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Datasheet

Asclepias curassavica (bloodflower)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 February 2014
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Asclepias curassavica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bloodflower
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The milkweed A. curassica is an erect sub-shrub that is reported to be weedy or invasive across many tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas, Australia and Asia, as well as in China, South East Asia and the Pacific. The invasiveness of th...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Flowers of Asclepias curassavica
TitleFlowers
CaptionFlowers of Asclepias curassavica
Copyright©Megan Ward
Flowers of Asclepias curassavica
FlowersFlowers of Asclepias curassavica©Megan Ward
Whole plant morphology of Asclepias curassavica
TitleWhole plant
CaptionWhole plant morphology of Asclepias curassavica
Copyright©Megan Ward
Whole plant morphology of Asclepias curassavica
Whole plantWhole plant morphology of Asclepias curassavica©Megan Ward
Seed pod of Asclepias curassavica
TitleSeed pod
CaptionSeed pod of Asclepias curassavica
Copyright©Megan Ward
Seed pod of Asclepias curassavica
Seed podSeed pod of Asclepias curassavica©Megan Ward

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Asclepias curassavica Linnaeus, 1753

Preferred Common Name

  • bloodflower

Other Scientific Names

  • Asclepias aurantiaca Salisb.
  • Asclepias bicolor Moench
  • Asclepias cubensis Wenderoth
  • Asclepias curassavica Lour.
  • Asclepias curassavica [Illegitimate] Griseb.
  • Asclepias curassavica f. flaviflora Tawada
  • Asclepias curassavica var. concolor Krug & Urb.
  • Asclepias margaritacea Hoffmannsegg ex Schult. in Roem. & Schult.
  • Asclepias nivea var. curassavica Kuntze, 1891

International Common Names

  • English: bastard ipecac; bastard ipecacuana; bloodflower; bloodflower milkweed; butterfly weed; false ipecac; Mexican butterfly weed; milkweed; red butterfly weed; red cotton bush; red head cottonbush; red milkweed; redhead cottonbush; scarlet milkweed; silkweed; silky butterfly weed; swallowwort; tropical milkweed; West Indian ipecac; wild ipecacuanha
  • Spanish: algodoncillo; bandera espanola; bencenuco; calerona; corcalito; flor anaranjada; flor de la reina; flor de sangre; flor de sapo; flor de seda; flro de muerte; hierba de la vibora; lechosilla; mal cascada; marianilla; mata caballo; nino muerto; oficial de sala; platanillo; platanillo; quita soliman; sangria; senorita; viborana; vivorana; yerba de la calentura; yuquillo
  • French: asclepias de Curacao; herbe à gendarme; herbe á sang; ipéca sauvage; ipéca sauvage
  • Chinese: ma li jin
  • Portuguese: oficial-de-sala

Local Common Names

  • Australia: bastard ipecacuana; cottonbush; Madagascar cottonbush; milky cottonbush; red-cotton; redhead; wallflower cottonbush; West Indian ipecacuana; wild ipecac; wild oleander
  • Belize: polly redhead
  • Brazil: algodao-de-seda; algodãozinho-do-campo; camará-bravo; capitao-de-sala; capitão-de-sala; cega-olho; erva-de-paina; erva-de-rato; erva-de-rato(falso); margaridinha; oficial-de-sala; paina-de-sapo; paininha; paira-de-sapo
  • Cook Islands: tirika; tirika
  • El Salvador: flor de agua
  • Fiji: false ipiciachuana; vu di lolia; vu ni lolia; wathiwathi
  • French Polynesia: tirita
  • Germany: Curacao-seidenpflanze; Indianer-seidenpflanze; Indianer-Seidenpflanze
  • Guam: asuncoin (Chamorro)
  • Hawaii: lauhele; laulele; nu‘umela; pua anuhe
  • India: kakatundi; madhar (Hindi)
  • Indonesia: kapas cinde
  • Italy: ipecauana delle Antille; pianta della seta a fiori rossi
  • Laos: mak kha kay
  • Marshall Islands: ialo; ialu; kabbok; kappok; lalo; yelo
  • Micronesia, Federated states of: kimeme (Pohnpeian); margarita; pugarigarita; wanuailiyos (Chuukese)
  • Nauru: dupaimdupaim; dupaimdupwaim
  • Nepal: khursani kose phool
  • Netherlands: Frederiksbloem
  • Samoa: pepe toa
  • South Africa: Frederiksblom
  • Sweden: röd sidenört
  • Thailand: fai duean haa; mai cheen; thian daeng
  • Tonga: fisi puna; lou pepe; tulanga pepe; tuula pepe; vavae kona
  • Venezuela: yuquillo

EPPO code

  • ASCCU (Asclepias curassavica)

Summary of Invasiveness

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The milkweed A. curassica is an erect sub-shrub that is reported to be weedy or invasive across many tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas, Australia and Asia, as well as in China, South East Asia and the Pacific. The invasiveness of this species is reflected by the notably widespread scale of naturalization, together with the ease of spread and establishment of A. curassavica across a range of habitat types. Impacts of this species include the invasion of both native ecosystems and agricultural systems (e.g. Holm et al., 1997), as well as toxicity to vertebrates.

Although widely naturalized, A. curassavica is rarely included on legislative lists of noxious or regulated pests. In Australia, A. curassavica is considered to be one of the worst 200 weeds in southeast Queensland (Batianoff and Butler, 2002), but is not listed as a declared pest under State legislation. A. curassavica is listed as a noxious weed in Western Samoa, and is listed as a restricted species in Hawaii.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Gentianales
  •                         Family: Asclepiadaceae
  •                             Genus: Asclepias
  •                                 Species: Asclepias curassavica

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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A. curassavica previously belonged to the (former) Asclepiadaceae, before classification of the Apocynaceae was revised to subsume the Asclepiadaceae as the sub-family Asclepiadoideae (Endress and Bruyns, 2000).

