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Datasheet

Aculops fuchsiae (Fuchsia gall mite)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 October 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Aculops fuchsiae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Fuchsia gall mite
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Chelicerata
  •         Class: Arachnida
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. fuchsiae, the fuchsia gall mite, is native to South America. It was first found in California, USA in 1981 where it has spread rapidly, and more recently it has invaded Europe since 2003, and it is a declared...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Symptoms of the presence of A. fuchsiae on Fuchsia.  Deformation of the leaves, gall and reddening.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionSymptoms of the presence of A. fuchsiae on Fuchsia. Deformation of the leaves, gall and reddening.
CopyrightFeredec Bretagne
Symptoms of the presence of A. fuchsiae on Fuchsia.  Deformation of the leaves, gall and reddening.
SymptomsSymptoms of the presence of A. fuchsiae on Fuchsia. Deformation of the leaves, gall and reddening.Feredec Bretagne
Colony of A. fuchsia between hairs on proliferated tissues.
TitleColony
CaptionColony of A. fuchsia between hairs on proliferated tissues.
CopyrightLNPV/Station d'Entomolgie, Montpellier, France
Colony of A. fuchsia between hairs on proliferated tissues.
ColonyColony of A. fuchsia between hairs on proliferated tissues.LNPV/Station d'Entomolgie, Montpellier, France
A. fuchsiae symptoms on a terminal shoot, showing tip distortion.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionA. fuchsiae symptoms on a terminal shoot, showing tip distortion.
CopyrightFeredec Bretagne
A. fuchsiae symptoms on a terminal shoot, showing tip distortion.
SymptomsA. fuchsiae symptoms on a terminal shoot, showing tip distortion.Feredec Bretagne
Slide-mounted adult female, lightened in lactic acid. High power microscope; original X630.
TitleFemale
CaptionSlide-mounted adult female, lightened in lactic acid. High power microscope; original X630.
CopyrightLNPV/Station d'Entomolgie, Montpellier, France
Slide-mounted adult female, lightened in lactic acid. High power microscope; original X630.
FemaleSlide-mounted adult female, lightened in lactic acid. High power microscope; original X630.LNPV/Station d'Entomolgie, Montpellier, France
Illustration of adult female.
TitleFemale
CaptionIllustration of adult female.
CopyrightLNPV/Station d'Entomolgie, Montpellier, France
Illustration of adult female.
FemaleIllustration of adult female.LNPV/Station d'Entomolgie, Montpellier, France

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Aculops fuchsiae Keifer, 1972

Preferred Common Name

  • Fuchsia gall mite

International Common Names

  • English: Brazilian fuchsia mite; fuchsia mite
  • French: galle du fuchsia; phytopte du fuchsia

EPPO code

  • ACUPFU (Aculops fuchsiae)

Summary of Invasiveness

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A. fuchsiae, the fuchsia gall mite, is native to South America. It was first found in California, USA in 1981 where it has spread rapidly, and more recently it has invaded Europe since 2003, and it is a declared quarantine pest in both. It attacks only fuchsia (Fuchsia spp.), but once established it is very difficult to eradicate and impacts can be so severe that some growers in California have given up growing the plants entirely.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Chelicerata
  •                 Class: Arachnida
  •                     Subclass: Acari
  •                         Superorder: Acariformes
  •                             Suborder: Prostigmata
  •                                 Family: Eriophyidae
  •                                     Genus: Aculops
  •                                         Species: Aculops fuchsiae

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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 There and many and varied species in the Eriophyidae, but Aculops fuchsiae is not closely related to any of them.

Description

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A. fuchsiae is a typical eriophyid mite with a wormlike or fusiform body, colour in life light yellowish-white (CABI/EPPO, 1997). The adults are very small mites bearing only two anterior pairs of legs. The adult females measure 200-250 µm in length and 55-60 µm in width. In eriophyoids, the males are slightly smaller than the females. Morphological observation of the short and acuminate anterior shield lobe over the rostrum, which is truncate underneath, plus the granules on the shield surface that obscure the shield pattern on the rear part of the shield, characterize this species. The adult female stage morphological description is described by Keifer (1972).

The type locality is Campinas, Estado São Paulo, Brazil, and the type material was collected on November 10, 1971, by Carlos Jorge Rossetto, Instituto Agronomico on Fuchsia sp. (Onagraceae), as a type slide, with one of three paratype slides lodged with the Entomological Research Division, USDA, Beltsville, Maryland, USA.

