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Datasheet

Callinectes sapidus (blue crab)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 July 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Natural Enemy
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Callinectes sapidus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • blue crab
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Crustacea
  •         Class: Malacostraca
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, is of major interest to fisheries in the tropical and subtropical waters of the Western Atlantic. It supports large valuable commercial and recreational fisheries in the temp...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Callinectes sapidus (blue crab); female. Specimen located in The Children's Museum of Indianapolis, USA.
TitleFemale
CaptionCallinectes sapidus (blue crab); female. Specimen located in The Children's Museum of Indianapolis, USA.
Copyright©Wendy Kaveney-2004/The Children's Museum of Indianapolis - CC BY-SA 3.0
Callinectes sapidus (blue crab); female. Specimen located in The Children's Museum of Indianapolis, USA.
FemaleCallinectes sapidus (blue crab); female. Specimen located in The Children's Museum of Indianapolis, USA.©Wendy Kaveney-2004/The Children's Museum of Indianapolis - CC BY-SA 3.0
Callinectes sapidus (blue crab); adult. Caught at Long Point Dock, North Core Banks, North Carolina, USA. March, 2006.
TitleAdult
CaptionCallinectes sapidus (blue crab); adult. Caught at Long Point Dock, North Core Banks, North Carolina, USA. March, 2006.
Copyright©Jarek Tuszynski-2006/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Callinectes sapidus (blue crab); adult. Caught at Long Point Dock, North Core Banks, North Carolina, USA. March, 2006.
AdultCallinectes sapidus (blue crab); adult. Caught at Long Point Dock, North Core Banks, North Carolina, USA. March, 2006.©Jarek Tuszynski-2006/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896

Preferred Common Name

  • blue crab

Other Scientific Names

  • Callinectes hastatus Ordway, 1883
  • Luna diacantha Milne-Edwards, 1834
  • Lupa hastata Say, 1817
  • Portunus diacantha Latreille, 1825

International Common Names

  • English: Atlantic blue crab; channeler; edible crab; Jimmy; jimmydick; Sally crab; sook
  • Spanish: cangrejo azul; jaiba azul
  • French: crabe bleu; crabe nageur

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Blaukrabbe
  • Greece: galázios kávouras
  • Israel: shayat-kahol
  • Italy: granchio nuotatore
  • Japan: watarigani
  • Russian Federation: colubroi krab; sinii kzab
  • Turkey: mavi yengeç
  • USA: blue claw crab

Summary of Invasiveness

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The blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, is of major interest to fisheries in the tropical and subtropical waters of the Western Atlantic. It supports large valuable commercial and recreational fisheries in the temperate areas of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the USA (Texas, Florida, Louisiana, New York, New Jersey). It is the most widely harvested and consumed crab in the USA, which is also the world's main producer of blue crab. Blue crabs which have shed their shells, known as soft shell crabs, have more commercial value than hard shell ones; these are a highly favoured delicacy in the restaurant trade in the USA.

Habitat loss, pollution and heavy fishing have resulted in a decline in blue crab populations in many areas. Management measures are currently in place in many states in the USA to protect the blue crab fishery industry. Several reviews of the nomenclature, taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, population structure and dynamics and the fishery of the blue crab have been published (Millikin and Williams, 1984; Van Den Avyle, 1984; Hill et al., 1989).

C. sapidus is a voracious predator of clams, mussels and oysters. It opens shellfish with its claws, by chipping the edge of a valve, or forcing the valves apart. Predation rates can be quite high (575 clams/day) on unprotected shellfish beds. If blue crabs exist in the vicinity of a culture area, control and protection of cultured shellfish will be necessary.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Crustacea
  •                 Class: Malacostraca
  •                     Subclass: Eumalacostraca
  •                         Order: Decapoda
  •                             Family: Portunidae
  •                                 Genus: Callinectes
  •                                     Species: Callinectes sapidus

Description

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A detailed description of the characteristic features of C. sapidus is given by Williams (1965), Van Den Avyle (1984), Hill et al. (1989), Tavares (2002) and FIGIS (2006). The following description is adapted from Tavares (2002) and FIGIS (2006).

