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Datasheet

Avena barbata

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 05 November 2013
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Avena barbata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • slender oat
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Avena barbata (slender oat) is a species of wild oat that is native to Asia and Mediterranean Europe. It was widely introduced to North America and other European countries both intentionally, as a fodder crop, and unintentionally in contaminated ...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Avena barbata (slender wild oat); habit. Manfredonia, Puglia, Italy, May 2005.
TitleHabit
CaptionAvena barbata (slender wild oat); habit. Manfredonia, Puglia, Italy, May 2005.
Copyright©Luigi Rignanes-2009 - CC BY-NC 3.0
Avena barbata (slender wild oat); habit. Manfredonia, Puglia, Italy, May 2005.
HabitAvena barbata (slender wild oat); habit. Manfredonia, Puglia, Italy, May 2005.©Luigi Rignanes-2009 - CC BY-NC 3.0
Avena barbata (slender wild oat); habit. Perris Hills, Riverside County, California, USA. April 2001.
TitleHabit
CaptionAvena barbata (slender wild oat); habit. Perris Hills, Riverside County, California, USA. April 2001.
Copyright©Steven Thorsted-2001 - CC BY-NC 3.0
Avena barbata (slender wild oat); habit. Perris Hills, Riverside County, California, USA. April 2001.
HabitAvena barbata (slender wild oat); habit. Perris Hills, Riverside County, California, USA. April 2001.©Steven Thorsted-2001 - CC BY-NC 3.0
Avena barbata (slender wild oat); flowering habit. Walpert Ridge, near Hayward, Alameda County, California, USA. May 2010.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionAvena barbata (slender wild oat); flowering habit. Walpert Ridge, near Hayward, Alameda County, California, USA. May 2010.
Copyright©Zoya Akulova-2010 - CC BY-NC 3.0
Avena barbata (slender wild oat); flowering habit. Walpert Ridge, near Hayward, Alameda County, California, USA. May 2010.
Flowering habitAvena barbata (slender wild oat); flowering habit. Walpert Ridge, near Hayward, Alameda County, California, USA. May 2010.©Zoya Akulova-2010 - CC BY-NC 3.0
Avena barbata (slender wild oats); detail of flower spike and glume. Pinnacles National Monument, San Benito County, California, USA. March 2008.
TitleFlower spike and glumes
CaptionAvena barbata (slender wild oats); detail of flower spike and glume. Pinnacles National Monument, San Benito County, California, USA. March 2008.
Copyright©Keir Morse-2008 - CC BY-NC-SA 3.0
Avena barbata (slender wild oats); detail of flower spike and glume. Pinnacles National Monument, San Benito County, California, USA. March 2008.
Flower spike and glumesAvena barbata (slender wild oats); detail of flower spike and glume. Pinnacles National Monument, San Benito County, California, USA. March 2008.©Keir Morse-2008 - CC BY-NC-SA 3.0
Avena barbata (slender wild oats); detail of ligule. South from Highway12, near Suisun city, Solano County, California, USA. April 2008.
TitleDetail of ligule
CaptionAvena barbata (slender wild oats); detail of ligule. South from Highway12, near Suisun city, Solano County, California, USA. April 2008.
Copyright©Zoya Akulova-2008 - CC BY-NC 3.0
Avena barbata (slender wild oats); detail of ligule. South from Highway12, near Suisun city, Solano County, California, USA. April 2008.
Detail of liguleAvena barbata (slender wild oats); detail of ligule. South from Highway12, near Suisun city, Solano County, California, USA. April 2008.©Zoya Akulova-2008 - CC BY-NC 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Avena barbata Pott / Brot

Preferred Common Name

  • slender oat

Other Scientific Names

  • Avena alba var. barbata Maire & Weiller
  • Avena almeriensis Gand.
  • Avena barbata subvar. Hirsute (Moench) E. Morren
  • Avena deusta Ball
  • Avena hoppeana Scheele
  • Avena sallentiana Pau
  • Avena sativa var. barbata (Pott ex Link) Fiori
  • Avena sesquitertia hort. ex Steud.
  • Avena strigosa subsp. barbata THELL.
  • Avena striqosa subsp. Barbata (Pott ex Link) Thell.

