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Datasheet

Turnera ulmifolia (West Indian holly)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 23 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Turnera ulmifolia
  • Preferred Common Name
  • West Indian holly
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • T. ulmifolia is a small herb or sub-shrub with a wide geographic distribution. This species has been frequently introduced to be used as an ornamental and medicinal herb. It has escaped from cultivation, becomi...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Turnera ulmifolia (West Indian holly); habit. Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, Florida, USA. September, 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionTurnera ulmifolia (West Indian holly); habit. Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, Florida, USA. September, 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 3.0
Turnera ulmifolia (West Indian holly); habit. Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, Florida, USA. September, 2009.
HabitTurnera ulmifolia (West Indian holly); habit. Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, Florida, USA. September, 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 3.0
Turnera ulmifolia (West Indian holly); flowering habit. Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionTurnera ulmifolia (West Indian holly); flowering habit. Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 3.0
Turnera ulmifolia (West Indian holly); flowering habit. Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.
HabitTurnera ulmifolia (West Indian holly); flowering habit. Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 3.0
Turnera ulmifolia (West Indian holly); habit. Moomomi, Molokai, Hawaii, USAi. May, 2005.
TitleHabit
CaptionTurnera ulmifolia (West Indian holly); habit. Moomomi, Molokai, Hawaii, USAi. May, 2005.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2005 - CC BY 3.0
Turnera ulmifolia (West Indian holly); habit. Moomomi, Molokai, Hawaii, USAi. May, 2005.
HabitTurnera ulmifolia (West Indian holly); habit. Moomomi, Molokai, Hawaii, USAi. May, 2005.©Forest & Kim Starr-2005 - CC BY 3.0
Turnera ulmifolia (West Indian holly); leaves and flower, KiHana Nursery Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2011.
TitleLeaves and flower
CaptionTurnera ulmifolia (West Indian holly); leaves and flower, KiHana Nursery Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2011.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2011 - CC BY 3.0
Turnera ulmifolia (West Indian holly); leaves and flower, KiHana Nursery Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2011.
Leaves and flowerTurnera ulmifolia (West Indian holly); leaves and flower, KiHana Nursery Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2011.©Forest & Kim Starr-2011 - CC BY 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Turnera ulmifolia L.

Preferred Common Name

  • West Indian holly

Other Scientific Names

  • Turnera alba Liebm.
  • Turnera ulmifolia var. angustifolia L. (Mill.) DC.
  • Turnera ulmifolia var. ulmifolia
  • Turnera ulmifolia var. velutina (C. Presl) Urb.
  • Turnera ulmifolia. var. intermedia L. Urb.

International Common Names

  • Portuguese: albina; chanana; flor-do-guaruj
  • English: buttercup flower; false damiana; sage rose; sage-rose; yellow alder; yellow buttercups; yellow elder
  • Spanish: clavel de oro; damiana; escoba amarilla; escobillo; malva cimarrona; marilópez; oreja de coyote (Mexico)
  • French: du thym; marilope; marilope du thym; thym à feuilles d’orme; thym des savanes; thym marron

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: chanana; relogio
  • Cuba: mari-lope
  • Dominican Republic: alo; marilópez
  • Germany: Turnera, Ulmenblättrige
  • Haiti: thym à feuilles d’orme; zombi nan bois
  • India: Cuban buttercup
  • Jamaica: ram-goat dashalong
  • Mexico: caléndula
  • Puerto Rico: mari López
  • USA: gujg

EPPO code

  • TURUL (Turnera ulmifolia)

Summary of Invasiveness

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T. ulmifolia is a small herb or sub-shrub with a wide geographic distribution. This species has been frequently introduced to be used as an ornamental and medicinal herb. It has escaped from cultivation, becoming widely naturalized in tropical and subtropical regions where it grows as a weed (Smith, 1981; Barrett and Shore; 1987; Wagner et al., 1999). T. ulmifolia appears to be adaptable to a great variety of soil and environmental conditions and this adaptability may explain its success in colonizing new habitats (Gilman, 2011). Currently, it is listed as invasive in Australia, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, and on several islands in the Pacific Ocean (Chong et al., 2009; Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011; PIER, 2014; Rojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodriguez, 2014). Invasiveness in T.ulmifolia is mostly explained by the continuous year-round flowering that gives its populations a high reproductive capacity. Seed dispersal in this species is by ants which transport seeds relatively short distances. This local seed dispersion favours the establishment of dense populations and increases the likelihood of seed set in this species (Barrett, 1978; Barrett and Shore, 1987). 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Violales
  •                         Family: Turneraceae
  •                             Genus: Turnera
  •                                 Species: Turnera ulmifolia