The carapace is more than twice as broad as long; nine blunt to acuminate teeth (outer orbital tooth and strong lateral spine included) on arched anterolateral margin; front (excluding inner orbital angles) bearing two obtuse to acuminate, broadly triangular teeth with often sinuous inner margins longer than outer margins. Much of the convex dorsal surface is smooth with scattered and transverse lines of fine granules; pincers strong, dissimilar and ridged longitudinally; fifth legs flattened in the form of paddles. Males have a T-shaped abdomen reaching the level of thoracic sternite 4; slender first pleopods with membranous tip reaching beyond suture between thoracic sternites 4 and 5; sinuously curved, overlapping proximally and armed distally with a row of large and small retrogressive spinules. Colour greyish, bluish, or brownish green of varying shades and tints dorsally on carapace and chelipeds.

Spines may have reddish tints, tubercles at articulations of legs orange and legs varying blue and white with traces of red or brownish green. Males with propodi of chelae blue on inner and white on outer surfaces, fingers blue on inner and white on outer surfaces tipped with red. Mature females with orange fingers on chelae tipped with purple. Underside off-white with tints of yellow and pink. Colour variations are associated with sexual dimorphism and moult cycle. Reported maximum carapace width 209 mm, sometimes 227 mm in males and 204 mm in females. Carapace lengths of 910 mm and 750 mm have been noted in males and females, respectively. In mature females, carapace widths of 55 mm to 200 mm have been observed. C. sapidus reaches maturity in 12 to 18 months and can live for up to 3 years.

The different life stages of the blue crab have different names: jimmies or jimmy-dicks (adult male hard crabs); sooks (adult female hard crabs); she-crabs or sallies (inmature female hard crabs); sponge crabs (adult female hard crabs carrying extruded eggs); peelers (crabs with a soft shell fully developed under the hard shell); busters (crabs that have begun to shed the old shell); softshells (crabs that have just shed the old shell).

Distribution

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C. sapidus is native to the Western Atlantic, from Nova Scotia, Maine and northern Massachusetts to Argentina, including Bermuda and the Antilles (GSMFC, 2001; Tavares, 2002). It has also been successfully introduced, accidentally or intentionally, into both Asia and Europe. Accidental introductions have been attributed to larval introductions via ship ballast water. It was introduced in Europe (Denmark, Netherlands, and adjacent North Sea, France, Golfo di Genoa); northern Adriatic; Aegean, western Black, and eastern Mediterranean Seas. It has also been introduced to Japan. It is now rather abundant in parts of the northern and eastern Mediterranean Sea and Japan (SMS, 2001).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Sea Areas

Atlantic, Eastern CentralPresentNative Not invasive Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, GSMFC; Tavares, 2002
Atlantic, NortheastPresentIntroduced Not invasive Smithsonian Marine Station, SMS
Atlantic, SouthwestPresentNative Not invasive Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, GSMFC; Tavares, 2002
Atlantic, Western CentralPresentNative Not invasive Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, GSMFC; Tavares, 2002
Mediterranean and Black SeaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Smithsonian Marine Station, SMS
Pacific, NorthwestPresentIntroduced Not invasive Smithsonian Marine Station, SMS
Pacific, Western CentralPresentIntroduced Not invasive Smithsonian Marine Station, SMS

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Smithsonian Marine Station, SMS
IndonesiaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Smithsonian Marine Station, SMS
IsraelPresentIntroduced Not invasive Smithsonian Marine Station, SMS
JapanPresentIntroduced Not invasive Smithsonian Marine Station, SMS
Korea, Republic ofPresentIntroduced Not invasive Smithsonian Marine Station, SMS
MalaysiaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Smithsonian Marine Station, SMS
PhilippinesPresentIntroduced Not invasive Smithsonian Marine Station, SMS
ThailandPresentIntroduced Not invasive Smithsonian Marine Station, SMS
TurkeyPresentIntroduced Not invasive Smithsonian Marine Station, SMS
VietnamPresentIntroduced Not invasive Smithsonian Marine Station, SMS

