Cookies on Invasive Species Compendium

Like most websites we use cookies. This is to ensure that we give you the best experience possible.

Continuing to use www.cabi.org/isc means you agree to our use of cookies. If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use.

Datasheet

Urochloa mutica

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 02 April 2014
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Urochloa mutica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • para grass
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • U. mutica is a perennial grass widely naturalized in tropical and subtropical regions of the world where it was introduced as a fodder grass. Now, this species is considered one of the world’s worst weeds in the United States, Australia, Mexico, a...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Growth habit.
TitleHabit
CaptionGrowth habit.
CopyrightSheldon Navie
Growth habit.
HabitGrowth habit.Sheldon Navie
Growth habit at water's edge.
TitleHabit
CaptionGrowth habit at water's edge.
CopyrightSheldon Navie
Growth habit at water's edge.
HabitGrowth habit at water's edge.Sheldon Navie
Seed head.
TitleSeed head
CaptionSeed head.
CopyrightSheldon Navie
Seed head.
Seed headSeed head.Sheldon Navie
Leaf and stem, note profuse hairs.
TitleStem
CaptionLeaf and stem, note profuse hairs.
CopyrightSheldon Navie
Leaf and stem, note profuse hairs.
StemLeaf and stem, note profuse hairs.Sheldon Navie
Leaf and stem.
TitleStem
CaptionLeaf and stem.
CopyrightSheldon Navie
Leaf and stem.
StemLeaf and stem.Sheldon Navie

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Urochloa mutica (Forssk.) T.Q.Nguyen

Preferred Common Name

  • para grass

Other Scientific Names

  • Brachiaria numidiana (Lam.) Henrard
  • Brachiaria purpurascens (Raddi) Henr.
  • Panicum amphibium Steud.
  • Panicum barbinode Trin.
  • Panicum equinum Salzm. ex Steud.
  • Panicum limnaeum Steud.
  • Panicum muticum Forssk.
  • Panicum numidianum Lam.
  • Panicum pictigluma Steud.
  • Panicum punctulatum Arn. ex Steud.
  • Panicum purpurascens Raddi
  • Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf

International Common Names

  • English: buffalo grass, California grass, Carib grass, Mauritius grass, para grass, Scotch grass, tall panicum, water grass
  • Spanish: gramalote, hierba de para, hierba para, malojilla, papare, parana, pasto para, Zacate para
  • French: herbe borer, herbe de Para
  • Portuguese: capim-de-Angola

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: angolinha, bengo, braquiária, capim-angola, capim-bengo, capim-branco, capim-das-ilhas, capim-de-cavalo, capim-de-corte, capim-de-lastro, capim-de-pará, capim-de-planta, capim-do-Pará, capim-fino, capim-planta, egipto, erva-do-pará, vapim-fino
  • Germany: Paragras
  • Indonesia: rumput melela
  • Mexico: zacate para
  • Puerto Rico: malojillo, yerba pará

EPPO code

  • PANPU (Brachiaria mutica)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

U. mutica is a perennial grass widely naturalized in tropical and subtropical regions of the world where it was introduced as a fodder grass. Now, this species is considered one of the world’s worst weeds in the United States, Australia, Mexico, and Central America (Holm et al., 1977; Chacon and Saborío, 2012; Hannan-Jones and Csurhes, 2012; Randall, 2012; USDA-NRCS, 2014). U. mutica has been intentionally introduced as a “ponded pasture grass” because its capability to establish on poorly drained (swampy or seasonally waterlogged) soils as well on free-draining soils in high rainfall environments (Cook et al., 2005). This grass species competes aggressively with other plants, with fast growth, high productivity, and allelopathic abilities that allow it to form dense stands (Holm et al., 1977; Langeland et al., 2008).

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Urochloa
  •                                 Species: Urochloa mutica

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

The grass species U. mutica was first described as Panicum muticum by Forsskal in 1775. It was moved to the genus Brachiaria in 1919 by Otto Stapf. The current name U. mutica was published in 1966. The genus Urochloa is paleotropical and includes 12 species native mainly to the African savannas (Torres-Gonzalez and Morton, 2005).

The weaknesses of the characters used to separate Brachiaria from Urochloa (i.e., spikelet orientation and presence or absence of an upper floret) have been discussed by several authors including Webster (1987, 1988) and Morrone and Zuloaga (1992, 1993). Consequently, floristic studies conducted in Australia (Webster, 1987), North America (Webster, 1988; Zuloaga and Morrone, 2003), South America, Mexico and Central America (Morrone and Zuloaga, 1992, 1993) have circumscribed species of Brachiaria into Urochloa. On the other hand, Sharp and Simon (2002) maintain the name Brachiaria for all species that occur in Australia and the annual species of Brachiaria are now included in the new genus Moorochloa (Veldkamp, 2004). The taxonomic positions of these genera still remain unclear.

