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Datasheet

Anoplophora glabripennis (Asian longhorned beetle)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Anoplophora glabripennis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Asian longhorned beetle
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Widespread planting of susceptible poplars in China led quite rapidly to the build-up and spread of A. glabripennis, which was previously of no particular importance. In North America, the pest is actively spreading in urban environments.

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Anoplophora glabripennis (Asian longhorned beetle); adult female, lateral view. US Forest Service Quarantine Facility, Connecticut, USA.
TitleAdult
CaptionAnoplophora glabripennis (Asian longhorned beetle); adult female, lateral view. US Forest Service Quarantine Facility, Connecticut, USA.
Copyright©Melody Keena/USDA Forest Service/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Anoplophora glabripennis (Asian longhorned beetle); adult female, lateral view. US Forest Service Quarantine Facility, Connecticut, USA.
AdultAnoplophora glabripennis (Asian longhorned beetle); adult female, lateral view. US Forest Service Quarantine Facility, Connecticut, USA.©Melody Keena/USDA Forest Service/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Anoplophora glabripennis (Asian longhorned beetle); adult.
TitleAdult
CaptionAnoplophora glabripennis (Asian longhorned beetle); adult.
Copyright©Donald Duerr/USDA Forest Service/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Anoplophora glabripennis (Asian longhorned beetle); adult.
AdultAnoplophora glabripennis (Asian longhorned beetle); adult.©Donald Duerr/USDA Forest Service/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky)

Preferred Common Name

  • Asian longhorned beetle

International Common Names

  • English: Asian longhorn beetle; Asian long-horn beetle; basicosta white-spotted longicorn beetle; smooth shoulder-star longicorn; starry sky beetle
  • French: longicorne asiatique

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Asiatischer Laubholzkäfer

EPPO code

  • ANOLGL (Anoplophora glabripennis)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page Widespread planting of susceptible poplars in China led quite rapidly to the build-up and spread of A. glabripennis, which was previously of no particular importance. In North America, the pest is actively spreading in urban environments.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Cerambycidae
  •                             Genus: Anoplophora
  •                                 Species: Anoplophora glabripennis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page The taxonomy of this genus is in some confusion. Anoplophora glabripennis is part of the glabripennis complex, comprising A. glabripennis, A. freyi, A. flavomaculata and A. coeruleoantennatus (the latter being doubtful, taxonomically) (Wu and Jiang, 1998). Wu and Jiang (1998) considered the members of the glabripennis complex on a geographical basis within China, possibly pointing to different races of A. glabripennis in various parts of the country. For example, there is debate in China whether A. glabripennis from northern China and A. glabripennis from southern China are actually two separate species (Chen, 1989).

Description

Top of page Eggs

About 5-7 mm, off-white, oblong. The ends of the eggs are slightly concave (Peng and Liu, 1992). Just before hatching, the eggs turn yellowish-brown.

Larva

The larva is a legless grub up to 50 mm long when fully grown. It is creamy white, with a chitinized brown mark on the prothorax.

Adult

Typically cerambycid in shape, 25 mm (male) to 35 mm (female) long. Antennae 2.5 times body length in males; 1.3 times body length in females. The beetle is black with about 20 irregular, white spots on the elytra. The antennae have 11 segments, each with a whitish blue base.

Distribution

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A. glabripennis is indigenous to China. Its prevalence and range has increased as a result of widespread planting of susceptible poplar hybrids (see Economic Impact). Yan (1985) provided a map showing the beetle to be most damaging in a zone of eastern China extending from Liaoning to Jiangsu and inland to Shanxi, Henan and Hubei. It was also present, but at lower levels, further west (to Neimenggu, Gansu, Sichuan and Yunnan) and further south (but not in the south-east). Li and Wu (1993) record the pest practically throughout the country (absent only from the Central Asian provinces in the west (Qinghai, Xinjiang and Xizang)). This implies that the pest, in the interval between these publications, was found in Jilin and Heilongjiang in the north, and in Zhejiang, Fujian and Hainan in the south-east. A. glabripennis has invaded small areas in North America: USA (New York (New York city), discovered in 1996, although probably present for the previous 3 years; Illinois (Chicago), discovered in 1998 although probably present since at least 1993). Measures aimed at eradicating the pest are being implemented (USDA/APHIS, 1996; Haack et al., 1997; USDA, 1998).