Africa

NigeriaPresentNative Not invasive FIGIS, 2006

North America

BermudaPresentNative Not invasive Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, GSMFC; Tavares, 2002
CanadaPresentNative Not invasive Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, GSMFC; Tavares, 2002
-Nova ScotiaPresentNative Not invasive Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, GSMFC; Tavares, 2002
USAPresentNative Not invasive Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, GSMFC
-DelawarePresentNative Not invasive Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, GSMFC; Tavares, 2002
-FloridaPresentNative Not invasive Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, GSMFC; Tavares, 2002
-GeorgiaPresentNative Not invasive Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, GSMFC
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Not invasive Smithsonian Marine Station, SMS
-LouisianaPresentNative Not invasive Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, GSMFC; Tavares, 2002
-MarylandPresentNative Not invasive Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, GSMFC; Tavares, 2002
-MississippiPresentNative Not invasive Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, GSMFC; Tavares, 2002
-New JerseyPresentNative Not invasive Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, GSMFC; Tavares, 2002
-New YorkPresentNative Not invasive Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, GSMFC; Tavares, 2002
-North CarolinaPresentNative Not invasive Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, GSMFC; Tavares, 2002
-South CarolinaPresentNative Not invasive Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, GSMFC; Tavares, 2002
-TexasPresentNative Not invasive Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, GSMFC; Tavares, 2002
-VirginiaPresentNative Not invasive Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, GSMFC; Tavares, 2002

Central America and Caribbean

BelizePresentNative Not invasive Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, GSMFC; Tavares, 2002
Netherlands AntillesPresentNative Not invasive Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, GSMFC; Tavares, 2002

South America

ArgentinaPresentNative Not invasive Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, GSMFC; Tavares, 2002
BrazilPresentNative Not invasive Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, GSMFC; Tavares, 2002
ChilePresentNative Not invasive Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, GSMFC; Tavares, 2002
ColombiaPresentNative Not invasive Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, GSMFC; Tavares, 2002
EcuadorPresentNative Not invasive Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, GSMFC; Tavares, 2002
UruguayPresentNative Not invasive Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, GSMFC; Tavares, 2002
VenezuelaPresentNative Not invasive Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, GSMFC; Tavares, 2002

Europe

DenmarkPresentIntroduced Not invasive Smithsonian Marine Station, SMS
FrancePresentIntroduced Not invasive Smithsonian Marine Station, SMS
GermanyPresentIntroduced Not invasive Smithsonian Marine Station, SMS
GreecePresentIntroduced Not invasive Smithsonian Marine Station, SMS
ItalyPresentIntroduced Not invasive Smithsonian Marine Station, SMS
NetherlandsPresentIntroduced Not invasive Smithsonian Marine Station, SMS
Russian FederationPresentIntroduced Not invasive Smithsonian Marine Station, SMS
SpainPresentIntroduced Not invasive Smithsonian Marine Station, SMS

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Denmark UnknownTavares, 2002
France UnknownTavares, 2002
Japan Unknown Yes Tavares, 2002
Mediterranean and Black Sea UnknownTavares, 2002
Netherlands UnknownTavares, 2002

Natural Food Sources

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Food SourceLife StageContribution to Total Food Intake (%)Details
bottom invertebrates All Stages
fishes All Stages
mollusca (oysters, clams) All Stages
vascular plant material, detritus All Stages

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anguilla rostrata Predator Adult/Fry Hill et al., 1989
Asterias forbesii Predator Adult Auster and DeGoursey, 1994
Carcharhinus plumbeus Predator All Stages
Micropogonias undulatus Predator Fry Hill et al., 1989
Morone saxatilis Predator Adult
Opsanus tau Predator All Stages Bisker et al., 1989
Pogonias cromis Predator Fry Hill, 2004
Sciaenops ocellatus Predator Fry Hill et al., 1989

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Fisheries / aquaculture Positive

Impact: Biodiversity

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C. sapidus has been reported to mutilate fish caught in traps and trammel nets, and to tear nets. As its preferred prey is clams, mussels and oysters, it has an impact on the commercial fisheries of these species and also aquaculture operations. C. sapidus is the best-known predator of cultured clams and oysters in the USA, being responsible for much of their mortality in the region. It opens shellfish with its claws, by chipping the edge of a valve, or forcing the valves apart. Predation rates can be quite high (575 clams/day) on unprotected shellfish beds. If blue crabs exist in the vicinity of the culture area control and protection of cultured shellfish will be necessary.

References

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Adkins G, 1972. A study of the blue crab fishery in Louisiana. La Wildl Fish Comm, Oyster, Water Bottoms and Seafood Div Tech Bull, No. 3, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, 57 pp.

Anthony JE; Hadgis PN; Milam RS; Herzfeld GA; Taper LJ; Ritchey SJ, 1983. Yields, proximate composition and mineral content of finfish and shellfish. Journal of Food Science, 48(1):313-314, 316.

Auster PJ; DeGoursey RE, 1994. Winter predation on blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, by starfish Asterias forbesi. Journal of Shellfish Research, 13:361-366.

