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Datasheet

Callinectes sapidus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 07 April 2014
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Callinectes sapidus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • blue crab
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Crustacea
  •                 Class: Malacostraca
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, is of major interest to fisheries in the tropical and subtropical waters of the Western Atlantic. It supports large valuable commercial and recreational fisheries in the temperate areas of the Atlantic and Gulf ...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896

Preferred Common Name

  • blue crab

Other Scientific Names

  • Callinectes hastatus Ordway, 1883
  • Luna diacantha Milne-Edwards, 1834
  • Lupa hastata Say, 1817
  • Portunus diacantha Latreille, 1825

International Common Names

  • English: Atlantic blue crab; channeler; edible crab; Jimmy; jimmydick; Sally crab; sook
  • Spanish: cangrejo azul; jaiba azul
  • French: crabe bleu; crabe nageur

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Blaukrabbe
  • Greece: galázios kávouras
  • Israel: shayat-kahol
  • Italy: granchio nuotatore
  • Japan: watarigani
  • Russian Federation: colubroi krab; sinii kzab
  • Turkey: mavi yengeç
  • USA: blue claw crab

Summary of Invasiveness

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The blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, is of major interest to fisheries in the tropical and subtropical waters of the Western Atlantic. It supports large valuable commercial and recreational fisheries in the temperate areas of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the USA (Texas, Florida, Louisiana, New York, New Jersey). It is the most widely harvested and consumed crab in the USA, which is also the world's main producer of blue crab. Blue crabs which have shed their shells, known as soft shell crabs, have more commercial value than hard shell ones; these are a highly favoured delicacy in the restaurant trade in the USA.

Habitat loss, pollution and heavy fishing have resulted in a decline in blue crab populations in many areas. Management measures are currently in place in many states in the USA to protect the blue crab fishery industry. Several reviews of the nomenclature, taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, population structure and dynamics and the fishery of the blue crab have been published (Millikin and Williams, 1984; Van Den Avyle, 1984; Hill et al., 1989).

C. sapidus is a voracious predator of clams, mussels and oysters. It opens shellfish with its claws, by chipping the edge of a valve, or forcing the valves apart. Predation rates can be quite high (575 clams/day) on unprotected shellfish beds. If blue crabs exist in the vicinity of a culture area, control and protection of cultured shellfish will be necessary.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Crustacea
  •                 Class: Malacostraca
  •                     Subclass: Eumalacostraca
  •                         Order: Decapoda
  •                             Family: Portunidae
  •                                 Genus: Callinectes
  •                                     Species: Callinectes sapidus

Description

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A detailed description of the characteristic features of C. sapidus is given by Williams (1965), Van Den Avyle (1984), Hill et al. (1989), Tavares (2002) and FIGIS (2006). The following description is adapted from Tavares (2002) and FIGIS (2006).

The carapace is more than twice as broad as long; nine blunt to acuminate teeth (outer orbital tooth and strong lateral spine included) on arched anterolateral margin; front (excluding inner orbital angles) bearing two obtuse to acuminate, broadly triangular teeth with often sinuous inner margins longer than outer margins. Much of the convex dorsal surface is smooth with scattered and transverse lines of fine granules; pincers strong, dissimilar and ridged longitudinally; fifth legs flattened in the form of paddles. Males have a T-shaped abdomen reaching the level of thoracic sternite 4; slender first pleopods with membranous tip reaching beyond suture between thoracic sternites 4 and 5; sinuously curved, overlapping proximally and armed distally with a row of large and small retrogressive spinules. Colour greyish, bluish, or brownish green of varying shades and tints dorsally on carapace and chelipeds.

Spines may have reddish tints, tubercles at articulations of legs orange and legs varying blue and white with traces of red or brownish green. Males with propodi of chelae blue on inner and white on outer surfaces, fingers blue on inner and white on outer surfaces tipped with red. Mature females with orange fingers on chelae tipped with purple. Underside off-white with tints of yellow and pink. Colour variations are associated with sexual dimorphism and moult cycle. Reported maximum carapace width 209 mm, sometimes 227 mm in males and 204 mm in females. Carapace lengths of 910 mm and 750 mm have been noted in males and females, respectively. In mature females, carapace widths of 55 mm to 200 mm have been observed. C. sapidus reaches maturity in 12 to 18 months and can live for up to 3 years.

The different life stages of the blue crab have different names: jimmies or jimmy-dicks (adult male hard crabs); sooks (adult female hard crabs); she-crabs or sallies (inmature female hard crabs); sponge crabs (adult female hard crabs carrying extruded eggs); peelers (crabs with a soft shell fully developed under the hard shell); busters (crabs that have begun to shed the old shell); softshells (crabs that have just shed the old shell).

