Cookies on Invasive Species Compendium

Like most websites we use cookies. This is to ensure that we give you the best experience possible.

Continuing to use www.cabi.org/isc means you agree to our use of cookies. If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use.

Datasheet

Datura ferox

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 23 April 2014
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Datura ferox
  • Preferred Common Name
  • fierce thornapple
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • D. ferox is an annual plant that has become a significant weed of summer crops in many subtropical and warm temperate parts of the world. The plant can achieve high densities and is difficult to control. It is toxic to animals and humans, with all...

  • There are no pictures available for this datasheet

    If you can supply pictures for this datasheet please contact:

    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution mapMore information

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Datura ferox L.

Preferred Common Name

  • fierce thornapple

Other Scientific Names

  • Datura quercifolia Kunth (1818)
  • Stramonium ferox Boccone
  • Datura laevis Bertol.

International Common Names

  • English: angel's-trumpet, Chinese thornapple, false castor-oil, fierce thornapple, long-spine thornapple

Local Common Names

  • French: datura
  • Germany: Dorniger Stechapfel
  • South Africa: grootstinkblaar, large thornapple
  • Spain: chamico
  • Sweden: langtaggig spikklubba

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

D. ferox is an annual plant that has become a significant weed of summer crops in many subtropical and warm temperate parts of the world. The plant can achieve high densities and is difficult to control. It is toxic to animals and humans, with all plant parts and seeds containing toxic alkaloids. Cases of livestock poisoning do occur, especially if animal feed is contaminated with D. ferox seeds.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Solanales
  •                         Family: Solanaceae
  •                             Genus: Datura
  •                                 Species: Datura ferox

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

The species name ferox means ‘strongly fortified’ and refers to the long spines on seed pods. The genus name Datura is from the Bengali name ‘dhatura’ for the plant. A number of sources including Missouri Botanical Garden (2013) and The Plant List (2014) still treat D. quercifolia as a distinct species, but others now regard the latter as a synonym of D. ferox and this is the basis for the distribution and other data presented here.

Description

Top of page

D. ferox is an annual herb growing 50-150 cm tall. Stems are hairless or sparsely hairy with short and soft hairs, frequently branched and often purplish towards the base. Leaf shapes range from broadly ovate to rounded-triangular, 8-14 cm long and 6-16 cm wide; leaf margins are irregularly serrated or sinuate (with deep wavy margins). Flowers are white, often tinged with violet, 4-6 cm long, with five lobes, each lobe ending in a point of 1-2 mm length. Anthers are 3-4 mm long. Fruits are ellipsoid capsules up to 4 cm long. Each capsule bears up to 60 stout spines, the upper ones being longer than the lower ones. Seeds are black or grey and 4-5 mm long (George, 1982).

Plant Type

Top of pageAnnual
Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

Top of page

A number of sources (e.g. Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001; USDA-ARS, 2014) indicate that, unlike other Datura species, D. ferox is native to China. However, according to Flora Zambesiaca (2014) it is ‘native to southern North America (but for a long time said to be native to China based on an error from Linnaeus)’. It is not listed in Flora of China (2014). It is unlikely that D. ferox is native to Bolivia and other parts of South America, as indicated in some floras; the species of Datura occuring in South America might have been introduced in pre-Columbian times (Geeta and Gharaibeh, 2007). In Australia, D. ferox is much less frequent than D. stramonium (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001).

D. ferox has been widely spread by humans and is now present in Japan, India, Israel, south and east Africa, Europe, California, South America, Easter Island, Australia, New Zealand and New Caledonia.