International Common Names

  • English: bearded oat
  • Spanish: Avena delgada; Avena loca
  • French: Avoine a deux barbes; Avoine barbue
  • Portuguese: balanco-bravo

Local Common Names

  • Austria: bart-Hafer
  • Brazil: aveia-barbada; aveia-brava
  • Germany: Wilder Hafer
  • Italy: Avena a due barbe
  • Norway: skjegghavre
  • USA: slender oats; slender wildoat

EPPO code

  • AVEBA (Avena barbata)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Avena barbata (slender oat) is a species of wild oat that is native to Asia and Mediterranean Europe. It was widely introduced to North America and other European countries both intentionally, as a fodder crop, and unintentionally in contaminated seed mixtures. A. barbata has spread widely in North America where it has been reported to displace native grass species. It is recorded as a noxious weed in the USA. In Australia, it outcompetes native grasses and forms a fibrous root system. It can also alter the fire regime of an area.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Avena
  •                                 Species: Avena barbata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Avena barbata is a tetraploid grass (2n=28 chromosomes), originally thought to be derived from Avena fatua but is most likely to have arisen independently by polyploidization from the diploid (2n = 14 chromosomes) Avena hirtula-Avena wiestii complex (Garcia et al., 1991; Alicchio et al., 1995; Ladizinksky, 1995; Katsiotis et al. 1997).

Description

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A. barbata is an annual grass species, growing 30-60 cm tall, erect, stems erect, glabrous to short-soft-hairy. Leaves alternate; ligules 1-4 mm long, lacerate, auricles absent; sheaths glabrous to pubescent; blades linear, flat, 1-5 mm wide, glabrous to soft-puberulent. Inflorescence an open terminal panicle, 3-10 cm long. Spikelets 20-30 mm long, slightly compressed, composed of 3-8 florets, the glumes linear to narrowly lanceolate, the lower one 5-10 mm long, 1-nerved, the upper one 8-13 mm long, 3-nerved; lemmas 12-17 mm long, lanceolate, 3-5-nerved, the back keeled to rounded, the apex with two lateral teeth 4-5 mm long, the back of the lemma with a bent awn 12-20 mm long. In California, it flowers from March to June, while in Australia it flowers July-October (Arnow, 1987; Hitchcock, 1944; Holmgren and Holmgren, 1977; Munz, 1959; Rocha Afonso, 1980; Wilken, 1993).

A thorough description is given by Clayton et al. (2012) as follows:

Habit

Annual; culms solitary, or caespitose. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 30–100 cm long. Culm-nodes glabrous. Lateral branches lacking. Leaf-sheaths pilose. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1–6 mm long; obtuse. Leaf-blades 6–30 cm long; 2–20 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface glabrous, or pilose; sparsely hairy.

Inflorescence 

Inflorescence a panicle.Panicle open; elliptic; effuse; nodding; 15–30(–50) cm long; 6–12 cm wide. Primary panicle branches 9–18 cm long. Panicle branches smooth, or scaberulous. Spikelets pendulous; solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels filiform.

Fertile Spikelets

Spikelets comprising 2–3 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 16–26 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes pilose. Floret callus evident; bearded; obtuse. Floret callus hairs 2–3 mm long.

Glumes

Glumes persistent; similar; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma; gaping. Lower glume lanceolate; 16–26 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 5(–7) -veined. Lower glume apex acuminate. Upper glume elliptic; 16–26 mm long; 1.3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 7(–9) -veined. Upper glume apex acuminate.

