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Datasheet

Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 26 January 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ambrosia artemisiifolia
  • Preferred Common Name
  • common ragweed
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. artemisiifolia is an annual herb native to Central and Northern America. It has been accidentally introduced into a large number of countries as a contaminant of seed and grains. A. artemisiifolia typically colonises disturbed land where it pro...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
A. artemisiifolia plant with leaves 5-10 cm long, opposite at the base, and pinnately lobed.
TitleA. artemisiifolia plant
CaptionA. artemisiifolia plant with leaves 5-10 cm long, opposite at the base, and pinnately lobed.
CopyrightKelly Nelson
A. artemisiifolia plant with leaves 5-10 cm long, opposite at the base, and pinnately lobed.
A. artemisiifolia plantA. artemisiifolia plant with leaves 5-10 cm long, opposite at the base, and pinnately lobed.Kelly Nelson

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

Preferred Common Name

  • common ragweed

Other Scientific Names

  • Ambrosia artemisiifolia f. artemisiifolia
  • Ambrosia artemisiifolia subsp. artemisiifolia
  • Ambrosia artemisiifolia var. artemisiifolia
  • Ambrosia artemisiifolia var. elatior (L.) Descourt.
  • Ambrosia chilensis Hook. & Arn.
  • Ambrosia elata Salisb.
  • Ambrosia elatior L.
  • Ambrosia elatior var. elatior
  • Ambrosia glandulosa Scheele
  • Ambrosia monophylla Rydb.
  • Ambrosia paniculata f. paniculata
  • Ambrosia paniculata var. paniculata
  • Iva monophylla Walter

International Common Names

  • English: annual ragweed; bitterweed; blackweed; carrot weed; hayfever weed; hayweed; hogweed; low ragweed; Roman wormwood; short ragweed; small ragweed; stammerwort; wild tansy
  • Spanish: altamisa; amargosa; ambrosia de hojas de ajenjo; artemisia de terra; estafiate
  • French: absinthe du Canada; ambrosie a feuilles d'armoise; l'ambroisie; petite herbe á poux
  • Chinese: tun cao
  • Portuguese: ambrosia-americana

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: cravorana; losna-selvagem
  • Czech Republic: ambrozie perenolistá
  • Denmark: bynke-ambrosie
  • Estonia: pujulehine ambroosia
  • Finland: marunatuoksukki
  • Germany: Beifussblaettrige Ambrosie; Beifussblaettriges Traubenkraut; römischer Wermut
  • Hungary: parlagfu
  • Italy: ambrosia con foglie di artemisia
  • Japan: butakusa; buta-kusa
  • Latvia: vermellapu ambrozija
  • Lithuania: kietine ambrozija
  • Netherlands: alsemambrosia
  • Poland: ambrozja bylicowata
  • Portugal: losna-do-campo
  • Russian Federation: ambrosia polinnolistnaja
  • Slovakia: ambrózia palinolistá
  • Sweden: malörtsambrosia
  • Turkey: arsiz zaylan

EPPO code

  • AMBEL (Ambrosia artemisiifolia)

Summary of Invasiveness

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A. artemisiifolia is an annual herb native to Central and Northern America. It has been accidentally introduced into a large number of countries as a contaminant of seed and grains. A. artemisiifolia typically colonises disturbed land where it produces a large number of seeds which can remain viable in the soil for 40 years or more. The pollen produced by species of Ambrosia is highly allergenic and can induce allergic rhinitis, fever, or dermatitis. As a result, high medical costs have been reported in areas with large infestations in both its native and introduced range. A. artemisiifolia can also invade agricultural land where it acts as a weed in a number of crops (in particular in sunflower, maize, soybean and cereals) and can cause significant decreases in yields.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Ambrosia
  •                                 Species: Ambrosia artemisiifolia

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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A. artemisiifolia was described by Linnaeus (1753: 988) as one of the four listed Ambrosia species (the other three species are: A. trifida L., A. elatior L., and A. maritima L.). The lectotype was designated by Hind et al. (1993) on a specimen preserved at LINN (The Linnean Society, 2016).

The name Ambrosia means food of the gods (Spencer, 1957). Pigs and sheep will consume A. artemisiifolia, thus the common name hogweed (Crockett, 1977).

Description

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Annual herb (therophyte), (10-)20-60(-150) cm tall. Stems erect. Leaves opposite (proximal) and alternate, with blades lanceolate or elliptic [(20-)25-55(-90) × 20-30(-50) mm], 1-2-pinnately lobed, sparsely pubescent abaxially, glandular-dotted on both faces, petioled [petiole 25-35(-60) mm long]. Flowers arranged in capitula, the male capitula (5-20 flowers per capitulum, the involucre being cup-shaped, glabrous to pubescent) forming a terminal spike-like inflorescence, the female capitula proximal to the male ones. Fruit globose to pyriform, 2-3 mm long, more or less pubescent.

