Cookies on Invasive Species Compendium

Like most websites we use cookies. This is to ensure that we give you the best experience possible.

Continuing to use www.cabi.org means you agree to our use of cookies. If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use.

Datasheet

Sapium sebiferum (Chinese tallow tree)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Sapium sebiferum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Chinese tallow tree
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Rapid growth, precocious and prolific seeding, adaptability to a wide variety of soil conditions, tolerance of both drought, flooding and a degree of salinity, effective dispersal of seeds by avian vectors and water and a high germination rate contri...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
S. sebiferum intercropped with agricultural crops.
TitleIntercropping of S. sebiferum
CaptionS. sebiferum intercropped with agricultural crops.
CopyrightZhang Kedi
S. sebiferum intercropped with agricultural crops.
Intercropping of S. sebiferumS. sebiferum intercropped with agricultural crops.Zhang Kedi
Tree
TitleTree
Caption
CopyrightLi Jiyuan
Tree
TreeLi Jiyuan
Close-up of foliage of S. sebiferum.
TitleLeaves
CaptionClose-up of foliage of S. sebiferum.
CopyrightLi Jiyuan
Close-up of foliage of S. sebiferum.
LeavesClose-up of foliage of S. sebiferum.Li Jiyuan
Fruit
TitleFruit
Caption
CopyrightLi Jiyuan
Fruit
FruitLi Jiyuan

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.

Preferred Common Name

  • Chinese tallow tree

Other Scientific Names

  • Croton sebiferum L.
  • Excoecaria sebifera
  • Stillingia sebifera (L.) Michx.
  • Triadica sebifera (L.) Small
  • Triadica sinensis
  • Tridica sebifera (L.) Small

International Common Names

  • Spanish: arbol del sebo
  • French: arbre à suif; arbre savon; glutier
  • English: chicken tree; Chinese tallowtree; Florida aspen; popcorn tree; vegetable tallow; white wax berry
  • Chinese: wujiu

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: pau-do-sebo
  • Germany: Chinesischer Talgbaum
  • Italy: albero del sapone
  • Japan: Nankin haze

EPPO code

  • SAQSE (Sapium sebiferum)

Trade name

  • Chinese tallow tree

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page Rapid growth, precocious and prolific seeding, adaptability to a wide variety of soil conditions, tolerance of both drought, flooding and a degree of salinity, effective dispersal of seeds by avian vectors and water and a high germination rate contribute to the invasiveness of this species. It is declared noxious in several US states where it is a serious invasive in natural areas. Binggeli (1999) regards this species as highly invasive.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Euphorbiales
  •                         Family: Euphorbiaceae
  •                             Genus: Sapium
  •                                 Species: Sapium sebiferum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page The genus Sapium is in the family Euphorbiaceae (subfam. Euphorbioideae, tribe Hippomaneae, subtribe Hippomaninae), containing about ten species depending on the generic limits applied. There remains taxonomic confusion at the generic level between Sapium and Triadica. S. sebiferum has a number of synonyms, and some, such as Triadica sebifera (or T. sebiferum, the genus sometimes mispelled as Tridica, e.g. Anon, 2001) are still used today. The specific name 'sebiferum' means wax-bearing (Rice, 2002), relating to the use of the seeds as a source of vegetable tallow.

Description

Top of page S. sebiferum is a small, deciduous tree to 16 m tall and exudes a milky sap common with members of the Euphorbiaceae. The leaves are simple, alternate, broadly ovate, 3-6 cm wide, with blades entire, broadly rounded bases and taper to a slender point. The flowers are small, yellow, on spikes, up to 20 cm long with 2-3 sepals, stamens or styles. The fruit is a 3-lobed capsule approximately 1 cm in diameter, brown when ripe, and splits to show three dull white seeds (Langeland and Burks, 1998).

