Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
Preferred Common Name
Other Scientific Names
- Datura quercifolia Kunth (1818)
- Stramonium ferox Boccone
- Datura laevis Bertol.
International Common Names
- English: angel's-trumpet, Chinese thornapple, false castor-oil, fierce thornapple, long-spine thornapple
Local Common Names
- French: datura
- Germany: Dorniger Stechapfel
- South Africa: grootstinkblaar, large thornapple
- Spain: chamico
- Sweden: langtaggig spikklubba
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
D. ferox is an annual plant that has become a significant weed of summer crops in many subtropical and warm temperate parts of the world. The plant can achieve high densities and is difficult to control. It is toxic to animals and humans, with all plant parts and seeds containing toxic alkaloids. Cases of livestock poisoning do occur, especially if animal feed is contaminated with D. ferox seeds.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Solanales
- Family: Solanaceae
- Genus: Datura
- Species: Datura ferox
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
The species name ferox means ‘strongly fortified’ and refers to the long spines on seed pods. The genus name Datura is from the Bengali name ‘dhatura’ for the plant. A number of sources including Missouri Botanical Garden (2013) and The Plant List (2014) still treat D. quercifolia as a distinct species, but others now regard the latter as a synonym of D. ferox and this is the basis for the distribution and other data presented here.
DescriptionTop of page
D. ferox is an annual herb growing 50-150 cm tall. Stems are hairless or sparsely hairy with short and soft hairs, frequently branched and often purplish towards the base. Leaf shapes range from broadly ovate to rounded-triangular, 8-14 cm long and 6-16 cm wide; leaf margins are irregularly serrated or sinuate (with deep wavy margins). Flowers are white, often tinged with violet, 4-6 cm long, with five lobes, each lobe ending in a point of 1-2 mm length. Anthers are 3-4 mm long. Fruits are ellipsoid capsules up to 4 cm long. Each capsule bears up to 60 stout spines, the upper ones being longer than the lower ones. Seeds are black or grey and 4-5 mm long (George, 1982).
Plant TypeTop of page
DistributionTop of page
A number of sources (e.g. Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001; USDA-ARS, 2014) indicate that, unlike other Datura species, D. ferox is native to China. However, according to Flora Zambesiaca (2014) it is ‘native to southern North America (but for a long time said to be native to China based on an error from Linnaeus)’. It is not listed in Flora of China (2014). It is unlikely that D. ferox is native to Bolivia and other parts of South America, as indicated in some floras; the species of Datura occuring in South America might have been introduced in pre-Columbian times (Geeta and Gharaibeh, 2007). In Australia, D. ferox is much less frequent than D. stramonium (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001).
D. ferox has been widely spread by humans and is now present in Japan, India, Israel, south and east Africa, Europe, California, South America, Easter Island, Australia, New Zealand and New Caledonia.
Distribution TableTop of page
|Country||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||References||Notes|
|India||Present||Introduced||Khuroo et al., 2012|
|Israel||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Mito & Uesugi, 2004; Fufour-Dror, 2012|
|Japan||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Mito & Uesugi, 2004|
|Kenya||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Lusweti et al., 2013|
|South Africa||Present||Introduced||POSA, 2013|
|Tanzania||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Lusweti et al., 2013|
|Uganda||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Lusweti et al., 2013|
|-California||Localised||Introduced||Not invasive||Calflora, 2013|
|-New Mexico||Present||Native||USDA-NRCS, 2014|
|-North Carolina||Present||Native||USDA-NRCS, 2014|
|-South Carolina||Present||Native||USDA-NRCS, 2014|
CENTRAL AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN
|Argentina||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Torres et al., 2013b; Torres et al., 2013a|
|Bolivia||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013||1000-2000 m|
|-Rio Grande do Sul||Present||Introduced||Schneider, 2007|
|Chile||Present||Introduced||Fuentes et al., 2013|
|-Easter Island||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Meyer, 2008|
|Colombia||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||GBIF, 2014|
|Ecuador||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||GBIF, 2014|
|Paraguay||Present||Introduced||Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013|
|Peru||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||GBIF, 2014|
|Uruguay||Present||Introduced||Plá et al., 2003|
|Belgium||Present, few occurrences||Introduced||Not invasive||Euro+Med, 2013|
|Czech Republic||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Pysek et al., 2012||Since 1987|
|Finland||Present||Not invasive||GBIF, 2014|
|France||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Euro+Med, 2013|
|Germany||Present, few occurrences||Introduced||Not invasive||Seybold, 2009|
|Greece||Present, few occurrences||Introduced||Not invasive||Arianoutsou et al., 2010|
|Italy||Present, few occurrences||Introduced||Not invasive||Euro+Med, 2013|
|Spain||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Dorado et al., 2009; Dorado et al., 2009|
|Sweden||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||GBIF, 2014|
|UK||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||GBIF, 2014|
|-Australian Northern Territory||Localised||Introduced||Parsons & Cuthbertson, 2001|
|-New South Wales||Localised||Introduced||Parsons & Cuthbertson, 2001|
|-Queensland||Localised||Introduced||Parsons & Cuthbertson, 2001|
|-South Australia||Localised||Introduced||Parsons & Cuthbertson, 2001|
|-Victoria||Localised||Introduced||Parsons & Cuthbertson, 2001|
|-Western Australia||Localised||Introduced||Parsons & Cuthbertson, 2001|
|New Caledonia||Present||Introduced||Invasive||MacKee, 1994|
|New Zealand||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Webb et al., 1988|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
The exact native range of the plant is unknown due to its widespread dispersal by man. Much less is known with regard to the introduction history of D. ferox compared to other weedy thornapples. The species of Datura (including D. ferox) occuring in South America might have been introduced in pre-Columbian times (Geeta and Gharaibeh, 2007).