Bisker R; Gibbons M; Castagna M, 1989. Predation by the oyster toadfish Opsanus tau (Linnaeus) on blue crabs and mud crabs, predators of the hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria (Linnaeus, 1758). Journal of Shellfish Research, 8(1):25-31.

Cadman LR; Weinstein MP, 1988. Effects of temperature and salinity on the growth of laboratory reared juvenile blue crabs Callinectes sapidus Rathbun. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 121:193-207.

Chang YunShiang; Peng ShaoEn; Wang HanChing; Hsu HuiChen; Ho ChingHui; Wang ChungHsiung; Wang ShoYa; Lo ChuFang; Kou GuangHsiung, 2001. Sequencing and amplified restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of ribonucleotide reductase large subunit gene of the white spot syndrome virus in blue crab, (Callinectes sapidus), from American coastal waters. Marine Biotechnology, 3(2):163-171.

Chazaro-Olvera S; Peterson MS, 2004. Effects of salinity on growth and moulting of sympatric Callinectes sapidus from Camaronera lagoon, Veracruz, Mexico. Bulletin of Marine Science, 74(1):115-127.

Costlow JD; Bookhout CG, 1959. The larval development of Callinectes sapidus reared in the laboratory. Biological Bulletin, 116:373-396.

FAO, 2002. FAO Fishery Information, Data and Statistics Unit. Yearbook of Fishery Statistics - Capture Production 2000. Vol 90/1. Rome, Italy: FAO, 617 pp.

FIGIS, 2006. Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896. Species fact sheet. Online at: http://www.fao.org/figis/servlet/FiRefServlet?ds=species&fid=2632. Accessed 31 January 2006.

Giddings GG; Hill LH, 1975. Processing effects on the lipid fractions and principal fatty acids of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) muscle. Journal of Food Science, 40:1127-1129.

Guerin JL; Stickle WB, 1992. Effects of salinity gradients on the tolerance and bioenergetics of juvenile blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) from waters of different salinities. Marine Biology, 114:391-396.

Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001. The blue crab fishery of the Gulf of Mexico, United States: a regional management plan (final). Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, Publication No. 96, October 2001.

Hill J; Fowler DL; Van Den Avyle MJ, 1989. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic) - Blue crab. US Fish Wild Serv Biol Rep 82(11.100), US Army Corps of Engineers, TR EL-82-4, 18 pp.

Hill K, 2004. Callinectes sapidus. Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce. Online at: http://www.smsi.si.edu/IRLSpec/Callin_sapidu.htm. Accessed 29 November 2004.

Hines AH; Haddon AM; Wiechert LA, 1990. Guild structure and foraging impact of blue crabs and epibenthic fish in a subestuary of Chesapeake Bay. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 67:105-126.

Hochberg RJ; Bert TM; Steele P; Brown SD, 1992. Parasitization of Loxothylacus texanus on Callinectes sapidus: aspects of population biology and effects on host morphology. Bulletin of Marine Science, 50(1):117-132.

Krishnamoorthy RV; Venkataramiah A; Lakshmi GJ; Biesiot P, 1978. Effects of cooking and of frozen storage on the cholesterol content of selected shellfish. Journal of Food Science, 44(1):314-315.

Leffler CW, 1972. Some effects of temperature on the growth and metabolic rate of juvenile blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, in the laboratory. Marine Biology, 14:104-110.

Lopez A; Williams HL; Ward DR, 1981. Essential elements in raw, boiled, steamed and pasteurized crabmeat. Journal of Food Science, 46(4):1128-1131.

Mahood RJ; McKenzie MD; Middlaugh DP; Bollar SJ; Davis JR; Spitzbergen D, 1970. A report on the cooperative blue crab study - South Atlantic states. Florida Dep Nat Resour Contrib Ser No. 139, 32 pp.

Malone RF; Manthe DP, 1984. Interim design recommendations for closed-recirculating blue crab shedding systems. Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana State University, USA, 13 pp.

Manooch CS III, 1973. Food habits of yearling and adult striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum), from Albemarle Sound, North Carolina. Chesapeake Science, 14:73-86.

Manthe DP; Malone RF; Kumar S, 1984. Limiting factors associated with nitrification in closed blue crab shedding systems. Aquacultural Engineering, 3:119-140.