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Turneraceae is a family of flowering plants consisting of just over 200 species in 10 genera. The Cronquist system placed the Turneracids in the order Violales, but this is not currently recognized as a valid family by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group in the APG III system of 2009, which includes the taxa in the Turneraceae in a widely circumscribed Passifloraceae. The taxonomic tree in this datasheet reflects the CAB Thesaurus, which currently uses the Cronquist system.

The bulk of the species in the Turneraceae occur in just two genera: Turnera with approximately 143 species and Piriquetia with 44 species (Shore et al., 2006). Turnera ulmifolia is a polymorphic polyploid complex of herbaceous, perennial weeds, exhibiting two contrasting patterns of floral morphology, where populations are either dimorphic or monomorphic for a range of floral traits (i.e., style length, stamen height, pollen size; Barrett and Shore, 1987; Cuautle and Rico-Gray, 2003).

Description

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T. ulmifolia is a shrubby or herbaceous perennial, up to 1.2 m tall, with aromatic and densely strigose foliage. Leaves clustered toward the tips of the branches, lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate or narrowly elliptic, 4-1× 2-3 (-5) cm, moderately to occasionally sparsely strigillose, margins doubly serrate, petioles 0.8-1.5 cm long, stipules erect, triangular, approximately 1.5 mm long. Calyx approximately 20 mm long, the tube 5-8 mm long, the lobes lanceolate, apex caudate; petals yellow, sometimes with a brown spot toward base, obovate, 20-35 mm long; ovary ovoid, with 6 small apical tubercles. Capsules ovoid, 7-8 mm long. Seeds narrowly obovoid, slightly curved, about 2.5 mm long (Liogier, 1997; Wagner et al., 1999).

Plant Type

Top of page Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub

Distribution

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T. ulmifolia is native to Mexico, Central America and several islands in the West Indies. It is widely naturalized in Australia, South America, Indonesia, Malaysia, Madagascar, and Oceania (e.g. Fiji, Hawaii, Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, New Caledonia and Palau; see distribution table for details; Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011; Broome et al., 2007; PIER, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014). 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

Chagos ArchipelagoPresent Invasive Whistler, 1996
Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)Present Invasive Swarbrick, 1997
Cocos IslandsPresent Invasive Orchard, 1993
IndiaPresent Invasive Reddy, 2008
-GujaratPresent Invasive India Biodiversity, 2014
IndonesiaPresent Invasive Steenis CGJJvan, 1948-1954
MalaysiaPresent Invasive Steenis CGJJvan, 1948-1954
MaldivesPresentPIER, 2014
SingaporePresent Invasive Chong et al., 2009
Sri LankaPresentUSDA-ARS, 2014Naturalized

Africa

MadagascarPresentMadagascar Catalogue, 2014Naturalized in Antsiranana, Mahajanga, Toamasina
MauritiusPresentUSDA-ARS, 2014Naturalized
RéunionPresentNaturalized
SeychellesPresent Invasive Fosberg, 1983
Sierra LeonePresentPROTA, 2014Cultivated

North America

BermudaPresentUSDA-ARS, 2014
MexicoPresentUSDA-ARS, 2014Campeche, Chiapas, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacán, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo, Sinaloa, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatán
USA
-FloridaPresentWunderlin and Hansen, 2008; USDA-ARS, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014
-HawaiiPresent Invasive Wagner et al., 1999