Description

Top of page

U. mutica is a perennial; stoloniferous grass. Culms to 5 m long, long-decumbent and rooting at the lower nodes, vertical portion 90-200 (300) cm; nodes villous. Lower sheaths with papillose-based hairs, margins ciliate; collars pubescent; ligules 1-1.5 mm; blades 7.5-35 cm long, 4-20 mm wide, glabrous or sparsely pilose on both surfaces, margins scabrous. Panicles 10-25 cm long, 5-10 cm wide, pyramidal, with 10-30 spikelike branches in more than 2 ranks; primary branches 2.5-8 cm long, 0.4-0.9 mm wide, ascending to divergent, axes flat, glabrous or with a few papillose-based hairs, secondary branches present or absent; pedicels shorter than the spikelets, scabrous, sometimes with hairs. Spikelets 2.6-3.5 mm long, 1-1.4 mm wide, mostly in pairs, in 2-4 rows, appressed to the branches, purplish to green. Glumes scarcely separate, lower glumes 0.6-1.1 mm, 1/5-1/3 as long as the spikelets, glabrous, 0-1(3)-veined; upper glumes 2.6-3.5 mm, glabrous, 5-(7)-veined, without cross venation; lower florets staminate; lower lemmas 2.6-3.3 mm, glabrous, 5-veined, without cross venation; upper lemmas 2.3-2.8 mm long, 1-1.3 mm wide, apices rounded, mucronate; anthers 1-1.5 mm. Caryopses 1.8-2 mm long (Barkworth et al., 2003).

Plant Type

Top of pageGrass / sedge
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

Top of page

U. mutica is native to tropical areas of western and northern Africa (Parsons 1972) including areas from the Sahara to Angola, northern Africa to Syria, and the Southwestern Arabian Peninsula (Clayton et al., 2014). It is now also widely distributed in Australia, New Zealand, Asia, the southern United States, Mexico, Central America, South America and the West Indies (for details see Distribution Table).

Distribution Table

Top of page
CountryDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferencesNotes

ASIA

BangladeshPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
CambodiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al., 1977
China
-Hong KongPresentIntroducedWu, 2001
India
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
-AssamPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
-JavaPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
-SulawesiPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
-SumatraPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
IsraelPresentNativeClayton et al., 2014
JapanPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
LaosPresentWaterhouse, 1993
LebanonPresentNativeClayton et al., 2014
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al., 1977
MyanmarPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
NepalPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al., 1977
SingaporePresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al., 2009
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
SyriaPresentNativeClayton et al., 2014
TaiwanPresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al., 1977
ThailandPresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al., 1977
VietnamPresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al., 1977
YemenPresentNativeClayton et al., 2014

AFRICA

AlgeriaPresentNativeClayton et al., 2014
AngolaPresentNativeClayton et al., 2014
BeninPresentNativeClayton et al., 2014
Burkina FasoPresentNativeClayton et al., 2014
CameroonPresentNativeClayton et al., 2014
ChadPresentNativeClayton et al., 2014
CongoPresentNativeClayton et al., 2014
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentNativeClayton et al., 2014
Côte d'IvoirePresentNativeClayton et al., 2014
EgyptPresentNativeClayton et al., 2014
GabonPresentNativeClayton et al., 2014
GambiaPresentNativeClayton et al., 2014
GhanaPresentNativeClayton et al., 2014
GuineaPresentNativeClayton et al., 2014
LiberiaPresentNativeClayton et al., 2014
MadagascarPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
MaliPresentNativeClayton et al., 2014
MauritaniaPresentNativeClayton et al., 2014
MauritiusPresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al., 1977
MoroccoPresentNativeClayton et al., 2014
NigerPresentNativeClayton et al., 2014
NigeriaPresentNativeClayton et al., 2014
RéunionPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER, 2014
Rodriguez IslandPresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al., 1977
SenegalPresentNativeClayton et al., 2014
SeychellesPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
Sierra LeonePresentNativeClayton et al., 2014
SomaliaPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
TogoPresentNativeClayton et al., 2014
TunisiaPresentNativeClayton et al., 2014

NORTH AMERICA

BermudaPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
MexicoPresentIntroducedInvasiveVillaseñor & Espinosa-Garcia, 2004
USA
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-FloridaPresentIntroducedInvasiveFlorida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasiveWagner et al., 1999
-MarylandPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-OregonPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-TexasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014

CENTRAL AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012
ArubaPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
BahamasPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
BarbadosPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012
BelizePresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón & Saborío, 2012
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveGonzález-Torres et al., 2012
CuraçaoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012
DominicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
GrenadaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
HaitiPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
HondurasPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
JamaicaPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
MartiniquePresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012
MontserratPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
PanamaPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedInvasiveAcevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedGraveson, 2012Very common
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveAcevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012

SOUTH AMERICA

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
BoliviaPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
BrazilPresentIntroducedShirasuna, 2014Distrito Federal
-GoiasPresentIntroducedShirasuna, 2014
-Mato GrossoPresentIntroducedShirasuna, 2014
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedShirasuna, 2014
-ParanaPresentIntroducedInvasiveI3N Brasil, 2014
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedInvasiveI3N Brasil, 2014
ColombiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al., 1977
EcuadorPresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al., 1977Invasive on Galapagos Islands
French GuianaPresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007Naturalized
GuyanaPresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007Naturalized
ParaguayPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
PeruPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
SurinamePresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007Naturalized
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014

