula, Maui. June 28, 2011
SeedheadsBromus hordeaceus (soft chess); seedheads. Kula, Maui. June 28, 2011©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2011. CC-BY-3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bromus hordeaceus L.

Preferred Common Name

  • soft brome

Other Scientific Names

  • Avena mollis (L.) Salisb.
  • Bromus hordeaceus subsp. hordeaceus
  • Bromus molliformis J. Lloyd
  • Bromus mollis L.
  • Bromus simplicissimus Ces.
  • Forasaccus mollis (L.) Bubani
  • Serrafalcus mollis (L.) Parl.
  • Serrafalcus rigens Samp.

International Common Names

  • English: barley brome; bull grass; common soft brome; least soft brome; lop grass; sand soft brome; soft brome; soft brome(grass); soft chess; tender brome
  • Spanish: bromo blando; bromo suelto
  • French: brome fausse orge; brome mou
  • Chinese: mao que mai

Local Common Names

  • Czech Republic: sverep mékký
  • Denmark: blød hejre
  • Finland: mäkikattara; nurmi-kattara
  • Germany: weiche trespe
  • Greece: bromos pyknos
  • Hungary: puha rozsnok
  • Italy: forasacco peloso; spigolina
  • Japan: hama chahiki
  • Netherlands: zachte dravik
  • New Zealand: goosegrass
  • Norway: lodnefaks
  • Poland: mechka kostrjawa; stoklosa miekka
  • Portugal: bromo-mole
  • Russian Federation: koster miagkii (Koster mjagkij)
  • Slovenia: zachte dravik
  • South Africa: sagtebromus
  • Sweden: luddlosta
  • Turkey: yumusak brom

EPPO code

  • BROMO (Bromus mollis)

Summary of Invasiveness

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B. hordeaceus is a grass species native to Europe. It has several features shared by successful invasive species including a short life cycle as an annual species and an association with a predominantly autogamous breeding system. In addition to this, complex polyploidy gives rise to a diversity which provides adventive populations with an enhanced adaptive capacity, allowing B. hordeaceus to respond to new selection pressures (Ainouche et al., 1999). B. hordeaceus has been introduced into parts of North and South America and Australia. It is a weed of crop fields, grasslands, orchards and turf where it competes with native vegetation and monopolizes resources.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Bromus
  •                                 Species: Bromus hordeaceus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Bromus, a weedy mimic of the cereal crops Triticum and Secale, is a taxonomically difficult genus with several unresolved species complexes complicated by a wide-ranging variety of opinions on taxonomic nomenclature (Smith, 1968; Smith, 1983; Scholz, 2008; Williams et al., 2011).

The nomenclature is confused by additional combinations which, though similar in appearance actually refer to a separate species of Bromus. For example Bromus hordeaceus var. intermedius is an accepted synonym for Bromus intermedius (Tropicos, 2013).

B. hordeaceus is a member of the family Poaceae (Watson and Dallwitz, 1992) and assigned to one of the seven sections, Bromus sect. bromus.

The Plant List (2015) details a total of 99 synonyms for B. hordeaceus. B. mollis is a frequent synonym used in European treatments, while B. hordeaceus is used elsewhere, especially in the Americas. Four subspecies are of B. hordeaceus have been described in the United States that, for the most part, are morphologically distinct (Barkworth et al., 2007). No evidence, however, has been found of genetic differentiation among them (Ainouche et al., 1999). These subspecies are B. hordeaceus L. subsp. hordeaceus, B. hordeaceus subsp. molliformis, B. hordeaceus subsp. pseudothominei and B. hordeaceus subsp. thominei. Bromus hordeaceus ssp. divaricatus has also been listed as a subspecies (ITIS, 2013).

Bromus: from Classical Greek βρομóς (bromos), a grass eaten by cattle, oats; and hordeaceus: from Classical Latin of or relating to barley.