Distribution

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C. sapidus is native to the Western Atlantic, from Nova Scotia, Maine and northern Massachusetts to Argentina, including Bermuda and the Antilles (GSMFC, 2001; Tavares, 2002). It has also been successfully introduced, accidentally or intentionally, into both Asia and Europe. Accidental introductions have been attributed to larval introductions via ship ballast water. It was introduced in Europe (Denmark, Netherlands, and adjacent North Sea, France, Golfo di Genoa); northern Adriatic; Aegean, western Black, and eastern Mediterranean Seas. It has also been introduced to Japan. It is now rather abundant in parts of the northern and eastern Mediterranean Sea and Japan (SMS, 2001).

Distribution Table

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CountryDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferencesNotes

SEA AREAS

Atlantic, Eastern CentralPresentNativeNot invasiveGulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002
Atlantic, NortheastPresentIntroducedNot invasiveSmithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001
Atlantic, SouthwestPresentNativeNot invasiveGulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002
Atlantic, Western CentralPresentNativeNot invasiveGulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002
Mediterranean and Black SeaPresentIntroducedNot invasiveSmithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001
Pacific, NorthwestPresentIntroducedNot invasiveSmithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001
Pacific, Western CentralPresentIntroducedNot invasiveSmithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001

ASIA

ChinaPresentIntroducedNot invasiveSmithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedNot invasiveSmithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001
IsraelPresentIntroducedNot invasiveSmithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001
JapanPresentIntroducedNot invasiveSmithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001
Korea, Republic ofPresentIntroducedNot invasiveSmithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedNot invasiveSmithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedNot invasiveSmithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001
ThailandPresentIntroducedNot invasiveSmithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001
TurkeyPresentIntroducedNot invasiveSmithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001
VietnamPresentIntroducedNot invasiveSmithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001

AFRICA

NigeriaPresentNativeNot invasiveFIGIS, 2006

NORTH AMERICA

BermudaPresentNativeNot invasiveGulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002
CanadaPresentNativeNot invasiveGulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002
-Nova ScotiaPresentNativeNot invasiveGulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002
USAPresentNativeNot invasiveGulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001
-DelawarePresentNativeNot invasiveGulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002
-FloridaPresentNativeNot invasiveGulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002
-GeorgiaPresentNativeNot invasiveGulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedNot invasiveSmithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001
-LouisianaPresentNativeNot invasiveGulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002
-MarylandPresentNativeNot invasiveGulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002
-MississippiPresentNativeNot invasiveGulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002
-New JerseyPresentNativeNot invasiveGulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002
-New YorkPresentNativeNot invasiveGulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002
-North CarolinaPresentNativeNot invasiveGulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002
-South CarolinaPresentNativeNot invasiveGulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002
-TexasPresentNativeNot invasiveGulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002
-VirginiaPresentNativeNot invasiveGulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002

CENTRAL AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

BelizePresentNativeNot invasiveGulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002
Netherlands AntillesPresentNativeNot invasiveGulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002

SOUTH AMERICA

ArgentinaPresentNativeNot invasiveGulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002
BrazilPresentNativeNot invasiveGulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002
ChilePresentNativeNot invasiveGulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002
ColombiaPresentNativeNot invasiveGulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002
EcuadorPresentNativeNot invasiveGulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002
UruguayPresentNativeNot invasiveGulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002
VenezuelaPresentNativeNot invasiveGulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002

EUROPE

DenmarkPresentIntroducedNot invasiveSmithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001
FrancePresentIntroducedNot invasiveSmithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001
GermanyPresentIntroducedNot invasiveSmithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001
GreecePresentIntroducedNot invasiveSmithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001
ItalyPresentIntroducedNot invasiveSmithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001
NetherlandsPresentIntroducedNot invasiveSmithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001
Russian FederationPresentIntroducedNot invasiveSmithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001
SpainPresentIntroducedNot invasiveSmithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
DenmarkUnknownTavares, 2002
FranceUnknownTavares, 2002
JapanUnknownYesTavares, 2002
Mediterranean and Black SeaUnknownTavares, 2002
NetherlandsUnknownTavares, 2002

Natural Food Sources

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Food SourceLife StageContribution to Total Food Intake (%)Details
bottom invertebratesAll Stages
fishesAll Stages
mollusca (oysters, clams)All Stages
vascular plant material, detritusAll Stages