Central America and Caribbean

AnguillaPresentBroome et al., 2007
BahamasPresentAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
BarbadosWidespreadBroome et al., 2007
BelizePresentUSDA-ARS, 2014
British Virgin IslandsPresent Invasive Rojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2014Guana, Tortola, Virgin Gorda
Cayman IslandsPresentAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Costa RicaPresentUSDA-ARS, 2014
CubaPresentAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Dominican RepublicPresentAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
GuadeloupePresentBroome et al., 2007
HaitiPresentAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
HondurasPresentUSDA-ARS, 2014
JamaicaPresentAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
MartiniquePresentBroome et al., 2007
Netherlands AntillesPresentBroome et al., 2007Saba, St Barthelemy, St Eustatius, St Martin
NicaraguaPresentUSDA-ARS, 2014
PanamaPresentUSDA-ARS, 2014
Puerto RicoPresent Invasive Rojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2014
SabaPresentBroome et al., 2007
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentBroome et al., 2007
Saint LuciaPresentGraveson, 2012Naturalized
Sint EustatiusPresentBroome et al., 2007
Sint MaartenPresentBroome et al., 2007
Trinidad and TobagoPresentUSDA-ARS, 2014
Turks and Caicos IslandsPresentUSDA-ARS, 2014
United States Virgin IslandsPresent Invasive Rojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2014St Croix, St John, St Thomas

South America

BrazilPresentGracioso et al., 2002Southern Brazil
Chile
-Easter IslandPresent Invasive Meyer, 2008
Ecuador
-Galapagos IslandsPresent Invasive Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008
ParaguayPresent Invasive Grosse, 1996
PeruPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2014Cajamarca, Huanuco, San Martín

Oceania

Australia
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresent Invasive Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011
-QueenslandPresent Invasive Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011
-Western AustraliaPresent Invasive Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011
FijiPresent Invasive Smith, 1981
French PolynesiaPresent Invasive Florence et al., 2013
KiribatiPresent Invasive Space and Imada, 2004
Marshall IslandsPresent Invasive Vander and Vander, 2010
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresent Invasive Herrera et al., 2010
NauruPresent Invasive Meyer, 2000
New CaledoniaPresent Invasive MacKee, 1994
PalauPresent Invasive Space et al., 2009
Wallis and Futuna IslandsPresent Invasive Meyer, 2007

History of Introduction and Spread

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T. ulmifolia has been widely introduced to be used as an ornamental and medicinal herb. In Puerto Rico, this species was first reported in 1881 (Bello, 1881). In the Virgin Islands it was first collected in 1882 on the island of St Thomas (US National Herbarium). By 1948, it has been reported as “abundant” in Malaysia and Indonesia (Steenis, 1948-1954). T. ulmifolia has been reported as an environmental weed becoming widely naturalized in northern Australia, Western Australia, the Northern Territory, and northern Queensland (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011). 

Habitat

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T. ulmifolia grows in coastal areas, sandy fields, roadsides, disturbed sites and abandoned farms (PROTA, 2014). In Hawaii, it has naturalized in dry, disturbed areas, from 30-190 m (Wagner et al., 1999). In Fiji, it is locally abundant and can be found naturalized especially in coconut plantations near sea level (Smith, 1981). In Indonesia, it grows in sunny dry localities, at elevation from 1-20 m, especially in the coastal zone under coconuts (Steenis, 1948-1954). In Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, it grows in coastal areas, sandy fields, hillsides and waste ground at lower and middle elevations (Liogier, 1997). 

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural
Coastal dunes Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal dunes Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial-managed
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

T. ulmifolia constitutes a polyploid complex with allopolyploid and autopolyploid species ranging from 2x to 8x (López et al., 2011).

Reproductive Biology

Two contrasting patterns of floral morphology have been reported for T. ulmifolia populations. Populations are either dimorphic or monomorphic for a range of floral traits (i.e., style length, stamen height, and pollen size) associated with the breeding system. Dimorphic populations exhibit typical features of the distylous genetic polymorphism with strong self-incompatibility and a 1:1 ratio of the long- and short-styled morphs (Barrett, 1978). Monomorphic populations are self-compatible with long styles and a range of stamen heights (Barrett and Shore, 1987).