Plant Type

Top of pageAnnual
Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

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A. artemisiifolia is native to North and Central America (Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Kovalev, 1989). It is now widely distributed across the world; Africa (CJB, 2016), Asia (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2011), Australia (Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2016) and Europe (Euro+Med, 2016).

A. artemisiifolia has become a dominant alien plant in countries such as Italy (Siniscalo and Barni, 1994), Lithuania (Gudzinskas, 1993) and Hungary. A. artemisiifolia is not as prominent in subtropical and tropical regions (Allard, 1943; King, 1966). The hot, dry summers in southern Europe and Mediterranean areas are not favourable for its growth (Allard, 1943; King, 1966). In addition to this A. artemisiifolia is relatively rare in northern Europe (Norway, Sweden, Scotland and Ireland) (Gerber et al., 2011).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

CountryDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferencesNotes

ASIA

AzerbaijanPresentIntroducedEPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
ChinaPresentIntroduced1930InvasiveDuan & Chen, 2000; EPPO, 2014; Ling et al., 2012
-AnhuiPresentIntroducedInvasiveEPPO, 2014
-BeijingPresentIntroducedInvasiveEPPO, 2014
-FujianPresentIntroducedInvasiveEPPO, 2014
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedInvasiveEPPO, 2014
-GuizhouPresentIntroducedInvasiveEPPO, 2014
-HainanPresentIntroducedInvasiveEPPO, 2014
-HebeiPresentIntroducedInvasiveEPPO, 2014
-HeilongjiangPresentIntroducedInvasiveEPPO, 2014
-HenanPresentIntroducedInvasiveEPPO, 2014
-HubeiPresentIntroducedInvasiveEPPO, 2014
-HunanPresentIntroducedInvasiveEPPO, 2014
-JiangsuPresentIntroducedZhan et al., 1993
-JiangxiPresentIntroducedInvasiveEPPO, 2014
-JilinPresentIntroducedInvasiveEPPO, 2014
-LiaoningPresentIntroducedZhirong, 1990; EPPO, 2014
-ShandongPresentIntroducedInvasiveEPPO, 2014
-ShanghaiPresentIntroducedInvasiveEPPO, 2014
-SichuanPresentIntroducedInvasiveEPPO, 2014
-YunnanPresentIntroducedInvasiveEPPO, 2014
-ZhejiangPresentIntroducedInvasiveEPPO, 2014
Georgia (Republic of)PresentIntroducedEPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
IndiaPresentEPPO, 2014North-eastern India
-MeghalayaPresentIntroducedSingh & Lal, 1994; Sahoo, 1998
JapanPresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al., 1979; Ohtsuka, 1998; Nakayama, 1998; Moriya, 1999; EPPO, 2014
KazakhstanPresentIntroducedEPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofRestricted distributionIntroducedInvasiveKim et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014
TaiwanPresentIntroducedInvasiveWang & Chiang, 1998; EPPO, 2014
TurkeyPresentIntroducedByfield & Baytop, 1998; EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016

AFRICA

AlgeriaPresentIntroducedCJB, 2016
BurundiPresentIntroducedCJB, 2016
EgyptPresentIntroducedCJB, 2016
LibyaPresentIntroducedCJB, 2016
MauritiusPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
South AfricaPresentIntroducedWells et al., 1986; CJB, 2016