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climatePreferredAverage temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually

Natural Enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anguilla rostrataPredatorAdult/FryHill et al., 1989
Asterias forbesiiPredatorAdultAuster & DeGoursey, 1994
Carcharhinus plumbeusPredatorAll Stages
Micropogonias undulatusPredatorFryHill et al., 1989
Morone saxatilisPredatorAdult
Opsanus tauPredatorAll StagesBisker et al., 1989
Pogonias cromisPredatorFryHill, 2004
Sciaenops ocellatusPredatorFryHill et al., 1989

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Biodiversity (generally)Negative
Fisheries / aquaculturePositive

Impact: Biodiversity

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C. sapidus has been reported to mutilate fish caught in traps and trammel nets, and to tear nets. As its preferred prey is clams, mussels and oysters, it has an impact on the commercial fisheries of these species and also aquaculture operations. C. sapidus is the best-known predator of cultured clams and oysters in the USA, being responsible for much of their mortality in the region. It opens shellfish with its claws, by chipping the edge of a valve, or forcing the valves apart. Predation rates can be quite high (575 clams/day) on unprotected shellfish beds. If blue crabs exist in the vicinity of the culture area control and protection of cultured shellfish will be necessary.

References

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Adkins G, 1972. A study of the blue crab fishery in Louisiana. La Wildl Fish Comm, Oyster, Water Bottoms and Seafood Div Tech Bull, No. 3, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, 57 pp.

Anthony JE, Hadgis PN, Milam RS, Herzfeld GA, Taper LJ, Ritchey SJ, 1983. Yields, proximate composition and mineral content of finfish and shellfish. Journal of Food Science, 48(1):313-314, 316.

Auster PJ, DeGoursey RE, 1994. Winter predation on blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, by starfish Asterias forbesi. Journal of Shellfish Research, 13:361-366.

Bisker R, Gibbons M, Castagna M, 1989. Predation by the oyster toadfish Opsanus tau (Linnaeus) on blue crabs and mud crabs, predators of the hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria (Linnaeus, 1758). Journal of Shellfish Research, 8(1):25-31.

Cadman LR, Weinstein MP, 1988. Effects of temperature and salinity on the growth of laboratory reared juvenile blue crabs Callinectes sapidus Rathbun. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 121:193-207.

Chang YunShiang, Peng ShaoEn, Wang HanChing, Hsu HuiChen, Ho ChingHui, Wang ChungHsiung, Wang ShoYa, Lo ChuFang, Kou GuangHsiung, 2001. Sequencing and amplified restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of ribonucleotide reductase large subunit gene of the white spot syndrome virus in blue crab, (Callinectes sapidus), from American coastal waters. Marine Biotechnology, 3(2):163-171.

Chazaro-Olvera S, Peterson MS, 2004. Effects of salinity on growth and moulting of sympatric Callinectes sapidus from Camaronera lagoon, Veracruz, Mexico. Bulletin of Marine Science, 74(1):115-127.

Costlow JD, Bookhout CG, 1959. The larval development of Callinectes sapidus reared in the laboratory. Biological Bulletin, 116:373-396.

FAO, 2002. FAO Fishery Information, Data and Statistics Unit. Yearbook of Fishery Statistics - Capture Production 2000. Vol 90/1. Rome, Italy: FAO, 617 pp.

FIGIS, 2006. Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896. Species fact sheet. Online at: http://www.fao.org/figis/servlet/FiRefServlet?ds=species&fid=2632. Accessed 31 January 2006.

Giddings GG, Hill LH, 1975. Processing effects on the lipid fractions and principal fatty acids of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) muscle. Journal of Food Science, 40:1127-1129.

Guerin JL, Stickle WB, 1992. Effects of salinity gradients on the tolerance and bioenergetics of juvenile blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) from waters of different salinities. Marine Biology, 114:391-396.

Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001. The blue crab fishery of the Gulf of Mexico, United States: a regional management plan (final). Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, Publication No. 96, October 2001.

Hill J, Fowler DL, Van Den Avyle MJ, 1989. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic) - Blue crab. US Fish Wild Serv Biol Rep 82(11.100), US Army Corps of Engineers, TR EL-82-4, 18 pp.

Hill K, 2004. Callinectes sapidus. Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce. Online at: http://www.smsi.si.edu/IRLSpec/Callin_sapidu.htm. Accessed 29 November 2004.

Hines AH, Haddon AM, Wiechert LA, 1990. Guild structure and foraging impact of blue crabs and epibenthic fish in a subestuary of Chesapeake Bay. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 67:105-126.