Description

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Plants annual or biennial. Culms 2–70 cm, erect or ascending. Lower sheaths densely, often retrorsely pilose; upper sheaths pubescent or glabrous; ligules 1–1.5 mm, hairy, obtuse, erose; blades 2–19 cm long, 1–4 mm wide, abaxial surfaces glabrous or hairy, adaxial surfaces hairy. Panicles 1–13 cm long, 1–4 cm wide, erect, usually ovoid, open, becoming dense, occasionally reduced to 1 or 2 spikelets; branches shorter than the spikelets, ascending to erect, straight or almost so. Spikelets (11)14–20(23) mm, lanceolate, terete to moderately laterally compressed; florets 5–10, bases concealed at maturity; rachilla internodes concealed at maturity. Glumes pilose or glabrous; lower glumes 5–7 mm, 3–5-veined; upper glumes 6.5–8 mm, 5–7-veined; lemmas 6.5–11 mm long, 3–5 mm wide, lanceolate, chartaceous, antrorsely pilose to pubescent, or glabrous proximally or throughout, 7–9-veined, lateral veins prominently ribbed, rounded over the midvein, hyaline margins abruptly or bluntly angled, not inrolled at maturity, apices acute, bifid, teeth shorter than 1 mm; awns 6–8 mm, usually arising less than 1.5 mm below the lemma apices, straight to recurved at maturity; anthers 0.6–1.5 mm. Caryopses equaling or shorter than the paleas, thin, weakly inrolled to flat (Barkworth et al., 2007).

Plant Type

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Annual

Distribution

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B. hordeaceus is native to the Mediterranean basin and, more widely, Europe in general. B. hordeaceus has been introduced into the Americas, Eurasia, South Africa, Australasia, and some islands of the Pacific (Williams et al., 2011).

B. hordeaceus, a native species in the Czech Republic according to many treatments, is considered invasive in the Catalogue of alien plants of the Czech Republic (Pyšek et al., 2002).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNativeOued Imbert
EgyptPresent
LibyaPresentNative
MoroccoPresentNative17 miles Northwest of Qugda
South AfricaPresentIntroduced
TunisiaPresentNative

Asia

ArmeniaPresentPossible introduction through cultivation
AzerbaijanPresentNativePossible introduction through cultivation
ChinaPresentIntroducedOriginal citation: Tropicos (2013)
-GansuPresentIntroduced
-HebeiPresentIntroduced
-NingxiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-QinghaiPresentIntroduced
-XinjiangPresentIntroduced
GeorgiaPresentIntroduced
IranPresentIntroducedAhvaz-Dizful road, via Shush and Andimishk
IraqPresentIntroducedSouth side of Riber Zab, Mosul-Erbil road; 57 km. North of Mosul; 70 km. East of Kirkuk
JapanPresentIntroducedHyogo; Okayama Prefecture; Nara; Kanagawa Prefecture; Akita
KyrgyzstanPresent
LebanonPresentNative
PakistanPresentIntroduced
TaiwanPresentIntroduced
TajikistanPresent
TurkeyPresent
TurkmenistanPresent
UzbekistanPresent

Europe

AlbaniaPresentNative
AndorraPresentNative
AustriaPresent, WidespreadNative
BelarusPresentNative
BelgiumPresent, WidespreadNative
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentNative
BulgariaPresentNative
CroatiaPresent, WidespreadNative
CyprusPresent
DenmarkPresent, WidespreadNativeZealand; Sjaelland; Nordjylland; Vestjylland; Østjylland; Sjælland; jælland Fyn; Jylland
EstoniaPresent
Faroe IslandsPresentIntroduced
FinlandPresent, WidespreadNative
FrancePresent, WidespreadNative
-CorsicaPresent
GermanyPresent, WidespreadNative
GreecePresent, WidespreadNative
HungaryPresent, WidespreadNative
IcelandPresent
IrelandPresent, WidespreadNative
ItalyPresent, WidespreadNative
LatviaPresentNative
LithuaniaPresent
LuxembourgPresent, WidespreadNative
MaltaPresentNative
MoldovaPresentNative
NetherlandsPresent, WidespreadNative
NorwayPresentNativeOriginal citation: Tropicos (2013)
PolandPresent, WidespreadNative
PortugalPresent, WidespreadNative
-AzoresPresentNative
-MadeiraPresentNative
RomaniaPresentNative
RussiaPresentNative
-Central RussiaPresent
-Western SiberiaPresent
SerbiaPresentNativeNorth slope of Shar Planinna
SlovakiaPresent, WidespreadNative
SloveniaPresentNative
SpainPresent, WidespreadNative
-Balearic IslandsPresent
-Canary IslandsPresent
SwedenPresent, WidespreadNative
SwitzerlandPresentNative
UkrainePresent
United KingdomPresentNativeOriginal citation: Tropicos (2013)