EUROPE

Portugal
-AzoresPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014
-MadeiraPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014

OCEANIA

American SamoaPresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace & Flynn, 2000
Australia
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentIntroducedInvasiveSmith, 2002
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedInvasiveSmith, 2002
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedInvasiveSmith, 2002
-South AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasiveSmith, 2002
-TasmaniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveSmith, 2002
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedInvasiveSmith, 2002
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasiveSmith, 2002
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedMcCormack, 2013
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasiveSmith, 1979
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveFlorence et al., 2013
GuamPresentIntroducedInvasiveStone, 1970
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveMacKee, 1994
New ZealandPresentIntroducedInvasiveSykes, 1977
NiuePresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace et al., 2004
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014
PalauPresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace et al., 2003
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
SamoaPresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al., 1977
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
TongaPresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace & Flynn, 2001
US Minor Outlying IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014
VanuatuPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014
Wallis and Futuna IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

U. mutica was introduced into the Americas via Brazil in the early days of trading (Parsons, 1972; Smith, 1979). Consequently, in the 1800s, there was confusion about its origin, with suggestions that it was native to South America, and in 1823 it was described from Brazilian specimens as Panicum purpurascens, and as Panicum barbinode in 1829 (Stone, 1970). It was introduced into Florida in the 1870s and recommended as a forage plant by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station in 1910 (Langeland et al., 2008; Chaudhari et al., 2012). In Australia, it was introduced into Queensland around 1880 to reduce soil erosion along the banks of waterways (Hannan-Jones and Csurhes, 2012). In the West Indies, it was first collected in 1883 in Puerto Rico (US Herbarium collection). By 1977, Holm and collaborators listed this species as a serious weed in Australia, Fiji and Thailand, a weed in Sri Lanka, Colombia, Hawaii, Jamaica, Malaysia, Peru, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Trinidad, and as a common weed in Borneo and Mauritius (Holm et al., 1977).

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

The risk of introduction of U. mutica is very high. It has been intentionally introduced repeatedly in tropical and subtropical regions to be used as a fodder, forage and silage crop (Cook et al., 2005). It has escaped from cultivation and rapidly naturalized into natural areas where it colonizes forming dense stands and displacing native vegetation (Holm et al., 1977; Langeland et al., 2008; Hannan-Jones and Csurhes, 2012). When growing under suitable environmental conditions (i.e., moist soils), U. mutica spreads rapidly (up to 5 metres in a year) through its long stolons and possibly through water-borne seed (Cook et al., 2005).

Habitat

Top of page

U. mutica can be found growing in poorly drained, swampy or seasonally waterlogged areas, along creeks, rivers, floodplains, wetlands and drainage channels, around lakes and dams, in roadside ditches and in other damp habitats (Holm et al., 1977; Cook et al., 2005; Hannan-Jones and Csurhes, 2012). In Florida, the species has been reported growing in coastal berms, hardwood hammocks, mesic and wet flatwoods, bottomland forests, floodplain forests, stream and spring shores, and ruderal communities. U. mutica also grows as a weed of summer crops, plantation crops such as sugarcane, sown pastures, rice plantations and orchards (Holm et al., 1977; Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011).

Habitat

Top of page
CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Freshwater
Irrigation channelsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Irrigation channelsPresent, no further detailsNatural
Irrigation channelsPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural
LakesPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
LakesPresent, no further detailsNatural
LakesPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural
PondsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
PondsPresent, no further detailsNatural
PondsPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural
Rivers / streamsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Rivers / streamsPresent, no further detailsNatural
Rivers / streamsPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural landPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural landPresent, no further detailsNatural
Cultivated / agricultural landPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural
Disturbed areasPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areasPresent, no further detailsNatural
Disturbed areasPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchardsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchardsPresent, no further detailsNatural
Managed forests, plantations and orchardsPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems)Present, no further detailsNatural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems)Present, no further detailsProductive/non-natural
Rail / roadsidesPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsidesPresent, no further detailsNatural
Rail / roadsidesPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural grasslandsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslandsPresent, no further detailsNatural
Natural grasslandsPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural
RiverbanksPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
RiverbanksPresent, no further detailsNatural
RiverbanksPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural
WetlandsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
WetlandsPresent, no further detailsNatural
WetlandsPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

The chromosome number reported for U. mutica is 2n = 36 (Barkworth et al., 2003). 

Reproductive Biology

U. mutica has been reported as a short-day species that flowers most prolifically in humid environments at latitudes of 10–20º (Cook et al., 2005). Pollination is apparently wind-aided and little or no flowering is reported at subtropical latitudes. In Florida, it flowers from September through December (Langeland et al., 2008) and in northern Australia it flowers in late April/early May and seeds in May (Cook et al., 2005). 