NORTH AMERICA

BermudaPresentAllard, 1943
CanadaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-AlbertaPresentNativeCrockett, 1977; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-British ColumbiaPresentNativeBassett & Crompton, 1975; Crockett, 1977; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-ManitobaPresentNativeCrockett, 1977; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-New BrunswickPresentNativeCrockett, 1977; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentNativeBassett & Crompton, 1975; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-Northwest TerritoriesPresentNativeBassett & Crompton, 1975; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-Nova ScotiaPresentNativeHaselwood & Motter, 1966; Bassett & Crompton, 1975; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-OntarioWidespreadNativeFrick & Thomas, 1992; Deen et al., 1998; Sikkema et al., 1999; Crockett, 1977; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-Prince Edward IslandPresentNativeBassett & Crompton, 1975; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-QuebecPresentNativeBriere et al., 1995; Crockett, 1977; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-SaskatchewanPresentNativeBassett & Crompton, 1975; Crockett, 1977; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
MexicoPresentIntroducedAllard, 1943; EPPO, 2014
USAWidespreadNativeInvasiveHolm et al., 1979; Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-AlabamaPresentNativeMiller, 1990; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-AlaskaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-ArizonaPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-ArkansasPresentNativeCartwright & Templeton, 1988; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-CaliforniaPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-ColoradoPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-ConnecticutPresentIntroducedLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-DelawarePresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-District of ColumbiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-FloridaPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Richburg et al., 1996; Keese, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-GeorgiaPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Richburg et al., 1996; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedHaselwood & Motter, 1966; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-IdahoPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-IllinoisPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Krausz et al., 1998; Young et al., 1999; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-IndianaPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Siegelin & Lehman, 1998; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-IowaPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-KansasPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-KentuckyPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-LouisianaPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-MainePresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-MarylandPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Beste, 1989; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-MassachusettsPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-MichiganPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Nelson & Renner, 1999; Sprague et al., 1999; Fausey et al., 1999; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-MinnesotaPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Johnson et al., 1998; Netzer et al., 1998; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-MississippiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-MissouriPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Niekamp et al., 1999; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-MontanaPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-NebraskaPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Stubbendieck et al., 1995; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-NevadaPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-New HampshirePresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-New JerseyPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Prostko & Meade, 1993; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-New MexicoPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-New YorkPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006; Pleasant et al., 1994
-North CarolinaPresentNativeCoble et al., 1981; Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Culpepper & York, 1998; Askew & Wilcut, 1999; Culpepper & York, 1999; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-North DakotaPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-OhioPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Loux & Berry, 1991; Forcella et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-OklahomaPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-OregonPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-PennsylvaniaPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Spackman et al., 1995; Henry et al., 1999; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-Rhode IslandPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-South CarolinaPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Tedford & Fortnum, 1988; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-South DakotaPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Forcella et al., 1997; Clay et al., 1999; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-TennesseePresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Eaton et al., 1990; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-TexasPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-UtahPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-VermontPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-VirginiaPresentNativeWilcut & Swann, 1990; Jordan et al., 1994; Ackley et al., 1997; Ackley et al., 1998; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-WashingtonPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-West VirginiaPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-WisconsinPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Banaras, 1993; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
-WyomingPresentNativeLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006

CENTRAL AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

BahamasPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
CubaPresentEPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016
Dominican RepublicPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedEPPO, 2014
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
JamaicaPresentHolm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016
MartiniquePresentIntroducedEPPO, 2014

SOUTH AMERICA

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedAllard, 1943; King, 1966; EPPO, 2014
BoliviaPresentEPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016Conflicting reports as to whether native or introducted
BrazilPresentHaselwood & Motter, 1966; Holm et al., 1979; Fleck et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016Conflicting reports as to whether native or introducted
ChilePresentHolm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016Conflicting reports as to whether native or introducted
ColombiaPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
ParaguayPresentEPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016Conflicting reports as to whether native or introducted
PeruPresentEPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016Conflicting reports as to whether native or introducted
UruguayPresentEPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016Conflicting reports as to whether native or introducted

EUROPE

AlbaniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
AustriaPresentIntroduced1883Love, 1976; Essl et al., 2009; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
BelarusPresentIntroducedEuro+Med, 2016
BelgiumPresentIntroducedAllard, 1943; Love, 1976; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
Bosnia-HercegovinaPresentIntroducedEuro+Med, 2016
BulgariaPresentIntroducedEuro+Med, 2016
CroatiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveIgrc et al., 1995; Silic & Solic, 1999; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
Czech RepublicPresentIntroducedInvasiveJehlik, 1995; Love, 1976; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
DenmarkPresentIntroducedNOBANIS, 2010; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
EstoniaPresentIntroducedEuro+Med, 2016
FinlandPresentIntroducedNOBANIS, 2010; EPPO, 2014
FrancePresentIntroduced1863InvasiveBertrand & Maupas, 1996; Chollet et al., 1998; Déchamp, 1999; Love, 1976; Chauvel et al., 2006; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
-CorsicaTransient: actionable, under eradicationEPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
GermanyPresentIntroduced1863InvasiveAllard, 1943; Love, 1976; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016; Chauvel & Martinez, 2012
GreecePresentIntroducedEuro+Med, 2016
HungaryWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveToth et al., 1989; Reisinger, 1992; Bruckner et al., 1997; Love, 1976; Bohár & Schwarczinger, 1999; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
IcelandPresentIntroducedEuro+Med, 2016
IrelandPresentIntroducedEuro+Med, 2016
ItalyPresentIntroduced1902Albasser, 1992; Siniscalo & Barni, 1994; Allard, 1943; Love, 1976; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016; Gentili et al., 2016
LatviaPresentIntroducedNOBANIS, 2010; Euro+Med, 2016
LiechtensteinPresentIntroducedEuro+Med, 2016
LithuaniaPresentIntroducedNot invasiveGudzinskas, 1993; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
LuxembourgPresentIntroducedEPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
MacedoniaWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveKonstantinovic et al., 1989; Maceljski & Igrc, 1990
MoldovaPresentIntroducedEPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
NetherlandsPresentIntroduced1860Allard, 1943; Euro+Med, 2016; Chauvel & Martinez, 2012
NorwayPresentIntroducedNOBANIS, 2010; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
PolandPresentIntroducedInvasiveLove, 1976; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
PortugalPresentIntroducedAllard, 1943; Love, 1976; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
-MadeiraPresentIntroducedAllard, 1943; Euro+Med, 2016
RomaniaPresentIntroducedLove, 1976; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
Russian FederationPresentIntroduced1918InvasiveVasiliev, 1958; Moskalenko, 2001; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016; Reznik, 2009
-Central RussiaPresentIntroducedMoskalenko, 2001; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
-Eastern SiberiaPresentIntroducedEuro+Med, 2016
-Northern RussiaPresentIntroducedMoskalenko, 2001; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
-Russian Far EastRestricted distributionIntroducedInvasiveKuznetsov et al., 1987; Moskalenko, 2001; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
-Southern RussiaWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveMoskalenko, 2001; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
-Western SiberiaPresentIntroducedMoskalenko, 2001; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
SerbiaPresentIntroducedVasic, 1988; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
SlovakiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveBeres, 1994; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
SloveniaPresentEPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
SpainPresentIntroducedAllard, 1943; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
SwedenPresentIntroducedEPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandPresentIntroducedEPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
UKPresentIntroduced1895Allard, 1943; Salisbury, 1961; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016; Chauvel & Martinez, 2012
UkrainePresentIntroducedInvasiveSong & Prots, 1998; Marjushkina, 1986; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentIntroducedInvasiveLove, 1976; Euro+Med, 2016

