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Datasheet

brucellosis (Brucella ovis)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 September 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • brucellosis (Brucella ovis)
  • Overview
  • Ovine contagious epididymitis is a chronic disease that affects the reproductive tract of rams, causing reduced fertility (Burge...
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • brucellosis (Brucella ovis)

International Common Names

  • English: Brucella ovis ram epididymitis; brucellosis in sheep; epididymitis of rams; epididymitis, orchitis, in sheep, goats, and pigs; orchitis; ovine contagious epididymitis; ovine epididymitis; ovine epididymitis (Brucella ovis); seminal vesiculitis, adenitis, in large animals

Overview

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Ovine contagious epididymitis is a chronic disease that affects the reproductive tract of rams, causing reduced fertility (Burgess, 1982). The causative agent was isolated in the early fifties in New Zealand and Australia (McFarlane et al., 1952; Simmons and Hall, 1953), and the organism was named Brucella ovis in 1956 (Buddel, 1956). The micro-organism causes a transmissible disease unique to sheep in which the major symptom is epididymitis in rams and occasionally abortion in ewes. The disease in rams causes economic loss to the sheep industry of many countries mainly due to low fertility rates. Humans are not affected by B. ovis.

Ovine epididymitis (Brucella ovis) is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). For further information on this disease from OIE, see the website: www.oie.int.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Capra hircus (goats)Experimental settingsSheep & Goats: Breeding male
Ovis aries (sheep)Domesticated hostSheep & Goats: All Stages|Sheep & Goats/Mature female|Sheep & Goats/Breeding male

Hosts/Species Affected

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Natural infections in species other than sheep have not been reported, although goats are susceptible to experimental inoculation with Brucella ovis (Blasco, 1990). Whether goats can be a vector is unclear. However, ewes may become the reservoir of B. ovis since they are involved in transmitting B. ovis (FAO/WHO, 1986).

Distribution

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Brucella ovis infection is usually found in countries with intensive sheep farming. Outbreaks of the disease have been reported in New Zealand, Australia, the USA, Argentina, Russia, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Hungary, France, Spain, Canada, Germany, Mexico, Uruguay, Peru, Chile, Brazil and South Africa (Blasco, 1990). Presence of the disease has also been reported in Poland, Pakistan, Bulgaria, Nigeria, Austria, Ivory Coast, Niger, Turkey, Italy, Falkland Islands and other countries (see distribution map).

For current information on disease incidence, see OIE's WAHID Interface.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanNo information availableOIE, 2009
ArmeniaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
AzerbaijanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
BahrainDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
BangladeshNo information availableOIE, 2009
BhutanNo information availableOIE, 2009
CambodiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
ChinaNo information availableNULLFeng et al., 1997; OIE, 2009
-Hong KongNo information availableOIE, 2009
-XinjiangPresentLiu et al., 1983
IndiaAbsent, reported but not confirmedNULLKatoch et al., 1996; OIE, 2009
IndonesiaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
IranDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
IraqDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
IsraelDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
JapanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
JordanDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
KazakhstanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Korea, Republic ofNo information availableOIE, 2009
KuwaitDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
KyrgyzstanRestricted distributionOIE, 2009
LaosDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
LebanonDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
MalaysiaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
MongoliaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
MyanmarDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
NepalNo information availableOIE, 2009
OmanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
PakistanNo information availableNULLAfzal et al., 1987; OIE, 2009
PhilippinesDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
QatarNo information availableOIE, 2009
Saudi ArabiaPresentOIE, 2009
SingaporeDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Sri LankaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
SyriaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
TajikistanNo information availableOIE, 2009
ThailandNo information availableOIE, 2009
TurkeyNo information availableNULLTürütoglu, 1992; OIE, 2009
United Arab EmiratesDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
VietnamDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
YemenNo information availableOIE, 2009