HabitatTop of page
D. ferox occurs in warm-temperate and subtropical regions, mostly in open situations on fertile soils. It grows on disturbed sites such as roadsides, waste places, embankments, river flats and stock yards. It is a weed of summer crops in many parts of the world, particularly cotton, soybeans, peanuts, maize, sorghum, sunflower and vegetables.
HabitatTop of page
|Cultivated / agricultural land||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Disturbed areas||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Rail / roadsides||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Urban / peri-urban areas||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Riverbanks||Present, no further details||Natural|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
D. ferox is a weed in summer crops, including maize, soybean, peanuts, grain sorghum, potato, sunflower and Cucurbitaceae (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001; Torres et al., 2013a,b).
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Chromosome number: 2n = 24 (Bergner and Blakeslee, 1932). Natural hybrids between D. ferox and D. stramonium have been reported from Australia (APNI, 2013). D. ferox is self-compatible and self-pollinating, although cross-pollination yields a higher number of seeds (Torres et al., 2013 a,b). The cytogenetics of the genus Datura is the subject of a volume edited by Avery et al. (1969).
As an annual, reproduction of D. ferox is by seed only. No other plant parts have been observed to grow into new plants, but plants may remain alive if roots become partly destroyed (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001). Number of seeds per fruit ranged from 96 to 227 in plants from Argentina (Torres et al., 2013b).
Average number of emerged seedlings in a maize field in Central Spain was 288 and 188 plants m-2, respectively (Dorado et al., 2009).
Physiology and Phenology
D. ferox contains toxic alkaloids, including atropine, scopolamine and hyoscyamine (Vitale et al., 1995; Piva et al., 1997). The content of these compounds varies with availability of nitrogen, light intensity and temperature (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001). In South American D. ferox plants, scopolamine may constitute 98-100% of total alkaloids (Piva et al., 1997). Seeds also contain carbohydrate-binding proteins such as ß-Galactosidase (Plá et al., 2003).
Seeds may germinate throughout the year if soil moisture is high enough (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001). 10 mm of rain or irrigation water is sufficient to cause germination once seed dominancy is broken. Seeds require an after-ripening period of several months because a chemical inhibitor in the seedcoat must be leached out or broken down before germination takes place. Therefore, germination in the field is spread over several months, making control strategies difficult (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001). Germination rates vary with environmental conditions but may be low. Thus, germination rates of seeds collected from corn fields in Central Spain ranged from 2 ± 1.7 % to 11 ± 3.6 % (Dorado et al., 2009a).
According to Soriano et al. (1964) seeds need light and alternated temperatures to germinate. Martínez-Ghersa et al. (2006) emphasized that seedling emergence therefore takes place after soil cultivation in summer crops, or any other soil disturbances (Scopel et al., 1991).
Seedlings grow quickly if temperature and soil moisture are high enough. Growth rates of 2 cm per day have been recorded. Flowers may be produced at the age of 2-5 weeks. Flowering and fruiting continue throughout the summer.
The large and scented flowers open at night and are pollinated by hawkmoths, sphingids, coleopterans and Apis mellifera in soybean crop fields in Argentina (Torres et al., 2013a). D. ferox may have two flowering peaks in a year (Torres et al., 2013b).
Seeds need light and alternating temperatures in order to germinate (Soriano et al., 1964). In summer crops, seedling emergence is thus promoted by cultivation (Ballaré et al., 1988).