North America

CanadaPresentIntroducedOriginal citation: Tropicos (2013)
-AlbertaPresentIntroduced
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroduced
-New BrunswickPresentIntroduced
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentIntroduced
-Northwest TerritoriesPresentIntroduced
-Nova ScotiaPresentIntroduced
-OntarioPresentIntroduced
-Prince Edward IslandPresentIntroduced
-QuebecPresentIntroduced
-YukonPresentIntroduced
GreenlandPresentIntroducedOriginal citation: Tropicos (2013)
MexicoPresentIntroducedOriginal citation: Tropicos (2013)
Saint Pierre and MiquelonPresentIntroduced
United StatesPresent, WidespreadIntroducedOriginal citation: Tropicos (2013)
-AlaskaPresentIntroducedLatitude: 58.3042; Longitude: -134.408
-ArizonaPresentIntroduced
-ArkansasPresentIntroduced
-CaliforniaPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
-ColoradoPresentIntroduced
-ConnecticutPresentIntroduced
-DelawarePresentIntroduced
-District of ColumbiaAbsent, Formerly present
-HawaiiPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveKauai; Maui; Hawaii; Molokai; Oahu
-IdahoPresentIntroduced
-IllinoisPresentIntroduced
-IndianaPresentIntroduced
-IowaPresentIntroduced
-KansasPresentIntroduced
-KentuckyPresentIntroduced
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedOuachita County
-MainePresentIntroduced
-MarylandPresentIntroduced
-MassachusettsPresentIntroduced
-MichiganPresentIntroduced
-MinnesotaPresentIntroduced
-MississippiPresentIntroduced
-MissouriPresentIntroduced
-MontanaPresentIntroduced
-NebraskaPresentIntroduced
-NevadaPresentIntroduced
-New HampshirePresentIntroduced
-New JerseyPresentIntroduced
-New MexicoPresentIntroduced
-New YorkPresentIntroduced
-North CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-North DakotaPresentIntroduced
-OhioPresentIntroduced
-OklahomaPresentIntroduced
-OregonPresentIntroduced
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroduced
-Rhode IslandPresentIntroduced
-South CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-South DakotaPresentIntroduced
-TennesseePresentIntroduced
-TexasPresentIntroduced
-UtahPresentIntroduced
-VermontPresentIntroduced
-VirginiaPresentIntroduced
-WashingtonPresentIntroduced
-West VirginiaAbsent, Formerly present
-WisconsinPresentIntroduced
-WyomingPresentIntroduced

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive'Melaleuca' Blackmans Bay; Bruny ISland; Big Chalky Island. [Off west coast of Flinders Island, NE of Whitemark]; Mount Chappell Island; Preservation Island; Woody Island; Swan Island, near Cape Portland; Near airstrip.Hogan's [Hogan] Island; Hogans [Hogan] Group. Kents Group; Deal Island, Browns, Bay. 2 km NW from Port Macdonnell; Port Fairy; Jacks Beach Reserve; Western Port Bay; Flinders Island.
New ZealandPresentIntroducedInvasiveKermadec Islands
Norfolk IslandPresentIntroducedInvasive

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedOriginal citation: Tropicos (2013)
BrazilPresentIntroducedOriginal citation: Tropicos (2013)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroducedSão Francisco de Paula
ChilePresentIntroducedOriginal citation: Tropicos (2013)
UruguayPresentIntroducedOriginal citation: Tropicos (2013)

Habitat

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B. hordeaceus is a graminoid found in crop fields, meadows, and annual grassland communities (Howard, 1998; FAO, 2013). In California and Oregon, B. hordeaceus is often a major component of annual grassland vegetation (Shock et al., 1984; Howard, 1998; Stapanian et al., 1998).

B. hordeaceus prefers a climate with relatively mild winters and very warm summers; however it adapts well to climatic variations. Dry Mediterranean climates are most favourable to B. hordeaceus (Howard, 1998). B. hordeaceus maximizes growth with moderate spring rainfall (-7 bar water regime) (Ewing and Menke, 1983). B. hordeaceus grows best on drained to dry soils; seed germination is significantly increased on decomposed granite as compared to organic matter such as straw (Howard, 1998).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Principal habitat
Terrestrial ManagedIndustrial / intensive livestock production systems Principal habitat
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Principal habitat
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Principal habitat
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Secondary/tolerated habitat
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Secondary/tolerated habitat
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Secondary/tolerated habitat
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRocky areas / lava flows Present, no further details
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalDeserts Present, no further details
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalArid regions Present, no further details
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details
LittoralCoastal dunes Secondary/tolerated habitat

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Festuca pratensis (meadow fescue)PoaceaeMain
    Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass)PoaceaeMain
      Prunus dulcis (almond)RosaceaeMain
        Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeMain
          Secale (rye)PoaceaeMain
            Triticum (wheat)PoaceaeMain

              Growth Stages

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              Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

              Biology and Ecology

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              Genetics

              Chromosome number: 2n = 28 (Ainouche et al., 1999; Lövkvist and Hultgård, 1999; Tropicos, 2013).