Distribution

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A. fuchsiae is of South American origin, the type specimen being from Sao Paulo state, Brazil, but it probably occurs more widely (CABI/EPPO, 1997). Where introduced in California, USA its distribution seems limited to the coastal range. For Europe, in France and the UK, the species is established in areas with oceanic climate. In Germany, with a more continental climate its establishment remains to be confirmed.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

North America

USARestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaLocalisedIntroduced1981 Invasive Koehler et al., 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014From Mendocino to San Diego county
-OregonLocalisedIntroducedAnderson and MacLeod, 2007Intermittent, apparently unable to survive harsh winters
-WashingtonLocalisedIntroducedAnderson and MacLeod, 2007Intermittent, apparently unable to survive harsh winters

South America

BrazilRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-Sao PauloLocalisedNative Not invasive Keifer, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014

Europe

AustriaAbsent, no pest recordEPPO, 2014
BelgiumEradicatedEPPO, 2014
FranceLocalisedIntroduced2002 Invasive Streito et al., 2004; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014Presence in Brittany and spreading in adjacent regions. Under eradication
-France (mainland)Present, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2009
GermanyTransient: actionable, under eradicationIntroduced2005 Invasive EPPO, 2008; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
GuernseyWidespreadEPPO, 2014
JerseyRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
NetherlandsEradicated, ; EPPO, 2014; IPPC, 2016
UKPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedOstojá-Starzewski et al., 2007; IPPC, 2008; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014; IPPC, 2015
-England and WalesPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014

History of Introduction and Spread

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A. fuchsiae, the fuchsia gall mite, was considered as invasive since it was recorded in San Francisco, California, USA in 1981, and its subsequent spread through the southern and northern parts of the state, advancing along some 900 km of coastal California in 4 years, in contrast to a slower spread inland (Koehler et al., 1985; CABI/EPPO, 1997). In 2003, there was the first official record for Europe, in Brittany, north-western France (Streito et al., 2004). It was subsequently reported from Germany in 2005 (EPPO reporting service, 2008/003), in Guernsey and Jersey in 2006 and in southern mainland UK (Hampshire and Middlesex) in 2007 (Ostojá-Starzewski et al., 2007), and is spreading in Brittany and further south in the Pays de la Loire (Anderson and MacLeod, 2007). A. fuchsiae is known only to attack Fuchsia spp. of which it is a major pest. It is a regulated pest for Europe, EPPO A2 and EU II/A1 quarantine lists.

There is no information on the pathway having allowed the introduction of A. fuchsiae in California. On the other hand, the introduction to France and Germany is thought to have been amateur gardeners bringing back infested cuttings from private visits to the USA, being first seen at the Festival de Tréverez in 2002 on a sample brought by a private collector (Streito et al., 2004; Anderson and MacLeod, 2007). The same reason appears to have allowed introduction to Jersey, UK with the inadvertent transport of infested cuttings directly from South America (EPPO Reporting service 2007/172), but the first outbreak in 2006 could have been due to natural dispersal from Brittany to the Channel Islands by wind or on insects or birds, or involuntary transport of clothing having been in contact with contaminated plants or exchanges between amateurs. The introduction to mainland UK could have been directly from North or South American origin, or from north-western France (Brittany) or the Channel Islands.

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
California Brazil 1981 Yes Koehler et al., 1985
France USA 2003 Yes Streito et al., 2004 Eradication program
Germany USA 2005 No EPPO, 2008 Eradication program
UK 2006/2007 Ostojá-Starzewski et al., 2007 Eradication program

Risk of Introduction

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The spreading of A. fuchsiae in western European countries along the Atlantic coast; from France and the UK to Ireland and Spain seems inescapable by natural dispersal and could be accelerated by new imports of contaminated cuttings coming from North or South America, in spite of the programs of eradication set up. A. fuchsiae is listed as a quarantine pest for EPPO (A2) and EU (list IIA1).

Habitat

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The mite is always associated with Fuchsia spp.; its habitat is thus linked with that of the fuchsias. There is no information on its habitat in its native area, and it must be able to develop in all the areas where fuchsia was introduced, always in connection with human activities. In temperate and Mediterranean Europe, it is very unlikely to find fuchsias apart from in anthropogenic areas. In France, Fuchsia magellanica is observed reproducing spontaneously in anthropogenic areas, Fuchsia arborescens is naturalized in Madeira, and Fuchsia boliviana in Madeira, the Azores and is present in the Canary Islands.