OCEANIA

AustraliaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentIntroducedCrothers, 1993
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedLazarides et al., 1997; Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2016
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedLazarides et al., 1997; Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2016
-South AustraliaPresentIntroducedLazarides et al., 1997; Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2016
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedCouncil of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2016
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedLazarides et al., 1997; Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2016
New ZealandPresentIntroducedWebb, 1987; EPPO, 2014

History of Introduction and Spread

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A. artemisiifolia is a neophyte which was introduced in Africa, Europe and Asia after the year 1492 (the discovery of America). Some studies on the history of introduction were published for Europe, in various regions such as France (Chauvel et al., 2006), Austria (Essl et al., 2009) and central and eastern Europe. A. artemisiifolia was reported in Germany in 1863 (Bassett and Crompton, 1975; Kovalev, 1989). A. artemisiifoliais found almost throughout Hungary although it has not been recorded in northern regions because climatic conditions prevent the seeds from ripening (Beres, 1994). In Russia, A. artemisiifolia was collected for the first time near Stavropol in 1918. It was also found in the Krasnodar region (Vasiliev, 1958). The distribution of the weed has rapidly increased; in 1950 it infested 200,000 ha in the Krasnodar region (Makodzeba, 1955); in 1950-1955 it occurred in the Rostov region (Bezruchenko and Chukarin, 1956); in 1963 it was found in the Primorski region (Voroshilov, 1966); and in 1973 in the Khabarovsk region (Nechaev and Nechaev, 1973). A. artemisiifolia has been spreading in Russia for more than 80 years, affecting more than 5 million ha and without the phytosanitary measures that have limited its distribution, could potentially occupy all areas of the country (Moskalenko, 2001). A. artemisiifolia was collected in 1995 from north-east Anatolia, Turkey, where well-established populations of the weed now exist (Byfield and Baytop, 1998).

No comprehensive studies about the history of introduction appear to be available for Asia and Africa however Ling et al. (2012) stated that this species was introduced into China in 1930.

A. artemisiifolia was first recorded in Australia in 1908 (Julien et al., 2012).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Australia1908YesJulien et al., 2012
AustriaNorth America1883YesEssl et al., 2009
China1930YesLing et al., 2012
FranceNorth America1863YesChauvel et al., 2006
GermanyNorth America1863YesChauvel & Martinez, 2012
ItalyNorth America1902YesGentili et al., 2016
NetherlandsNorth America1860YesChauvel & Martinez, 2012
Russian FederationNorth America1918YesReznik, 2009
UKNorth America1895YesChauvel & Martinez, 2012

Risk of Introduction

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It is possible that A. artemisiifolia will spread further as it is accidentally introduced as a contaminant of seed and grain into other countries. Temperature is the main factor limiting the spread of A. artemisiifolia; under cooler conditions plants fail to produce flowers or seeds fail to ripen (Bullock et al., 2010). It is possible that as a result of climate change, A. artemisiifolia may increase its distribution.