Phenology

T. ulmifolia produces flowers and fruits all year round (Montano et al., 2011). In Mexico, a reproductive peak occurs during the summer (Torres-Hernández et al., 2000). This species has extrafloral nectaries which are frequently visited by ants (Camponotus planatus, C. atriceps, Conomyrma sp., Crematogaster crinosa, Forelius sp., Pseudomyrmex sp.), wasps (Polistes instabilis and Polybia occidentalis) and honeybees (Apis mellifera) which forage looking for the nectar produced (Cuautle and Rico-Gray, 2003).

Environmental Requirements

T. ulmifolia grows in areas with full sun or partial shade. This species is well-adapted to a variety of soil conditions including alkaline pH and dry sites. Freezing temperatures kill plants to the ground, but warm spring weather brings them back to life (Gilman, 2011).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 20 35

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall8002500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Notes on Natural Enemies

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White flies are often found on the foliage of T. ulmifolia and severe infestations of these insects can injure the plants. Aphids and scales can also infest the foliage, but they are usually not too serious (Gilman, 2011). The main leaf herbivore is the caterpillar Euptoieta hegesia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). This herbivore is most active from June to August, although it can be found year round (Cuautle and Rico-Gray, 2003).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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T. ulmifolia spreads by seeds, which are dispersed by ants. These insects transport seeds relatively short distances from maternal plants, favouring the establishment of dense populations (Barrett, 1978; Barrett and Shore, 1987; Staples et al, 2000).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
DisturbanceNaturalized in open, waste places Yes Yes Smith, 1981
Escape from confinement or garden escapeEscaped and naturalized Yes Yes Wagner et al., 1999
Medicinal useCultivated as a medicinal herb for its leaves Yes Yes PROTA, 2014
Ornamental purposesOften grown as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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T. ulmifolia is a weed that has escaped from cultivation and has become widely naturalized in tropical and subtropical regions of the world (Smith, 1981; Barrett and Shore; 1987; Wagner et al., 1999). This species has the potential to grow forming dense mono-specific thickets and monopolizing resources principally in coastal areas (PIER, 2014).  

Risk and Impact Factors

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Impact mechanisms

  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Rapid growth

Impact outcomes

  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species

Invasiveness

  • Abundant in its native range
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Gregarious
  • Has a broad native range
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Long lived
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc

Likelihood of entry/control

  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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T. ulmifolia is grown as ornamental for its showy yellow flowers that blossom year-round (Montano et al., 2011). Plants are also used as border plants and ground cover (Lorenzi, 2008). A tea made from leaves of this species is used in traditional medicine in South America and the West Indies to treat gastrointestinal problems (constipation, diarrhea), colds and flu, and circulatory problems (heart palpitations), menstrual spasms, and dermatological issues (Gracioso et al., 2002, Montana et al., 2011; USDA-ARS, 2014). 

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Potted plant
  • Propagation material
  • Seed trade

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Barrett SCH, 1978. Heterostyly in a tropical weed: the reproductive biology of the Turnera ulmifolia complex (Turneraceae). Canadian Journal of Botany, 56(15):1713-1725.

Barrett SCH; Shore JS, 1987. Variation and evolution of breeding systems in the Turnera ulmifolia L. complex (Turneraceae). Evolution, 41:340-354.

Bello Espinosa D, 1881. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Primera parte.) Anal. Soc. Española de Hist. Nat, 10:231-304.

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation, unpaginated.

Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Cuautle M; Rico-Gray V, 2003. The effect of wasps and ants on the reproductive success of the extrafloral nectaried plant <i>Turnera ulmifolia</i> (Turneraceae). Functional Ecology, 17(3):417-423.

Florence J; Chevillotte H; Ollier C; Meyer J-Y, 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP) (Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Fosberg FR, 1983. Natural history of Cousin Island. In: Floristics and ecology of Western Indian Ocean islands. Atoll Research Bulletin, 273:253 pp.

Gilman EF, 2011. Turnera ulmifolia. Yellow Alder, Yellow Elder. Document FPS-593., USA: Environmental Horticulture, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu

Gracioso Jde S; Vilegas W; Hiruma-Lima CA; Brito ARMS, 2002. Effects of tea from <i>Turnera ulmifolia</i> L. on mouse gastric mucosa support the turneraceae as a new source of antiulcerogenic drugs. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 25(4):487-491.