The genus name Asclepias is derived from Asklepios, the Greek god of healing, and reflects the long-regarded medicinal qualities of the plants in this genus. The species name curassavica is derived from Curaçao, the name of an island in the southern Caribbean Sea and the location of the type specimen of A. curassavica.

Translations of the common names of A. curassavica include grass policeman (herbe à gendarme, French), wild ipecac (ipéca sauvage, French), blood flower (flor de sangre, Spanish) and silk plant (seidenpflanze, German).

As a result of its popularity as an ornamental plant, a number of different cultivars with different flower colours and growth habits have been developed.

Description

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Adapted from Globinmed (2013):

A. curassavica is a perennial herb of the Asclepiadaceae family. It is an erect, glabrous, perennial sub-shrub that grows approximately 1 m high, and sometimes up to 1.5 m. Like most other milkweeds, A. curassavica plants produce a dense, white latex from any plant part when damaged. The stem is smooth, round, dull green or suffused with dull red.

The leaves are simple, opposite, shortly petioled, lanceolate to narrow-elliptic in shape, acuminate and measure 6 to 15 cm long and 6 to 25 cm wide (Harden and Williams, 2013; PIER, 2013). The base is narrowed.

The flowers of A. curassavica have the unique floral morphology that is typical of milkweeds. The inflorescence is in the form of an umbel, of up to 12 flowers, on the terminal or axillary peduncle. Umbels are held erectly, and flowering is typically throughout the year with the exception of winter months (Ward, 2012). The flowers are perfect, radially symmetrical or irregularly shaped, bright red or orange with yellow centres, and measure approximately 12.5 mm. There are five sepals, deeply divided, reflexed and green. There are five petals which are linear with base united into a fused corolla. The corolla lobes are red, reflexed, oblong and approximately 8 mm long. The corona scale is orange, 5-lobed and measures 3.4 to 4.0 mm long. The corona is hood-shaped with inwardly curved horns. There are five stamens. Anthers have two pollen sacs. The style filaments are united with pistils which have two carpels.

The fruit is a pair of dry dehiscent, spindle-shaped follicles, measuring 5 to 15 cm long. Seed pods are light green and elongated, with approximately 70 to 80 seeds (Ward et al., 2012), and split lengthways on one side upon maturity.

Seeds are ovate and flattened, brown, 6 to 7 mm long, and have a narrow wing completely encircling the margin. Each seed is topped with a coma comprised of silky white hairs, 2 to 3 cm long, that assist in dispersal by wind.

Plant Type

Top of pageAnnual
Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

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A. currasavica is naturalized in many tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas, Australia and Asia, and less frequently in Africa. The precise origin of A. curassavica is unknown, but is thought to be South America, Central America or the Antilles (Woodson, 1954).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

CountryDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferencesNotes

ASIA

CambodiaPresentInvasiveHolm et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011
ChinaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-ARS, 2011
-AnhuiPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalised
-FujianPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalised
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalised
-GuangxiPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalised
-GuizhouPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalised
-HainanPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalised
-HebeiPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalised
-Hong KongPresentIntroducedWu, 2001Cultivated
-HunanPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalised
-JiangsuPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalised
-JiangxiPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalised
-QinghaiPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalised
-SichuanPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalised
-TibetPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalised
-YunnanPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalised
-ZhejiangPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and naturalised
IndiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveKahre (ed), 2007; Sekar, 2012Naturalized in many parts of India; present in Himalayan region
-Andhra PradeshPresentReddy et al., 2012
-Uttar PradeshPresentIntroducedInvasiveKhanna, 2009
IranPresentIntroducedInvasiveBabaie et al., 2007
IsraelPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedGalil & Zeroni, 1965; Holm et al., 1997Cultivated in gardens
JapanPresentIntroducedInvasiveMito & Uesugi, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2011; Warashino & Noro, 2008
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-ARS, 2011
NepalPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2011
PakistanPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2011; USDA-ARS, 2011Commonly cultivated as a garden plant
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedMerrill, 1923; USDA-ARS, 2011
SingaporePresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al., 2009
ThailandPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-ARS, 2011

AFRICA

MadagascarPresentIntroducedMadagascar Catalogue, 2012
MozambiquePresentIntroducedInvasiveHyde et al., 2013bRecords from Tete and Maputo
SenegalPresentKeay & Hepper, 1963
South AfricaPresentIntroducedInvasiveFoxcroft et al., 2003; Conservatoire Jardin botaniques and SANBI, 2012Naturalised in Eastern Cape, Guateng, KwaZulu-Natal and Western Cape
SudanPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedHolm et al., 1997
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedInvasiveHyde et al., 2013aRecords from Harare and Mazvikadei

NORTH AMERICA

BermudaPresentLiogier, 1985; USDA-ARS, 2011
MexicoPresentIntroducedInvasiveStandley & Williams, 1969; Holm et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2013Baja Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Colima, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Tabasco, Veracruz, Yucatan, Tamaulipas
USAUnconfirmed recordCAB Abstracts
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveXerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation, 2012Cultivated and naturalised
-FloridaPresentIntroducedWunderlin & Hansen, 2008
-HawaiiWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveWagner et al., 1999; USDA-ARS, 2011; Wood & LeGrande, 2006; Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation, 2012Naturalised on the islands of Hawai‘i, Kaho‘olawe, Kaua‘i, Läna‘i, Maui, Moloka‘i, Ni‘ihau and O‘ahu
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedInvasiveXerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation, 2012
-TennesseePresentIntroducedInvasiveXerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation, 2012
-TexasPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-ARS, 2011; Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation, 2012