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

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A. fuchsiae is the only species of Eriophyidae developing on Fuchsia spp. Anderson and MacLeod (2007) state that more than 100 Fuchsia species are recorded mostly native to Central and South America, but also New Zealand and Tahiti with thousands of cultivars. However, only a relatively small number of these have been evaluated for their susceptibility to this pest. Those tested can be divided into groups based on their resistance to attack by the mite, into: very sensitive, sensitive, and resistant to highly resistant (Koehler et al., 1985).

Very sensitive: species: Fuchsia magellanica ; cultivars: Angel Flight, Bicentennial, Capri, Chiona Doll, Christy, Dark Eyes, Display, Firebird, First Love, Golden Anne, Jingle Bells, Kaleidoscope, Kathy Louise, Lisa, Louise Emershaw, Manrinka, Novella, Papoose Raspberry, South Gate, Stardust, Swingtime, Tinker Bell Troubadour, Vienna Waltz, Voodoo, Walz Bella, Westergeist.
 
Sensitive: species: Fuchsia arborescens, Fuchsia denticulate, Fuchsia gehrigeri, Fuchsia macrophylla, Fuchsia procumbens, Fuchsia triphylla ; cultivars: Dollar princess, Englander, Golden West, Lean, Macchu Picchu, Pink Marschmallow, Postijon, Psychedelic.
 
Resistant to highly resistant: species: Fuchsia boliviana, Fuchsia microphylla, Fuchsia microphylla ssp. hindalgensis, Fuchsia minutiflora, Fuchsia radicans, Fuchsia thymifolia, Fuchsia tincta, Fuchsia vensusta; cultivars: baby Chang, Chance Encounter, Cinnabarina, Isis, Mendocino, Miniature Jewels, Ocean Mist, Space Shuttle.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
FuchsiaOnagraceaeMain
Fuchsia arborescensOnagraceaeMain
Fuchsia bolivianaOnagraceaeUnknown
Fuchsia denticulataOnagraceaeMain
Fuchsia gehrigeriOnagraceaeMain
Fuchsia macrophyllaOnagraceaeMain
Fuchsia magellanica (Magellan fuchsia)OnagraceaeMain
Fuchsia microphyllaOnagraceaeUnknown
Fuchsia minutifloraOnagraceaeUnknown
Fuchsia procumbensOnagraceaeMain
Fuchsia radicansOnagraceaeUnknown
Fuchsia regia subsp. serraeOnagraceaeUnknown
Fuchsia thymifoliaOnagraceaeUnknown
Fuchsia triphyllaOnagraceaeUnknown

Growth Stages

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Symptoms

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Infestation causes rusting and deformation of the leaves, galls becoming grotesquely swollen and blistered. The deformed tissues develop russeting or become reddened. These symptoms are most strongly expressed on the terminal shoots. The leaf galls resemble those of peach leaf curl (Taphrina deforans). Later the flowers become deformed and at the end all new growth ceases (CABI/EPPO, 1997).

List of Symptoms/Signs

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Growing point

  • discoloration
  • distortion

Inflorescence

  • distortion (non-graminaceous plants)
  • galls

Leaves

  • abnormal colours
  • abnormal forms

Whole plant

  • plant dead; dieback

Biology and Ecology

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Little scientific data has been published on the biology of this mite, though the following information is available from CABI/EPPO (1997). However, the development of A. fuchsiae has not been described in detail, but it can be safely assumed that two nymphal stages precede the adult (CABI/EPPO, 1997). It is not known whether deuterogyny (the presence of two female forms in the life-cycle) occurs and only one type of female was described by Keifer (1972) (CABI/EPPO, 1997). The mites live and reproduce within the folds of galled tissue and among plant hairs, but not within the galls (Keesey, 1985). As the plants grow, the mites leave the galled area and move upwards to new growth. The female lays about 50 eggs at a time, which hatch after 7 days at 18°C, the life cycle completed in 21 days and there are several generations during the growing season. Although Keesey (1985) states that the mite does not hibernate, Crawford (1983) reported that it overwinters as immature and mature forms in bud scales, and Natter (1982) states that it overwinters as eggs. The mite tolerates a winter temperature of 5°C. In California, USA, evidence suggests that A. fuchsiae prefers cool temperatures, as it was difficult to inoculate plants in greenhouses, but relatively easy in the field implying that the mite is not favoured by hot conditions.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Neoseiulus californicus Predator Adults not specific Koehler et al., 1985 California