Graveson R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). http://www.saintlucianplants.com

Grosse A, 1996. Flora and Fauna Catalog of Introduced Paraguay species. I3N - IABIN Invasive Information Network.

Herrera K; Lorence DH; Flynn T; Balick MJ, 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Lawai, Hawaii, USA: National Tropical Botanical Garden, 146 pp.

India Biodiversity, 2014. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Liogier AH, 1997. Descriptive flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands. San Juan, Puerto Rico: University of Puerto Rico.

López A; Panseri AF; Poggio L; Fernández A, 2011. Nuclear DNA content in the polyploid complex <i>Turnera ulmifolia</i> (<i>Turnera</i> L., Passifloraceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution, 296(3/4):225-230. http://www.springerlink.com/content/8v670768g24m1250/

Lorenzi H, 2008. Plantas ornamentais no Brasil: arbustivas, herbáceas e trepadeiras ([English title not available]). Nova Odessa, Brazil: Instituto Plantarum.

MacKee HS, 1994. Catalogue of introduced and cultivated plants in New Caledonia. (Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie.) Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, unpaginated.

Madagascar Catalogue, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Madagascar. St. Louis, Missouri, USA and Antananarivo, Madagascar: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/project/mada

Meyer JY, 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific Islands (SPREP member countries). In: Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy [ed. by Sherley G]. Samoa: South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, 190 pp.

Meyer JY, 2007. Rapport de mission sur l'Ile d'Uvea (Wallis & Futuna) du 6 au 17 Novembre 2007: Inventaire preliminaire de la flore vasculaire secondaire ([English title not available]). Papeete, Tahiti: Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement Supérieur et la Recherche, 39 pp. http://www.li-an.fr/jyves/Meyer_2007_Rapport_Plantes_Introduites_Wallis.pdf

Meyer JY, 2008. Report of the expert mission to Rapa Nui, 2-11 June 2008. Strategic action plan to control invasive alien plants on Rapa Nui (Easter Island) (Rapport de mission d'expertise a Rapa Nui du 02 au 11 Juin 2008: Plan d'action strategique pour lutter contre les plantes introduites envahissantes sur Rapa Nui (Île de pâques)). Papeete, Tahiti: Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement supérieur et la Recherche, 62 pp. http://www.li-an.fr/jyves/Meyer_2008_Rapport_Expertise_Rapa_Nui.pdf

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Montano HG; Contaldo N; Pimentel JP; Cunha JJO; Paltrinieri S; Bertaccini A; Maini S, 2011. Turnera ulmifolia, a new phytoplasmas host species. Bulletin of Insectology, 64:S99-S100.

Orchard AE, 1993. Flora of Australia. Vol. 50, Oceanic islands 2. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PROTA, 2014. PROTA4U web database. Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011. Special edition of Environmental Weeds of Australia for Biosecurity Queensland., Australia: The University of Queensland and Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/media/Html/Index.htm

Reddy CS, 2008. Catalogue of invasive alien flora of India. Life Science Journal, 5:84-89.

Rojas-Sandoval J; Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2014. Naturalization and invasion of alien plants in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Biological Invasions. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10530-014-0712-3

Shore JS; Arbo MM; Fernández A, 2006. Breeding system variation, genetics and evolution in the Turneraceae. New Phytologist, 171(3):539-551. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01807.x

Smith AC, 1981. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji (spermatophytes only). Volume 2. 1981, 818 pp.; many pl. (8 col.).

Space JC; Imada CT, 2004. Report to the Republic of Kiribati on invasive plant species on the islands of Tarawa, Abemama, Butaritari and Maiana. Cont. no. 2003-006 to the Pac. Biol. Surv. USDA Forest Service and Bishop Museum, Honolulu.

Space JC; Lorence DH; LaRosa AM, 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on Invasive Plant Species. Hilo, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service, 227. http://www.sprep.org/att/irc/ecopies/countries/palau/48.pdf

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Contributors

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05/02/15 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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