Distribution Table

Top of page
CountryDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferencesNotes

ASIA

IndiaPresentIntroducedKhuroo et al., 2012
IsraelPresentIntroducedNot invasiveMito & Uesugi, 2004; Fufour-Dror, 2012
JapanPresentIntroducedNot invasiveMito & Uesugi, 2004
NepalPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2014
TurkeyPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2014

AFRICA

BotswanaPresentIntroducedPOSA, 2013
KenyaPresentIntroducedInvasiveLusweti et al., 2013
LesothoPresentIntroducedPOSA, 2013
MaliPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2014
NamibiaPresentIntroducedPOSA, 2013
South AfricaPresentIntroducedPOSA, 2013
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveLusweti et al., 2013
UgandaPresentIntroducedInvasiveLusweti et al., 2013
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedMaroyi, 2012

NORTH AMERICA

MexicoPresentNativeGBIF, 2014
USA
-ArizonaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-ArkansasPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-CaliforniaLocalisedIntroducedNot invasiveCalflora, 2013
-GeorgiaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-KansasPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-LouisianaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-MarylandPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-New MexicoPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-North CarolinaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-OklahomaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-PennsylvaniaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-South CarolinaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-TexasPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014

CENTRAL AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

JamaicaPresentGBIF, 2014

SOUTH AMERICA

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedInvasiveTorres et al., 2013b; Torres et al., 2013a
BoliviaPresentIntroducedNot invasiveMissouri Botanical Garden, 20131000-2000 m
Brazil
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroducedSchneider, 2007
ChilePresentIntroducedFuentes et al., 2013
-Easter IslandPresentIntroducedInvasiveMeyer, 2008
ColombiaPresentIntroducedNot invasiveGBIF, 2014
EcuadorPresentIntroducedNot invasiveGBIF, 2014
ParaguayPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
PeruPresentIntroducedNot invasiveGBIF, 2014
UruguayPresentIntroducedPlá et al., 2003

EUROPE

BelgiumPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedNot invasiveEuro+Med, 2013
Czech RepublicPresentIntroducedNot invasivePysek et al., 2012Since 1987
FinlandPresentNot invasiveGBIF, 2014
FrancePresentIntroducedNot invasiveEuro+Med, 2013
GermanyPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedNot invasiveSeybold, 2009
GreecePresent, few occurrencesIntroducedNot invasiveArianoutsou et al., 2010
ItalyPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedNot invasiveEuro+Med, 2013
NetherlandsPresentIntroducedNot invasive
SpainPresentIntroducedInvasiveDorado et al., 2009; Dorado et al., 2009
SwedenPresentIntroducedNot invasiveGBIF, 2014
UKPresentIntroducedNot invasiveGBIF, 2014

OCEANIA

Australia
-Australian Northern TerritoryLocalisedIntroducedParsons & Cuthbertson, 2001
-New South WalesLocalisedIntroducedParsons & Cuthbertson, 2001
-QueenslandLocalisedIntroducedParsons & Cuthbertson, 2001
-South AustraliaLocalisedIntroducedParsons & Cuthbertson, 2001
-VictoriaLocalisedIntroducedParsons & Cuthbertson, 2001
-Western AustraliaLocalisedIntroducedParsons & Cuthbertson, 2001
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveMacKee, 1994
New ZealandPresentIntroducedNot invasiveWebb et al., 1988

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

The exact native range of the plant is unknown due to its widespread dispersal by man. Much less is known with regard to the introduction history of D. ferox compared to other weedy thornapples. The species of Datura (including D. ferox) occuring in South America might have been introduced in pre-Columbian times (Geeta and Gharaibeh, 2007).

Habitat

Top of page

D. ferox occurs in warm-temperate and subtropical regions, mostly in open situations on fertile soils. It grows on disturbed sites such as roadsides, waste places, embankments, river flats and stock yards. It is a weed of summer crops in many parts of the world, particularly cotton, soybeans, peanuts, maize, sorghum, sunflower and vegetables.

Habitat

Top of page
CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural landPresent, no further detailsNatural
Disturbed areasPresent, no further detailsNatural
Rail / roadsidesPresent, no further detailsNatural
Urban / peri-urban areasPresent, no further detailsNatural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
RiverbanksPresent, no further detailsNatural

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

D. ferox is a weed in summer crops, including maize, soybean, peanuts, grain sorghum, potato, sunflower and Cucurbitaceae (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001; Torres et al., 2013a,b).