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

Top of page S. sebiferum is native to the southern half of both China and Japan, between 18°N and 35°N.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentNative,
-AnhuiPresentNative
-FujianPresentNative
-GansuPresentNative
-GuangdongPresentNative
-GuangxiPresentNative
-GuizhouPresentNative
-HainanPresentNative
-HenanPresentNative
-HubeiPresentNative
-HunanPresentNativeWang et al., 1991
-JiangsuPresentNative
-JiangxiPresentNative
-ShaanxiPresentNative
-SichuanPresentNative
-YunnanPresentNativeWu, 1984
-ZhejiangPresentNativeLi, 1961
Georgia (Republic of)PresentIntroduced
IndiaPresentIntroducedBruce and et al. , 1997
-DelhiPresentIntroduced
JapanPresentNativeSE-EPPC, 2003
-HonshuPresentNative
-KyushuPresentNative
PakistanPresentIntroducedBruce and et al. , 1997
TaiwanPresentNative Invasive Liu, 1962; Holm and et al. , 1979; Bruce and et al. , 1997

Africa

South AfricaPresentIntroduced
SudanPresentIntroducedBruce and et al. , 1997
UgandaPresentIntroduced
ZambiaPresentIntroduced

North America

USA
-AlabamaPresentIntroduced Invasive Westbrooks , 1998; USDA-NRCS, 2004
-ArkansasPresentIntroduced Invasive Westbrooks , 1998; USDA-NRCS, 2004
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced Invasive CE-PPC, 1999
-FloridaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Anon, 2003b; Westbrooks , 1998; USDA-NRCS, 2004
-GeorgiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Westbrooks , 1998; USDA-NRCS, 2004
-HawaiiPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced1920s Not invasive Siemann and Rogers, 2003May be kept in check by the herbivorous beetle Adoretus sinicus.
-IllinoisPresentIntroduced
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced Invasive Cronk and Fuller , 1995; Westbrooks , 1998; USDA-NRCS, 2004
-MississippiPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004
-North CarolinaPresentIntroduced Invasive Westbrooks , 1998; USDA-NRCS, 2004
-OklahomaPresentIntroduced
-South CarolinaPresentIntroduced Invasive Cronk and Fuller , 1995; Westbrooks , 1998; USDA-NRCS, 2004
-TexasPresentIntroduced Invasive Westbrooks , 1998; USDA-NRCS, 2004
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedAnon, 2003b

Central America and Caribbean

MartiniquePresentIntroducedBruce and et al. , 1997

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive Christman , 1999

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page S. sebiferum has been introduced to a number of continents outside its native Asia. Bruce et al. (1997) summarize reports of its naturalization in parts of Japan, Taiwan, India, Pakistan, central and southern Europe, Martinique, and the Sudan. In North America, some authorities claim that Benjamin Franklin brought this species to the USA in 1776 (Christman, 1999). It is invading the southeastern states of the USA (Cronk and Fuller, 1995), and Westbrooks (1998) reports large areas between Texas and the Carolinas that have been invaded. S. sepium had escaped into the wild in Louisiana in the 1940s and has been recognized as a pest in the North and South Carolina since the 1970s (Anon, 2001). It is now declared a noxious weed in Louisiana and Florida (USDA-NRCS, 2004), is naturalized in 57% of Florida's counties (Langeland and Burks, 1998) and is a 'red alert' species in California where it has recently discovered in the wild (CE-PPC, 1999). Despite the problems it has caused in the USA, it is still traded commercially in many areas (Anon, 2001). It is present on Bermuda but it is not considered invasive there at present (De Silva, Bermuda Zoological Society, personal communication, 2002). Christman (1999) reports that S. sebiferum is also a weed in Australia.

Risk of Introduction

Top of page Great caution should be exercised over the introduction of this species to areas which are climatically and environmentally similar to those where it has become invasive. The experience in the USA has been that it is extremely difficult to eliminate this plant once it has become established in the wild.

Habitat

Top of page Invaded habitat in the USA includes tallgrass prairie, wetlands, swamps, forests and disturbed areas (Westbrooks, 1998). CE-PPC (1999) report it from open areas, riparian systems and understorey habitats in California; and it is observed to invade closed-canopy and bottomland hardwood forests, and it is considered a serious threat to aquatic and upland habitats in Florida (Anon, 2003b). It is also the most common woody species in the chenier woodlands of Louisiana (anon, 2001), and SE-EPPC (2003) note that establishment can occur on both disturbed and undisturbed sites.

Habitat List

Top of page
CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

Top of page Genetics

SE-EPPC (2003) report a high level of genetic diversity in S. sebiferum.

Physiology and Phenology

In the USA, the growing season begins in February and S. sapium flowers between March and May. Fruit is available between August and November and the leaves are dropped in the autumn (Anon, 2003). It is a precociuos species, observers in the USA having recorded flowering within nine months of seed germination (Westbrooks, 1998). More generally S. sebiferum reaches maturity between the ages of three and five years, and although with a life span of 20 years generally, it may live for 100 years (Anon, 2001).