Florets

Fertile lemma lanceolate; 12–20 mm long; coriaceous; much thinner above; without keel; 9 -veined. Lemma surface scabrous; rough above; pilose; hairy below. Lemma apex dentate; 2 -fid; awned; 3 -awned. Principal lemma awn dorsal; arising 0.5 way up back of lemma; geniculate; 30–60 mm long overall; with twisted column. Lateral lemma awns arising on apex of lobes; 3–12 mm long; shorter than principal. Palea 10–18 mm long. Palea keels ciliolate.
 
Flower

Anthers 3. Ovary pubescent all over.
 
Fruit

Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; sulcate on hilar side; hairy all over. Hilum linear.

Plant Type

Top of pageAnnual
Grass / sedge
Seed propagated

Distribution

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Native to Asia and Mediterranean Europe it has been widely introduced, probably since the eighteenth century, to North America, Australia and other parts of Europe (GBIF, 2012).

Distribution Table

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CountryDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferencesNotes

ASIA

AfghanistanLocalisedInvasiveGBIF, 2012
AzerbaijanUnconfirmed record
IranLocalisedGBIF, 2012
IraqLocalisedGBIF, 2012
JordanLocalisedGBIF, 2012
PakistanPresenteFloras, 2012

AFRICA

AlgeriaPresentNativeInvasiveGBIF, 2012
EgyptPresentNativeInvasiveGBIF, 2012
EritreaWidespreadGBIF, 2012
LibyaWidespreadNativeInvasiveGBIF, 2012
MoroccoWidespreadNativeInvasiveGBIF, 2012
South AfricaWidespreadInvasiveGBIF, 2012
TunisiaWidespreadNativeInvasiveGBIF, 2012

NORTH AMERICA

USAPresent
-ArizonaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2012
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCalflora, 2012; Hickman, 1993; Hrusa & Glazner, 1997
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedWagner et al., 1990Record on the USDA PLANTS database
-MassachusettsPresentIntroducedGleason, 1963Record on the USDA PLANTS database
-NevadaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2012
-New MexicoPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2012Recorded as 1980 Great Basin Naturalist
-OregonPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2012Oregon flora project species list, species noted on herbarium specimens at Linfield College, McMinnville, Oregon
-WashingtonPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2012Cited as 1980 Great Basin Naturalist

SOUTH AMERICA

ArgentinaLocalisedInvasiveGBIF, 2012
BrazilLocalisedInvasiveGBIF, 2012
ChileLocalisedInvasiveGBIF, 2012
PeruLocalisedInvasiveGBIF, 2012
UruguayLocalisedGBIF, 2012

EUROPE

AndorraLocalisedGBIF, 2012
AustriaLocalisedIntroducedEssl & Rabitsch, 2002
Bosnia-HercegovinaLocalisedInvasiveGBIF, 2012
BulgariaLocalisedInvasiveGBIF, 2012
CroatiaLocalisedGBIF, 2012
CyprusLocalisedGBIF, 2012
DenmarkLocalisedIntroducedNot invasiveKarlsson, 1998Habitat is urban grassland environment, possibly caused by contaminated seed mixes
FinlandLocalisedGBIF, 2012
FranceWidespreadInvasiveGBIF, 2012
GermanyWidespreadInvasiveGBIF, 2012
GreeceWidespreadNativeInvasiveGBIF, 2012
ItalyWidespreadInvasiveGBIF, 2012
MacedoniaLocalisedInvasiveGBIF, 2012
NorwayPresentIntroducedTommeras, 1994Invasiveness was not assessed as part of the 2007 Norwegian Black List creation
PortugalWidespreadNativeInvasiveGBIF, 2012
SerbiaLocalisedInvasiveGBIF, 2012
SpainWidespreadNativeInvasiveGBIF, 2012
UKLocalisedIntroducedInvasiveBiological Records Centre, 2012Recorded on mainland UK in the wild from 1908, Guernsey 1970, naturalized