              Reproductive Biology

              B. hordeaceus is a mostly self-pollinating, autogamous annual (Howard, 1998). Establishment of B. hordeaceus from seed is limited by freezing temperature (Howard, 1998). B. hordeaceus germinates when sown on the surface with rates decreasing significantly when buried more than 2 cm deep (MingJer et al., 2006; Jensen, 2009). The seed bank of B. hordeaceus is most viable during the first year with most germination taking place within 13 months of seed dispersal. Some seeds however can persist for at least five years (Jensen, 2009). A study in New Zealand, on the other hand, found that more than 80% of the seeds of B. hordeaceus emerged within the first couple of months after planting, with full germination achieved by spring. Seed burial at depths from 1 to 20 cm did not significantly affect germination. Seedling establishment and vigour, however, were reduced with seed depth (Dastgheib and Poole, 2010).

              Physiology and Phenology

              B. hordeaceus has a C3 photosynthetic pathway (Grass Phylogeny Working Group et al., 2001).

              Atmospheric C/N ratio changes due to increase in C02 may decrease water stress and lengthen the growing season for B. hordeaceus (Larigauderie et al., 1988).

              B. hordeaceus is highly adaptive showing genetic differences and variation in response to landscape change through the addition of nutrients from fertilizers and the repeated removal of biomass through grazing or mowing (Völler et al., 2013).

              B. hordeaceus produces 1,108.86 pollen grains per flower; 221.10 flowers per inflorescence; and 245,176 pollen grains per inflorescence (Prieto-Baena et al., 2003).

              Germination of B. hordeaceus is influenced positively by a specific exposure range to light with decreasing germination rates at longer exposures. Potassium nitrate promoted germination significantly, but did not interact significantly with experimental light regimes (Ellis et al., 1986). B. hordeaceus seed dormancy is minimized when left undisturbed on soil surfaces and exposed to warmer temperatures (Clarke et al., 2000).

              Allelic variation at the Adh-lb locus in B. hordeaceus may be under selective control (Lönn, 1993). 

              Environmental Requirements

              B. hordeaceus prefers a climate with relatively mild winters and very warm summers; however it adapts well to climatic variations. Dry Mediterranean climates are most favourable to B. hordeaceus (Howard, 1998). B. hordeaceus maximizes growth with moderate spring rainfall (-7 bar water regime) (Ewing and Menke, 1983). B. hordeaceus grows best on drained to dry soils; seed germination is significantly increased on decomposed granite as compared to organic matter such as straw (Howard, 1998).

              Climate

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              ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
              BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
              Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
              Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
              Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Preferred Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

              Rainfall

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              ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
              Mean annual rainfall2501000mm; lower/upper limits

              Rainfall Regime

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              Bimodal

              Soil Tolerances

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              Soil drainage

              • free

              Soil reaction

              • alkaline
              • neutral

              Soil texture

              • heavy
              • medium

              Notes on Natural Enemies

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              The fecundity of B. hordeaceus is reduced by 42–45% when infected by BYDV-SGV (barley yellow dwarf virus) (Seabloom et al., 2009).

              Means of Movement and Dispersal

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              B. hordeaceus seed is wind dispersed (Frenkel, 1977). 

              Pathway Causes

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              CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
              Crop production Yes Yes Howard, 1998; Smith, 1968
              DisturbanceWeed fields, disturbed areas & waste space Yes HITCHCOCK, 1935
              ForageVariety Blando (Reg.No. 11) Yes Yes Alderson and Sharp, 1993; Howard, 1998; Smith, 1968
              Habitat restoration and improvement Yes USDA-NRCS, 2005
              Intentional release Yes USDA-NRCS, 2005
              Landscape improvement Yes USDA-NRCS, 2005
              Seed tradeCommon forage grass contaminate Yes Yes Smith, 1968

              Pathway Vectors

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              VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
              Wind Yes Williams et al., 2011

              Impact Summary

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              CategoryImpact
              Economic/livelihood Negative
              Environment (generally) Negative

              Economic Impact

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              B. hordeaceus is a weed of cereal crop fields (Smith, 1968; Cussans et al., 1994; Rowarth et al., 1995; Howard, 1998; Viggiani, 2007), orchards (Elmore, 1989; Lipecki and Janisz, 2000) and turf (Ziron and Opitz von Boberfeld, 2001) and can contaminate grass and clover seed production (Nørtoft, 1985).