Longevity

U. mutica is a long-lived perennial species (Barkworth et al., 2003). 

Environmental Requirements

U. mutica is native to floodplains in sub-Saharan tropical Africa; thus this species prefers to grow in flat, poorly drained, seasonal floodplains or high rainfall environments in tropical and subtropical regions of the world (mostly in areas with full sunlight; Cook et al., 2005; Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011). It is also adapted to grow in wetlands, ponds, and along rivers, creeks and lakes from sea level to about 1500 metres in elevation. U. mutica is well adapted to a wide range of soil types (from sandy to clay soils), and tolerates moderate salinity, low pH to 4.5 and the high levels of trace elements normally produced under water-logged conditions. It is also adapted to high temperatures (20-35°C) but growth is restricted by temperatures below 15ºC (Cook et al., 2005).

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climateTolerated> 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climateToleratedTropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savannah climate with dry summerTolerated< 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climateTolerated< 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climatePreferred> 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climateTolerated< 430mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all yearToleratedWarm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summerToleratedWarm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winterToleratedWarm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC)1827.5

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall8704100mm; lower/upper limits

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • shallow

Natural Enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
CapnodiumMycoparasiteGrowing pointnot specificN
Mocis latipesHerbivoreAll Stagesnot specificN
RhizoctoniaPathogenAll Stagesnot specificN

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

According to the Purdue University NewCROP web site (based on Duke, 1983), the following fungi have been reported on U. mutica:

  • Epicoccum andropogonis
  • Thanatephorus cucumeris
  • Gibberella pulicaris
  • Helminthosporium sp.
  • Marasmius sacchari
  • Mayriogenospora paspali
  • Myrothecium striatosporum
  • Khuskia oryzae
  • Nigrospora panici
  • Perisporium zeae
  • Pythium artorogus
  • Pythium arrhenomanes
  • Magnaporthe grisea
  • Uromyces setariae-italicae 

This species is also attacked by the bacterium Pectobacterium carotovorum var. graminarum and the list of nematode species isolated from this grass includes:

  • Dolichodorus nigeriensis
  • Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus
  • Hemicriconemoides cocophilus
  • Scutellonema clathricaudatum
  • Tylenchorhynchus sp.
  • Xiphinema ifacolum

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

U. mutica spreads by seed and vegetatively by stolons. It can grow up to 5 metres in a year (Cook et al., 2005). U. mutica has water-borne seed and consequently seeds and stem fragments can be spread by floodwaters. Seeds and stem segments can also be dispersed by animals such as birds and by cattle. Long-distance dispersal occurs principally through its use as a pasture grass (Cook et al., 2005; Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011).

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Animal productionPasture grassYesYesCook et al., 2005
Escape from confinement/ garden escapeEscaped from cultivationYesYesCook et al., 2005
ForagePasture grassYesYesCook et al., 2005

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds, stem fragmentsYesYesCook et al., 2005
Land vehiclesSeeds, stem fragmentsYesYesCook et al., 2005
LivestockSeeds, runners and cuttingsYesYesCook et al., 2005
Machinery/equipmentSeeds, stem fragmentsYesYesCook et al., 2005
Mail/postSeedsYesYesCook et al., 2005
Soil, sand, gravel etc.Seeds, stem fragmentsYesYesCook et al., 2005
Vector/host speciesBirds spread seeds and stem fragmentsYesYesSmith, 2002
WaterSeeds, stem fragmentsYesYesSmith, 2002

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihoodPositive and negative
Environment (generally)Negative

Environmental Impact

Top of page

U. mutica is a fast-growing species which grows forming very dense infestations that smother riverbanks, wetlands, and floodplain vegetation, and it also floats out over the water surface reducing areas available for waterfowl and water-birds. It is invasive in riparian habitats, wetlands, and swamps in Australia, the United States (i.e., Florida and Hawaii), Mexico, Central America, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and islands in the Pacific (Holm et al., 1977; Wagner et al., 1999; Villaseñor and Espinosa-Garcia, 2004; Langeland et al., 2005; Chacon and Saborio, 2012; Gonzalez et al., 2012; PIER, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014). U. mutica also invades areas of remnant vegetation away from water, especially in coastal areas and disturbed sites.

In Australia, U. mutica is considered a serious environmental weed in wetlands in the Western Territory, Northern Territory, Queensland, and New South Wales, where it is destroying water-bird breeding habitats and replacing native vegetation along streams and in riparian zones. Here, this grass is destroying the breeding habitat of the magpie goose (Anseranas semipalmata) and reducing the ability of this bird to feed in open water. It is also one of the major environmental weeds infesting floodplains in the Northern Territory and contributing to the decline of the endangered yellow chat Epthianura crocea tunneyi (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011; Hannan-Jones and Csurhes, 2012).

In Florida, U. mutica invades disturbed low channels, lake shorelines, coastal berms, hardwood hammocks, mesic and wet flatwoods, bottomland forests, floodplain forests, streams, spring shores, marshes, swamps and ruderal communities where it is displacing native vegetation (Langeland et al., 2008).

U. mutica can also change the fire regime in invaded habitats because during the dry season the aboveground portion of the grass dries out becoming a potential “fuel activator” for fires. It also has the potential to alter the water carrying capacity of streams and riparian areas invaded, causing increased flooding in infested water systems (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011). In Brazil, U. mutica is one of several aquatic plant species that has caused significant damage to infrastructure associated with hydroelectric dams (Costa et al., 2006). 