Habitat

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A. artemisiifolia is typically found on disturbed sites such as, railways, wasteland, uncultivated and cultivated land (field crops, orchards, vineyards, nurseries) and constructions sites. It is naturally found along river banks but may also be found in grasslands and dry meadows.

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Freshwater
Rivers / streamsPrincipal habitatHarmful (pest or invasive)
Rivers / streamsPrincipal habitatNatural
Terrestrial-managed
BuildingsPrincipal habitatHarmful (pest or invasive)
BuildingsPrincipal habitatNatural
Cultivated / agricultural landSecondary/tolerated habitatHarmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areasPrincipal habitatHarmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areasPrincipal habitatNatural
Managed forests, plantations and orchardsSecondary/tolerated habitatHarmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems)Secondary/tolerated habitatHarmful (pest or invasive)
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production)Secondary/tolerated habitatHarmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsidesPrincipal habitatHarmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsidesPrincipal habitatNatural
Urban / peri-urban areasPrincipal habitatHarmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areasPrincipal habitatNatural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
RiverbanksPrincipal habitatHarmful (pest or invasive)
RiverbanksPrincipal habitatNatural

Hosts/Species Affected

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Experiments carried out by Vidotto et al. (2013) showed that A. artemisiifolia inhibits the germination and growth of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) by more than 50%. The same authors showed also a reduction in growth for lettuce (Brassica spp.). In corn, season-long interference from dense populations of A. artemisiifolia in Illinois was found to reduce yields by 74% in two years. A. artemisiifolia also has an impact on the growth of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) and was ranked as one of the worst weeds to control during cultivation (Wilcut and Swann, 1990; Clewis et al., 2002).

Growth Stages

Top of pageFlowering stage, Fruiting stage

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

A. artemisiifolia is a diploid taxon with 2n = 36 (CCDB, 2016). Hybrids were described with A. psilostachya (A. × integradiensis W.H.Wagner) and A. trifida L. (A. × helenae Rouleau) (Strother, 2006).

Reproductive Biology

A. artemisiifolia is a fast growing herb which can completes its growth cycle in 115 to 183 days (Bassett and Crompton, 1975; Li et al., 1989; Beres, 1994), with each plant producing a high number of viable seeds which are small in size and low in weight (Yurukova-Grancharova et al., 2015). Pollination is performed by wind, the pollen being small (20-30 µm), tricolporate, sphaerical, with short and sparse spines andcavae (Payne et al., 1970; Bassett et al., 1978).

Physiology and Phenology

A. artemisiifolia uses the C3 pathway of photosynthesis. It is one of the earliest emerging summer annual weed species and may germinate once soil temperatures reach 11-13°C (Forcella et al., 1997). It is a pioneer annual in temperate regions, and rapidly succeeds in the first year of old fields from buried seed (Ohtsuka, 1998). In the autumn, ploughing generally favours establishment of this weed (Altieri and Liebman, 1988).

Photoperiod and temperature are the main factors affecting growth and development of A. artemisiifolia (King, 1966; Deen et al., 1998). Flowering starts approximately 119 days after germination (Li et al., 1989). Long days favour the development of male flowers, whereas female flowers are favoured by shortened days (King, 1966). Increasing of atmospheric CO2 in urban areas resulted in increased pollen production by A. artemisiifolia according to Ziska et al. (2003). Feher et al. (1998) reported that high daily temperatures and great variations of diurnal temperatures promoted pollination, whereas rain, clouds and humid weather reduced pollination. Typically, peak pollen production often occurs from mid-August to mid-September (Albasser, 1992).

Anthers open with a rise in temperature and low relative humidity (King, 1966). The adaptability of the plant to cooler climates in Hungary has been demonstrated by shortening the time from germination to flowering and seed ripening (Beres, 1994). A study carried out in the USA, using plants originating from Indiana, Michigan, Ohio and Wisconsin, suggested the existence of common ragweed ecotypes based on origin of the seeds (Leif et al., 2000).

Flowering occurs from July to October in both the origin and non-native ranges. Seeds have a low rate of germination at maturity (Sahoo, 1998) and usually require winter stratification before germination; however, seeds may undergo secondary dormancy (Altieri and Liebman, 1988). The burial of seeds increases the non-dormant seed population of A. artemisiifolia by 0.5 to 7.1% (Sahoo, 1998).

One plant may produce 3,000-4,000 seeds (Beres, 1994; Beres et al., 2002). However, up to 32,000 seeds have been counted in a single plant (Bassett and Crompton, 1975). Seed production by A. artemisiifolia may be reduced over 80% depending on its emergence relative to the crop growth stage (Chikoye et al., 1995).