OCEANIA

AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasiveGBIF, 2012; Gosper et al., 2011Invasive locally
New ZealandLocalisedGBIF, 2012

History of Introduction and Spread

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A. barbata was unintentionally introduced to Denmark in 1854 but the species is not currently recorded as invasive (Karlsson, 1998; NOBANIS, 2012). It was recorded in Austria in 1954 but its impact and population status are unknown (Essl and Rabitsch, 2002; NOBANIS, 2012). Vasey (1885) first reported the species in California but it had probably become widespread much earlier and is thought to have been introduced into California more than once during the eighteenth century (Robbins, 1940). Studies suggest that nearly all naturalized California strains are most closely related to those found in southwestern Spain (Pérez de la Vega, 1991; Garcia et al., 1989). Cluster and Allard (1995) and Rai (1985) also provided evidence showing that significant ecotypic differentiation may have taken place in California within the last 150-200 generations (perhaps less than 150-200 years).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Austria1954NoEssl & Rabitsch, 2002Unintentional introduction listed by NOBANIS online database
Denmark1845NoKarlsson, 1998Unintentional introduction and listed by NOBANIS online database as not invasive

Risk of Introduction

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A. barbata has been unintentionally introduced to new areas as a contaminant of commercial purchased and farmer exchanged oat seeds.

Habitat

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A. barbata is native to Asia and Mediterranean Europe where it is located in grass meadows and within agricultural landscapes. It is an early pioneer grass species to freshly disturbed ground, especially when not shaded. It is known in its introduced range to be a crop edge, road verge or agricultural weed species; however it is also well adapted to urban amenity spaces.

As with most grass species A. barbata can tolerate a wide range of soil conditions but it thrives in poorer draining soils.

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural landPrincipal habitatNatural
Cultivated / agricultural landPrincipal habitatProductive/non-natural
Disturbed areasPresent, no further detailsNatural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems)Present, no further detailsNatural
Rail / roadsidesPrincipal habitatNatural
Urban / peri-urban areasPresent, no further detailsNatural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
RiverbanksPresent, no further details

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

A. barbata is a tetraploid grass (2n = 4x = 28 chromosomes) derived by polyploidization from the diploid (2n = 14 chromosomes) Avena hirtula – Avena wiestii complex (Garcia et al., 1991). It was originally believed to be derived from Avena fatua but this was proven to be incorrect.

Reproductive Biology

A. barbata is an annual graminoid and reproduces by seeds. It is self-pollinating, producing prolific seed counts which can overun other native species. The seeds are caryopsis oblong, about 8 mm long, ventrally compressed, longitudinally grooved, hairy and yellow-black in colour. In parts of Australia where the grass is invasive, the seeds of A. barbata will germinate in low soil moisture conditions whereas the seeds of native grasses require adequate soil moisture (Bell, 1999; Lenz and Facelli, 2005). 

Physiology and Phenology

In California, it flowers from March to June, while in Australia it flowers July-October (Arnow, 1987; Hitchcock, 1944; Holmgren and Holmgren, 1977; Munz, 1959; Rocha Afonso, 1980; Wilken, 1993).

Longevity

The seed of A. barbata can usually remain viable for 6 months if not buried within soil, up to 3 years when buried within soil. Buried seed often remains dormant until exposed by cultivation or other disturbance.

Activity Patterns

This is a winter oat species. Within Australia, the plant life cycle is as follows: active growth: June-November; germination: May-June (can extend to August if dry); flowering: September-November; fruiting: December; optimum treatment to stop flowering or fruiting: July-October.