Africa

AlgeriaNo information availableOIE, 2009
AngolaNo information availableOIE, 2009
BeninDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
BotswanaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Burkina FasoNo information availableOIE, 2009
ChadNo information availableOIE, 2009
CongoNo information availableOIE, 2009
Côte d'IvoireReported present or known to be presentChartier, 1992
DjiboutiDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
EgyptNo information availableOIE, 2009
EritreaNo information availableOIE, 2009
EthiopiaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
GabonNo information availableOIE, 2009
GambiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
GhanaNo information availableOIE, 2009
GuineaNo information availableOIE, 2009
Guinea-BissauNo information availableOIE, 2009
KenyaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
LesothoPresentOIE, 2009
MadagascarDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MalawiNo information availableOIE, 2009
MaliNo information availableOIE, 2009
MauritiusDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MoroccoNo information availableOIE, 2009
MozambiqueDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
NamibiaPresentOIE, 2009
NigerPresentBloch and Diallo, 1991
NigeriaNo information availableNULLAdesiyun et al., 1985; OIE, 2009
RwandaNo information availableOIE, 2009
SenegalNo information availableOIE, 2009
South AfricaPresentNULLJansen, 1980; OIE, 2009
SudanRestricted distributionOIE, 2009
SwazilandDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
TanzaniaNo information availableOIE, 2009
TogoNo information availableOIE, 2009
TunisiaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
UgandaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
ZambiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
ZimbabweDisease not reportedOIE, 2009

North America

CanadaAbsent, reported but not confirmedOIE, 2009
-AlbertaPresentNiilo et al., 1986
-OntarioPresentBuckrell et al., 1985
GreenlandDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MexicoDisease not reportedNULLPerez and Flores-Castro, 1979; OIE, 2009
USARestricted distributionOIE, 2009
-IdahoPresentDeLong et al., 1979
-IowaPresentYoungs and Weber, 1992
-KansasPresentBeeman et al., 1982
-OregonPresentBulgin, 1990
-UtahPresentBagley et al., 1985
-WyomingPresentCorbel et al., 1983

Central America and Caribbean

BelizeDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Costa RicaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
CubaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Dominican RepublicDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
El SalvadorNo information availableOIE, 2009
GuadeloupeNo information availableOIE, 2009
GuatemalaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
HaitiNo information availableOIE, 2009
HondurasNo information availableOIE, 2009
JamaicaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MartiniqueNo information availableOIE, 2009
NicaraguaNo information availableOIE, 2009
PanamaNo information availableOIE, 2009

South America

ArgentinaRestricted distributionNULLRobles et al., 1993; OIE, 2009
BoliviaNo information availableOIE, 2009
BrazilDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
-Rio Grande do SulPresentMagalhaes and Gil-Turnes, 1996
-Sao PauloPresentMarinho and Mathias, 1996
ChileRestricted distributionNULLTamayo et al., 1989; OIE, 2009
ColombiaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
EcuadorDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Falkland IslandsLast reported1991Reichel et al., 1994
French GuianaNo information availableOIE, 2009
PeruDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
UruguayPresentNULLParavis et al., 1995; OIE, 2009
VenezuelaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009

Europe

AlbaniaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
AustriaDisease not reported200804Khaschabi et al., 1993; OIE, 2009
BelarusDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
BelgiumDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
BulgariaPresentNULLMilanov et al., 1986; OIE, 2009
CroatiaPresentOIE, 2009
CyprusDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Czech RepublicDisease not reported2004Seidl and Bischofová, 1990; OIE, 2009
DenmarkDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
EstoniaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
FinlandDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
FranceRestricted distributionNULLFensterbank, 1987; OIE, 2009
GermanyDisease not reported1986Pozvari, 1980; OIE, 2009
GreeceDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
HungaryPresentNULLHegedüs et al., 1992; OIE, 2009
IcelandDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
IrelandDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
ItalyNo information availableNULLFarina et al., 1995; OIE, 2009
LatviaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
LithuaniaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
LuxembourgDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
MacedoniaNo information availableOIE, 2009
MaltaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MontenegroDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
NetherlandsDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
NorwayDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
PolandDisease not reported2004Boryczko and Królak, 1987; OIE, 2009
PortugalDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
RomaniaPresentOIE, 2009
Russian FederationPresentOIE, 2009
-Russia (Europe)PresentSyusyukin et al., 1986
SerbiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
SlovakiaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
SloveniaPresentNULLBrglez et al., 1993; OIE, 2009
SpainRestricted distributionNULLBlasco et al., 1982; OIE, 2009
SwedenDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
SwitzerlandDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
UKDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
UkraineDisease not reported199412Dénes et al., 1993; OIE, 2009

Oceania

AustraliaPresentNULLGee, 1987; OIE, 2009
French PolynesiaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
New CaledoniaPresentOIE, 2009
New ZealandPresentNULLWest and Bruce, 1991; OIE, 2009

Diagnosis

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The diagnosis of Brucella ovis infection in rams is complicated by the fact that infected rams retain a degree of sexual activity and fertility although the total concentration and number of normal living spermatozoa are significantly reduced (Cameron and Lauerman, 1976; Blasco, 1990). Palpation of the testicles may give a presumptive diagnosis but epididymitis is not unique to infection with B. ovis. Examination of smears of semen with the specific immunofluorescent staining technique can successfully identify infected rams (Ajai et al., 1980).