Notes on Natural Enemies

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There are few data on natural enemies of A. fuchsiae. The phytoseiid mite Amblyseius (Neoseiulus) californicus has been found associated with A. fuchsiae in California, USA and was thought to be one of the predators responsible for some reduction in the mite populations (Koehler et al., 1985; CABI/EPPO, 1997).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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The most likely pathways and rates of dispersal are: natural dispersal by wind at the local level; vector transmission by birds, insects (e.g. bees) at the local or national level; accidental introduction due to cuttings shared between amateur gardeners or illegal importation at the international level.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Breeding and propagationTo France, Germany, Channel Islands and England Yes Yes Koehler et al., 1985; Ostojá-Starzewski et al., 2007; Streito et al., 2004

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsPossible Yes Koehler et al., 1985
Host and vector organismsAssumed possible on insects (e.g. bees) or birds Yes Koehler et al., 1985
Plants or parts of plantsOn infested cuttings Yes Yes Koehler et al., 1985
Wind Yes Koehler et al., 1985

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx larvae; nymphs No Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Leaves larvae; nymphs No Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches larvae; nymphs No Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Negative
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Economic Impact

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A. fuchsiae causes severe damage to fuchsias and is ranked as a major pest of all but the most resistant species and cultivars. Its quarantine status in California, USA and in Europe enables authorities to take exclusion measures. The impact of the mite over the last 20 years in California has led a number of gardeners to give up growing fuchsias entirely. There is no data on the situation in its native area.

Risk and Impact Factors

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Impact mechanisms

  • Causes allergic responses

Impact outcomes

  • Host damage

Invasiveness

  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Proved invasive outside its native range

Likelihood of entry/control

  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally

Diagnosis

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There is no developed diagnostic method. Symptoms on the plant point out the presence of the mite. Observation under a microscope is required for sampling specimens that will be cleared and mounted for high-power microscopic comparison with voucher specimens. This requirement can be moderated by the fact that A. fuchsiae is the only Eriophyidae that develops on Fuchsia.

Detection and Inspection

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Look for any variation in coloration of the plant. The leaves start to redden and as populations of the mite increase, the leaves and flowers are deformed or galled. New galled leaf tissue is pale-green and rusted, and becomes reddened with time. Symptoms of infestation are most strongly expressed on the terminal shoots, and heavy infestation can stop all new growth. Examination with a hand lens should reveal the presence of the mite.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Keifer (1972) considered that no other species of Eriophyidae is very closely related, the nearest being Aculops mentzeliae from Arizona, USA that has a 5-rayed featherclaw like A. fuchsiae and relatively small anterior shield lobe, but, unlike A. fuchsiae, it has a solid central line system on the shield.

Prevention and Control

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Prevention

SPS measures

In the Plant Health Directive (Council Directive 200/29/EC), A. fuchsiae is listed in Annex IIAI. Its introduction and spread is banned if found on plants or plants products, i.e. Fuchsia spp. intended for planting, other than seed. As it is present in France (Brittany), Germany, and the UK (England and the Channel Islands), it should technically be listed within Annex IIAII of 2000/29/EC, as the EPPO Council transferred it from A1 regulated list to A2 regulated list (pest present in the EPPO region). A. fuchsiae has a quarantine status (Class B) in California, USA (CABI/EPPO, 1997).

Public awareness

An awareness campaign should be useful that highlights the risk of introduction of the mite on cuttings from contaminated places, and should slow the spread of this mite.

Control

Due to its quarantine status in California, as in Europe, authorities could take exclusion measures. For example, in France, a decree of 10 May, 2004 imposes infected material in all new discovered outbreaks. There is no currently effective treatment. In California, control attempts over the last 20 years failed. In Jersey, an eradication program has not been successful and the same will probably occur in France.

Movement control


Preventing entry on unregulated pathways will not be possible, i.e. inadvertent transport on cuttings shared between amateur gardeners, dispersal by birds, pollinator organisms, bees or other insects. Prohibition of importation from infested areas seems appropriate. There is a need of plant passports and other phytosanitary measures to regulate the movement of Fuchsia spp. and its pests within all countries where the mite is present. Eradication has not been successful in California, USA or in Brittany, France, but official control measures can help to slow the spread of the pest. Treatments growers can use to control the mite are generally labour intensive and mites spreading from infested plants in an area will negate the positive efforts of those attempting control methods (see Bergquist, 2004; Syndor, 2004).

Biological control

Neoseiulus californicus is marketed in Europe and according to the literature is a predator of A. fuchsiae (Koehler et al., 1985). However, this species is present in California, USA, but it does not seem to be enough to control the populations of the mite.

Physical control

Good sanitation is an essential aspect of control (CABI/EPPO, 1997). Affected material should be removed and destroyed.