Reproductive Biology

There is a monoecious flowering system. A production of 100,000 seeds per tree is typical in the USA (Anon, 2003a). The seeds remain on the tree for some time after the leaves have fallen and are capable of remaining viable for years, and a high proportion of the seeds produce seedlings (Anon, 2001).

Environmental Requirements

Mean annual temperatures for S. sebiferum are often in the range 15-22°C, though it will tolerate cold winters with a mean minimum temperature of the coolest month of 0oC, and an absolute minimum of -19°C. S. sebiferum prefers a mean annual rainfall of 700-2800 mm, although the formation of a taproot allows this species to tolerate extended drought (Anon, 2003a), with dry seasons of up to 5 months duration. The species grows well on a wide range of soils and will tolerate degraded, saline or moist land. It also tolerates flooding and saltwater (SE-EPPC, 2003). It is found at a range of altitudes from sea level up to 2800 m.

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -19
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15 22
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 25 30
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 0 8

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration25number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall7002800mm; lower/upper limits

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • saline

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Adoretus sinicus Herbivore not specific Siemann and Rogers, 2003

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Where introduced in the USA, there are notably few pathogens (Anon, 2001) or insect pests (Anon, 2003a) that attack S. sebiferum. However, Anon (2001) report a number of fungi that will grow on S. sebiferum, including Cercospera stillingiae, Clitocybe tabescens, Dendrophthoe falcate, Phyllactina corylea, Phyllosticta stillingiae and Phymatotrichum omnivorum.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page Seeds that fall into water can float to new locations (Anon, 2003a), but birds appear to be the main dispersal agents. In Florida, USA, pileated woodpeckers (Anon, 2003a) and boat-tailed grackles also eat and disperse the seeds (Jubinsky and Anderson, 1996). The intentional introduction of this species into the USA has led to serious invasion events in several states, originally planted in southeastern coastal areas to underpin a soap and vegetable tallow industry (Anon, 2001).

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Crop production None
Environment (generally) Negative
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health Negative
Livestock production None
Native fauna None
Native flora Negative
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Impact

Top of page No precise information is available but the control of S. sebiferum is very expensive owing to its ability to resprout if the aboveground vegetation is killed and its high rate of reproduction and dispersal.

Environmental Impact

Top of page When the leaves fall into rivers and lakes, they decay and the nutrient status is changed, with significant increases in phosphorus, potassium, nitrates, zinc, manganese and iron (Anon, 2003). Magnesium and sodium may be significantly lower in S. sebiferum woodland than in indigenous prairie (Bruce et al., 1997). Further disadvantages are the release of tannins into the ecosystem and increased eutrophication rates, though it is uncertain whether there are any allelopathic effects (Rice, 2002).

Impact: Biodiversity

Top of page Dense, single species stands formed by this fast growing species displace other vegetation in where S. sebiferum has become invasive, impacting on native flora as in Florida (Anon, 2003b). There are impact also on fauna, as the tree provides little food for native herbivores except for birds which disperse the seed (Anon, 2003a). S. sebiferum is capable of changing the course of natural succession processes so that habitats such as marsh and prairie are converted into woodland, with serious consequences for resident and migratory fauna (Anon, 2001).

Social Impact

Top of page The sap may be a skin irritant or diarrhetic (Rice, 2002).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page

Impact mechanisms

  • Competition - monopolizing resources

Impact outcomes

  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Reduced native biodiversity

Invasiveness

  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc

Likelihood of entry/control

  • Difficult/costly to control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

Top of page It is a valuable multipurpose, agroforestry species in the central Himalayan region and is also a popular ornamental tree in many countries, particularly in the southeastern USA. Its seeds are a valuable source of vegetable tallow and kernel oil, known as 'stillingia', used in the manufacture of soaps, paints and in the food industry. Its wood is used for fuel and for making various implements. It has been widely planted as a shade tree and ornamental (Christman, 1999).