Isolation of the agent from a diseased animal unequivocally establishes the infection but because excretion of the organism may be intermittent, infected rams may test culture negative (Hughes and Claxton, 1968). Nevertheless, the most common sites from which B. ovis can be isolated at necropsy are the epididymis and accessory sexual glands (Worthington et al., 1985). Recovery of B. ovis from dead lambs is most frequent from the lungs, abomasum contents, and the spleen (Burgess, 1982). Culturing of B. ovis from the semen of suspected rams is not only cumbersome but also very expensive.

As with B. abortus and B. melitensis serological tests are essential for the diagnosis of B. ovis. While the serum agglutination test, Coombs test, Rivanol test, Rose Bengal plate test, complement fixation test (CFT) and the gel diffusion test can be used to detect infected rams (Corbel et al., 1979), the CFT, (double) gel diffusion, and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are the commonly used tests.

Although the CFT has been widely used for the detection of B. ovis infections (Blasco, 1990) the sensitivity and specificity of the test depend largely on the time of incubation, temperature at which the reaction takes place and the antigen used (Searson, 1982). Because a suspension of whole cells of B. ovis gives an anticomplementary activity (Clapp, 1961), which hinders reading CFT results, the antigen used is usually a hot saline extract of B. ovis. However, cross-reactions may occur in sera from sheep infected with B. melitensis or vaccinated with Rev 1 (Blasco, 1990) causing interference with diagnostic tests. Furthermore, a percentage of rams shedding Brucellae elude detection with the CFT (Worthington et al., 1985). In practice the CFT is labourious and requires highly trained personnel as well as suitable laboratory facilities. The gel diffusion test using the hot saline extract antigen is easy to perform and is as sensitive as the CFT. Although its simplicity allows it to be used in laboratories where only limited facilities are available, it is a relatively slow test. The counter-immunoelectrophoresis makes the test faster (Blasco, 1990) and it increases the sensitivity of the gel diffusion test (Myers and Varela-Diaz, 1979).

Several authors have used the ELISA for the diagnosis of B. ovis infection but there are contradictory reports as to the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. It seems that the antigen used plays an important role. When a hot saline extract is used the assay is more sensitive than the CFT or the gel-diffusion (Vigliocco et al., 1997). However, some sera that react positively with the gel-diffusion test may react negatively with the ELISA. Therefore, a combined use of the gel-diffusion and the ELISA will result in an optimal sensitivity (Blasco, 1990). Other authors find the ELISA no more sensitive or specific than the classical tests (Ficapal et al., 1995; Aleixo and Neto, 1998), although repeated testing with the ELISA helps to eradicate B. ovis infection in breeding ram flocks (Dénes et al., 1993).

Detection of infected rams with the aid of the delayed-type hypersensitivity test has been evaluated by several authors (Burgess, 1982). They concluded that the test is useful on a flock level. Yet other authors point out that the test cannot distinguish between rams infected with B. ovis or B. melitensis, and rams vaccinated with Rev 1 (Fensterbank et al., 1985).

List of Symptoms/Signs

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General Signs

  • Swelling mass penis, prepuce, testes, scrotum

Reproductive Signs

  • Abnormal size testes/scrotum
  • Abortion or weak newborns, stillbirth

Disease Course

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Blasco, (1990) extensively reviewed the pathogenesis, pathology and histology of Brucella ovis infection. Briefly: as with other Brucella infections there is a period of generalized infection (Enright, 1990). After infection, the bacteria remain in the lymph nodes close to the entry site for 2-3 weeks. This is followed by a bacteraemic stage that may last up to 2 months. The organism infects the reticuloendothelial system and various organs (Biberstein et al., 1964). Although the bacteria can be isolated from several tissues they usually localize in the epididymis causing an epididymitis. However, not all infected rams develop a palpable epididymitis. Lower fertility and seminal degeneration almost always precede the appearance of lesions. In most cases there is a unilateral epididymitis affecting the tail of the epididymis. Sometimes the body and the head of the epididymis are also affected (Blasco, 1990). Following localization in the epididymis there is perivascular oedema and the infiltration of lymphocytes and monocytes into the peritubular tissue. Eventually the epithelial cells are destroyed, either by bacterial products or by extravasation of spermatozoa. This leads to formation of spermatic granulomas that block the epididymis (Jubb et al., 1985).