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

Chromosome number: 2n = 24 (Bergner and Blakeslee, 1932). Natural hybrids between D. ferox and D. stramonium have been reported from Australia (APNI, 2013). D. ferox is self-compatible and self-pollinating, although cross-pollination yields a higher number of seeds (Torres et al., 2013 a,b). The cytogenetics of the genus Datura is the subject of a volume edited by Avery et al. (1969).

Reproductive Biology

As an annual, reproduction of D. ferox is by seed only. No other plant parts have been observed to grow into new plants, but plants may remain alive if roots become partly destroyed (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001). Number of seeds per fruit ranged from 96 to 227 in plants from Argentina (Torres et al., 2013b).

Average number of emerged seedlings in a maize field in Central Spain was 288 and 188 plants m-2, respectively (Dorado et al., 2009).

Physiology and Phenology

D. ferox contains toxic alkaloids, including atropine, scopolamine and hyoscyamine (Vitale et al., 1995; Piva et al., 1997). The content of these compounds varies with availability of nitrogen, light intensity and temperature (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001). In South American D. ferox plants, scopolamine may constitute 98-100% of total alkaloids (Piva et al., 1997). Seeds also contain carbohydrate-binding proteins such as ß-Galactosidase (Plá et al., 2003).

Seeds may germinate throughout the year if soil moisture is high enough (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001). 10 mm of rain or irrigation water is sufficient to cause germination once seed dominancy is broken. Seeds require an after-ripening period of several months because a chemical inhibitor in the seedcoat must be leached out or broken down before germination takes place. Therefore, germination in the field is spread over several months, making control strategies difficult (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001). Germination rates vary with environmental conditions but may be low. Thus, germination rates of seeds collected from corn fields in Central Spain ranged from 2 ± 1.7 % to 11 ± 3.6 % (Dorado et al., 2009a).

According to Soriano et al. (1964) seeds need light and alternated temperatures to germinate. Martínez-Ghersa et al. (2006) emphasized that seedling emergence therefore takes place after soil cultivation in summer crops, or any other soil disturbances (Scopel et al., 1991).

Seedlings grow quickly if temperature and soil moisture are high enough. Growth rates of 2 cm per day have been recorded. Flowers may be produced at the age of 2-5 weeks. Flowering and fruiting continue throughout the summer.

The large and scented flowers open at night and are pollinated by hawkmoths, sphingids, coleopterans and Apis mellifera in soybean crop fields in Argentina (Torres et al., 2013a). D. ferox may have two flowering peaks in a year (Torres et al., 2013b).

Environmental Requirements

Seeds need light and alternating temperatures in order to germinate (Soriano et al., 1964). In summer crops, seedling emergence is thus promoted by cultivation (Ballaré et al., 1988).

Growth depends on density. In a common garden study, D. ferox plants were grown at 32, 100 and 240 plants m-2 (Ballaré et al., 1988). Seedlings responded rapidly to increased plant density by producing longer internodes and allocating more dry matter to the stem relative to leaves. The number of leaves did not change significantly (Ballaré et al., 1988).

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
BS - Steppe climatePreferred> 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climatePreferred< 430mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all yearPreferredWarm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winterPreferredWarm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • shallow

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

Natural Dispersal

D. ferox reproduces and spreads solely by seed, which it produces in large numbers. Both seed capsules and seeds float on water, providing an effective means of dispersal.

Accidental Introduction

Seeds are mainly spread by contamination of agricultural seeds, or by machinery and vehicles. In New Zealand, the plant is believed to have originated from imported birdseed (Webb et al., 1988).