Manthe DP; Malone RF; Perry HM, 1983. Water quality fluctuations in response to variable loading in a commercial, closed shedding facility for blue crabs. Journal of Shellfish Research, 3:175-182.

Maryland Department of Natural Resources (MDDNR), 2001. Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus (aka Blue claw crab). Online at: http://www.dnr.state.md.us/fisheries/education/crab/bluecrabfacts.html. Accessed 31 January 2006.

Medved RJ; Marshall JA, 1981. Feeding behaviour and biology of young sandbar sharks, Carcharhinus plumbeus (Pisces, Carcharhinidae) in Chincoteaque Bay, Virginia. US Natl Mar Fish Serv Fish Bull, 79(3):441-447.

Messick G, 2001. A review of potential diseases of blue crabs. Bulletin of National Research Institute of Aquaculture, Supplement, No.5:81-87.

Messick GA, 1994. Hematodinium perezi infections in adult and juvenile blue crabs Callinectes sapidus from coastal bays of Maryland and Virginia, USA. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 19(1):77-82.

Millikin MR; Biddle GN; Siewicki TC; Fortner AR; Fair PH, 1980. Effects of various levels of dietary protein on survival, molting frequency and growth of juvenile blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus). Aquaculture, 19(2):149-161.

Millikin MR; Williams AB, 1984. Synopsis of biological data on the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. NOAA Tech Rep NMFS 1, FAO Fisheries Synopsis 138.

Pellegrin G Jr; Guillory V; Prejean P; Perry H; Warren J; Steele P; Wagner T; Heath S, 2001. Length-based estimates of total mortality for Gulf of Mexico blue crab. Proceedings of the Blue Crab Mortality Symposium 42-49, Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission Publication No. 90, July.

Perry HM; Wallace R, 1985. Blue crab shedding systems: water quality concerns. Mississippi-Alabama Sea Grant Consortortium, Ocean Springs, USA, 6 pp.

Rodríguez-Kábana R; Boube D; Young RW, 1989. Chitinous materials from blue crab for control of root-knot nematode. I. Effect of urea and enzymatic studies. Nematropica, 19(1):53-74.

Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001. Species name: Callinectes sapidus (blue crab). Online at: http://www.sms.si.edu/IRLSpec/Callin_sapidu.htm. Accessed 31 January 2006.

Sulkin SD, 1978. Nutritional requirements during larval development of the portunid crab, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 34(1):29-41.

Tagatz ME, 1968. Growth of juvenile blue crab, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, St Johns River, Florida. Fishery Bulletin, U.S., 67:281-288.

Tavares M, 2002. True crabs. In: Carpenter KE, ed. The living marine resources of the Western Central Atlantic. Vol 1. Introduction, molluscs, crustaceans, hagfishes, sharks, batoid fishes and chimaeras. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes and American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists Special Publication No. 5. Rome, Italy: FAO, 351 pp.

Tsai DE; Chen HC; Tsai CF, 1984. Total lipid and cholesterol content in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, B, 78(1):27-31.

Van Den Avyle MJ, 1984. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Atlantic) - blue crab. US Fish Wildl Serv FWS/OBS-82/11.19, US Army Corps of Engineers, TR EL-82-4, 16 pp.

Van Engel WA, 1958. The blue crab and its fishery in Chesapeake Bay. Part I. Reproduction, early development, growth, and migration. Commer Fish Rev, 20(6):6-17.

Ward DR; Nickelson RII; Finne G, 1979. Relationship between methylmercury and total mercury in blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus). Journal of Food Science, 44(3):920-921.

Wardle WJ; Tirpak AJ, 1991. Occurrence and distribution of an outbreak of Loxothylacus texanus (Rhizocephala) in blue crabs in Galveston Bay, Texas, with special reference to size and coloration of the parasite's external reproductive structures. Journal of Crustacean Biology, 11(4):553-560.

Wenner CA; Musick JA, 1975. Food habits and seasonal abundance of the American eel, Anguilla rostrata, from the lower Chesapeake Bay. Chesapeake Science, 16:62-66.

Williams AB, 1965. Marine decapod crustaceans of the Carolinas. US Fish Wildl Serv Fish Bull, 65:1-298.

Williams AB, 1974. The swimming crabs of the genus Callinectes. Fishery Bulletin U.S., 72:685-698.

Contributors

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Main Author
Uma Sabapathy Allen
Human Sciences, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, OX10 8DE, UK

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