A. artemisiifolia seeds may survive up to 40 years (King, 1966). Germination of seeds is decreased when stored in cattle slurry and was significantly influenced by the time of storage in maize silage. Seeds stopped germinating after 3-5 months in cattle slurry (following storage in maize silage) or after storage in maize silage for 13 months (Lesnik, 2001).

A. artemisiifolia contains phenolic compounds and terpenes (Beres et al., 2002). The allelopathic influences of A. artemisiifolia were tested in bioassays on soyabean, black gram, rice and maize. Aqueous extracts of dried fresh leaves of the weed significantly suppressed the germination, plumule and radicle length of all crops tested. Toxicity increased with the increase in concentration of extracts. The effect of the extracts was greater on the germination of black gram and rice compared to soyabean and maize. A chloroform extract from A. artemisiifolia inhibited the growth and decreased the chlorophyll a concentrations of two green algae (Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas sp.) (Bruckner et al., 2001).

Environmental Requirements

A. artemisiifolia is susceptible to frost and is commonly found between 30-50° at both north and south latitudes in diverse settings (King, 1966). It rarely grows above altitudes of 1000 m (Allard, 1943). It can grow in clay or sandy soils, but grows well on wet, heavy soils at pH 6.0-7.0 (Bassett and Crompton, 1975).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climatePreferred< 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climatePreferred> 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climatePreferred< 430mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all yearPreferredWarm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summerPreferredWarm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Df - Continental climate, wet all yearPreferredContinental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)

Latitude/Altitude

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
60-6550-55

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral
  • very acid

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • saline
  • shallow

Natural Enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bemisia tabaciHerbivoreLeavesnot specific
Candidatus Phytoplasma solaniPathogenLeaves
Entyloma compositarumPathogenLeavesnot specific
Entyloma polysporumPathogenLeavesnot specific
Epiblema strenuanaHerbivoreLeavesnot specific
Harpalus pennsylvanicusHerbivoreSeedsnot specific
Hyalesthes obsoletusHerbivore
Liriomyza trifoliiHerbivoreStems/Leavesnot specific
Macrophomina phaseolinaPathogenRootsnot specific
Nemorimyza maculosaPathogenLeavesnot specific
Ophraella communaHerbivoreIntroduced into Japan and Taiwan
Phyllachora ambrosiaePathogen
Plasmopara halstediiPathogenLeaves/Inflorescencenot specific
Ponometia candefactaHerbivoreLeavesnot specific
Protomyces gravidusPathogenStemsnot specific
Pseudomonas syringae pv. tagetisPathogen
Puccinia conocliniiPathogenLeavesnot specific
Puccinia xanthiiPathogenLeavesnot specific
Pustula tragopogonisPathogenLeavesnot specific
Septoria epambrosiaePathogen
Sphaeraspis vitisHerbivorenot specific
Tarachidia candefactaHerbivoreIntroduced into Russia
Thanatephorus cucumerisPathogenLeaves/Rootsnot specific
Verticillium dahliaePathogenLeavesnot specific
Zygogramma suturalisHerbivoreSeedlings/LeavesIntroduced into Russia, former Yugoslavia, Croatia and China

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Several natural enemies have been recorded from A. artemisiifolia as this species has been the focus of numerous biological control programmes. Maceljski and Igrc (1990) reported 28 insects including five Orthoptera, three Heteroptera, four Homoptera, six Coleoptera and nine Lepidoptera that fed on A. artemisiifolia. However, several of these insects are common crop pests. According to Julien et al. (2012) more than 70 arthropods have been recorded from A. artemisiifolia in its native range and a total of 20 pathogens identified from Eurasia including Puccinia xanthii (Gerber et al., 2011).

A. artemisiifolia may also serve as an alternative host for crop diseases such as Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 (Tedford and Fortnum, 1988), M. incognita race 3 (Tedford and Fortnum, 1988), Erysiphe cichoracearum (Bassett and Crompton, 1975), Albugo tragopogonis (Bassett and Crompton, 1975), Plasmopara halstedii (Bassett and Crompton, 1975), Entyloma compositarum (Bassett and Crompton, 1975), Entyloma polysporum (Bassett and Crompton, 1975), Puccinia xanthii (Bassett and Crompton, 1975), Aster yellow virus (Bassett and Crompton, 1975), Cucumber mosaic virus (Kazinczi et al., 2001), Cuscuta gronovii (Bassett and Crompton, 1975), Protomyces gravidus (Cartwright and Templeton, 1988), Septoria sp. (Bohár and Schwarczinger, 1999), Phoma sp. (Briere et al., 1995) and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum of sunflower (Bohár and Kiss, 1999). 