Threatened Species

Top of page
Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferences
Epthianura crocea tunneyi (Yellow Chat (tunneyi))National list(s)Australian Northern TerritoryCompetition - smothering; Competition - stranglingQueensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page

Impact mechanisms

  • Allelopathic
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Competition - strangling
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting

Impact outcomes

  • Altered trophic level
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Infrastructure damage
  • Modification of fire regime
  • Modification of hydrology
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Soil accretion
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
  • Transportation disruption

Invasiveness

  • Abundant in its native range
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has a broad native range
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Long lived
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Reproduces asexually
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc

Likelihood of entry/control

  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally

Uses

Top of page

U. mutica has been used as forage, fodder and pasture grass in waterlogged conditions and ponded pastures. It has also been used to control soil erosion on sloping fields and in seasonally waterlogged areas (Cook et al., 2005; PROTA, 2014).

Uses List

Top of page

Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

Environmental

  • Erosion control or dune stabilization

Prevention and Control

Top of page

A combination of manual and chemical methods is recommended for the management of infestations of U. mutica. In the case of smaller infestations, plants can be cut out and all stolons must be removed. Larger infestations can be controlled by cutting the foliage and the aboveground segments of the grass. Long-term control of treated areas is recommended. The herbicide glyphosate can be applied to actively growing plants at the early head stage, but not to weeds growing over water (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011).

In Florida, a study evaluating the use of non-chemical control of U. mutica showed that burning, cutting, or roller-chopping should be applied in conjunction with flooding for effective management. This study shows that roller-chopping followed by flooding, and burning followed by flooding, can be options to control this grass species in areas where herbicides cannot be applied (Chaudhari et al., 2012).

References

Top of page

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Barkworth ME, Capels KM, Long S, Piep MB, 2003. Urochloa. Flora of North America, volume 25. http://herbarium.usu.edu/webmanual/

Chacón E, Saborío G, 2012. Red Interamericana de Información de Especies Invasoras, Costa Rica ([English title not available]). San José, Costa Rica: Asociación para la Conservación y el Estudio de la Biodiversidad. http://invasoras.acebio.org

Chaudhari S, Sellers BA, Rockwood SV, Ferrell JA, MacDonald GE, Kenworthy KE, 2012. Nonchemical methods for paragrass (Urochloa mutica) control. Invasive Plant Science and Management, 5(1):20-26. http://wssajournals.org/loi/ipsm

Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett , RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore. National University of Singapore, Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, 273 pp.

Clayton WD, Govaerts R, Harman KT, Williamson H, Vorontsova M, 2014. World Checklist of Poaceae. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Cook B, Pengelly B, Brown S, Donnelly J, Eagle D, Franco A, Hanson J, Mullen B, Partridge I, Peters M, Schultze-Kraft R, 2005. Tropical Forages: an interactive selection tool. Brisbane, Australia: CSIRO, DPI&F (Qld), CIAT and ILRI. http://www.tropicalforages.info/

Costa NV, Rodella RA, Martins D, 2006. Differentiation of aquatic weeds by multivariate analysis of foliar structural characters. (Diferenciação de espécies daninhas aquáticas pela análise multivariada de caracteres estruturais foliares.) Planta Daninha, 24(1):13-20. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/pd/v24n1/a02v24n1.pdf

DAISIE, 2014. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

Duke JA, 1983. Bracheri mutica (Forsk). Stapf. Handbook of Energy Crops. Unpublished. West Lafayette, Indiana, USA: Centre for New Crops and Plant Products, Purdue University. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Brachiaria_mutica.html#Yields%20and%20Economics

Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer J-Y, 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP) (Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011. Florida EPPC's 2011 Invasive Plant Species List. http://www.fleppc.org/list/11list.html

Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 55:584 pp.

González-Torres LR, Rankin R, Palmarola A (eds), 2012. Invasive plants in Cuba. (Plantas Invasoras en Cuba.) Bissea: Boletin sobre Conservacion de Plantad del Jardin Botanico Nacional, 6:1-140.

Graveson R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). http://www.saintlucianplants.com

Hannan-Jones M, Csurhes S, 2012. Para grass- Urichloa mutica. Invasive species risk assessment., Australia: Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. http://www.daff.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/65254/IPA-Para-Grass-Risk-Assessment.pdf

Holm LG, Plucknett DL, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, 1977. The World's Worst Weeds. Distribution and Biology. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University Press of Hawaii.

I3N Brasil, 2014. National database of exotic invasive species (Base de dados nacional de espécies exóticas invasoras). Florianópolis - SC, Brazil: I3N Brasil, Instituto Hórus de Desenvolvimento e Conservação Ambiental. http://i3n.institutohorus.org.br

Langeland KA, Cherry HM, McCormick CM, Craddock Burks KA, 2008. Identification and Biology of Non-native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas. Gainesville, Florida, USA: University of Florida IFAS Extension.

MacKee HS, 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, unpaginated.