Associations

A. barbata growth may be enhanced by mycorrhizal infection (Rillig et al. 1998) as infection by mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus etunicatum, G. intraradices) enhanced growth of A. fatua in cultivated fields of A. sativa. (Koide et al., 1988; Koide and Lu, 1992; Lu and Koide, 1991).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all yearPreferredWarm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summerPreferredWarm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winterPreferredWarm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Df - Continental climate, wet all yearToleratedContinental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)
Ds - Continental climate with dry summerToleratedContinental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winterToleratedContinental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile

Natural Enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Blumeria graminisPathogenWhole plantto genusSabri & Clarke, 1996; Sabri et al., 1997
Puccinia coronataPathogenWhole plantnot specificDouglas et al., 1996; Douglas et al., 1997
Ustilago avenaePathogenWhole plantnot specificNielsen, 1993; Sabri & Clarke, 1996; Sabri et al., 1997

Notes on Natural Enemies

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The genus Avena can serve as hosts to dwarf mosaic viruses (Achon et al., 1996). A. barbata and another species Avena fatua have been infected by smut and mildew fungi (Ustilago avenae, Blumeria graminis) (Nielsen, 1993; Sabri et al., 1997; Sabri and Clarke, 1996).

Puccinia rust fungi also affects A. barbata, however there are some strains resistant to infection (Karow et al., 1997; Katsiotis and Forsberg, 1995). Other species, including Avena sativa and A. fatua are hosts to Puccinia coronata and Puccinia graminis, which often cause significant damage to plants under cultivation in Canada (Chong, 1988, 1990; Chong and Harder, 1991; Chong and Seaman, 1989; 1990; Harder, 1989; Harder and Dale, 1990; Kolmer and Chong, 1993). On San Clemente Island, a biological control programme was established to test whether P. coronata could be used to control A. barbata (Douglas et al., 1996; 1997). 

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Accidental Introduction

A. barbata historically was unintentionally introduced to new areas via contaminated seed mixtures, meant to be of commercial quality oat.

Intentional Introduction

The species has been widely introduced to North America and a number of European countries as a fodder crop.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
DisturbanceSeed can propagate on freshly disturbed groundYes
ForageHas been introduced to N. America as a contaminant in forage seedsYesUSDA-NRCS, 2012
Landscape improvement/ landscaping industryHas been a contaminant within amenity grassland seed mixturesYesUSDA-NRCS, 2012
People foragingThis is a wild oat species and has edible seed which could be spread while foragingYes
Seed tradeIs a common contaminant in seed mixturesYes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Mulch/straw/baskets/sod etc.If within a stand that is used for straw the seed could be transported unintentionallyYes
WindSeeds can be dispersed locally via wind.Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenityNegative
Economic/livelihoodPositive and negative
Environment (generally)Negative

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

A. barbata has been found to out-compete native grass and woody species by exhausting the surface soil-water before native species have had a chance to establish (Standish et al., 2008). It has also been found to alter the fire regime of areas of Australia (FloraBase, 2012). Instead of woody species dominating areas, grass species are dominant and much easier to flash fire. 

Risk and Impact Factors

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Impact mechanisms

  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading

Impact outcomes

  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of fire regime
  • Modification of hydrology
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Negatively impacts tourism
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species

Invasiveness

  • Abundant in its native range
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has a broad native range
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Reproduces asexually
  • Tolerant of shade

Uses

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Economic Value

The straw of A. barbata can be used for biomass, fibre, mulch, paper-making and thatching (Hill, 1952).

Social Benefit

The seeds of A. barbata are rather small but very edible. The seed ripens in the latter half of the summer and, when harvested and dried, can still be viable after several years of storage. It has a floury texture and a mild, creamy flavor. It can be used as a staple food crop in either savory or sweet dishes. The seed can be cooked whole, though is commonly ground into flour and used as oat (A. sativa) is used, especially as a biscuit, bread or porridge component. The seed can also be sprouted and used raw or cooked in salad. The roasted seed can also be used as a coffee substitute (PFAF, 2012).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

General

  • Ornamental

Human food and beverage

  • Cereal
  • Seeds

Materials

  • Fibre
  • Green manure
  • Poisonous to mammals

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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A. barbata is often misidentified as its ancestors Avena hirtula or Avena wiestii. They are all Mediterranean and desert ecotypes of a single biological order and often occur in mixed stands. A. wiestii is normally smaller and slender, with small spikelets (Garcia et al., 1991). 