Hochberg RJ, Bert TM, Steele P, Brown SD, 1992. Parasitization of Loxothylacus texanus on Callinectes sapidus: aspects of population biology and effects on host morphology. Bulletin of Marine Science, 50(1):117-132.

Krishnamoorthy RV, Venkataramiah A, Lakshmi GJ, Biesiot P, 1978. Effects of cooking and of frozen storage on the cholesterol content of selected shellfish. Journal of Food Science, 44(1):314-315.

Leffler CW, 1972. Some effects of temperature on the growth and metabolic rate of juvenile blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, in the laboratory. Marine Biology, 14:104-110.

Lopez A, Williams HL, Ward DR, 1981. Essential elements in raw, boiled, steamed and pasteurized crabmeat. Journal of Food Science, 46(4):1128-1131.

Mahood RJ, McKenzie MD, Middlaugh DP, Bollar SJ, Davis JR, Spitzbergen D, 1970. A report on the cooperative blue crab study - South Atlantic states. Florida Dep Nat Resour Contrib Ser No. 139, 32 pp.

Malone RF, Manthe DP, 1984. Interim design recommendations for closed-recirculating blue crab shedding systems. Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana State University, USA, 13 pp.

Manooch CS III, 1973. Food habits of yearling and adult striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum), from Albemarle Sound, North Carolina. Chesapeake Science, 14:73-86.

Manthe DP, Malone RF, Kumar S, 1984. Limiting factors associated with nitrification in closed blue crab shedding systems. Aquacultural Engineering, 3:119-140.

Manthe DP, Malone RF, Perry HM, 1983. Water quality fluctuations in response to variable loading in a commercial, closed shedding facility for blue crabs. Journal of Shellfish Research, 3:175-182.

Maryland Department of Natural Resources (MDDNR), 2001. Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus (aka Blue claw crab). Online at: http://www.dnr.state.md.us/fisheries/education/crab/bluecrabfacts.html. Accessed 31 January 2006.

Medved RJ, Marshall JA, 1981. Feeding behaviour and biology of young sandbar sharks, Carcharhinus plumbeus (Pisces, Carcharhinidae) in Chincoteaque Bay, Virginia. US Natl Mar Fish Serv Fish Bull, 79(3):441-447.

Messick G, 2001. A review of potential diseases of blue crabs. Bulletin of National Research Institute of Aquaculture, Supplement, No.5:81-87.

Messick GA, 1994. Hematodinium perezi infections in adult and juvenile blue crabs Callinectes sapidus from coastal bays of Maryland and Virginia, USA. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 19(1):77-82.

Millikin MR, Biddle GN, Siewicki TC, Fortner AR, Fair PH, 1980. Effects of various levels of dietary protein on survival, molting frequency and growth of juvenile blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus). Aquaculture, 19(2):149-161.

Millikin MR, Williams AB, 1984. Synopsis of biological data on the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. NOAA Tech Rep NMFS 1, FAO Fisheries Synopsis 138.

Pellegrin G Jr, Guillory V, Prejean P, Perry H, Warren J, Steele P, Wagner T, Heath S, 2001. Length-based estimates of total mortality for Gulf of Mexico blue crab. Proceedings of the Blue Crab Mortality Symposium 42-49, Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission Publication No. 90, July.

Perry HM, Wallace R, 1985. Blue crab shedding systems: water quality concerns. Mississippi-Alabama Sea Grant Consortortium, Ocean Springs, USA, 6 pp.

Rodríguez-Kábana R, Boube D, Young RW, 1989. Chitinous materials from blue crab for control of root-knot nematode. I. Effect of urea and enzymatic studies. Nematropica, 19(1):53-74.

Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001. Species name: Callinectes sapidus (blue crab). Online at: http://www.sms.si.edu/IRLSpec/Callin_sapidu.htm. Accessed 31 January 2006.

Sulkin SD, 1978. Nutritional requirements during larval development of the portunid crab, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 34(1):29-41.

Tagatz ME, 1968. Growth of juvenile blue crab, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, St Johns River, Florida. Fishery Bulletin, U.S., 67:281-288.

Tavares M, 2002. True crabs. In: Carpenter KE, ed. The living marine resources of the Western Central Atlantic. Vol 1. Introduction, molluscs, crustaceans, hagfishes, sharks, batoid fishes and chimaeras. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes and American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists Special Publication No. 5. Rome, Italy: FAO, 351 pp.

Tsai DE, Chen HC, Tsai CF, 1984. Total lipid and cholesterol content in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, B, 78(1):27-31.