Uses List

Top of page

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Shade and shelter
  • Soil improvement

Fuels

  • Fuelwood
  • Miscellaneous fuels

General

  • Ornamental

Human food and beverage

  • Oil/fat

Materials

  • Dye/tanning
  • Essential oils
  • Pesticide
  • Wax
  • Wood/timber

Wood Products

Top of page

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Beams
  • Carpentry/joinery (exterior/interior)
  • Flooring
  • For heavy construction
  • For light construction
  • Wall panelling

Prevention and Control

Top of page Cultural Control

Grazing or flooding are not management options for controlling S. sebiferum due to the toxicity of foliage to cattle and the plant's tolerance of waterlogging (Rice, 2002).

Mechanical Control

Seedlings can be effectively removed by hand, as long as the entire root is removed (SE-EPPC, 2003), but cutting of mature plants requires herbicide stump treatment because of suckering (Anon, 2001). Both stumps and roots are able to resprout after damage. The best time to cut plants is after they have come into flower but before they have produced seed as this has an immediate effect on the dispersal of seed (SE-EPPC, 2003). Girdling can be used for small groups of large trees but is not appropriate for large numbers of individuals because of the effort required in applying follow up treatments to control resprouting (SE-EPPC, 2003). In parts of Texas, farmers remove S. sebiferum trees with bulldozers, disk the soil and sow with pasture grasses, but the use of heavy equipment is not generally recommended because of the disturbance to soils and non-target vegetation (Bruce et al., 1997).

Chemical Control

Systemic herbicides such as trichlopyr may be used as a basal application against mature S. sebiferum trees at any time of year, and trichlopyr or imazapyr are recommended for the treatment of cut stems (Anon, 2001). Spring applications of herbicide are beneficial because they may reduce seed dispersal, though other studies claim translocation of the herbicide through the plant is more effective in late summer and autumn (see Rice, 2002). Direct foliar applications of glyphosate and triclopyr are appropriate for monospecific groupings of seedlings (SE-EPPC, 2003).

Biological Control

There are no biological control agents at present (Rice, 2002), although Anon (2003a identify a number of pathogens that attack S. sebiferum, and the USDA are reported to consider that insect biological control may be worthy of investigation in the future (SE-EPPC, 2003).

References

Top of page

Anon, 2001. Louisiana Invasive Plants, Species: Tridica sebifera (L.) Small. Louisiana State Univerity, AgCenter. http://www.lsuagcenter.com/invasive/chinesetallow.asp.

Anon, 2003. Invasive Alien Plant Species in Virginia. Boyce, USA: Virginia Native Plant Society. http://www.vnps.org/complete_list.html.

Anon, 2003. Weed Alert Chinese Tallow Sapium sebiferum. Tallahassee, USA: Florida Department of Environmental Protection. http://www.dep.state.fl.us/lands/invaspec/2ndlevpgs/pdfs/ChineseTallow.pdf.

Anon., 1976. Silviculture of Chinese Tallow Tree. Beijing, China: China Agriculture Press.

Axtell BL; Fairman RM, 1992. Minor oil crops. Part I - Edible oils. Part II - Non-edible oils. Part III - Essential oils. FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin, No. 94, vii + 241 pp.

Bruce KA; Cameron GN; Harcombe PA; Jubinsky G, 1997. Introduction, impact on native habitats, and management of a woody invader, the Chinese tallow tree, Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. Natural Areas Journal, 17(3):255-260; 53 ref.

Burkill IH, 1966. A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula, 2(2nd edition):2444 pp.

Cai DX, 1978. Effects of different sowing densities on Chinese tallow tree seedling quality. Subtropical Forest Science and Technology, 4:23-25.

CE-PPC, 1999. Exotic pest plant list. USA: California Exotic Pest Plant Council. http://www.caleppc.org/info/plantlist.html.

Christman S, 1999. Sapium sebiferum. http://www/floridata.com/ref/S/sapi_seb.cfm.

Cronk QCB; Fuller JL, 1995. Plant invaders: the threat to natural ecosystems. London, UK; Chapman & Hall Ltd, xiv + 241 pp.

Glumac EL; Cowles JR; Klass DL, 1989. Woody biomass production and coppicing of the Chinese tallow tree. Energy from biomass and wastes XII. 1989, 197-210; 25 ref.

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp.

Jubinsky G; Anderson LC, 1996. The invasive potential of Chinese tallow-tree (Sapium sebiferum Roxb.) in the southeast. Castanea, 61(3):226-231; 19 ref.

Khan FW; Khan K; Malik MN, 1973. Vegetable tallow and stillingia oil from the fruits of Sapium sebiferum Roxb. Pakistan Journal of Forestry, 23(3):257-266; 16 ref.