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
AgricultureYesYesTorres et al., 2013b
DisturbanceYesYesParsons & Cuthbertson, 2001
Flooding/ other natural disasterYesYesParsons & Cuthbertson, 2001

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Machinery/equipmentYesParsons & Cuthbertson, 2001
WaterYesParsons & Cuthbertson, 2001

Economic Impact

Top of page

Economic damage caused by D. ferox includes yield loss due to weed infestations and livestock poisoning. The plant's bitter taste usually deters grazing animals, but problems may occur if plants are included in hay. If thornapple seeds contaminate meal fed to poultry, poisoning may occur. About 1% thornapple seed in meal is the upper limit which can be tolerated by young broilers (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001). Datura intoxication (including D. stramonium) has been reported for cattle, swine, dogs, sheep, goats, poultry and horses (Binev et al., 2006).

In Argentina, the leaves are unpalatable and few cases of cattle intoxication have been reported (Torres et al., 2013b). However, seed ingestion occurs when seeds are accidentally mixed with edible seeds, such as sorghum (Sorghum sp.) or sunflower (Helianthus sp.). In Argentina, this causes mortality in pigs and poultry (Gallo, 1987). Thornapple seeds are difficult to separate from seeds of grain sorghum due to their similarity in size, shape and density, which may cause contamination (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page

Impact mechanisms

  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Poisoning
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
  • Rapid growth

Impact outcomes

  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts animal health

Invasiveness

  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Proved invasive outside its native range

Likelihood of entry/control

  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally

Uses List

Top of page

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical

Detection and Inspection

Top of page

D. quercifolia can be distinguished from D. ferox by more purplish coloration in foliage; corolla and anthers, slightly downy versus glabrous; and spines somewhat less stout (Houmani et al., 1999).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

A number of related species have a similar appearance and similar properties to D. ferox, and are also weeds in various places: common thornapple (Datura stramonium L.), downy thornapple (Datura inoxia Mill. = D. innoxia Mill.), hoary thornapple (Datura metel L.) and hairy thornapple (Datura wrightii Rogel).

Both common thornapple (D. stramonium) and D. ferox produce erect fruit capsules on straight stalks. Seeds of both species are black to greyish. In contrast, fruit capsules of other thornapples (Datura leichhardtii, D. metel, D. inoxia, D. wrightii) appear on curved stalks and their seeds are brown to yellow. Flowers of D. ferox are shorter (4-6 cm long) compared to flowers of D. stramonium (up to 10 cm long). A distinguishing feature of D. ferox is the long spines on the fruit capsules.

Datura species are annual, whereas members of the closely related genus Brugmansia are perennials.

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Physical/Mechanical Control

With single plants it is best to hand pull or hoe them before fruit form (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001). Larger infestations are best controlled by cultivation, preferably at the seedling stage (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001). Repeated cultivation is necessary as seedlings emerge over a long period from the soil seed bank.

Chemical Control

Thornapples are susceptible to 2,4-D in the seedling stage and young growth stages but become resistant as they mature (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001). Other non-selective herbicides include atrazine, diquat, paraquat and glyphosate. The following herbicides are available for use in specific crops: acifluorfen in soybeans and peanuts; bentazone in soybeans, other beans and peanuts; 2,4-DB in certain varieties of peanuts; dicamba in grain sorghum and maize; metolachlor in maize, and picloram + 2,4-D in summer cereals (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001).

References

Top of page

Arana MV, Burgin MJ, Miguel LCde, Sánchez RA, 2007. The very-low-fluence and high-irradiance responses of the phytochromes have antagonistic effects on germination, mannan-degrading activities, and DfGA3ox transcript levels in Datura ferox seeds. Journal of Experimental Botany, 58(14):3997-4004. http://jxb.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/14/3997

Arianoutsou M, Bazos I, Delipetrou P, Kokkoris Y, 2010. The alien flora of Greece: taxonomy, life traits and habitat preferences. Biological Invasions, 12(10):3525-3549. http://www.springerlink.com/content/64p8761783323136/

Australian Plant Name Index, 2013. Australian National Botanic Gardens, Canberra, Australia. http://www.anbg.gov.au/cgi-bin/apni

Avery AG, Satina S, Rietsema J, 1959. Blakeslee: the genus Datura. The Ronald Press Company, New York., xli + 289 pp.