Testicular atrophy is characteristic for chronic infection. This affects semen quality, breeding efficiency and capacity. The affected testicle appears firm but on the cut surface granulomas and calcification may be apparent (Blasco, 1990). During the bacteraemic stage B. ovis can cause chronic interstitial nephritis resulting in permanent shedding of B. ovis in the urine (FAO/WHO, 1986).

Only ewes exposed to infection at early or mid-pregnancy develop infection that may lead to abortion. In pregnant sheep, B. ovis may cause placental necrosis and abortion 23-80 days post infection (Enright, 1990). For abortion to occur there has to be a sufficient accumulation of bacteria and exudate to cause necrosis of the placenta and separation from the caruncles. Thus, the primary effect of infection in ewes is a placentitis that interferes with normal foetal nutrition resulting in the death of lambs and abortion, or in birth of lambs with low birth weight (FAO/WHO, 1986). Dead foetuses are usually oedematous. Calcified plaques on the soles of the hooves are characteristic of abortion due to B. ovis infection (Enright 1990).

Epidemiology

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Brucella ovis is the least pathogenic of all the Brucella species that infect domestic animals. It exclusively infects sheep and affects mainly rams, although male goats experimentally inoculated with B. ovis develop lesions similar to those observed in rams (Blasco, 1990). Whereas in practice the source of infection is contaminated semen excreted by infected rams, not every infected ram excretes B ovis in the semen (Burgess, 1982). Passive venereal transmission is the main route of spread for B. ovis infection (Buddel, 1955; Hartley et al., 1955). However, passive venereal transmission requires both an infected and non-infected ram to mate with the same ewe in one oestrus cycle. Rams may become infected at the post-abortion oestrus, as B. ovis could be found for 10 days in the vaginal discharge following abortion (Hughes, 1972). Although venereal transmission is the most important route of exposure (Jubb et al., 1985), demonstration of infection in 4-month-old rams (Burgess et al., 1982) casts doubt whether age susceptibility to B. ovis infection exists (Blasco, 1990). It has been suggested that sodomy is responsible for the spread of infection amongst young rams (Burgess, 1982). Transmission, however, may also occur when healthy rams are housed in pens where previously infected rams were kept (Clapp et al., 1962). Furthermore, since rams often sniff the genital organs of other rams infection via the nasopharynx is also possible (FAO/WHO, 1986). Under experimental conditions sheep can be infected with B. ovis via several routes (Muhammed et al., 1975; Simmons and Hall, 1953; Blasco, 1990).

Susceptibility to B. ovis may vary between breeds of rams (Cameron et al., 1971; Blasco, 1990). Rams are more susceptible to infection than ewes. Ewes also rarely become actively infected or transmit the disease during abortion to another ewe although they usually develop complement fixation titres. Since only a few infected ewes abort or have dead or weak lams it would appear that ewes are relatively resistant to infection (Buddel, 1955; Hartley et al., 1955; Clapp et al., 1962; Haughey et al., 1967). It is generally accepted that the role of an infected ewe in congenital transmission of the disease is negligible (Blasco, 1990).

Impact: Economic

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Outbreaks of Brucella ovis infections may cause significant economic loss in countries where the sheep industry plays a role in the national economy. The main economic problems arise from reduced numbers of lambs born, a high percentage (20%) of barren ewes, and a high percentage of lambs born alive that die within six weeks of birth. Furthermore, prolonging of the lambing season due to disease interference with the normal breeding scheme is of significant economic importance. Lamb yield may drop in infected flocks from 100% to 25% (FAO/WHO, 1986).

Disease Treatment

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Treatment of Brucella ovis ram epididymitis with antibiotics is very expensive and not very effective. The effect of the treatment is of a short duration, with not all the shedders being cured and the fertility of some animals remaining impaired (Dargatz et al., 1990; Hajtós et al., 1994). Thus, antibiotic therapy is not endorsed except when rams with high breeding quality are infected (Blasco, 1990).