              Environmental Impact

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              B. hordeaceus is an important weed of permanent grasslands (Hopkins and Peel, 1985). B. hordeaceus competes with native vegetation and monopolizes resources (Aanderud et al., 2003).

              The California Invasive Plant Council (Cal-IPC) however, classifies the potential impact of B. hordeaceus subsp. hordeaceus on its native ecosystems as limited (Calflora, 2013). 

              Threatened Species

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              Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
              Amaranthus pumilus (seabeach amaranth)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008b
              Chorizanthe pungens (Monterey spineflower)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009b
              Pseudobahia bahiifolia (Hartweg's golden sunburst)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaCompetition - stranglingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007
              Sanicula mariversa (Waianae Range blacksnakeroot)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008c
              Sidalcea keckii (Keck's checker-mallow)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008a
              Spermolepis hawaiiensis (Hawaii scaleseed)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Ecosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010
              Speyeria callippe callippe (callippe silverspot butterfly)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009a

              Risk and Impact Factors

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              Invasiveness
              • Invasive in its native range
              • Proved invasive outside its native range
              • Has a broad native range
              • Abundant in its native range
              • Highly adaptable to different environments
              • Is a habitat generalist
              • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
              • Pioneering in disturbed areas
              • Tolerant of shade
              • Highly mobile locally
              • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
              • Fast growing
              • Has high reproductive potential
              • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
              • Has high genetic variability
              Impact outcomes
              • Altered trophic level
              • Changed gene pool/ selective loss of genotypes
              • Damaged ecosystem services
              • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
              • Increases vulnerability to invasions
              • Modification of fire regime
              • Modification of nutrient regime
              • Negatively impacts agriculture
              • Reduced native biodiversity
              • Soil accretion
              Impact mechanisms
              • Allelopathic
              • Causes allergic responses
              • Competition - monopolizing resources
              • Competition - strangling
              • Competition (unspecified)
              • Pest and disease transmission
              • Hybridization
              • Rapid growth
              Likelihood of entry/control
              • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
              • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
              • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

              Uses

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              B. hordeaceus is considered a desirable and nutritious range of forage grass (Laude, 1957; Howard, 1998). It is used for natural or man-made disturbed area erosion control and sediment creation. Examples include bare un-vegetated slopes, such as brush burn areas, newly constructed roads, driveways, housing and industrial developments, gullies, drainages, ditch and channel banks, dikes, levees, dams, reservoirs, and other types of construction on sloping land (USDA-NRCS, 2005).

              B. hordeaceus is both an agricultural weed and a control cover crop used in the suppression of other weed species.It is well adapted for reseeding as an annual cover crop on both orchard and vineyard land because it can withstand excessive mowing better than other grasses and matures to seed under minimum watering (USDA-NRCS, 2005).

              It is an important food component for both deer and quail (USDA-NRCS, 2005).

              Uses List

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              Animal feed, fodder, forage

              • Forage

              Environmental

              • Agroforestry
              • Erosion control or dune stabilization
              • Land reclamation
              • Landscape improvement
              • Revegetation
              • Soil conservation
              • Soil improvement
              • Wildlife habitat

              Human food and beverage

              • Emergency (famine) food

              Materials

              • Green manure

              Ornamental

              • Seed trade

              Detection and Inspection

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              B. hordeaceus seed is difficult to detect by mechanical means in pasture grass seed packaging (Smith, 1968). According to Smith (1968) the "incidence of contamination may be a regional or climatic variable depending on methods of cultivation and cleaning and on the amount of effort expended in certifying the seed."

              Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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              B. hordeaceus is similar to the Australian native B. arenarius (FloraBase, 2012).

              B. hordeaceus can hybridize with B. erectus (Armstrong, 1983) and may intergrade with B. japonicus (Wester, 1981). 

              Prevention and Control

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              Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

              Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

              The use of cover cropping to control B. hordeaceus in place of pesticides has been shown to have a positive effect (Baumgartner et al., 2008).

              Fire has little direct effect on B. hordeaceus (Howard, 1998).

              Physical/Mechanical Control

              Seed set by B. hordeaceus can be prevented by hand pulling (FloraBase, 2012).

              Biological Control

              B. hordeaceus is infected by Drechslera sp. (perfect stage, Pyrenophora chaetomioides) but not killed (Lawrie et al., 1998).