Ballaré CL, Sánchez RA, Scopel AL, Ghersa CM, 1988. Morphological responses of Datura ferox L. seedlings to the presence of neighbours. Their relationships with canopy microclimate. Oecologia, 76(2):288-293.

Bergner AD, Blakeslee AF, 1932. Cytology of the ferox-quercifolia-stramonium triangle in Datura. Genetics, 18:151-159.

Binev R, Valchev I, Nikolov J, 2006. Clinical and pathological studies on intoxication in horses from freshly cut Jimson weed (Datura stramonium)-contaminated maize intended for ensiling. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 77(4):215-219. http://www.sava.co.za

Botto JF, Sßnchez RA, Casal JJ, 1998. Burial conditions affect light responses of Datura ferox seeds. Seed Science Research, 8(4):423-429; 40 ref.

Calflora, 2013. Calflora: Information on wild California plants for conservation, education, and appreciation. http://www.calflora.org

Charles GW, Murison RD, Harden S, 1998. Competition of noogoora burr (Xanthium occidentale) and fierce thornapple (Datura ferox) with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum. Weed Science, 46(4):442-446.

Dorado J, Fernández-Quintanilla C, Grundy AC, 2009. Germination patterns in naturally chilled and nonchilled seeds of fierce thornapple (Datura ferox) and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti). Weed Science, 57(2):155-162. http://wssa.allenpress.com/perlserv/?request=get-abstract&doi=10.1614%2FWS-08-122.1

Dorado J, Sousa E, Calha IM, González-Andújar JL, Fernández-Quintanilla C, 2009. Predicting weed emergence in maize crops under two contrasting climatic conditions. Weed Research (Oxford), 49(3):251-260. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/122308601/HTMLSTART

eFloras, 2013. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Euro+Med, 2013. Euro+Med PlantBase. http://www.emplantbase.org/home.html

Flora Zambesiaca, 2013. Flora Zambesiaca, 10(4). Kew, UK: Kew Royal Botanic Gardens. http://apps.kew.org/efloras/search.do

Fuentes N, Pauchard A, Sánchez P, Esquivel J, Marticorena A, 2013. A new comprehensive database of alien plant species in Chile based on herbarium records. Biological Invasions, 15(4):847-858. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-012-0334-6

Fufour-Dror JM, 2012. Alien Invasive Plants in Israel. Ahva, Jerusalem: The Middle East Nature Conservation Promotion Association.

Gallo GG, 1987. Plants toxic to livestock in the cone of Southern of America (Plantas tóxicas para el ganado en el cono Sur de América). Buenos Aires, Argentina: Hemisferio Sur, 213 pp.

GBIF, 2014. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. http://www.gbif.org/species

Geeta R, Gharaibeh W, 2007. Historical evidence for a pre-Columbian presence of Datura in the Old World and implications for a first millennium transfer from the New World. Journal of Biosciences, 32(7):1227-1244. http://www.ias.ac.in/jbiosci

George (ed) AS, 1982. Flora of Australia. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Gerber R, Naudé TW, Kock SSde, 2006. Confirmed Datura poisoning in a horse most probably due to D. ferox in contaminated tef hay. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 77(2):86-89. http://www.sava.co.za

Houmani Z, Cosson L, Houmani M, 1999. Datura ferox L. and D. quercifolia Kunth (Solanaceae) in Algeria. Flora Mediterranea, 9:57-60.

Khuroo AA, Reshi ZA, Malik AH, Weber E, Rashid I, Dar GH, 2012. Alien flora of India: taxonomic composition, invasion status and biogeographic affiliations. Biological Invasions, 14(1):99-113. http://www.springerlink.com/content/0p0331853 lm77 gl6/

Kovatsis A, Kovatsis-Kovatsi VP, Nikolaidis E, Flaskos J, Tzika S, Tzotzas G, 1994. The influence of Datura ferox alkaloids on egg-laying hens. Veterinary and Human Toxicology, 36(2):89-92.