CENTRAL AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

Antigua and BarbudaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2011
BahamasPresentLiogier, 1985; USDA-ARS, 2011
BarbadosWidespreadIntroducedearly 1700sInvasiveUSDA-ARS, 2011
BelizePresentStandley & Williams, 1969; USDA-ARS, 2011
Cayman IslandsPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2011
Costa RicaWidespreadInvasiveIslam, 1979; Wyatt, 1980; Holm et al., 1997; Wyatt & Broyles, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011Puntaren, Cartago
CubaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2011
DominicaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2011; Nicolson et al., 1991
Dominican RepublicPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2011
El SalvadorPresentStandley & Williams, 1969; USDA-ARS, 2011
GuadeloupePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2011
GuatemalaPresentStandley & Williams, 1969; USDA-ARS, 2011Alta Verapaz, Chimaltenango, Chiquimula, Escuintla, Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Jalapa, Petén, Quezaltenango, Retalhuleu, Sacatepéquez, San Marcos, Santa Rosa and Suchitepéquez
HaitiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2011
HondurasPresentStandley & Williams, 1969; USDA-ARS, 2011El Progreso
JamaicaPresentNativeNot invasivePercival, 1974; USDA-ARS, 2011
MartiniquePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2011
MontserratPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2011
Netherlands AntillesPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2011Saba
NicaraguaPresentInvasiveHolm et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011
PanamaPresentStandley & Williams, 1969; USDA-ARS, 2011; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2011
Puerto RicoPresentLiogier, 1985; USDA-ARS, 2011Puerto Rico, Vieques, Culebra
Trinidad and TobagoPresentInvasiveSchotman, 1989; GBIF, 2013

SOUTH AMERICA

ArgentinaPresentInvasiveHolm et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011; Instituto Botanica Darwinion de, 2008
BoliviaWidespreadNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2011; USDA-ARS, 2011Chuquisaca, Pando, Santa Cruz, Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz
BrazilPresentInvasiveHolm et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011
-ParanaPresentInstituto Botanica Darwinion de, 2008
-Rio Grande do SulPresentInstituto Botanica Darwinion de, 2008; Fuhro et al., 2010
-Santa CatarinaPresentInstituto Botanica Darwinion de, 2008
ChilePresentInstituto Botanica Darwinion de, 2008; USDA-ARS, 2011
-Easter IslandWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveMeyer, 2008South and north coasts of the island
ColombiaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2011; USDA-ARS, 2011Abejorral, AmagÁ, Amalfi, Andes, Barbosa, Bello, Bolivar, CÁceres, Carepa, Chigorodó, CocornÁ, Dabeiba, Envigado, Fredonia, Frontino, Girardota, Maceo, Medellín, Montebello, MutatÁ, Nariño, Salgar, San Carlos, San Luis, Santa Fé de Antioquia, Segovia, TÁmesis, TarazÁ, Tarso, Titibirí, Turbo, Urrao, Valdivia, Venecia, Yolombó
EcuadorPresentUSDA-ARS, 2011; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2011; Guezou et al., 2011Galápagos, Coastal, Andean, Amazonian regions; Moist uplands of the Galápagos Islands; Galápagos distribution includes the islands of Floreana, Isabela, San Cristóbal, Santa Cruz and Santiago
French GuianaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2011
GuyanaWidespreadNativeInvasiveThompson, 1988; USDA-ARS, 2011
ParaguayPresentInstituto Botanica Darwinion de, 2008; USDA-ARS, 2011; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2011Central, Cordillera, Guaira, Paraguarí
PeruPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2011; USDA-ARS, 2011Amazonas, Ancash, Arequipa, Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Pasco, San Martín, Tumbes, Ucayali
SurinamePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2011
VenezuelaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2011

EUROPE

HungaryPresentIntroducedInvasiveBotta-Dukát & Balogh, 2008
ItalyPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedGaribaldi et al., 2002
NetherlandsPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedGroeneveld et al., 1990
SpainUnconfirmed record

OCEANIA

American SamoaPresentIntroducedInvasiveSetchell, 1924; Swarbrick, 1997Tutuila Island
AustraliaPresent
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentIntroducedInvasiveCentre for Australian National Biodiversity Research, 2010
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedInvasiveHarden & Williams, 2013
-QueenslandWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveBatianoff & Butler, 2002; Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research, 2010; Harden & Williams, 2013; Ward et al., 2012South-east Queensland
-South AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasiveHarden & Williams, 2013
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCentre for Australian National Biodiversity Research, 2010; Harden & Williams, 2013
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveSwarbrick, 1997; McCormack, 2007; USDA-ARS, 2011
FijiWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveSmith, 1988; Swarbrick, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011From near sea level to approximately 900 m. Distribution includes Lakemba Island, Taveuni Island, Totoya Island, Vanua Levu Island, Viti Levu Island
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveFlorence et al., 2012; USDA-ARS, 2011; Doty, 1954; Lorence & Wagner, 2013; Sachet, 1983; Sachet et al., 1983Gambier Islands (Mangareva Island); Marquesas Islands (Eiao Island, Fatu Hiva Island, Hiva Oa Island, Mohotani Island, Nuku Hiva Island, Tahuata Island, Ua Huka Island, Ua Pou Island); Society Islands (Huahine Island, Moorea Island, Raiatea Island and Tahiti Island); Austral Islands (Raivavae Island, Rapa Island, Rurutu Island)
GuamWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveStone, 1970; Swarbrick, 1997; Fosberg et al., 1979
KiribatiPresentIntroducedWester, 1985; Swarbrick, 1997; Fosberg et al., 1979; Space & Imada, 2004; Wagner et al., 2013Tabuaeran Atoll
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedFosberg et al., 1979; Swarbrick, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011; Wagner et al., 2013Ralik Chain (Ailinglaplap Atoll, Jaluit Atoll and Lae Atoll); Ratak Chain (Ailuk Atoll, Arno Atoll, Majuro Atoll, Utirik Atoll)
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroducedGlassman, 1952; Swarbrick, 1997; Fosberg et al., 1979; USDA-ARS, 2011; Manner & Mallon, 1989Pohnpei Island
NauruPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedprior to 1940'sThaman et al., 1994Cultivated and uncommon
New CaledoniaWidespreadIntroduced1860'sInvasiveMacKee, 1994; Swarbrick, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedFosberg et al., 1979; Swarbrick, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011Aguijan Island, Rota Island, Saipan Island, Tinian Island
PalauPresentIntroducedFosberg et al., 1979; Swarbrick, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011; Space et al., 2003; Wagner et al., 2013Koror Island, Peleliu Island
Papua New GuineaAbsent, intercepted onlyIntroducedForeman, 1971; Henty & Pritchard, 1975; USDA-ARS, 2011; Peekel, 1984Bougainville Island
SamoaPresentIntroducedWhistler, 1988; Swarbrick, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveSwarbrick, 1997; Hancock & Henderson, 1988
TongaWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveYuncker, 1959; Swarbrick, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011‘Eua Island, Tonga Islands, Tongatapu Island, Vava‘u Island
TuvaluPresentIntroducedInvasiveSwarbrick, 1997
VanuatuPresentIntroducedInvasiveSwarbrick, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011
Wallis and Futuna IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveMorat & Veillon, 1985; Whistler, 1988; Swarbrick, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011