Growth depends on density. In a common garden study, D. ferox plants were grown at 32, 100 and 240 plants m-2 (Ballaré et al., 1988). Seedlings responded rapidly to increased plant density by producing longer internodes and allocating more dry matter to the stem relative to leaves. The number of leaves did not change significantly (Ballaré et al., 1988).
ClimateTop of page
|BS - Steppe climate||Preferred||> 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation|
|BW - Desert climate||Preferred||< 430mm annual precipitation|
|Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year|
|Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter||Preferred||Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)|
Soil TolerancesTop of page
Special soil tolerances
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
D. ferox reproduces and spreads solely by seed, which it produces in large numbers. Both seed capsules and seeds float on water, providing an effective means of dispersal.
Seeds are mainly spread by contamination of agricultural seeds, or by machinery and vehicles. In New Zealand, the plant is believed to have originated from imported birdseed (Webb et al., 1988).
Economic ImpactTop of page
Economic damage caused by D. ferox includes yield loss due to weed infestations and livestock poisoning. The plant's bitter taste usually deters grazing animals, but problems may occur if plants are included in hay. If thornapple seeds contaminate meal fed to poultry, poisoning may occur. About 1% thornapple seed in meal is the upper limit which can be tolerated by young broilers (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001). Datura intoxication (including D. stramonium) has been reported for cattle, swine, dogs, sheep, goats, poultry and horses (Binev et al., 2006).
In Argentina, the leaves are unpalatable and few cases of cattle intoxication have been reported (Torres et al., 2013b). However, seed ingestion occurs when seeds are accidentally mixed with edible seeds, such as sorghum (Sorghum sp.) or sunflower (Helianthus sp.). In Argentina, this causes mortality in pigs and poultry (Gallo, 1987). Thornapple seeds are difficult to separate from seeds of grain sorghum due to their similarity in size, shape and density, which may cause contamination (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001).
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Competition - shading
- Competition - smothering
- Produces spines, thorns or burrs
- Rapid growth
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Negatively impacts animal health
- Fast growing
- Has high reproductive potential
- Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
- Pioneering in disturbed areas
- Proved invasive outside its native range
Likelihood of entry/control
- Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
- Difficult to identify/detect in the field
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
Uses ListTop of page
- Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
Detection and InspectionTop of page
D. quercifolia can be distinguished from D. ferox by more purplish coloration in foliage; corolla and anthers, slightly downy versus glabrous; and spines somewhat less stout (Houmani et al., 1999).
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
A number of related species have a similar appearance and similar properties to D. ferox, and are also weeds in various places: common thornapple (Datura stramonium L.), downy thornapple (Datura inoxia Mill. = D. innoxia Mill.), hoary thornapple (Datura metel L.) and hairy thornapple (Datura wrightii Rogel).
Both common thornapple (D. stramonium) and D. ferox produce erect fruit capsules on straight stalks. Seeds of both species are black to greyish. In contrast, fruit capsules of other thornapples (Datura leichhardtii, D. metel, D. inoxia, D. wrightii) appear on curved stalks and their seeds are brown to yellow. Flowers of D. ferox are shorter (4-6 cm long) compared to flowers of D. stramonium (up to 10 cm long). A distinguishing feature of D. ferox is the long spines on the fruit capsules.
Datura species are annual, whereas members of the closely related genus Brugmansia are perennials.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
With single plants it is best to hand pull or hoe them before fruit form (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001). Larger infestations are best controlled by cultivation, preferably at the seedling stage (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001). Repeated cultivation is necessary as seedlings emerge over a long period from the soil seed bank.
Thornapples are susceptible to 2,4-D in the seedling stage and young growth stages but become resistant as they mature (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001). Other non-selective herbicides include atrazine, diquat, paraquat and glyphosate. The following herbicides are available for use in specific crops: acifluorfen in soybeans and peanuts; bentazone in soybeans, other beans and peanuts; 2,4-DB in certain varieties of peanuts; dicamba in grain sorghum and maize; metolachlor in maize, and picloram + 2,4-D in summer cereals (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001).
ReferencesTop of page
Arana MV, Burgin MJ, Miguel LCde, Sánchez RA, 2007. The very-low-fluence and high-irradiance responses of the phytochromes have antagonistic effects on germination, mannan-degrading activities, and DfGA3ox transcript levels in Datura ferox seeds. Journal of Experimental Botany, 58(14):3997-4004. http://jxb.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/14/3997
Arianoutsou M, Bazos I, Delipetrou P, Kokkoris Y, 2010. The alien flora of Greece: taxonomy, life traits and habitat preferences. Biological Invasions, 12(10):3525-3549. http://www.springerlink.com/content/64p8761783323136/
Australian Plant Name Index, 2013. Australian National Botanic Gardens, Canberra, Australia. http://www.anbg.gov.au/cgi-bin/apni
Avery AG, Satina S, Rietsema J, 1959. Blakeslee: the genus Datura. The Ronald Press Company, New York., xli + 289 pp.