Chemical control

Diazinon, malathion, dicofol, propargite and fenbutatin oxide are reported to suppress mite numbers, while carbaryl keeps plants free from mites for many weeks. In an outdoor trial of more or less susceptible cultivars in which galled tissues were pruned, various combinations of carbaryl sprays (every 2 or 4 weeks) greatly improved the appearance of plants; although there appeared to be no advantage in spraying every 2 weeks as opposed to every 4 weeks (CABI/EPPO, 1997). For the less susceptible cultivars, pruning alone was moderately successful in maintaining a good appearance (Koehler et al., 1985). However, this information urgently requires updating.

Host resistance

In contaminated areas it is preferable to use species or cultivars recognized as resistant to highly resistant to attack by A. fuchsiae.

IPM programmes

There is a need for developing IPM, knowledge on chemical control, and experimental data on the biology of the pest. A range of control methods were suggested by Anderson and MacLeod (2007), including:

1.      Keep infested plants in a cool windless place and isolate them from other fuchsias if possible.

2.      Maintain hygiene: change clothing, wash hands, clean shoes and clean tools with alcohol after contact with infested plants.

3.      Prune and remove all infested parts of the plants and burn or destroy them. Do not compost them. Seal infested plants in a bag then place this in another bag for domestic waste disposal.

4.      Spray remaining plants with an approved product, such as insecticidal soap.

5.      Do not visit other Fuchsia growers, or exchange plant material.

6.      Try to keep hardy Fuchsia varieties outside, colder weather may kill off the mites.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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There is a need for a research program on the biology of this pest and a gap in knowledge on the situation under natural conditions in South America.

References

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Anderson H; MacLeod A, 2007. CSL Pest risk analysis for Aculops fuchsiae. York, UK: Central Science Laboratory, 12p. www.defra.gov.uk/planth/pra/afuchsia.pdf

Bergquist R, 2004. Food for thought regarding fuchsia gall mites. American Fuchsia Society. http://www.americanfuchsiasociety.org/fuchsiagallmite4-2004.php

CABI/EPPO 2009. Aculops fuchsiae. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No.June. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 716.

CABI/EPPO, 1997. Aculops fuchsiae. In: Quarantine Pests for Europe [ed. by Smith IM, McNamara DG, Scott PR, Holderness M] Wallingford, UK: CABI, 18-20.

Crawford TE, 1983. The fuchsia mite. American Fuchsia Society Bulletin, 55(1).

EPPO, 2007. Update data on the situation of Aculops fuchsiae in Jersey. EPPO reporting Service (online). www.eppo.org

EPPO, 2008. Incursion of Aculops fuchsiae in Germany. EPPO Reporting service (online). www.eppo.org

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

IPPC, 2008. Aculops fuchsiae - fuchsia gall mite. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. GB-6/2. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/IPP/En/default.jsp

IPPC, 2015. Aculops fuchsiae - fushcia gall mite. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. GBR-06/3. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

IPPC, 2016. First finding of Aculops fuchsiae in plants of Fuchsia in a private garden in Amsterdam. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. NLD-45/1. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/en/

Keesey B, 1985. Fuchsia gall mite report. American Fuchsia Society Bulletin, 57(5).

Keifer HH, 1972. Eriophyid studies C-6, 21. USA: USDA Agricultural Research Service.

Koehler CS; Allen WW; Costello LR, 1985. Fuchsia gall mite management. California Agriculture, 39(7/8):10-12

Natter JR, 1982. A grower's guide to the fuchsia mite. American Fuchsia Society Bulletin, 54:87-88.

Ostojá-Starzewski JC; Eyre D; Cannon RJ; Bartlett P, 2007. Update on Fuchsia gall mite Aculops fuchsiae Keifer. Plant Pest Notice. York, UK: Central Science Laboratory.

Smith IM, 1999. Glasshouse quarantine pests for the EPPO region and measures recommended by EPPO and the EU to prevent their spread. Bulletin OEPP, 29(1/2):23-27; 3 ref.

Streito J-C; Coroller M-H; Kreiter S; Fletchmann CHW, 2004. [English title not available]. (Un nouvel acarien ravageur des fuchsias. Découverte en France d' Aculops fuhsiae, dont c'est le premier signalement en Europe) Phytoma-La défense des Végétaux, 572:32-34.

Sydnor A, 2004. Fuchsia mite is controllable. American Fuchsia Society. http://www.americanfuchsiasociety.org/miteiscontrollable.php

Contributors

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19/05/08 Original text by:

Jean Germain, Laboratoire National de la Protection des Vegetaux (LNPV), Unite d'Entomologie, 2 Place Viala, 34060 Montpellier Cedex 01, France

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