History of Introduction and Spread

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As a result of the long-term and widespread naturalization of A. curassavica, little information is known regarding the history of its introduction and spread. It is presumed that A. curassavica was predominantly introduced to new regions for horticultural purposes; however, introductions may also have been accidental.

In Barbados, A. curassavica was introduced in the early part of the eighteenth century and had become a common weed by 1750 (Blakley and Dingle, 1978). It was introduced to New Caledonia in the 1860s and became widespread though not abundant (MacKee, 1994).

In Australia, A. curassavica was introduced as an ornamental (Batianoff and Butler, 2002). The earliest report of this species in Australia is from 1869 (Bentham and Mueller, 1869), who stated that A. curassavica was 'common in several parts of Queensland' at this time.

A. curassavica was introduced to Nauru before World War II (Thaman et al., 1994).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
AustraliaPre 1869Horticulture (pathway cause)YesBentham & Mueller, 1869Reported that A. curassavica was 'common in several parts of Queensland’ at this time.
BarbadosEarly 1700sYesBlakley & Dingle, 1978Reported that A. curassavica had become a common weed by 1750.
NauruPre 1940YesThaman et al., 1994
New Caledonia1860sYesMacKee, 1994

Risk of Introduction

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A. curassavica is well-known as a garden plant and is particularly popular for use as a host plant of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus). As such, seeds of this species are readily available for purchase, thereby posing a risk of introduction to new or restricted areas.

Habitat

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A. curassavica has been reported across a range of habitat types. In Australia, habitat preferences of A. curassavica include riparian and wetland vegetation, pastures (Ward, 2012) and rainforest clearings (Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research, 2010). In Barbados, A. curassavica is reported to invade steep valleys (Blakley and Dingle, 1978). In Peru, A. curassavica is reported to invade grasslands, riversides and seasonally inundated areas (USDA-ARS, 2011). In Zimbabwe and Mozambique, A. curassavica is reported to invade riparian habitats (Hyde et al., 2013a,b).

A. curassavica is also reported to invade disturbed habitats and roadsides in Australia (Harden and Williams, 2013), Fiji (Smith, 1988), Mozambique (Hyde et al., 2013a), North America (Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation, 2012), Papua New Guinea (Henty and Pritchard, 1975), Peru (USDA-ARS, 2011), Tonga (Yuncker, 1959) and Zimbabwe (Hyde et al., 2013a).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural landPrincipal habitatHarmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areasPrincipal habitatHarmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchardsSecondary/tolerated habitatHarmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems)Principal habitatHarmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsidesPrincipal habitatHarmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areasSecondary/tolerated habitatHarmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forestsSecondary/tolerated habitatHarmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslandsPrincipal habitatHarmful (pest or invasive)
RiverbanksPrincipal habitatHarmful (pest or invasive)
WetlandsPrincipal habitatHarmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

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A. curassavica infestations have been reported in numerous crops species, but the impacts of this species on the growth or production of crops have not been documented. Crops affected by A. curassavica infestations include banana, coffee, cotton, mango and sorghum in Mexico; edible beans, cassava and sweet potato in Costa Rica; coconut in Cambodia; soybeans in Brazil; sugar cane in Argentina and Costa Rica, and sorghum and tobacco in Nicaragua (Holm et al., 1997). A. curassavica infestations are also reported in coconut plantations in Papua New Guinea (Peekel, 1984) and Fiji (Smith, 1988).

Host Plants/Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Cocos nucifera (coconut)ArecaceaeMain

Biology and Ecology

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Reproductive Biology

A. curassavica plants are typically annual, although some individuals may persist over several seasons and produce multiple stems from the base of the plant (Ward, 2012).

Like all other milkweeds, A. curassavica is dependent on pollinators for reproductive output (Ward et al., 2012), although individuals of A. curassavica from a Costa Rican population were found to be self-compatible (Wyatt and Broyles, 1997). Populations of A. curassavica were also found to be self-compatible in Australia, and selfing did not have fitness consequences for progeny (Ward et al., 2012). The potential for hybridization between A. curassavica and other weedy milkweeds in Australia was investigated by Ward et al. (2012), who found that A. curassavica could not readily hybridize with Gomphocarpus fruticosus or G. physocarpus.

Flowers of A. curassavica produce copious amounts of rich nectar to attract pollinators (Ward and Johnson, 2013). Pollination by butterflies has been documented in populations of A. curassavica in Costa Rica (Wyatt, 1980; Bierzychudek, 1981) and Brazil (Fuhro et al., 2010). In Australia, pollinators of A. curassavica include butterflies and wasps (Ward and Johnson, 2013).

Environmental Requirements

A. curassavica grows best in full sun and in well-drained, acid or neutral and loam or sand soil (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013; Royal Horticultural Society, 2013). Environmental requirements of A. curassavica have not been quantified, although it has been noted that it appears to be tolerant of a wide range of environmental and climatic characteristics.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climatePreferred> 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climatePreferredTropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summerPreferred< 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climatePreferred< 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climateTolerated> 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climateTolerated< 430mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all yearPreferredWarm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summerPreferredWarm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winterPreferredWarm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Natural Enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aphis neriiHerbivoreWhole plantnot specific?
Danaus gilippusHerbivoreWhole plantnot specific?
Danaus plexippusHerbivoreWhole plantnot specific?
Oncopeltus cinguliferHerbivoreSeedsnot specific?
Oncopeltus fasciatusHerbivoreSeedsnot specific?