Ballaré CL, Sánchez RA, Scopel AL, Ghersa CM, 1988. Morphological responses of Datura ferox L. seedlings to the presence of neighbours. Their relationships with canopy microclimate. Oecologia, 76(2):288-293.
Bergner AD, Blakeslee AF, 1932. Cytology of the ferox-quercifolia-stramonium triangle in Datura. Genetics, 18:151-159.
Binev R, Valchev I, Nikolov J, 2006. Clinical and pathological studies on intoxication in horses from freshly cut Jimson weed (Datura stramonium)-contaminated maize intended for ensiling. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 77(4):215-219. http://www.sava.co.za
Botto JF, Sßnchez RA, Casal JJ, 1998. Burial conditions affect light responses of Datura ferox seeds. Seed Science Research, 8(4):423-429; 40 ref.
Calflora, 2013. Calflora: Information on wild California plants for conservation, education, and appreciation. http://www.calflora.org
Charles GW, Murison RD, Harden S, 1998. Competition of noogoora burr (Xanthium occidentale) and fierce thornapple (Datura ferox) with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum. Weed Science, 46(4):442-446.
Dorado J, Fernández-Quintanilla C, Grundy AC, 2009. Germination patterns in naturally chilled and nonchilled seeds of fierce thornapple (Datura ferox) and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti). Weed Science, 57(2):155-162. http://wssa.allenpress.com/perlserv/?request=get-abstract&doi=10.1614%2FWS-08-122.1
Dorado J, Sousa E, Calha IM, González-Andújar JL, Fernández-Quintanilla C, 2009. Predicting weed emergence in maize crops under two contrasting climatic conditions. Weed Research (Oxford), 49(3):251-260. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/122308601/HTMLSTART
eFloras, 2013. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
Euro+Med, 2013. Euro+Med PlantBase. http://www.emplantbase.org/home.html
Flora Zambesiaca, 2013. Flora Zambesiaca, 10(4). Kew, UK: Kew Royal Botanic Gardens. http://apps.kew.org/efloras/search.do
Fuentes N, Pauchard A, Sánchez P, Esquivel J, Marticorena A, 2013. A new comprehensive database of alien plant species in Chile based on herbarium records. Biological Invasions, 15(4):847-858. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-012-0334-6
Fufour-Dror JM, 2012. Alien Invasive Plants in Israel. Ahva, Jerusalem: The Middle East Nature Conservation Promotion Association.
Gallo GG, 1987. Plants toxic to livestock in the cone of Southern of America (Plantas tóxicas para el ganado en el cono Sur de América). Buenos Aires, Argentina: Hemisferio Sur, 213 pp.
GBIF, 2014. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. http://www.gbif.org/species
Geeta R, Gharaibeh W, 2007. Historical evidence for a pre-Columbian presence of Datura in the Old World and implications for a first millennium transfer from the New World. Journal of Biosciences, 32(7):1227-1244. http://www.ias.ac.in/jbiosci
George (ed) AS, 1982. Flora of Australia. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service.
Gerber R, Naudé TW, Kock SSde, 2006. Confirmed Datura poisoning in a horse most probably due to D. ferox in contaminated tef hay. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 77(2):86-89. http://www.sava.co.za
Houmani Z, Cosson L, Houmani M, 1999. Datura ferox L. and D. quercifolia Kunth (Solanaceae) in Algeria. Flora Mediterranea, 9:57-60.
Khuroo AA, Reshi ZA, Malik AH, Weber E, Rashid I, Dar GH, 2012. Alien flora of India: taxonomic composition, invasion status and biogeographic affiliations. Biological Invasions, 14(1):99-113. http://www.springerlink.com/content/0p0331853 lm77 gl6/
Kovatsis A, Kovatsis-Kovatsi VP, Nikolaidis E, Flaskos J, Tzika S, Tzotzas G, 1994. The influence of Datura ferox alkaloids on egg-laying hens. Veterinary and Human Toxicology, 36(2):89-92.