A record of A. glabripennis in Taiwan (EPPO, 2006) published in previous editions of the Compendium has been removed as it was an error. A. glabripennis has never been recorded in Taiwan despite extensive surveillance by The Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine (BAPHIQ) and Taiwan Forestry Research Institute.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentNative Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-AnhuiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-FujianPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-GansuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-GuangdongPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-GuangxiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-GuizhouPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-HebeiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-HeilongjiangPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-HenanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-HubeiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-HunanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-JiangsuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-JiangxiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-JilinPresentSchmutzenhofer et al., 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-LiaoningPresentSchmutzenhofer et al., 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-Nei MengguPresentSchmutzenhofer et al., 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-NingxiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-QinghaiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-ShaanxiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-ShandongPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-ShanxiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-SichuanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-TibetPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-XinjiangPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014
-YunnanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-ZhejiangPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
JapanAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced Not invasive CABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-HonshuAbsent, formerly presentCABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
Korea, DPRPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofPresentCABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014; Lim et al., 2014
TaiwanAbsent, invalid recordCABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
TurkeyAbsent, confirmed by surveyIPPC, 2016c; Ayberk et al., 2014; EPPO, 2014

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, confirmed by surveyEPPO, 2014

North America

CanadaRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-British ColumbiaAbsent, intercepted onlyCABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-OntarioRestricted distributionNAPPO, 2013b; CABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014; Turgeon et al., 2015
USARestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaAbsent, intercepted onlyCABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-IllinoisEradicatedIntroduced1998CABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-MassachusettsPresent, few occurrencesNAPPO, 2008; CABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-New JerseyEradicatedNAPPO, 2013a; CABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-New YorkRestricted distributionIntroduced1996CABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-OhioPresentNAPPO, 2011; CABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-WashingtonAbsent, intercepted onlyCABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014

Europe

AustriaTransient: actionable, under eradicationIPPC, 2013; CABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
BelgiumEradicatedIPPC, 2009; EPPO, 2011; CABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
CyprusAbsent, confirmed by surveyEPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicAbsent, intercepted onlyCABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
DenmarkAbsent, intercepted onlyIPPC, 2011; CABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
FinlandPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2016
FranceRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-CorsicaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
GermanyTransient: actionable, under eradicationCABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
HungaryAbsent, confirmed by surveyEPPO, 2014
ItalyPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
LithuaniaAbsent, confirmed by surveyIPPC, 2016d
MaltaAbsent, confirmed by surveyEPPO, 2014
NetherlandsEradicatedIPPC, 2016a; IPPC, 2016b; , ; EPPO, 2011; CABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2016
NorwayAbsent, no pest recordEPPO, 2014
PolandAbsent, unreliable recordCABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
PortugalAbsent, confirmed by surveyEPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2011; Forster and Wermelinger, 2012; CABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
UKPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedForestry Commission, 2012; CABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014
-England and WalesPresent, few occurrencesForestry Commission, 2012; CABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014

Risk of Introduction

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Attention was drawn to A. glabripennis by its introduction into the USA, where a major eradication programme is underway, and strong measures have been taken to reduce the risk of further introduction with wood packing from China. The same international trade from China presents a risk of introducing the pest into Europe, and a detailed pest risk analysis has been done by MacLeod et al. (2002). Using the climate-matching system CLIMEX (Skarratt et al., 1995) and the EPPO Standard for pest risk assessment (OEPP/EPPO, 1997), areas in southern Europe have been identified as those where the pest is most likely to establish and cause economic damage. A. glabripennis is regulated by the European Union and is on the EPPO A1 list.

It should also be noted that there are currently few or no active measures to manage cerambycid beetles in broad-leaved trees. This favours establishment and increases the risk of serious losses, at least until suitable management practices can be put in place.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page In China, A. glabripennis has mainly been recorded on Populus and Salix. The major hosts are species and hybrids of section Aegeiros of the genus Populus: P. nigra, P. deltoides, P. x canadensis and the Chinese hybrid P. dakhuanensis. Some poplars of the other sections of the genus (Alba and Tacamahaca) are also attacked, but are only slightly susceptible (Li and Wu, 1993). There are also records on Acer, Alnus, Malus, Morus, Platanus, Prunus, Pyrus, Robinia, Rosa, Sophora and Ulmus. In USA, Acer spp. are the main hosts, with occasional records on Aesculus hippocastanum, Liriodendron tulipifera, Morus alba, Robinia pseudacacia, and species of Betula, Fraxinus, Populus, Salix and Ulmus. The insect seems to be widely polyphagous on hardwoods, but has never been found on conifers, nor apparently on such important forest genera as Fagus and Quercus.