Prevention and Control

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It seems that disease prevention can be achieved by eradicating B. ovis from all the rams in a flock. However, since seronegative and clinically normal rams may be latent excretors of B. ovis, detection of all infected rams may not be simple. Therefore, it is suggested to use physical examination, CFT and the ELISA (West and Bruce, 1991), or the gel diffusion test. The gel diffusion test would be using a sonicated B. ovis antigen and the ELISA using a heat extracted antigen (Blasco, 1990). According to Hilbink et al., (1993) the gel diffusion and ELISA correctly identify all infected animals. Culling the positively reacting animals will eliminate the infection from a flock (Walker et al., 1985). In areas with a high incidence of infection vaccination may be the only possibility to reduce the incidence of the infection. The best available vaccine against B. ovis infection in rams is the live Brucella melitensis strain Rev 1 (Plommet, 1991). A dose of 109 CFU given subcutaneously induces good protection in 3-5- and 13-month-old rams. However, because Rev 1 vaccination elicits an immune response that may interfere with the serological diagnosis, the use of conjunctival vaccination is suggested (Blasco, 1990; Plommet, 1991).

References

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Adesiyun AA; Ezeokoli CD; Kumi-Diaka J; Udechukwu AL, 1985. Brucella ovis as a possible cause of infertility and abortion in two sheep ranches in Nigeria. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 33(1):11-16; 13 ref.

African Union-Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources, 2011. Panafrican Animal Health Yearbook 2011. Pan African Animal Health Yearbook, 2011:xiii + 90 pp. http://www.au-ibar.org/index.php?option=com_flexicontent&view=items&cid=71&id=109&Itemid=56&lang=en

Afzal M; Tengerdy RP; Ellis RP; Kimberling CV; McChesney AE, 1987. Brucella ovis induced ram epididymitis: a review. Pakistan Veterinary Journal, 7(2):70-75; 10 ref.

Ajai CO; Cook JE; Dennis SM, 1980. Diagnosis of ovine epididymitis by immuno- fluorescence. Veterinary Record, 107:421-424.

Aleixo JAG; Neto AM, 1998. A latex agglutination test for the diagnosis of Brucella ovis infection in rams. Revista de Microbiologia, 29(1):65-68; 16 ref.

Bagley CV; Paskett ME; Matthews NJ; Stenquist NJ, 1985. Prevalence and causes of ram epididymitis in Utah. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 186(8):798-801; 24 ref.

Beeman KB; Hummels S; Rahaley R, 1982. Epididymitis in rams [in Kansas]. Veterinary Medicine and Small Animal Clinician, 77:1647-1650.

Biberstein EL; McGowan B; Olander H; Kennedy PC, 1964. Epididymitis in rams. Studies on pathogenesis. Cornell Veterinarian, 54:27-41.

Blasco JM, 1990. Brucella ovis.. Animal brucellosis., 351-378; 131 ref.

Blasco JM; Floch J; Barberan M, 1982. Reproductive characteristics of Romanov rams with infectious epididymitis. I. Clinical observations and fertility. Anales del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrarias, Ganadera, Spain, No.15:67-76.

Bloch N; Diallo I, 1991. Serological survey on sheep and goats in four departments of Niger. Revue d'élevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, 44(4):397-404; 9 ref.

Boryczko Z; Królak M, 1987. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the first recorded outbreak in Poland of infectious ovine epididymitis caused by Brucella ovis.. Medycyna Weterynaryjna, 43(10):617-620; 7 ref.

Brglez I; Mehle J; Zeleznik Z, 1993. Infectious diseases of animals in Slovenia. Survey of the situation in the last 10-20 years. Zbornik Veterinarske Fakultete Univerza Ljubljana, 30(1):5-15; 16 ref.

Buckrell BC; McEwen SA; Johnson WH; Savage NC, 1985. Epididymitis caused by Brucella ovis in a Southern Ontario sheep flock. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 26(10):293-296; 11 ref.

Buddel MB, 1955. Observation on the transmission of Brucella infection in sheep. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 3:10-19.

Buddel MB, 1956. Studies on Brucella ovis (N. Sp.), a cause of genital disease of sheep in New Zealand and Australia. Journal of Hygiene, 54:351-364.

Bulgin MS, 1990. Brucella ovis infection in a farm flock. Symposium on Diseases of Small Ruminants. Corvallis, Oregon, June 7-9, 1990., 118-127; 23 ref.

Burgess GW, 1982. Ovine contagious epididymitis: A review. Veterinary Microbiology, 7:551-575.

Burgess GW; McDonald JW; Norris MJ, 1982. Epidemiolgical studies on ovine brucellosis in selected ram flocks. Australian Veterinary Journal, 59:45-47.