Notes on Natural Enemies

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A. curassavica, together with other milkweed species, is well known as the larval host plant of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus), as well as other related butterflies such as the lesser wanderer (D. petilia) and queen butterfly (D. gilippusis). Other natural enemies of A. curassavica include lygaeid bugs (Oncopeltus cingulifer, O. fasciatus, O. unifasciatellus) that feed on milkweed seeds and, to a lesser degree, vegetative material. Yellow aphids (Aphis nerii) are also commonly observed on A. curassavica. Natural pests appear to be ineffective as biocontrol agents for A. curassavica (M Ward, unpublished data).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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A. curassavica is dependent on seeds for dispersal, and seeds are easily germinated. Natural dispersal at the local scale is by wind, and seeds are each topped with a fluffy white coma to assist in wind dispersal.

Due to the long-term and widespread naturalization of A. curassavica, little information regarding anthropogenic-mediated dispersal is available. Considering the popularity of A. curassavica as an ornamental plant, it is likely that national and international movement and dispersal is due to predominantly intentional introductions for horticultural purposes and use as a garden plant. However, it is also possible that accidental introductions have occurred, and GRIN (USDA-ARS, 2013) lists A. curassavica as a potential seed contaminant.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
HorticultureUnknownYesBatianoff & Butler, 2002
People foragingPeople sharingYes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihoodNegative
Environment (generally)Negative
Human healthNegative

Economic Impact

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Economic impacts of A. curassavica have not been quantified. However, this species is documented to invade agricultural systems, including pastures (Ward, 2012), crops and plantations (Holm et al., 1997), and economic impacts would be expected as a result of decreased agricultural productivity and the cost of weed control. Furthermore, given the toxicity of A. curassavica, economic impacts are also likely to include illness and death of livestock.

Economic Value

Economic value of A. curassavica has not been quantified, and is not expected to be substantial. Economic benefits include its use as an ornamental plant and its use as a host plant to raise milkweed butterflies (Danaus spp.) for scientific research purposes.

Environmental Impact

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Although A. curassavica is reported to invade native ecosystems (e.g. Ward, 2012), the environmental impacts of this species have not been quantified. Milkweeds are poisonous or distasteful to birds and mammals (Spurgeon, 2013)

Environmental Services

A. curassavica is a host plant for several butterfly species (Danaus spp.). It is important to note, however, that other native milkweed species also fulfill this environmental service such that A. curassavica is not considered critical to the conservation of milkweed butterflies.

Social Impact

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The latex of A. curassavica is toxic and can cause serious reactions if ingested or touched. Globinmed (2013) gives the signs of toxicity as ‘vertigo, headache, vomiting, diarrhoea, stomach cramps, pallor, chills and arrhythmia’. The latex is painful if it comes in contact with eyes and can cause hazy vision. It can also produce dermatitis in susceptible individuals (Globinmed, 2013).

The leaves of A. curassavica may be dangerous to pets if eaten due to the high levels of glycosides in the plant (Spurgeon, 2013).

Social Benefit

A. curassavica is a popular ornamental, particularly with butterfly gardens and enthusiasts as it attracts the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus). The plant also has a range of medicinal uses (see Uses).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Impact mechanisms

  • Poisoning
  • Rapid growth

Impact outcomes

  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Reduced native biodiversity

Invasiveness

  • Abundant in its native range
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has a broad native range
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Tolerant of shade

Likelihood of entry/control

  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult/costly to control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally

Uses

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A. curassavica has been used as a traditional medicine for many health problems (Holm et al., 1997). It is used as a contraceptive and snakebite remedy by Native Americans, and is used in the tropics as an emetic, laxative, febrifuge, expectorant and to remove warts, and is used elsewhere to treat skin parasites, constipation, venereal disease, kidney stones and asthma (Palm Beach State College, 2012). A syrup made from the juice of A. curassavica is a powerful vermifuge and its roots have been used to treat gonorrhoea. In Jamaica it has been used to treat dysentery and in Indonesia A. curassavica has been used in the treatment of pneumonia, mastitis, pyoderma and inflammation of the spleen (Globinmed, 2013). Globinmed (2013) also reports that ‘various parts of A. curassavica have been used in the treatment of fungal infection, leucorrhoea, warts, cancer, caries [and] fever’.

Economic Value

The economic value of A. curassavica has not been quantified, and is not expected to be substantial. Economic benefits include its use as an ornamental plant and its use as a host plant to raise milkweed butterflies (Danaus spp.) for scientific research purposes.

Environmental Services

A. curassavica is a host plant for several butterfly species (Danaus spp.). It is important to note, however, that other native milkweed species also fulfill this environmental service such that A. curassavica is not considered critical to the conservation of milkweed butterflies.

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Host of pest

General

  • Laboratory use
  • Ornamental

Materials

  • Poisonous to mammals

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Potted plant

Detection and Inspection

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Although mature A. curassavica plants are readily identified (see Description), no early detection, inspection or diagnosis methods for this species are documented. Seeds of A. curassavica do not have distinctive features, meaning that this species may be difficult to identify at inspection points. For a description of the seeds, see Description.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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A. curassavica is easily identified by the unique floral morphology of milkweeds and the white latex that is produced when plant parts are damaged. It is distinguished from other milkweeds by the colouration of its floral parts; specifically, a red corolla and yellow corona.

Prevention and Control

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Limited information regarding the prevention, management and control of A. curassavica is available. Hand-pulling and bagging of plant material is generally the recommended method for control. Common herbicides such as glyphosate are reported to have limited effectiveness, although spraying with glyphosphate may be a viable option on small areas invaded by A. curassavica (PIER, 2013). Natural pests, such as monarch butterfly larvae, aphids and lygaeid bugs, appear to be ineffective as biocontrol agents for A. curassavica (M Ward, unpublished data).