It should also be noted that the host range has two elements: the species on which larvae can develop to maturity and the species on which adults do their maturation feeding. In China, the main hosts given are larval hosts. In North America, however, as the outbreak areas are recent, and subject to containment and eradication measures, it is not quite clear what is the natural host status of the various trees on which A. glabripennis has been recorded, as larvae or adults. Research is currently evaluating which species are most at risk from larval feeding. Bancroft et al. (2002), rearing larvae in freshly cut logs, ranked eight tree species in the following order for larval weight gain (from largest to smallest): Ulmus chinensis, Acer platanoides, Ulmus americana, Gleditsia triacaenthos, Acer saccharum, Quercus rubra, Fraxinus americana, Fraxinus pennsylvanica. Smith et al. (2002) found that adult survival and reproductive capacity were highest on Acer platanoides, than in turn on Acer rubrum and on Salix nigra. Ludwig et al. (2002) investigated oviposition under caged conditions, and insertion of first-instar larvae into potted trees as experimental methods for determining host potential; they showed that eggs are laid on, and larvae develop in, species which are not yet known to be hosts (e.g. Quercus rubra).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Acer (maples)AceraceaeMain
Acer negundo (box elder)AceraceaeMain
Acer platanoides (Norway maple)AceraceaeOther
Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore)AceraceaeOther
Acer rubrum (red maple)AceraceaeOther
Acer saccharinum (silver maple)AceraceaeOther
Acer saccharum (sugar maple)AceraceaeOther
Acer tegmentosumAceraceaeOther
Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chestnut)HippocastanaceaeMain
Alnus (alders)BetulaceaeOther
Betula (birches)BetulaceaeOther
Fraxinus (ashes)OleaceaeOther
Liriodendron tulipifera (tuliptree)MagnoliaceaeOther
Malus (ornamental species apple)RosaceaeOther
Morus alba (mora)MoraceaeOther
Platanus (planes)PlatanaceaeOther
Populus (poplars)SalicaceaeMain
Populus canadensis (hybrid black poplar)SalicaceaeMain
Populus dakuanensisSalicaceaeMain
Populus deltoides (poplar)SalicaceaeMain
Populus nigra (black poplar)SalicaceaeMain
Prunus (stone fruit)RosaceaeOther
Pyrus (pears)RosaceaeOther
Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust)FabaceaeMain
Rosa (roses)RosaceaeOther
Salix (willows)SalicaceaeMain
Salix babylonica (weeping willow)SalicaceaeMain
Salix matsudana (Peking willow)SalicaceaeMain
SophoraFabaceaeOther
Ulmus (elms)UlmaceaeMain

Growth Stages

Top of page Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page Resin bleeds from oviposition holes and larval tunnels in the bark. Larval activity is recognized by the presence of galleries under the bark and, later, tunnels in the wood. Masses of wood shavings extruding from round exit holes are also signs that adults have emerged from infested wood. Piles of wood shavings also collect at the base of infested trees.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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Stems

  • internal feeding

Whole plant

  • internal feeding

Biology and Ecology

Top of page In China, the number of annual generations varies with climate and latitude. The further north A. glabripennis is found, the longer it takes for a generation to develop. In Taiwan, there is one generation per year. In eastern China, a generation may take 1 or 2 years to develop, whereas in northern China (Neimenggu), a single generation takes 2 years to develop. Thus, there can be one or two overlapping generations per year, depending upon the climate and feeding conditions. Adults emerge between May and October and live for about a month. The most active period for adult activity is late June to early July (Li and Wu, 1993). The adults usually remain on the tree from which they emerged, or fly short distances to nearby trees, and feed there on leaves, petioles and young bark. Egg deposition begins a week after copulation. The eggs, about 32 per female (Wong and Mong, 1986), are laid one by one under the bark, in oviposition slits chewed out by the female. Slits are generally cut on the eastern side of the trunk or of branches greater than 5 cm in diameter (Li and Wu, 1993). Eggs hatch after about 2 weeks. The larva feeds in the cambial layer of bark in the branches and trunk and later enters the woody tissues. Pupation takes place in chambers in the heartwood, accompanied by the presence of characteristic wood 'shavings' that are packed into the chamber. Adults emerge from circular holes, 10 mm across, above the sites where the eggs were laid.

Unlike many cerambycid species, A. glabripennis can attack healthy trees as well as trees under stress. Several generations can develop within an individual tree, leading eventually to its death.