Lusweti A, Wabuyele E, Ssegawa P, Mauremootoo J, 2013. Datura ferox (Fierce Thorn Apple). BioNET-EAFRINET Keys and factsheets (online). http://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/eafrinet/weeds/key/weeds/Media/Html/Datura_ferox_%28Fierce_Thorn_Apple%29.htm [accessed November 2013]

MacKee HS, 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, unpaginated.

Maroyi A, 2012. The casual, naturalised and invasive alien flora of Zimbabwe based on herbarium and literature records. Koedoe, 54(1):Article 1054. http://www.koedoe.co.za/index.php/koedoe/article/view/1054/1413

Martínez-Ghersa MA, Ghersa CM, 2006. The relationship of propagule pressure to invasion potential in plants. Euphytica, 148(1/2):87-96.

Meyer J-Y, 2008. Strategic action plan to control invasive alien plants on Rapa Nui (Easter Island). (Rapport de mission d'expertise a Rapa Nui du 02 au 11 Juin 2008: Plan d'action strategique pour lutter contre les plantes introduites envahissantes sur Rapa Nui (Ile de paques).) Unpublished report. Papeete, Tahiti: Government of French Polynesia, 62 pp.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013. Tropicos database. St Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Mito T, Uesugi T, 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research, 8:171-191.

Parsons WT, Cuthbertson EG, 2001. Noxious weeds of Australia. Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, xii + 698 pp.

Piva G, Morlacchini M, Pietri A, Fusari A, Corradi A, Piva A, 1997. Toxicity of dietary scopolamine and hyoscyamine in pigs. Livestock Production Science, 51(1/3):29-39.

Plá A, Alonso E, Batista-Viera F, Franco Fraguas L, 2003. Screening for carbohydrate-binding proteins in extracts of Uruguayan plants. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 36(7):851-860.

POSA, 2013. Plants of Southern Africa. SANBI (online). http://posa.sanbi.org [accessed November 2013]

Pysek P, Danihelka J, Sádlo J, Chrtek J Jr, Chytrý M, Jarosík V, Kaplan Z, Krahulec F, Moravcová L, Pergl J, Stajerová K, Tichý L, 2012. Catalogue of alien plants of the Czech Republic (2nd edition): checklist update, taxonomic diversity and invasion patterns. Preslia, 84(2):155-255. http://www.ibot.cas.cz/preslia/P122Pysek.pdf

Sánchez RA, Miguel Lde, Lima C, Lederkremer RMde, 2002. Effect of low water potential on phytochrome-induced germination, endosperm softening and cell-wall mannan degradation in Datura ferox seeds. Seed Science Research, 12(3):155-163.

Schneider AA, 2007. The naturalized flora of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil: subspontaneous herbaceous plants. (Flora naturalizada no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil: herbáceas subespontâneas.) Biociências, 15(2):257-268. http://revistaseletronicas.pucrs.br/ojs/index.php/fabio/article/viewFile/254/3005

Scopel AL, Ballaré CL, Sánchez RA, 1991. Induction of extreme light sensitivity in buried weed seeds and its role in the perception of soil cultivations. Plant, Cell and Environment, 14(5):501-508.

Seybold S, 2009. Flora of Germany and adjacent countries (Flora von Deutschland und angrenzender Länder). Wiebelsheim, Germany: Quelle & Meyer.

SORIANO A, SÂNCHEZ RA, EILBERG BADE, 1964. Factors and processes in the germination of Datura ferox L. Canadian Journal of Botany, 42(9):1189-1203.

Torres C, Mimosa M, Ferreira MF, Galetto L, 2013. Reproductive strategies of Datura ferox, an abundant invasive weed in agro-ecosystems from central Argentina. Flora (Jena), 208(4):253-258. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03672530

Torres C, Mimosa M, Galetto L, 2013. Nectar ecology of Datura ferox (Solanaceae): an invasive weed with nocturnal flowers in agro-ecosystems from central Argentina. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 299(8):1433-1441. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00606-013-0805-y

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Vitale AA, Acher A, Pomilio AB, 1995. Alkaloids of Datura ferox from Argentina. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 49(2):81-89.