References

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Contributors

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01/08/13 Original text by:

Megan Ward, The University of Queensland, Australia

Distribution Maps

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Distribution map Antigua and Barbuda: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011Netherlands Antilles: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011Argentina: Present, invasive
Holm et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011; Instituto Botanica Darwinion de, 2008American Samoa: Present, introduced, invasive
Setchell, 1924; Swarbrick, 1997Australia: PresentAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryBarbados: Widespread, introduced, invasive
USDA-ARS, 2011Barbados: Widespread, introduced, invasive
USDA-ARS, 2011Bermuda: Present
Liogier, 1985; USDA-ARS, 2011Bolivia: Widespread, native
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2011; USDA-ARS, 2011Brazil: Present, invasive
Holm et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011Brazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBahamas: Present
Liogier, 1985; USDA-ARS, 2011Bahamas: Present
Liogier, 1985; USDA-ARS, 2011Belize: Present
Standley & Williams, 1969; USDA-ARS, 2011Belize: Present
Standley & Williams, 1969; USDA-ARS, 2011Cook Islands: Present, introduced, invasive
Swarbrick, 1997; McCormack, 2007; USDA-ARS, 2011Chile: Present
Instituto Botanica Darwinion de, 2008; USDA-ARS, 2011Chile
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-ARS, 2011China: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-ARS, 2011China
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryColombia: Present, native
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2011; USDA-ARS, 2011Colombia: Present, native
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2011; USDA-ARS, 2011Costa Rica: Widespread, invasive
Islam, 1979; Wyatt, 1980; Holm et al., 1997; Wyatt & Broyles, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011Costa Rica: Widespread, invasive
Islam, 1979; Wyatt, 1980; Holm et al., 1997; Wyatt & Broyles, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011Cuba: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011Cuba: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011Dominica: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011; Nicolson et al., 1991Dominican Republic: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011Dominican Republic: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011Ecuador: Present
USDA-ARS, 2011; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2011; Guezou et al., 2011Spain: Unconfirmed recordSpain: Unconfirmed recordFiji: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Smith, 1988; Swarbrick, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011Micronesia, Federated states of: Present, introduced
Glassman, 1952; Swarbrick, 1997; Fosberg et al., 1979; USDA-ARS, 2011; Manner & Mallon, 1989French Guiana: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011Guadeloupe: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011Guatemala: Present
Standley & Williams, 1969; USDA-ARS, 2011Guatemala: Present
Standley & Williams, 1969; USDA-ARS, 2011Guam: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Stone, 1970; Swarbrick, 1997; Fosberg et al., 1979Guyana: Widespread, native, invasive
Thompson, 1988; USDA-ARS, 2011Guyana: Widespread, native, invasive
Thompson, 1988; USDA-ARS, 2011Honduras: Present
Standley & Williams, 1969; USDA-ARS, 2011Honduras: Present
Standley & Williams, 1969; USDA-ARS, 2011Haiti: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011Haiti: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011Hungary: Present, introduced, invasive
Botta-Dukát & Balogh, 2008Israel: Present only in captivity/cultivation, introduced
Galil & Zeroni, 1965; Holm et al., 1997Israel: Present only in captivity/cultivation, introduced
Galil & Zeroni, 1965; Holm et al., 1997India: Present, introduced, invasive
Kahre (ed), 2007; Sekar, 2012India
See regional map for distribution within the countryIndia
See regional map for distribution within the countryIran: Present, introduced, invasive
Babaie et al., 2007Iran: Present, introduced, invasive
Babaie et al., 2007Iran: Present, introduced, invasive
Babaie et al., 2007Italy: Present only in captivity/cultivation, introduced
Garibaldi et al., 2002Jamaica: Present, native, not invasive
Percival, 1974; USDA-ARS, 2011Jamaica: Present, native, not invasive
Percival, 1974; USDA-ARS, 2011Japan: Present, introduced, invasive
Mito & Uesugi, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2011; Warashino & Noro, 2008Cambodia: Present, invasive
Holm et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011Kiribati: Present, introduced
Wester, 1985; Swarbrick, 1997; Fosberg et al., 1979; Space & Imada, 2004; Wagner et al., 2013Cayman Islands: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011Madagascar: Present, introduced
Madagascar Catalogue, 2012Marshall Islands: Present, introduced
Fosberg et al., 1979; Swarbrick, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011; Wagner et al., 2013Northern Mariana Islands: Present, introduced
Fosberg et al., 1979; Swarbrick, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011Martinique: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011Montserrat: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011Mexico: Present, introduced, invasive
Standley & Williams, 1969; Holm et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2013Mexico: Present, introduced, invasive
Standley & Williams, 1969; Holm et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2013Malaysia: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-ARS, 2011Mozambique: Present, introduced, invasive
Hyde et al. ,2013bNew Caledonia: Widespread, introduced, invasive
MacKee, 1994; Swarbrick, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011Nicaragua: Present, invasive
Holm et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011Nicaragua: Present, invasive
Holm et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011Nicaragua: Present, invasive
Holm et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011Netherlands: Present only in captivity/cultivation, introduced
Groeneveld et al., 1990Nepal: Present, introduced
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2011Nauru: Present only in captivity/cultivation, introduced
Thaman et al., 1994Panama: Present
Standley & Williams, 1969; USDA-ARS, 2011; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2011Panama: Present
Standley & Williams, 1969; USDA-ARS, 2011; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2011Peru: Present, native
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2011; USDA-ARS, 2011French Polynesia: Present, introduced, invasive
Florence et al., 2012; USDA-ARS, 2011; Doty, 1954; Lorence & Wagner, 2013; Sachet, 1983; Sachet et al., 1983Philippines: Present, introduced
Merrill, 1923; USDA-ARS, 2011Philippines: Present, introduced