A. hirtula is more robust with spikelets of similar size to A. barbata. However, the patterns of morphological variation are so similar between the taxa that it is extremely difficult to assign single plants unambiguously to a specific group (Garcia et al., 1991). 

Prevention and Control

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Physical/Mechanical Control

Mowing is an option for the suppression of A. barbata, however this should be timed prior to the production of seeds, otherwise it aids the dispersal of seeds into the soil seed bank. Intense ‘crash’ grazing by livestock (Vesk and Dorrough, 2006) could also be an option for controlling A. barbata. However, over-grazing could also cause the disturbance required to germinate the dominant A. barbata seed from the soil seed bank. 

Biological Control

Douglas et al. (1996, 1997) summarized and evaluated a program that used P. coronata as a biocontrol agent for A. barbata on San Clemente Island. 

Chemical Control

Miller and Nalewaja (1980), in North Dakota, USA established that fall and spring applications of triallate [S-(2,3,3-trichloroallyl)diisopropylthiocarbamate] were effective at controlling A. barbata. The authors concluded that fall applied triallate granules were more effective than either liquid or spring applications of either liquid or granules. When soil improvement is also incorporated into control methods the effectiveness of the triallate application was increased.

Alternatively in Australia it has been reported that spraying at the 3-5 leaf stage with Fusilade Forte and wetting agent is effective. Especially when repeated over a number of years. This prevents seed production and reduces biomass rather than eradication.

References

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Achon MA, Pinner M, Medina V, Lomonossoff GP, 1996. Biological characteristics of maize dwarf mosaic potyvirus from Spain. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 102(7):697-705; 33 ref.

Alicchio R, Aranci L, Conte L, 1995. Restriction fragment length polymorphism based phylogenetic analysis of Avena L. Genome, 38(6):1279-1284.

Arnow L, 1987. Gramineae. A Utah Flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs, 9 [ed. by Welsh, S. L.\ Atwood, N. D.\ Goodrich, S.\ Higgins, L. C.]. 684-788.

Bell DT, 1999. Turner review no.1: The process of germination in Australian species. Australian Journal of Botany, 47:475-517.

Biological Records Centre, 2012. Online Atlas of the British and Irish flora. Wallingford, UK: Biological Records Centre. http://www.brc.ac.uk/plantatlas/

Calflora, 2012. Information on California plants for education, research and conservation. California, USA: Calflora. www.calflora.org

Chong J, 1988. Virulence and distribution of Puccinia coronata in Canada in 1986. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 10: 237-278.

Chong J, 1990. Occurrence and virulence of oat crown rust in Manitoba in 1989. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 70:44-45.

Chong J, Harder D, 1991. Occurrence of oat rusts in western Canada in 1990. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 71:70.

Chong J, Seaman WL, 1989. Virulence and distribution of Puccinia coronata in Canada in 1988. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 11(4):439-442.

Chong J, Seaman WL, 1990. Distribution and virulence of Puccinia coronata in Canada in 1989. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 12(4):431-435.

Clayton WD, Vorontsova MS, Harman KT, Williamson H, 2012. GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. GrassBase.

Cluster PD, Allard RW, 1995. Evolution of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genetic structure in colonial Californian populations of Avena barbata. Genetics, 139(2):941-954.

Darmency H, Aujas C, 1992. Genetic diversity for competitive and reproductive ability in wild oats (Avena fatua). Weed Science, 40(2):215-219.

Douglas L, Carsten L, Johnston M, Sands D, 1997. Evaluation of Puccinia coronata as a biocontrol agent of wild oats on San Clemente Island. Phytopathology, 87:25.