Webb CJ, Sykes WR, Garnock-Jones PJ, 1988. Flora of New Zealand, Volume IV: Naturalised pteridophytes, gymnosperms, dicotyledons. Christchurch, New Zealand: Botany Division, DSIR, 1365 pp.

Contributors

Top of page

16/12/13 Original text by:

Ewald Weber, Consultant, Switzerland

Distribution Maps

Top of page
Distribution map Argentina: Present, introduced, invasive
Torres et al. ,2013b; Torres et al. ,2013aAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryBelgium: Present, few occurrences, introduced, not invasive
Euro+Med, 2013Bolivia: Present, introduced, not invasive
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013Brazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBotswana: Present, introduced
POSA, 2013Chile: Present, introduced
Fuentes et al., 2013Chile
See regional map for distribution within the countryColombia: Present, introduced, not invasive
GBIF, 2014Colombia: Present, introduced, not invasive
GBIF, 2014Czech Republic: Present, introduced, not invasive
Pysek et al., 2012Germany: Present, few occurrences, introduced, not invasive
Seybold, 2009Ecuador: Present, introduced, not invasive
GBIF, 2014Spain: Present, introduced, invasive
Dorado et al., 2009; Dorado et al., 2009Spain: Present, introduced, invasive
Dorado et al., 2009; Dorado et al., 2009Finland: Present, not invasive
GBIF, 2014France: Present, introduced, not invasive
Euro+Med, 2013UK: Present, introduced, not invasive
GBIF, 2014Greece: Present, few occurrences, introduced, not invasive
Arianoutsou et al., 2010Greece: Present, few occurrences, introduced, not invasive
Arianoutsou et al., 2010Israel: Present, introduced, not invasive
Mito & Uesugi, 2004; Fufour-Dror, 2012Israel: Present, introduced, not invasive
Mito & Uesugi, 2004; Fufour-Dror, 2012India: Present, introduced
Khuroo et al., 2012Italy: Present, few occurrences, introduced, not invasive
Euro+Med, 2013Jamaica: Present
GBIF, 2014Jamaica: Present
GBIF, 2014Japan: Present, introduced, not invasive
Mito & Uesugi, 2004Kenya: Present, introduced, invasive
Lusweti et al., 2013Lesotho: Present, introduced
POSA, 2013Mali: Present, introduced
GBIF, 2014Mexico: Present, native
GBIF, 2014Mexico: Present, native
GBIF, 2014Namibia: Present, introduced
POSA, 2013New Caledonia: Present, introduced, invasive
MacKee, 1994Netherlands: Present, introduced, not invasiveNepal: Present, introduced
GBIF, 2014New Zealand: Present, introduced, not invasive
Webb et al., 1988Peru: Present, introduced, not invasive
GBIF, 2014Paraguay: Present, introduced
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013Sweden: Present, introduced, not invasive
GBIF, 2014Turkey: Present, introduced
GBIF, 2014Turkey: Present, introduced
GBIF, 2014Turkey: Present, introduced
GBIF, 2014Tanzania: Present, introduced, invasive
Lusweti et al., 2013Uganda: Present, introduced, invasive
Lusweti et al., 2013USA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUruguay: Present, introduced
Plá et al., 2003South Africa: Present, introduced
POSA, 2013Zimbabwe: Present, introduced
Maroyi, 2012
  • = Present, no further details
  • = Evidence of pathogen
  • = Widespread
  • = Last reported
  • = Localised
  • = Presence unconfirmed
  • = Confined and subject to quarantine
  • = See regional map for distribution within the country
  • = Occasional or few reports
Download KML file Download CSV file
Creative Commons Licence
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Please click OK to ACCEPT or Cancel to REJECT

Creative Commons Licence
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Please click OK to ACCEPT or Cancel to REJECT