Merrill, 1923; USDA-ARS, 2011Pakistan: Present only in captivity/cultivation, introduced
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2011; USDA-ARS, 2011Puerto Rico: Present
Liogier, 1985; USDA-ARS, 2011Puerto Rico: Present
Liogier, 1985; USDA-ARS, 2011Palau: Present, introduced
Fosberg et al., 1979; Swarbrick, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011; Space et al., 2003; Wagner et al., 2013Palau: Present, introduced
Fosberg et al., 1979; Swarbrick, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011; Space et al., 2003; Wagner et al., 2013Paraguay: Present
Instituto Botanica Darwinion de, 2008; USDA-ARS, 2011; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2011Solomon Islands: Present, introduced, invasive
Swarbrick, 1997; Hancock & Henderson, 1988Sudan: Present only in captivity/cultivation, introduced
Holm et al., 1997Singapore: Present, introduced, invasive
Chong et al., 2009Senegal: Present
Keay & Hepper, 1963Suriname: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011Suriname: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011El Salvador: Present
Standley & Williams, 1969; USDA-ARS, 2011El Salvador: Present
Standley & Williams, 1969; USDA-ARS, 2011Thailand: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-ARS, 2011Tonga: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Yuncker, 1959; Swarbrick, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011Trinidad and Tobago: Present, invasive
Schotman, 1989; GBIF, 2013Trinidad and Tobago: Present, invasive
Schotman, 1989; GBIF, 2013Tuvalu: Present, introduced, invasive
Swarbrick, 1997USA: Unconfirmed recordUSA: Unconfirmed recordUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryVenezuela: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011Venezuela: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011Vanuatu: Present, introduced, invasive
Swarbrick, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011Wallis and Futuna Islands: Present, introduced, invasive
Morat & Veillon, 1985; Whistler, 1988; Swarbrick, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011Samoa: Present, introduced
Whistler, 1988; Swarbrick, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011South Africa: Present, introduced, invasive
Foxcroft et al., 2003; Conservatoire Jardin botaniques and SANBI, 2012Zimbabwe: Present, introduced, invasive
Hyde et al. ,2013a
  • = Present, no further details
  • = Evidence of pathogen
  • = Widespread
  • = Last reported
  • = Localised
  • = Presence unconfirmed
  • = Confined and subject to quarantine
  • = See regional map for distribution within the country
  • = Occasional or few reports
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Distribution map (asia) China: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-ARS, 2011Anhui: Present, introduced, invasiveFujian: Present, introduced, invasiveGuangdong: Present, introduced, invasiveGuangxi: Present, introduced, invasiveGuizhou: Present, introduced, invasiveHainan: Present, introduced, invasiveHebei: Present, introduced, invasiveHong Kong: Present, introduced
Wu, 2001Hunan: Present, introduced, invasiveJiangsu: Present, introduced, invasiveJiangxi: Present, introduced, invasiveQinghai: Present, introduced, invasiveSichuan: Present, introduced, invasiveTibet: Present, introduced, invasiveYunnan: Present, introduced, invasiveZhejiang: Present, introduced, invasiveIsrael: Present only in captivity/cultivation, introduced
Galil & Zeroni, 1965; Holm et al., 1997India: Present, introduced, invasive
Kahre (ed), 2007; Sekar, 2012Andhra Pradesh: Present
Reddy et al., 2012Uttar Pradesh: Present, introduced, invasive
Khanna, 2009Iran: Present, introduced, invasive
Babaie et al., 2007Japan: Present, introduced, invasive
Mito & Uesugi, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2011; Warashino & Noro, 2008Cambodia: Present, invasive
Holm et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011Malaysia: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-ARS, 2011Nepal: Present, introduced
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2011Philippines: Present, introduced
Merrill, 1923; USDA-ARS, 2011Pakistan: Present only in captivity/cultivation, introduced
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2011; USDA-ARS, 2011Palau: Present, introduced
Fosberg et al., 1979; Swarbrick, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011; Space et al., 2003; Wagner et al., 2013Singapore: Present, introduced, invasive
Chong et al., 2009Thailand: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-ARS, 2011
Distribution map (europe) Spain: Unconfirmed recordHungary: Present, introduced, invasive
Botta-Dukát & Balogh, 2008Iran: Present, introduced, invasive
Babaie et al., 2007Italy: Present only in captivity/cultivation, introduced
Garibaldi et al., 2002Netherlands: Present only in captivity/cultivation, introduced
Groeneveld et al., 1990
Distribution map (africa) Spain: Unconfirmed recordIsrael: Present only in captivity/cultivation, introduced
Galil & Zeroni, 1965; Holm et al., 1997Iran: Present, introduced, invasive
Babaie et al., 2007Madagascar: Present, introduced
Madagascar Catalogue, 2012Mozambique: Present, introduced, invasive
Hyde et al. ,2013bSudan: Present only in captivity/cultivation, introduced
Holm et al., 1997Senegal: Present
Keay & Hepper, 1963South Africa: Present, introduced, invasive
Foxcroft et al., 2003; Conservatoire Jardin botaniques and SANBI, 2012Zimbabwe: Present, introduced, invasive
Hyde et al. ,2013a
Distribution map (north america) Bermuda: Present
Liogier, 1985; USDA-ARS, 2011Bahamas: Present
Liogier, 1985; USDA-ARS, 2011Belize: Present
Standley & Williams, 1969; USDA-ARS, 2011Cuba: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011Dominican Republic: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011Guatemala: Present
Standley & Williams, 1969; USDA-ARS, 2011Honduras: Present
Standley & Williams, 1969; USDA-ARS, 2011Haiti: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011Jamaica: Present, native, not invasive
Percival, 1974; USDA-ARS, 2011Mexico: Present, introduced, invasive
Standley & Williams, 1969; Holm et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2013Nicaragua: Present, invasive
Holm et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011Puerto Rico: Present
Liogier, 1985; USDA-ARS, 2011El Salvador: Present
Standley & Williams, 1969; USDA-ARS, 2011USA: Unconfirmed recordCalifornia: Present, introduced, invasive
Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation, 2012Florida: Present, introduced
Wunderlin & Hansen, 2008Hawaii: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Wagner et al., 1999; USDA-ARS, 2011; Wood & LeGrande, 2006; Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation, 2012Louisiana: Present, introduced, invasive
Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation, 2012Tennessee: Present, introduced, invasive
Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation, 2012Texas: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-ARS, 2011; Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation, 2012
Distribution map (central america) Antigua and Barbuda: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011Netherlands Antilles: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011Barbados: Widespread, introduced, invasive
USDA-ARS, 2011Bahamas: Present
Liogier, 1985; USDA-ARS, 2011Belize: Present
Standley & Williams, 1969; USDA-ARS, 2011Colombia: Present, native
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2011; USDA-ARS, 2011Costa Rica: Widespread, invasive
Islam, 1979; Wyatt, 1980; Holm et al., 1997; Wyatt & Broyles, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011Cuba: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011Dominica: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011; Nicolson et al., 1991Dominican Republic: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011Guadeloupe: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011Guatemala: Present
Standley & Williams, 1969; USDA-ARS, 2011Guyana: Widespread, native, invasive
Thompson, 1988; USDA-ARS, 2011Honduras: Present
Standley & Williams, 1969; USDA-ARS, 2011Haiti: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011Jamaica: Present, native, not invasive
Percival, 1974; USDA-ARS, 2011Cayman Islands: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011Martinique: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011Montserrat: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011Mexico: Present, introduced, invasive
Standley & Williams, 1969; Holm et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2013Nicaragua: Present, invasive
Holm et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011Panama: Present
Standley & Williams, 1969; USDA-ARS, 2011; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2011Puerto Rico: Present
Liogier, 1985; USDA-ARS, 2011Suriname: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011El Salvador: Present
Standley & Williams, 1969; USDA-ARS, 2011Trinidad and Tobago: Present, invasive
Schotman, 1989; GBIF, 2013USA: Unconfirmed recordFlorida: Present, introduced
Wunderlin & Hansen, 2008Venezuela: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011
Distribution map (south america) Argentina: Present, invasive
Holm et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011; Instituto Botanica Darwinion de, 2008Barbados: Widespread, introduced, invasive
USDA-ARS, 2011Bolivia: Widespread, native
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2011; USDA-ARS, 2011Brazil: Present, invasive
Holm et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011Parana: Present
Instituto Botanica Darwinion de, 2008Rio Grande do Sul: Present
Instituto Botanica Darwinion de, 2008; Fuhro et al., 2010Santa Catarina: Present
Instituto Botanica Darwinion de, 2008Chile: Present
Instituto Botanica Darwinion de, 2008; USDA-ARS, 2011Easter Island: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Meyer, 2008Colombia: Present, native
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2011; USDA-ARS, 2011Costa Rica: Widespread, invasive
Islam, 1979; Wyatt, 1980; Holm et al., 1997; Wyatt & Broyles, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011Ecuador: Present
USDA-ARS, 2011; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2011; Guezou et al., 2011French Guiana: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011Guyana: Widespread, native, invasive
Thompson, 1988; USDA-ARS, 2011Nicaragua: Present, invasive
Holm et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011Panama: Present
Standley & Williams, 1969; USDA-ARS, 2011; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2011Peru: Present, native
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2011; USDA-ARS, 2011Paraguay: Present
Instituto Botanica Darwinion de, 2008; USDA-ARS, 2011; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2011Suriname: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011Trinidad and Tobago: Present, invasive
Schotman, 1989; GBIF, 2013Venezuela: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2011
Distribution map (pacific) American Samoa: Present, introduced, invasive
Setchell, 1924; Swarbrick, 1997Australia: PresentAustralian Northern Territory: Present, introduced, invasive
Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research, 2010New South Wales: Present, introduced, invasive
Harden & Williams, 2013Queensland: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Batianoff & Butler, 2002; Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research, 2010; Harden & Williams, 2013; Ward et al., 2012South Australia: Present, introduced, invasive
Harden & Williams, 2013Western Australia: Present, introduced, invasive
Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research, 2010; Harden & Williams, 2013Cook Islands: Present, introduced, invasive
Swarbrick, 1997; McCormack, 2007; USDA-ARS, 2011China: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-ARS, 2011Fiji: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Smith, 1988; Swarbrick, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011Micronesia, Federated states of: Present, introduced
Glassman, 1952; Swarbrick, 1997; Fosberg et al., 1979; USDA-ARS, 2011; Manner & Mallon, 1989Guam: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Stone, 1970; Swarbrick, 1997; Fosberg et al., 1979Kiribati: Present, introduced
Wester, 1985; Swarbrick, 1997; Fosberg et al., 1979; Space & Imada, 2004; Wagner et al., 2013Marshall Islands: Present, introduced
Fosberg et al., 1979; Swarbrick, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011; Wagner et al., 2013Northern Mariana Islands: Present, introduced
Fosberg et al., 1979; Swarbrick, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011New Caledonia: Widespread, introduced, invasive
MacKee, 1994; Swarbrick, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011Nauru: Present only in captivity/cultivation, introduced
Thaman et al., 1994French Polynesia: Present, introduced, invasive
Florence et al., 2012; USDA-ARS, 2011; Doty, 1954; Lorence & Wagner, 2013; Sachet, 1983; Sachet et al., 1983Philippines: Present, introduced
Merrill, 1923; USDA-ARS, 2011Palau: Present, introduced
Fosberg et al., 1979; Swarbrick, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011; Space et al., 2003; Wagner et al., 2013Solomon Islands: Present, introduced, invasive
Swarbrick, 1997; Hancock & Henderson, 1988Tonga: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Yuncker, 1959; Swarbrick, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011Tuvalu: Present, introduced, invasive
Swarbrick, 1997Vanuatu: Present, introduced, invasive
Swarbrick, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011Wallis and Futuna Islands: Present, introduced, invasive
Morat & Veillon, 1985; Whistler, 1988; Swarbrick, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011Samoa: Present, introduced
Whistler, 1988; Swarbrick, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2011