              Chemical Control

              B. hordeaceus can be controlled using herbicides. The chemicals pyroxsulam, florasulam and cloquintocet-mexyl have been suggested to provide control of B. hordeaceus (Bucchi et al., 2008). In addition to this, acetic acid has been shown to provide significant control of B. hordeaceus (Young, 2004).

              In degraded areas it has been suggested to use 1% glyphosate on seedlings, young plants or when flowering (FloraBase, 2012). Sulfonyl amino carbonyl triazolinone herbicide controls B. hordeaceus in wheat when applied as a post-emergence between the 1 to 2-leaf stage and shoot elongation (Scoggan et al., 1999). Propoxycarbazone-sodium can be applied as a post-emergent in the spring to control B. hordeaceus (Amann, 2002).

              Ecosystem Restoration

              Removal of litter and duff from natural sites is shown to positively suppress Bromus species (Williams et al., 2011). 

              Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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              The full relevance of endophytic fungi in B. hordeaceus is not known and merits more research (Williams et al., 2011). Research should be supported by new DNA sequence analyses to resolve species relationships in the genus Bromus (Williams et al., 2011).

              Research in potential herbicide resistance should also be supported.

              References

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              Distribution References

              Acedo C, Llamas F, 1999. The genus Bromus L. (Poaceae) in the Iberian Peninsula. In: The genus Bromus L. (Poaceae) in the Iberian Peninsula. Stuttgart, Germany: J. Cramer in der Gebrüder Borntraeger Verlagsbuchhandlung. 293 pp.

              Anon, 2006. Flora of China, Vol. 22: Poaceae. [ed. by Wu Z Y, Raven P H, Hong D Y]. Beijing & St. Louis, China & USA: Science Press & Missouri Botanical Garden Press. xii + 733 pp. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=113749

              Brouillet L, Coursol F, Favreau M, 2006. Cornus sericea. In: VASCAN. The database of Canadian vascular plants, Montreal, Canada: Herbier Marie-Victorin, Institut de Recherche en Biologie Vegetale. http://www.botany.ubc.ca/herbarium/vascular/index.html

              CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

              CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

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              GBIF, 2012. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. http://www.gbif.org/species

              Geological Survey US, 2013. Biodiveristy information serving our nation - US species occurrance data and maps., USA: http://bison.usgs.ornl.gov/

              Ghaderi F, Sharifnabi B, Javan-Nikkhah M, 2017. Introduction of some species of Parastagonospora on poaceous plants in Iran. Rostaniha. 18 (2), 150-165. http://rostaniha.areo.ir/article_115953_a44af5e874b92a9f0c156d097eb21b05.pdf

              Hamal A, Benbella M, Rzozi S B, Bouhache M, Msatef Y, 2001. Cartography and geographical spread of the weedy bromes (Bromus spp.) of cereals in the Sais area of Morocco. (Cartographie et repartition geographique des especes de bromes adventices des cereales dans le Sais Maroc.). Mededelingen - Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent. 66 (2b), 761-768.

              Millspaugh CF, Nuttall LW, 1896. Flora of West Virginia., Chicago, USA: Field Columbian Museum. 276.

              MingJer J, GwoIng L, ChangSheng K, 2006. Notes on alien Bromus grasses in Taiwan. In: Taiwania, 51 (2) 131-138.

              PIER, 2012. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

              Planchuelo AM, Peterson PM, 2000. The species of Bromus (Poaceae: Bromae) in South America. In: Grasses: Systematics and Evolution, [ed. by Jacobs SWL, Everett J]. Collingwood, Victoria, Australia: CSIRO Publishing. 89-101.

              Russell Gibbs G E, Welman W G, Reitief E, Immelman K L, Germishuizen G, Pienaar B J, Wyk M van, Nicholas A, 1987. List of species of southern African plants. Memoirs of the Botanical Survey of South Africa. 2 (1; 2), 1-152; 1-270.

              Solymosi P, 1989. Studies of the occurrence of Bromus species in Pest County. (Bromus fajok előfordulásának vizsgálata Pest megyében.). Növényvédelem. 25 (5), 193-198.

              USDA-ARS, 2013. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

              USDA-NRCS, 2013. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

              Wittig R, Xie YingZhong, Raus T, Scholz H, 2000. Addenda ad floram Ningxiaensem - supplement to the flora of the Autonomous Region Ningxia, China. Willdenowia. 30 (1), 105-113. DOI:10.3372/wi.30.30109

              Contributors

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              31/05/2013 Original text by:

              John Peter Thompson, Consultant, Maryland, USA

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