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus thuringiensis wenguanensis Pathogen

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Shimazu et al. (2002) and Zhang et al. (2003) describe fungal and microsporidian pathogens of A. glabripennis, but there is no indication that these have been applied in practice. Luo et al. (2003) briefly review possibilities for biological control of the pest.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page Without transport of infested material by man, infestations spread slowly, e.g. rates of 300 m/year in poplar groves in Beijing, China, have been quoted by RW Thier (USDA Forest Service, personal communication, 1997). Although it is reported that adults can fly weakly 30 to 225 m in a single flight on a clear day, short-distance flight is typical of many cerambycids. More recent results from China (Smith et al., 2001) show greater dispersal distances within a season (1029 and 1442 m, respectively, for males and gravid females).

In international trade, A. glabripennis is most likely to move as eggs, larvae or pupae in packing or dunnage made of the wood of host species. Individual larvae and adults have been detected in several European countries (Austria, France, Germany, Sweden, UK) in wood packaging accompanying consignments from China (OEPP/EPPO, 2003). Such packaging is typically of relatively low grade, used for building materials (e.g. tiles).

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Wood eggs; larvae; pupae Yes No Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging liable to carry the pest in trade/transportTimber typeUsed as packing
Solid wood packing material with bark No
Solid wood packing material without bark No

Impact

Top of page Over the past 30-40 years (i.e. since the 1960s), there has been a policy in China to plant hybrid poplars in plantations, along roads, around farm buildings, etc. This started in Henan and Shandong provinces, but was eventually applied in most of the country. Initially, rather few hybrids were used, on a vast scale. Some of these hybrids were imported from other continents, whereas others were bred in China. Certain of them, but not all, proved to be very susceptible to A. glabripennis and suffered serious damage. A. glabripennis has proliferated on these susceptible hosts, becoming a common pest in many parts of China, also attacking a range of other hardwood hosts, especially Salix spp. These hosts appear to be mainly fruit, ornamental and amenity trees. Since the 1980s, hybrids resistant to the pest have been used for new plantations of poplar, and there has been a corresponding decline in the importance of A. glabripennis. There is no indication that A. glabripennis is a pest of natural forests in China. Recently (Taketani, 2001), a project to plant a vast forest shelter belt (the 'Great Green Wall') across north-west China to protect from incoming sandstorms is said to be threatened by A. glabripennis.

Poplar wood damaged by A. glabripennis larvae can be downgraded and lose value by up to 46% (Gao et al., 1993). Severe damage is caused between 21° and 43°N and 100° and 127°E in China (Yan, 1985). The boring larvae damage the phloem and xylem vessels, resulting in heavy sap flow from wounds which are then liable to attack by secondary pests and infection. Infested trees lose turgor pressure, and leaves become yellow and droop. Structural weakening of trees by the larvae in urban regions poses a danger to pedestrians and vehicles from falling branches. The adults can also cause damage by feeding on leaves, petioles and bark. Damage to the fruiting shoots of fruit trees results in particular economic loss.
In the USA, suppressing a 1996 infestation in New York State cost more than 4 million USD (USDA, 1998). Nowak et al. (2001) have estimated that the maximum potential national urban impact of A. glabripennis would be a loss of 34.9% of total canopy cover, 30.3% tree mortality (1.2 billion trees) and value loss of 669 billion USD.

Environmental Impact

Top of page Existing problems with A. glabripennis mainly concern plantations in China and urban trees in North America. It is not clear how damaging this pest could be to its host trees in natural or managed forests.

Diagnosis

Top of page Kethidi et al. (2003) describe DNA markers for the molecular identification of all development stages, and frass, of A. glabripennis, as distinct from related species.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page Details of similar species in China are given by Wu and Chen (2003): A. nobilis from north-western China and A. freyi from south-western China. Luo et al. (2000) indicate that A. glabripennis occurs in mixed populations with A. nobilis in Ningxia province, and provide microscopic characters to distinguish the two species.

A. chinensis is another Far Eastern Anoplophora spp. that has been categorized as a quarantine pest by European countries (EPPO/CABI, 1997).

Prevention and Control

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In China, control measures include the direct application of insecticides (Chen et al., 1990; Liang et al., 1997), trap trees combined with insecticide treatments (Sun et al., 1990) or the use of insect-pathogenic nematodes (providing up to 94% mortality; Liu et al., 1992). As certain poplar hybrids are relatively resistant (Qin et al., 1996), the planting of such hybrids is now preferred, and the use of very susceptible hybrids is avoided. Control strategies in China have recently been reviewed by Luo et al. (2003).