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

The fruits of A. artemisiifolia are spread by wind and water. The seeds can remain on the surface of water for two hours or more (Moskalenko, 2001) and can be dispersed in the spring by water in ditches, canals and rivers.

Vector Transmission

The seeds of A. artemisiifolia may be carried to new locations by birds.

Accidental Introduction

Seeds of A. artemisiifolia can be spread from field to field by agricultural practices (Moskalenko, 2001). Seeds are also commonly found in stored and transported grains (Ilic and Kalinovic, 1995; Jehlik, 1995; Moskalenko, 2001). The movement of A. artemisiifolia has linked to the transport of cereals and oil crops (Jehlik, 1995; Semenenko, 2002). In Norway, seeds of A. artemisiifolia have been accidentally imported as a contaminant of bird seed (Jorgensen, 2002).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
DisturbanceYes
Flooding/ other natural disasterYes
Medicinal useYesYes
ResearchYesYes
Seed tradeYesYes
Self-propelledYesYes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
AircraftYes
Land vehiclesRailway freight, dock cargo, agricultural vehiclesYes
Soil, sand, gravel etc.Soil, sandYesYes
Vector/host speciesYes
WindYes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
True seeds (inc. grain)seedsNoYesPest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs, Tubers, Corms, Rhizomes
Flowers, Inflorescences, Cones, Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings, Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground), Shoots, Trunks, Branches
Wood

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collectionsNone
Animal/plant productsNegative
Biodiversity (generally)Negative
Crop productionNegative
Economic/livelihoodNegative
Environment (generally)Negative
Fisheries / aquacultureNone
Forestry productionNone
Human healthNegative
Livestock productionNegative
Native faunaNone
Native floraNegative
Rare/protected speciesNone
TourismNegative
Trade/international relationsNegative
Transport/travelNone

Economic Impact

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A. artemisiifolia can have a negative economic impact on agriculture by decreasing crop yields, crop quality and efficiency of propagation and harvest. There is published data for losses of income in the USA (Loux and Berry, 1991), France (Bertrand and Maupas, 1996), Hungary (Toth et al., 1989) and Germany (Reinhardt et al., 2003). In Germany costs related to the invasion of A. artemisiifolia were estimated of about €32 million (Reinhardt et al., 2003).

In Hungary, A. artemisiifolia at a density of 26 plants per m² in Zea mays (maize) gave yield loss of 69-73% (Varga et al., 2000; Varga et al., 2002). In Phaseolus vulgaris, grain yield may be reduced by 10-22% when A. artemisiifolia emerges with the crop (Chikoye et al., 1995) and 30-75% lost when A. artemisifolia was present from flowering to harvest (Evanylo and Zehnder, 1989). A study by Coble et al. (1981) found that four A. artemisiifolia plants per 10 m of row reduced yields of Glycine max by 8%. Yield was not reduced if A. artemisiifolia competed with G. max less than six weeks after emergence (Coble et al., 1981). One A. artemisiifolia plant per 3 m of row reduced cotton (species of Gossypium) yields by 5-12% (Byrd and Coble, 1991). Plot experiments in Hungary also found that A. artemisiifolia decreased root yield of Beta vulgaris by 40-50% and that the sugar content was reduced by 13-15% (Bosak and Mod, 2000).

A. artemisiifolia may also serve as an alternative host for a number of crop diseases. As a result, these may decrease crop yields and would increase costs required for control of such diseases. Examples of these diseases include Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 (Tedford and Fortnum, 1988), M. incognita race 3 (Tedford and Fortnum, 1988), Erysiphe cichoracearum (Bassett and Crompton, 1975), Albugo tragopogonis (Bassett and Crompton, 1975), Plasmopara halstedii (Bassett and Crompton, 1975), Entyloma compositarum (Bassett and Crompton, 1975), Entyloma polysporum (Bassett and Crompton, 1975), Puccinia xanthii (Bassett and Crompton, 1975), Aster yellow virus (Bassett and Crompton, 1975), Cucumber mosaic virus (Kazinczi et al., 2001), Cuscuta gronovii (Bassett and Crompton, 1975), Protomyces gravidus (Cartwright and Templeton, 1988), Septoria sp. (Bohár and Schwarczinger, 1999), Phoma sp. (Briere et al., 1995) and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum of sunflower (Bohár and Kiss, 1999). In addition, the allopathic effects of A. artemisiifolia on reduced crop germination and growth have been reported (Beres et al., 1998; Bruckner, 1998).

Environmental Impact

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In introduced areas, A. artemisiifolia can acts as a pioneer species. As a result A. artemisiifolia competes with native plants species for space, nutrients, light and water (Beres et al., 2002) and may result in changes to habitats and a decrease in biodiversity.