Lusweti A, Wabuyele E, Ssegawa P, Mauremootoo J, 2013. Datura ferox (Fierce Thorn Apple). BioNET-EAFRINET Keys and factsheets (online). http://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/eafrinet/weeds/key/weeds/Media/Html/Datura_ferox_%28Fierce_Thorn_Apple%29.htm [accessed November 2013]
MacKee HS, 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, unpaginated.
Maroyi A, 2012. The casual, naturalised and invasive alien flora of Zimbabwe based on herbarium and literature records. Koedoe, 54(1):Article 1054. http://www.koedoe.co.za/index.php/koedoe/article/view/1054/1413
Martínez-Ghersa MA, Ghersa CM, 2006. The relationship of propagule pressure to invasion potential in plants. Euphytica, 148(1/2):87-96.
Meyer J-Y, 2008. Strategic action plan to control invasive alien plants on Rapa Nui (Easter Island). (Rapport de mission d'expertise a Rapa Nui du 02 au 11 Juin 2008: Plan d'action strategique pour lutter contre les plantes introduites envahissantes sur Rapa Nui (Ile de paques).) Unpublished report. Papeete, Tahiti: Government of French Polynesia, 62 pp.
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013. Tropicos database. St Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/
Mito T, Uesugi T, 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research, 8:171-191.
Parsons WT, Cuthbertson EG, 2001. Noxious weeds of Australia. Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, xii + 698 pp.
Piva G, Morlacchini M, Pietri A, Fusari A, Corradi A, Piva A, 1997. Toxicity of dietary scopolamine and hyoscyamine in pigs. Livestock Production Science, 51(1/3):29-39.
Plá A, Alonso E, Batista-Viera F, Franco Fraguas L, 2003. Screening for carbohydrate-binding proteins in extracts of Uruguayan plants. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 36(7):851-860.
POSA, 2013. Plants of Southern Africa. SANBI (online). http://posa.sanbi.org [accessed November 2013]
Pysek P, Danihelka J, Sádlo J, Chrtek J Jr, Chytrý M, Jarosík V, Kaplan Z, Krahulec F, Moravcová L, Pergl J, Stajerová K, Tichý L, 2012. Catalogue of alien plants of the Czech Republic (2nd edition): checklist update, taxonomic diversity and invasion patterns. Preslia, 84(2):155-255. http://www.ibot.cas.cz/preslia/P122Pysek.pdf
Sánchez RA, Miguel Lde, Lima C, Lederkremer RMde, 2002. Effect of low water potential on phytochrome-induced germination, endosperm softening and cell-wall mannan degradation in Datura ferox seeds. Seed Science Research, 12(3):155-163.
Schneider AA, 2007. The naturalized flora of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil: subspontaneous herbaceous plants. (Flora naturalizada no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil: herbáceas subespontâneas.) Biociências, 15(2):257-268. http://revistaseletronicas.pucrs.br/ojs/index.php/fabio/article/viewFile/254/3005
Scopel AL, Ballaré CL, Sánchez RA, 1991. Induction of extreme light sensitivity in buried weed seeds and its role in the perception of soil cultivations. Plant, Cell and Environment, 14(5):501-508.
Seybold S, 2009. Flora of Germany and adjacent countries (Flora von Deutschland und angrenzender Länder). Wiebelsheim, Germany: Quelle & Meyer.
SORIANO A, SÂNCHEZ RA, EILBERG BADE, 1964. Factors and processes in the germination of Datura ferox L. Canadian Journal of Botany, 42(9):1189-1203.
Torres C, Mimosa M, Ferreira MF, Galetto L, 2013. Reproductive strategies of Datura ferox, an abundant invasive weed in agro-ecosystems from central Argentina. Flora (Jena), 208(4):253-258. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03672530
Torres C, Mimosa M, Galetto L, 2013. Nectar ecology of Datura ferox (Solanaceae): an invasive weed with nocturnal flowers in agro-ecosystems from central Argentina. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 299(8):1433-1441. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00606-013-0805-y
USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl
USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/
Vitale AA, Acher A, Pomilio AB, 1995. Alkaloids of Datura ferox from Argentina. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 49(2):81-89.
Webb CJ, Sykes WR, Garnock-Jones PJ, 1988. Flora of New Zealand, Volume IV: Naturalised pteridophytes, gymnosperms, dicotyledons. Christchurch, New Zealand: Botany Division, DSIR, 1365 pp.
ContributorsTop of page
16/12/13 Original text by:
Ewald Weber, Consultant, Switzerland
Top of page
- = Present, no further details
- = Evidence of pathogen
- = Widespread
- = Last reported
- = Localised
- = Presence unconfirmed
- = Confined and subject to quarantine
- = See regional map for distribution within the country
- = Occasional or few reports