McCormack G, 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database. Rarotonga, Cook Islands: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust. http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org/search.asp

Morrone O, Zuloaga FO, 1992. A revision of the native and introduced South American species of Brachiaria (Trin.) Griseb. and Urochloa P. Beauv. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae). (Revisión de las especies sudamericanas nátivas e introducidas de los géneros Brachiaria y Urochloa (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae).) Darwiniana, 31(1-4):43-109.

Morrone O, Zuloaga FO, 1993. Synopsis of the genus Urochloa (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae) from Mexico and Central America. (Sinopsis del género Urochloa (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae) para Mexico y América Central.) Darwiniana, 32:59-75.

PARSONS JJ, 1972. Spread of African pasture grasses to the American tropics. Journal of Range Management, 25(1):12-17.

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PROTA, 2014. PROTA4U web database. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.info

Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011. Special edition of Environmental Weeds of Australia for Biosecurity Queensland., Australia: The University of Queensland and Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/media/Html/Index.htm

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.agric.wa.gov.au/objtwr/imported_assets/content/pw/weed/global-compendium-weeds.pdf

Sharp D, Simon BK, 2002. AusGrass1: Grasses of Australia. Canberra and Queensland, Australia: Australian Biological Resources Study and Environmental Protection Agency.

Shirasuna RT, 2014. Urochloa in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil ([English title not available]). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB24316

Smith AC, 1979. Flora Vitiensis nova: A new flora of Fiji. Volume I. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii: National Tropical Botanical Garden, 338-339.

Smith NM, 2002. Weeds of the wet/dry tropics of Australia - a field guide., Australia: Environment Centre NT, Inc, 112 pp.

Space JC, Flynn T, 2000. Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa. Honolulu, USA: USDA Forest Service, 51 pp.

Space JC, Flynn T, 2001. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on invasive plant species of environmental concern. Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, 79 pp.

Space JC, Waterhouse B, Miles JE, Tiobech J, Rengulbai K, 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service, 174 pp.

Space JC, Waterhouse BM, Newfield M, Bull C, 2004. Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. 80 pp. [UNDP NIU/98/G31 - Niue Enabling Activity.] http://www.hear.org/pier/reports/niue_report_2004.htm

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Stone BC, 1970. The flora of Guam. Micronesia, 6:1-659.

Sykes WR, 1977. Kermadec Islands flora: an annotated checklist. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin, 219:216 pp.

Torres González AM, Morton CM, 2005. Molecular and morphological phylogenetic analysis of Brachiaria and Urochloa (Poaceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 37(1):36-44. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10557903

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Veldkamp JF, 2004. Miscellaneous notes on mainly Southeast Asian gramineae. Reinwardtia, 12:135-140.

Villaseñor JL, Espinosa-Garcia FJ, 2004. The alien flowering plants of Mexico. Diversity and Distributions, 10(2):113-123.

Wagner WI, Herbst DR, Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii, Revised edition. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press, 1498-1499.

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

Webster RD, 1987. Australian Paniceae (Poaceae). Berlin, Germany: J. Cramer, 322<thin>pp.

Webster RD, 1988. Genera of the North American Paniceae (Poaceae: Panicoideae). Systematic Botany, 13(4):576-609.

Wu T-L, 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin (revised), 1:384 pp.

Zuloaga FO, Morrone O, 2003. Brachiaria, Urochloa. Contributions of the US National Herbarium, 46:141-143, 629-634. [Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): III. Subfamilies Panicoideae, Aristidoideae, Arundionoideae, and Danthonioideae.]

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
Tropicos.orghttp://www.tropicos.org/
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER): Plant threats to Pacific ecosystemshttp://www.hear.org/pier/index.html
Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm
Plant Resources of Tropical Africahttp://www.prota.org
Grasses in North Americahttp://herbarium.usu.edu/webmanual/
Tropical Forageshttp://www.tropicalforages.info/index.htm