Cameron RDA; Carles AB; Lauerman Jr LH, 1971. The incidence of Brucella ovis in some Kenya flocks and its relationship to clinical lesions and semen quality. Veterinary Record, 89:552-557.

Cameron RDA; Lauerman Jr LH, 1976. Characteristics of semen changes during Brucella ovis infection in rams. Veterinary Record, 99:231-233.

Chartier C, 1992. Ovine brucellosis in Ivory Coast: a serological survey. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 40(3):213-214; 12 ref.

Clapp KH, 1961. A comparison of various antigens used in the complement fixation test for ovine brucellosis. Australian Veterinary Journal, 37:188-190.

Clapp KH; Keogh J; Richards MH, 1962. Epidemiology of ovine brucellosis in South Australia. Australian Veterinary Journal, 38:482-486.

Corbel MJ; Gill KPW; Redwood; DW, 1979. Diagnostic procedures for non-smooth Brucella strains. UK: Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (Publications), 31-43.

Corbel MJ; Gill KPW; Thomas EL; Hendry DMcLFD, 1983. Methods for the identification of Brucella. Methods for the identification of Brucella., 65pp.; [Booklet No. 2085].

Dargatz DA; Smith JA; Knight AP; Farin PW; Kimberling CV, 1990. Antimicrobial therapy for rams with Brucella ovis infection of the urogenital tract. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 196(4):605-610; 20 ref.

DeLong WJ; Waldhalm DG; Hall RF, 1979. Bacterial isolates associated with epididymitis in rams from Idaho and Eastern Oregon flocks. American Journal for Veterinary Research, 40:101-102.

Dénes B; Tekes L; Hajtós I, 1993. Experiences of the eradication of Brucella ovis infection in breeding ram flocks in Carpathian Ruthenia [Ukraine]. Magyar állatorvosok Lapja, 48(4):228-233; 32 ref.

Enright FM, 1990. The pathogenesis and pathobiology of Brucella infection in domestic animals. Animal brucellosis., 301-320; 55 ref.

FAO/WHO, 1986. Sixth report of the expert committee on brucellosis. Technical report series 740, Geneva, Switzerland: FAO/WHO.

Farina R; Cerri D; Andreani A; Renzoni G; Guadagnini PF; Lombardi G, 1995. Epididymitis in rams: first report of the presence of Brucella ovis in Italy. Selezione Veterinaria, 36(4):285-291; 4 ref.

Feng PeiZhong; Su Cheng; Huang Jian, 1997. First systematic identification of suspected Brucella ovis from cases of epididymitis in rams in China. Acta Veterinaria et Zootechnica Sinica, 28(3):256-260; 7 ref.

Fensterbank R, 1987. Comprehensive report. Brucellosis in cattle, sheep and goats: diagnosis control and vaccination. Technical Series, Office International des épizooties, No. 6:9-35; 55 ref.

Fensterbank R; Pardon P; Marly J, 1985. Vaccination of ewes by a single conjunctival administration of Brucella melitensis Rev. 1 vaccine. Annales de Recherches Vétérinaires, 16(4):351-356; 8 ref.

Ficapal A; Alonso-Urmeneta B; Velasco J; Moriyón I; Blasco JM, 1995. Diagnosis of Brucella ovis infection of rams with an ELISA using protein G as conjugate. Veterinary Record, 137(6):145-147; 15 ref.

Gee RW, 1987. Australia. Bovine and ovine brucellosis. Technical Series, Office International des épizooties, No. 6:127-135.

Godfroid J, 2002. Brucellosis in wildlife. Revue Scientifique et Technique - Office International des Épizooties, 21(2):277-286.

Hajtós I; Király L; Tekes L, 1994. Studies on drug therapy of subclinical brucellosis (B. ovis-infection) in breeding rams. Magyar állatorvosok Lapja, 49(3):157-160; 14 ref.

Hartley WJ; Jebson JL; McFarlane; D, 1955. Some observations on natural transmission of ovine brucellosis. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 3:5-10.

Haughey KG; Hughes KL; Hartley WJ, 1967. The occurrence of congenital infections associated with perinatal lamb mortality. Australian Veterinary Journal, 43:413-420.

Hegedüs D; Tekes L; Hajtós I, 1992. Effect of the Brucella ovis infection of breeding rams on the reproduction indices of certain large scale sheep flocks in Bács-Kiskun county. Magyar állatorvosok Lapja, 47(7):381-384; 22 ref.

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