Krussmann G, 1978. Handbook of broad leaved trees and shrubs. Vol. III. PRU-Z. [Handbuch der Laubgeholze. Band III. PRU-Z.] 1978, 496 pp.; many pl. and fig.

Kuldeep Singh; Kapur SK; Sarin YK; Singh K, 1993. Domestication of Sapium sebiferum under Jammu conditions. Indian Forester, 119(1):36-42; 4 ref.

Langeland KA; Burks KC, 1998. Identification and Biology of Non-native Plants in Florida’s Natural Areas. Gainesville, Florida, USA: University of Florida, 165 pp.

Li G, 1961. Species and varieties of Chinese tallow tree and their biological characteristics in Zhejiang Province. Zhejiang Agricultural Science, 6:6-13.

Li HL, 1963. Woody flora of Taiwan. 1963. pp. X + 974. 123 refs. Livingston Publishing Company, Narberth, Pa.

Li SG, 1956. Plants of Genus Sapium. Acta Phyto Sinica, 5(2):14-18.

Liu L; Sun CJ, 1986. Main Economic Trees of China. Jiangsu Science and Technology Press.

Liu TS, 1962. Illustrations of Native and Introduced Ligneous Plants of Taiwan. Taipei, Taiwan: National Taiwan University Press, 301.

Luken JO; Thieret JW, 1996. Assessment and Management of Plant Invasions. New York, USA: Springer-Verlag. 324 pp.

Rice B, 2002. Weed Alert! Sapium sebiferum (syn. Triadica sinensis) (Chinese Tallowtree, Florida Aspen, Popcorn Tree). The Nature Conservancy, Wildland Invasive Species Team. http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/alert/alrtsapi.html.

Scheld HW; Cowles JR, 1981. Woody biomass potential of the Chinese tallow tree. Economic Botany, 35(4):391-397; 1 pl.; 4 ref.

Schopmeyer CS, 1974. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. USDA Agriculture Handbook, 450. Washington DC, USA: USDA.

SE-EPPC, 2003. Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council Invasive Plant Manual. Chinese Tallowtree. http://www.invasive.org/eastern/eppc/SASE.html.

Si GS; Li ZJ, 1988. Studies on interplanting between tea and chinese tallow tree. J, of Zhejiang Forestry College, 5(2):115-122.

Siemann E; Rogers WE, 2003. Increased competitive ability of an invasive tree may be limited by an invasive beetle. Ecological Applications, 13:1503-1507.

Sosef MSM; Hong LT; Prawirohatmodjo S; eds, 1998. Plant resources of southeast Asia. Timber trees: lesser-known timbers. Leiden, The Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers, 5(3).

Streets RJ, 1962. Exotic forest trees in the British Commonwealth. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.

Tong L, 1975. A new propagation method of Chinese tallow tree: cut rooting. Plants, 4:30-32.

Tong QY, 1987. Review on silviculture practices for high yielding chinese tallow tree plantations. Zhejiang Forest Science and Technology, 7(1):6-10.

USDA-NRCS, 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov.

Wang SY; Qi CJ; Li ZK, 1991. Forestry in Hunan Province. Hunan, China: Hunan Science and Technology Press.

Westbrooks RG, 1998. Invasive plants, changing the landscape of America: Fact book. Washington DC, USA: Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds (FICMNEW), 109 pp.

Wu ZY, 1984. Index Florae Yunnanensis. Yunnan, China: People's Publishing House.

Wu ZY, 1984. Index Florae Yunnanensis. Yunnan, China: The People's Publishing House.

Xiao GG(Chief Editor), 1991. Forest insects of China. Beijing, China; China Forestry Publishing House, Ed. 2:vi + 1362 pp.

Xu JS; Chikashige T; Meguro S; Kawachi S, 1991. Effective utilization of stillingia or Chinese tallow-tree (Sapium sebiferum) fruits. Mokuzai Gakkaishi - Journal of the Japan Wood Research Society, 37(5):494-498.

Xu YQ, 1976. Major economic tree species in south China. Beijing, China: Agriculture Press.

Zhang KD; Lin YT, 1994. Chinese Tallow Tree. Beijing, China: China Forestry Publishing House.

Zheng WJ, 1978. Silvicultural techniques of major tree species in China. Beijing, China: Chinese Agriculture Publishing House, Vol. 2.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map