Douglas L, Reeves P, Stone J, Winchell C, Johnson M, Leonard K, Sands D, 1996. Puccinia coronata, a possible biocontrol agent of Avena spp. on San Clemente Island. Phytopathology, 86:15.

eFloras, 2012. Flora of Pakistan. Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.efloras.org

Essl F, Rabitsch W, 2002. Neobiota in Osterreich. Vienna, Austria: Umweltbundesamt Wien, 432 pp.

FloraBase, 2012. The Western Australian Flora. Western Australia, Australia: Department of Environment and Conservation. http://florabase.dec.wa.gov.au/

García P, Morris MI, Sáenz-de-Miera LE, Allard RW, Pérez de la Vega M, Ladizinsky G, 1991. Genetic diversity and adaptedness in tetraploid Avena barbata and its diploid ancestors Avena hirtula and Avena wiestii. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 88(4):1207-1211.

García P, Vences FJ, Vega MPde la, Allard RW, 1989. Allelic and genotypic composition of ancestral Spanish and colonial Californian gene pools of Avena barbata: evolutionary implications. Genetics, 122(3):687-694.

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Gleason HA, 1963. The New Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York, USA: New York Botanical Garden.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
USDA-PLANTShttp://plants.usda.gov
NOBANIS: North European and Baltic Network on Invasive Alien Specieshttp://www.nobanis.org
GBIF (2011)Global biodiversity information facility databasehttp://data.gibf.org.au/nimpis

Contributors

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4/01/13 Original text by:

Philip Roberts, CABI, Nosworthy Way, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8DE, UK