Contributors

Top of page

12/02/14 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Distribution Maps

Top of page
Distribution map Antigua and Barbuda: Present, introduced
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012Netherlands Antilles: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Angola: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Argentina: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014American Samoa: Present, introduced, invasive
Space & Flynn, 2000Australia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAruba: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Barbados: Present, introduced
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012Barbados: Present, introduced
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012Bangladesh: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Burkina Faso: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Benin: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Bermuda: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Bolivia: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Brazil: Present, introduced
Shirasuna, 2014Brazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBahamas: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Bahamas: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Belize: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Belize: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Congo: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Côte d'Ivoire: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Cook Islands: Present, introduced
McCormack, 2013Cameroon: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014China
See regional map for distribution within the countryColombia: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1977Colombia: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1977Curaçao: Present, introduced
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012Costa Rica: Present, introduced, invasive
Chacón & Saborío, 2012Costa Rica: Present, introduced, invasive
Chacón & Saborío, 2012Cuba: Present, introduced, invasive
González-Torres et al., 2012Cuba: Present, introduced, invasive
González-Torres et al., 2012Dominica: Present, introduced
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012Dominican Republic: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Dominican Republic: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Algeria: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Algeria: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Ecuador: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1977Egypt: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Fiji: Present, introduced, invasive
Smith, 1979Gabon: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Grenada: Present, introduced
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012French Guiana: Present, introduced
Funk et al., 2007Ghana: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Gambia: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Guinea: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Guadeloupe: Present, introduced
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012Guatemala: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Guatemala: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Guam: Present, introduced, invasive
Stone, 1970Guyana: Present, introduced
Funk et al., 2007Guyana: Present, introduced
Funk et al., 2007Honduras: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Honduras: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Haiti: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Haiti: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Indonesia: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Indonesia: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Indonesia
See regional map for distribution within the countryIndonesia
See regional map for distribution within the countryIndonesia
See regional map for distribution within the countryIndonesia
See regional map for distribution within the countryIsrael: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Israel: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014India
See regional map for distribution within the countryIndia
See regional map for distribution within the countryJamaica: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Jamaica: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Japan: Present, introduced
USDA-ARS, 2014Cambodia: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1977Saint Kitts and Nevis: Present, introduced
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012Cayman Islands: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Laos: Present
Waterhouse, 1993Lebanon: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Lebanon: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Lebanon: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Saint Lucia: Present, introduced
Graveson, 2012Sri Lanka: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Liberia: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Morocco: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Morocco: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Madagascar: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Marshall Islands: Present, introduced
PIER, 2014Mali: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Myanmar: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Northern Mariana Islands: Present, introduced
PIER, 2014Martinique: Present, introduced
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012Mauritania: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Montserrat: Present, introduced
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012Mauritius: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1977Mexico: Present, introduced, invasive
Villaseñor & Espinosa-Garcia, 2004Mexico: Present, introduced, invasive
Villaseñor & Espinosa-Garcia, 2004Malaysia: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1977New Caledonia: Present, introduced, invasive
MacKee, 1994Niger: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Nigeria: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Nicaragua: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Nicaragua: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Nicaragua: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Nepal: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Niue: Present, introduced, invasive
Space et al., 2004New Zealand: Present, introduced, invasive
Sykes, 1977Panama: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Panama: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Peru: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014French Polynesia: Present, introduced, invasive
Florence et al., 2013Papua New Guinea: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Papua New Guinea: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Philippines: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1977Philippines: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1977Puerto Rico: Present, introduced, invasive
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012Puerto Rico: Present, introduced, invasive
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012Portugal
See regional map for distribution within the countryPortugal
See regional map for distribution within the countryPortugal
See regional map for distribution within the countryPalau: Present, introduced, invasive
Space et al., 2003Palau: Present, introduced, invasive
Space et al., 2003Paraguay: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Réunion: Present, introduced, invasive
PIER, 2014Rodriguez Island: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1977Solomon Islands: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Seychelles: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Singapore: Present, introduced, invasive
Chong et al., 2009Sierra Leone: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Senegal: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Somalia: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Suriname: Present, introduced
Funk et al., 2007Suriname: Present, introduced
Funk et al., 2007El Salvador: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014El Salvador: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Syria: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Syria: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Syria: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Chad: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Togo: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Thailand: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1977Tunisia: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Tunisia: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Tonga: Present, introduced, invasive
Space & Flynn, 2001Trinidad and Tobago: Present, introduced
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012Trinidad and Tobago: Present, introduced
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012Taiwan: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1977Taiwan: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1977Tanzania: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014US Minor Outlying Islands: Present, introduced
PIER, 2014USA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countrySaint Vincent and the Grenadines: Present, introduced
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012Venezuela: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Venezuela: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014United States Virgin Islands: Present, introduced, invasive
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012Vietnam: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1977Vanuatu: Present, introduced
PIER, 2014Wallis and Futuna Islands: Present, introduced
PIER, 2014Samoa: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1977Yemen: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Yemen: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Congo Democratic Republic: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014
  • = Present, no further details
  • = Evidence of pathogen
  • = Widespread
  • = Last reported
  • = Localised
  • = Presence unconfirmed
  • = Confined and subject to quarantine
  • = See regional map for distribution within the country
  • = Occasional or few reports
Download KML file Download CSV file
Creative Commons Licence
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Please click OK to ACCEPT or Cancel to REJECT

Creative Commons Licence
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Please click OK to ACCEPT or Cancel to REJECT