In the USA (Haack, 2003; Lance, 2003), control measures aim to contain and eradicate the outbreaks in urban areas. However, the cryptic life style and tendency of the beetle to lay small numbers of eggs on several trees combine to make it difficult to define the limits of the outbreak and thus eradicate the beetle without destroying large numbers of trees. In most situations, wholesale felling of infested trees is unlikely to be a viable option, unless the infestation is very localized.

Phytosanitary Measures

In the USA and in Europe, strong measures have been taken for wood packing materials from China. This includes packing cases and dunnage. Unger (2003) has reviewed the measures needed to exclude the pest from Germany. The case of A. glabripennis has been the main stimulus for the development by the FAO Interim Commission on Phytosanitary Measures of an international standard 'Guidelines for regulating wood packaging material in international trade' (ICPM, 2002). Such packaging should be treated by methods recognized to have adequate efficacy against all wood pests. These currently include heat treatment (to an internal temperature of 56°C for 30 min). Once treated, packing wood is unlikely to be re-infested, so such wood (especially crates and pallets) can continue to be used in trade. An internationally recognized mark is stamped to the treated wood. The international standard was approved in 2002 and is now progressively being implemented worldwide.

References

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Ayberk H; Ozdikmen H; Cebeci H, 2014. A serious pest alert for Turkey: a newly introduced invasive longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Cerambycidae: Lamiinae). Florida Entomologist, 97(4):1852-1855. http://www.fcla.edu/FlaEnt/

Bancroft JS; Smith MT; Chaput EK; Tropp J, 2002. Rapid test of the suitability of host-trees and the effects of larval history on Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 75(4):308-316; 31 ref.

CABI; EPPO, 1999. Anoplophora glabripennis. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, June. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 590.

CABI/EPPO, 2008. Anoplophora glabripennis. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, December (1st revision). Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 590.

CABI/EPPO, 2014. Anoplophora glabripennis. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No.June. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 590 (2nd revision).

Cavagna B; Ciampitti M; Materdomini R; Menguzzo S; D'Angelo G; Maspero M, 2013. Public awareness: a crucial point for a successful eradication campaign against the longhorned beetles Anoplophora chinensis and A. glabripennis. Journal of Entomological and Acarological Research [Symposium entitled "Anoplophora chinensis & Anoplophora glabripennis: New tools for predicting, detecting and fighting. How to save our forests and our urban green spaces", Milan, Italy, 9-11 May 2012.], 45(1s):37. http://www.pagepressjournals.org/index.php/jear/article/view/jear.2013.s1/1204

Chen B, 1989. A numerical taxonomic study of Anoplophora nobilis (Ganglbauer) and A. glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Acta Entomologica Sinica, 32(3):341-349

Chen JL; Gao ZX; Chen J; Zhu CS; Zhou DY, 1990. Trial on control of Anoplophora glabripennis with insecticides. Forest Research, 3:95-97.

Duan JJ; Aparicio E; Tatman D; Smith MT; Luster DG, 2016. Potential new associations of North American parasitoids with the invasive Asian longhorned beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) for biological control. Journal of Economic Entomology, 109(2):699-704. http://jee.oxfordjournals.org/content/109/2/699

EPPO, 2011. EPPO Reporting Service. EPPO Reporting Service. Paris, France: EPPO. http://archives.eppo.org/EPPOReporting/Reporting_Archives.htm

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

EPPO, 2016. EPPO Global database (available online). Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

Forestry Commission, 2012. Exotic beetle pest of trees found in Kent. News Release, No: 15381, No: 15381., UK: Forestry Commission. http://www.forestry.gov.uk/newsrele.nsf/web-allbysubject/ADF25B31C39D4A5F802579CF00367EE9

Forster B; Wermelinger B, 2012. First records and reproductions of the Asian longhorned beetle Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) in Switzerland. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 85(3/4):267-275.

Gao RT; Qin XF; Chen DY; Chen WP, 1993. A study on the damage to poplar caused by Anoplophora glabripennis. Forest Research, 6:189-193.

Haack RA, 2003. Research on Anoplophora glabripennis in the United States. Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes, 55:68-70.

Haack RA; Law KR; Mastro VC; Ossenbruggen HS; Raimo BJ, 1997. New York's battle with the Asian long-horned beetle. Journal of Forestry, 95(12):11-15; 15 ref.

Hu JiaFu; Angeli S; Schuetz S; Luo YouQing; Hajek AE, 2009. Ecology and management of exotic and endemic Asian longhorned beetle Anoplophora glabripennis. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 11(4):359-375. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/afe

ICPM, 2002. International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures No. 15. Guidelines for regulating wood packaging material in international trade. FAO, Rome: IPPC Secretariat.

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