Distribution map (asia) Israel: Present, introduced, not invasive
Mito & Uesugi, 2004; Fufour-Dror, 2012India: Present, introduced
Khuroo et al., 2012Japan: Present, introduced, not invasive
Mito & Uesugi, 2004Nepal: Present, introduced
GBIF, 2014Turkey: Present, introduced
GBIF, 2014
Distribution map (europe) Belgium: Present, few occurrences, introduced, not invasive
Euro+Med, 2013Czech Republic: Present, introduced, not invasive
Pysek et al., 2012Germany: Present, few occurrences, introduced, not invasive
Seybold, 2009Spain: Present, introduced, invasive
Dorado et al., 2009; Dorado et al., 2009Finland: Present, not invasive
GBIF, 2014France: Present, introduced, not invasive
Euro+Med, 2013UK: Present, introduced, not invasive
GBIF, 2014Greece: Present, few occurrences, introduced, not invasive
Arianoutsou et al., 2010Italy: Present, few occurrences, introduced, not invasive
Euro+Med, 2013Netherlands: Present, introduced, not invasiveSweden: Present, introduced, not invasive
GBIF, 2014Turkey: Present, introduced
GBIF, 2014
Distribution map (africa) Botswana: Present, introduced
POSA, 2013Spain: Present, introduced, invasive
Dorado et al., 2009; Dorado et al., 2009Greece: Present, few occurrences, introduced, not invasive
Arianoutsou et al., 2010Israel: Present, introduced, not invasive
Mito & Uesugi, 2004; Fufour-Dror, 2012Kenya: Present, introduced, invasive
Lusweti et al., 2013Lesotho: Present, introduced
POSA, 2013Mali: Present, introduced
GBIF, 2014Namibia: Present, introduced
POSA, 2013Turkey: Present, introduced
GBIF, 2014Tanzania: Present, introduced, invasive
Lusweti et al., 2013Uganda: Present, introduced, invasive
Lusweti et al., 2013South Africa: Present, introduced
POSA, 2013Zimbabwe: Present, introduced
Maroyi, 2012
Distribution map (north america) Jamaica: Present
GBIF, 2014Mexico: Present, native
GBIF, 2014Arkansas: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2014Arizona: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2014California: Localised, introduced, not invasive
Calflora, 2013Georgia: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2014Kansas: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2014Louisiana: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2014Maryland: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2014North Carolina: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2014New Mexico: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2014Oklahoma: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2014Pennsylvania: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2014South Carolina: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2014Texas: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2014
Distribution map (central america) Colombia: Present, introduced, not invasive
GBIF, 2014Jamaica: Present
GBIF, 2014Mexico: Present, native
GBIF, 2014
Distribution map (south america) Argentina: Present, introduced, invasive
Torres et al. ,2013b; Torres et al. ,2013aBolivia: Present, introduced, not invasive
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013Rio Grande do Sul: Present, introduced
Schneider, 2007Chile: Present, introduced
Fuentes et al., 2013Easter Island: Present, introduced, invasive
Meyer, 2008Colombia: Present, introduced, not invasive
GBIF, 2014Ecuador: Present, introduced, not invasive
GBIF, 2014Peru: Present, introduced, not invasive
GBIF, 2014Paraguay: Present, introduced
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013Uruguay: Present, introduced
Plá et al., 2003
Distribution map (pacific) Australian Northern Territory: Localised, introduced
Parsons & Cuthbertson, 2001New South Wales: Localised, introduced
Parsons & Cuthbertson, 2001Queensland: Localised, introduced
Parsons & Cuthbertson, 2001South Australia: Localised, introduced
Parsons & Cuthbertson, 2001Victoria: Localised, introduced
Parsons & Cuthbertson, 2001Western Australia: Localised, introduced
Parsons & Cuthbertson, 2001New Caledonia: Present, introduced, invasive
MacKee, 1994New Zealand: Present, introduced, not invasive
Webb et al., 1988