Van Den Avyle MJ, 1984. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Atlantic) - blue crab. US Fish Wildl Serv FWS/OBS-82/11.19, US Army Corps of Engineers, TR EL-82-4, 16 pp.

Van Engel WA, 1958. The blue crab and its fishery in Chesapeake Bay. Part I. Reproduction, early development, growth, and migration. Commer Fish Rev, 20(6):6-17.

Ward DR, Nickelson RII, Finne G, 1979. Relationship between methylmercury and total mercury in blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus). Journal of Food Science, 44(3):920-921.

Wardle WJ, Tirpak AJ, 1991. Occurrence and distribution of an outbreak of Loxothylacus texanus (Rhizocephala) in blue crabs in Galveston Bay, Texas, with special reference to size and coloration of the parasite's external reproductive structures. Journal of Crustacean Biology, 11(4):553-560.

Wenner CA, Musick JA, 1975. Food habits and seasonal abundance of the American eel, Anguilla rostrata, from the lower Chesapeake Bay. Chesapeake Science, 16:62-66.

Williams AB, 1965. Marine decapod crustaceans of the Carolinas. US Fish Wildl Serv Fish Bull, 65:1-298.

Williams AB, 1974. The swimming crabs of the genus Callinectes. Fishery Bulletin U.S., 72:685-698.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Bluecrab.info (The blue crab archives)http://www.blue-crab.org/
Blue crab home pagehttp://www.blue-crab.net/main.html
Chesapeake Bay Program - blue crabhttp://www.chesapeakebay.net/blue_crab.htm

Contributors

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Main Author
Uma Sabapathy Allen
Human Sciences, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, OX10 8DE, UK

Distribution Maps

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Distribution map Atlantic, Northeast: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Atlantic, Western Central: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Atlantic, Western Central: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Atlantic, Eastern Central: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Atlantic, Southwest: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Netherlands Antilles: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Argentina: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Bermuda: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Brazil: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Belize: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Belize: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Canada: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Canada
See regional map for distribution within the countryChile: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002China: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001China: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Colombia: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Colombia: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Germany: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Denmark: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Ecuador: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Spain: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Spain: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001France: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Greece: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Greece: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Indonesia: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Indonesia: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Israel: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Israel: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Italy: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Japan: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Korea, Republic of: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Mediterranean and Black Sea: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Malaysia: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Nigeria: Present, native, not invasive
FIGIS, 2006Netherlands: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Philippines: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Philippines: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Pacific, Northwest: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Pacific, Western Central: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Pacific, Western Central: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Russian Federation: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Russian Federation: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Thailand: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Turkey: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Turkey: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Turkey: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001USA: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001USA: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001USA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUruguay: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Venezuela: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Venezuela: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Vietnam: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001
  • = Present, no further details
  • = Evidence of pathogen
  • = Widespread
  • = Last reported
  • = Localised
  • = Presence unconfirmed
  • = Confined and subject to quarantine
  • = See regional map for distribution within the country
  • = Occasional or few reports
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Distribution map (asia) China: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Indonesia: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Israel: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Japan: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Korea, Republic of: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Malaysia: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Philippines: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Pacific, Northwest: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Pacific, Western Central: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Russian Federation: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Thailand: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Turkey: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Vietnam: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001
Distribution map (europe) Atlantic, Northeast: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Germany: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Denmark: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Spain: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001France: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Greece: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Italy: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Mediterranean and Black Sea: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Netherlands: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Russian Federation: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Turkey: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001
Distribution map (africa) Atlantic, Eastern Central: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Spain: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Greece: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Israel: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Nigeria: Present, native, not invasive
FIGIS, 2006Turkey: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001
Distribution map (north america) Atlantic, Western Central: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Bermuda: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Belize: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Canada: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Nova Scotia: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002USA: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001Delaware: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Florida: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Georgia: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001Hawaii: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Louisiana: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Maryland: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Mississippi: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002North Carolina: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002New Jersey: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002New York: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002South Carolina: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Texas: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Virginia: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002
Distribution map (central america) Atlantic, Western Central: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Netherlands Antilles: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Belize: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Colombia: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002USA: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001Florida: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Venezuela: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002
Distribution map (south america) Atlantic, Southwest: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Argentina: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Brazil: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Chile: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Colombia: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Ecuador: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Uruguay: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002Venezuela: Present, native, not invasive
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002
Distribution map (pacific) China: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Indonesia: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Philippines: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001Pacific, Western Central: Present, introduced, not invasive
Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001