Distribution map (asia) Bangladesh: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Hong Kong: Present, introduced
Wu, 2001Indonesia: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Java: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Sulawesi: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Sumatra: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Israel: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Andaman and Nicobar Islands: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Assam: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Japan: Present, introduced
USDA-ARS, 2014Cambodia: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1977Laos: Present
Waterhouse, 1993Lebanon: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Sri Lanka: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Myanmar: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Malaysia: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1977Nepal: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Papua New Guinea: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Philippines: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1977Palau: Present, introduced, invasive
Space et al., 2003Singapore: Present, introduced, invasive
Chong et al., 2009Syria: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Thailand: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1977Taiwan: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1977Vietnam: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1977Yemen: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014
Distribution map (europe) Algeria: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Lebanon: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Morocco: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Azores: Present, introduced
DAISIE, 2014Madeira: Present, introduced
DAISIE, 2014Syria: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Tunisia: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014
Distribution map (africa) Angola: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Burkina Faso: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Benin: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Congo: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Côte d'Ivoire: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Cameroon: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Algeria: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Egypt: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Gabon: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Ghana: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Gambia: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Guinea: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Israel: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Lebanon: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Liberia: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Morocco: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Madagascar: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Mali: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Mauritania: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Mauritius: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1977Niger: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Nigeria: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Madeira: Present, introduced
DAISIE, 2014Réunion: Present, introduced, invasive
PIER, 2014Rodriguez Island: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1977Seychelles: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Sierra Leone: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Senegal: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Somalia: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Syria: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Chad: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Togo: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Tunisia: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Tanzania: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Yemen: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014Congo Democratic Republic: Present, native
Clayton et al., 2014
Distribution map (north america) Bermuda: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Bahamas: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Belize: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Cuba: Present, introduced, invasive
González-Torres et al., 2012Dominican Republic: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Guatemala: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Honduras: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Haiti: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Jamaica: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Mexico: Present, introduced, invasive
Villaseñor & Espinosa-Garcia, 2004Nicaragua: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Puerto Rico: Present, introduced, invasive
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012El Salvador: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Alabama: Present, introduced
USDA-NRCS, 2014Florida: Present, introduced, invasive
Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011Hawaii: Present, introduced, invasive
Wagner et al., 1999Maryland: Present, introduced
USDA-NRCS, 2014Oregon: Present, introduced
USDA-NRCS, 2014South Carolina: Present, introduced
USDA-NRCS, 2014Texas: Present, introduced
USDA-NRCS, 2014
Distribution map (central america) Antigua and Barbuda: Present, introduced
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012Netherlands Antilles: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Aruba: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Barbados: Present, introduced
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012Bahamas: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Belize: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Colombia: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1977Curaçao: Present, introduced
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012Costa Rica: Present, introduced, invasive
Chacón & Saborío, 2012Cuba: Present, introduced, invasive
González-Torres et al., 2012Dominica: Present, introduced
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012Dominican Republic: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Grenada: Present, introduced
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012Guadeloupe: Present, introduced
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012Guatemala: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Guyana: Present, introduced
Funk et al., 2007Honduras: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Haiti: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Jamaica: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Saint Kitts and Nevis: Present, introduced
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012Cayman Islands: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Saint Lucia: Present, introduced
Graveson, 2012Martinique: Present, introduced
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012Montserrat: Present, introduced
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012Mexico: Present, introduced, invasive
Villaseñor & Espinosa-Garcia, 2004Nicaragua: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Panama: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Puerto Rico: Present, introduced, invasive
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012Suriname: Present, introduced
Funk et al., 2007El Salvador: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Trinidad and Tobago: Present, introduced
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012Florida: Present, introduced, invasive
Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: Present, introduced
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012Venezuela: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014United States Virgin Islands: Present, introduced, invasive
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012
Distribution map (south america) Argentina: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Barbados: Present, introduced
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012Bolivia: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Brazil: Present, introduced
Shirasuna, 2014Goias: Present, introduced
Shirasuna, 2014Minas Gerais: Present, introduced
Shirasuna, 2014Mato Grosso: Present, introduced
Shirasuna, 2014Parana: Present, introduced, invasive
I3N Brasil, 2014Sao Paulo: Present, introduced, invasive
I3N Brasil, 2014Colombia: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1977Costa Rica: Present, introduced, invasive
Chacón & Saborío, 2012Ecuador: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1977French Guiana: Present, introduced
Funk et al., 2007Guyana: Present, introduced
Funk et al., 2007Nicaragua: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Panama: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Peru: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Paraguay: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Suriname: Present, introduced
Funk et al., 2007Trinidad and Tobago: Present, introduced
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012Venezuela: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014
Distribution map (pacific) American Samoa: Present, introduced, invasive
Space & Flynn, 2000Australian Northern Territory: Present, introduced, invasive
Smith, 2002New South Wales: Present, introduced, invasive
Smith, 2002Queensland: Present, introduced, invasive
Smith, 2002South Australia: Present, introduced, invasive
Smith, 2002Tasmania: Present, introduced, invasive
Smith, 2002Victoria: Present, introduced, invasive
Smith, 2002Western Australia: Present, introduced, invasive
Smith, 2002Cook Islands: Present, introduced
McCormack, 2013Fiji: Present, introduced, invasive
Smith, 1979Guam: Present, introduced, invasive
Stone, 1970Indonesia: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Sulawesi: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Marshall Islands: Present, introduced
PIER, 2014Northern Mariana Islands: Present, introduced
PIER, 2014New Caledonia: Present, introduced, invasive
MacKee, 1994Niue: Present, introduced, invasive
Space et al., 2004New Zealand: Present, introduced, invasive
Sykes, 1977French Polynesia: Present, introduced, invasive
Florence et al., 2013Papua New Guinea: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Philippines: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1977Palau: Present, introduced, invasive
Space et al., 2003Solomon Islands: Present, introduced
Clayton et al., 2014Tonga: Present, introduced, invasive
Space & Flynn, 2001Taiwan: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1977US Minor Outlying Islands: Present, introduced
PIER, 2014Vanuatu: Present, introduced
PIER, 2014Wallis and Futuna Islands: Present, introduced
PIER, 2014Samoa: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1977