Distribution Maps

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Distribution map Andorra: Localised
GBIF, 2012Afghanistan: Localised, invasive
GBIF, 2012Argentina: Localised, invasive
GBIF, 2012Austria: Localised, introduced
Essl & Rabitsch, 2002Australia: Present, introduced, invasive
GBIF, 2012; Gosper et al., 2011Azerbaijan: Unconfirmed recordAzerbaijan: Unconfirmed recordBosnia-Hercegovina: Localised, invasive
GBIF, 2012Bulgaria: Localised, invasive
GBIF, 2012Brazil: Localised, invasive
GBIF, 2012Chile: Localised, invasive
GBIF, 2012Cyprus: Localised
GBIF, 2012Cyprus: Localised
GBIF, 2012Germany: Widespread, invasive
GBIF, 2012Denmark: Localised, introduced, not invasive
Karlsson, 1998Algeria: Present, native, invasive
GBIF, 2012Algeria: Present, native, invasive
GBIF, 2012Egypt: Present, native, invasive
GBIF, 2012Eritrea: Widespread
GBIF, 2012Spain: Widespread, native, invasive
GBIF, 2012Spain: Widespread, native, invasive
GBIF, 2012Finland: Localised
GBIF, 2012France: Widespread, invasive
GBIF, 2012UK: Localised, introduced, invasive
Biological Records Centre, 2012Greece: Widespread, native, invasive
GBIF, 2012Greece: Widespread, native, invasive
GBIF, 2012Croatia: Localised
GBIF, 2012Iraq: Localised
GBIF, 2012Iraq: Localised
GBIF, 2012Iraq: Localised
GBIF, 2012Iran: Localised
GBIF, 2012Iran: Localised
GBIF, 2012Iran: Localised
GBIF, 2012Italy: Widespread, invasive
GBIF, 2012Jordan: Localised
GBIF, 2012Jordan: Localised
GBIF, 2012Libya: Widespread, native, invasive
GBIF, 2012Morocco: Widespread, native, invasive
GBIF, 2012Morocco: Widespread, native, invasive
GBIF, 2012Macedonia: Localised, invasive
GBIF, 2012Norway: Present, introduced
Tommeras, 1994New Zealand: Localised
GBIF, 2012Peru: Localised, invasive
GBIF, 2012Pakistan: Present
eFloras, 2012Portugal: Widespread, native, invasive
GBIF, 2012Serbia: Localised, invasive
GBIF, 2012Tunisia: Widespread, native, invasive
GBIF, 2012Tunisia: Widespread, native, invasive
GBIF, 2012USA: PresentUSA: PresentUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUruguay: Localised
GBIF, 2012South Africa: Widespread, invasive
GBIF, 2012
  • = Present, no further details
  • = Evidence of pathogen
  • = Widespread
  • = Last reported
  • = Localised
  • = Presence unconfirmed
  • = Confined and subject to quarantine
  • = See regional map for distribution within the country
  • = Occasional or few reports
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Distribution map (asia) Afghanistan: Localised, invasive
GBIF, 2012Azerbaijan: Unconfirmed recordIraq: Localised
GBIF, 2012Iran: Localised
GBIF, 2012Jordan: Localised
GBIF, 2012Pakistan: Present
eFloras, 2012
Distribution map (europe) Andorra: Localised
GBIF, 2012Austria: Localised, introduced
Essl & Rabitsch, 2002Azerbaijan: Unconfirmed recordBosnia-Hercegovina: Localised, invasive
GBIF, 2012Bulgaria: Localised, invasive
GBIF, 2012Cyprus: Localised
GBIF, 2012Germany: Widespread, invasive
GBIF, 2012Denmark: Localised, introduced, not invasive
Karlsson, 1998Algeria: Present, native, invasive
GBIF, 2012Spain: Widespread, native, invasive
GBIF, 2012Finland: Localised
GBIF, 2012France: Widespread, invasive
GBIF, 2012UK: Localised, introduced, invasive
Biological Records Centre, 2012Greece: Widespread, native, invasive
GBIF, 2012Croatia: Localised
GBIF, 2012Iraq: Localised
GBIF, 2012Iran: Localised
GBIF, 2012Italy: Widespread, invasive
GBIF, 2012Morocco: Widespread, native, invasive
GBIF, 2012Macedonia: Localised, invasive
GBIF, 2012Norway: Present, introduced
Tommeras, 1994Portugal: Widespread, native, invasive
GBIF, 2012Serbia: Localised, invasive
GBIF, 2012Tunisia: Widespread, native, invasive
GBIF, 2012
Distribution map (africa) Cyprus: Localised
GBIF, 2012Algeria: Present, native, invasive
GBIF, 2012Egypt: Present, native, invasive
GBIF, 2012Eritrea: Widespread
GBIF, 2012Spain: Widespread, native, invasive
GBIF, 2012Greece: Widespread, native, invasive
GBIF, 2012Iraq: Localised
GBIF, 2012Iran: Localised
GBIF, 2012Jordan: Localised
GBIF, 2012Libya: Widespread, native, invasive
GBIF, 2012Morocco: Widespread, native, invasive
GBIF, 2012Tunisia: Widespread, native, invasive
GBIF, 2012South Africa: Widespread, invasive
GBIF, 2012
Distribution map (north america) USA: PresentArizona: Present, introduced
USDA-NRCS, 2012California: Present, introduced, invasive
Calflora, 2012; Hickman, 1993; Hrusa & Glazner, 1997Hawaii: Present, introduced
Wagner et al., 1990Massachusetts: Present, introduced
Gleason, 1963New Mexico: Present, introduced
USDA-NRCS, 2012Nevada: Present, introduced
USDA-NRCS, 2012Oregon: Present, introduced
USDA-NRCS, 2012Washington: Present, introduced
USDA-NRCS, 2012
Distribution map (central america) USA: Present
Distribution map (south america) Argentina: Localised, invasive
GBIF, 2012Brazil: Localised, invasive
GBIF, 2012Chile: Localised, invasive
GBIF, 2012Peru: Localised, invasive
GBIF, 2012Uruguay: Localised
GBIF, 2012
Distribution map (pacific) Australia: Present, introduced, invasive
GBIF, 2012; Gosper et al., 2011New Zealand: Localised
GBIF, 2012