Social Impact

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Due to the morphological characteristics of the pollen, A. artemisiifolia is one of the most common seasonal sources of aeroallergens which cause allergic rhinitis, fever, or dermatitis (Déchamp, 1999; Moller et al., 2002).

Increasing atmospheric CO2 in urban areas was found to result in an increase in pollen production (Ziska et al., 2003); a doubling of the atmospheric CO2 concentration stimulated ragweed pollen production by 61% (Wayne et al., 2002). This, combined with an increase in distribution, has resulted in a significant increase in the number of patients in Europe diagnosed with allergic diseases over the past 10-20 years (Farkas et al. 1998). A study by Cakmak et al. (2002) found that an increase of 72 plants-grains per m³ was associated with an increase of about 10% in patient visits to a children's hospital in eastern Ontario for conjunctivitis and rhinitis. It is assumed that native workers, who have been living with the pollen for a long time (i.e. exposed to natural immunotherapy), have developed a natural tolerance to it (Dervaderics et al., 2002). A. artemisiifolia also caused allergenic hay fever in its native range, in particular in Canada and northern USA (Gerber et al., 2011).

In addition to this, cattle may eat A. artemisiifolia after grasses have been exhausted, which may cause nausea and also changes the flavour of the milk producing an undesirable product (Spencer, 1957).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Impact mechanisms

  • Causes allergic responses
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
  • Hybridization
  • Induces hypersensitivity
  • Interaction with other invasive species
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Rapid growth

Impact outcomes

  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Increases vulnerability to invasions
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Negatively impacts forestry
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species

Invasiveness

  • Abundant in its native range
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Fast growing
  • Has a broad native range
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc

Likelihood of entry/control

  • Difficult/costly to control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Economic Value

A. artemisiifolia may be used as food for pigs and sheep (Crockett, 1977). Cattle may also eat A. artemisiifolia but they may suffer nausea (Stubbendieck et al., 1995).

Social Benefit

A. artemisiifolia has been used as both an anti-inflammatory agent (Stubbendieck et al., 1995); and an antibacterial agent (Kim et al., 1993).

Environmental Services

A. artemisiifolia can be used for phytoremediation in soils contaminated with heavy metals (Bassett and Crompton, 1975; Kang et al., 1998) and is able to successfully remove soil lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) during repeated croppings (Pichtel et al., 2000).

The fruits of A. artemisiifolia are also often consumed by small birds and animals (Stubbendieck et al., 1995).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Soil improvement

Materials

  • Chemicals

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Detection and Inspection

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Auda et al. (2002) and Danner et al. (2012) showed that it may soon be possible to detect dense populations of A. artemisiifolia using spatial remote sensing methods.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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A. artemisiifolia is similar in appearance to a number of species in the genus Ambrosia.

For example, it is similar to A. acanthicarpa from which differs by the narrower capitula (2-3 vs. 3-7 mm), the shape and lenght of fruits (globose to pyriform, 2-3 mm long vs. more or less fusiform, 3-5 mm long), number and lenght of spines in the fruits (3-5 spines each 0.1-0.5 mm long vs. 8-18 spines each 8-18 mm long) (Strother, 2006).

Another similar species is A. annua which is mainly different by its inflorescence with capitula arranged in panicles.

A. trifida grows taller, has larger seed and has palmate leaves divided into three lobes compared with A. artemisiifolia.

A. bidentata has hairy, notched leaves that clasp the stem. Seed are angled with prominent spines.

A. psilostachya is a perennial with leaves not as finely divided as A. artemisiifolia.

Prevention and Control

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Control

Cultural Control

Planting red clover (Trifolium pretense) as a cover crop in established winter wheat reduced the biomass of A. artemisiifolia (Mutch et al., 2003).

Mechanical Control

A. artemisiifolia may be controlled by hand weeding, mowing (at 2 cm, from the soil) and by crushing with a roadroller (Vincent et al., 1992). Hand weeding is the most effective in reducing pollen and seed production although it is also the most expensive (Vincent et al., 1992). Mechanical cutting can reduce A. artemisiifolia seed production by up to 74% depending on the number and timing of cuttings (Guan et al., 1991).

Biological Control

A. artemisiifolia has been the subject of a biocontrol programme which has resulted in the release of a number of agents.

Zygogramma suturalis (ambrosia striped leaf beetle) has a preferential appetite for A. artemisiifolia (Igrc and Ilovai, 1996). The beetle may consume 50-70% of the leaf surface area (Kuznetsov et al., 1987). Z. suturalis was introduced from North America into several countries including Russia in 1978 (Reznik et al., 1994), former Yugoslavia in 1984 (Igrc, 1987) and Croatia in 1985 (Igrc et al., 1995). Z. suturalis was introduced from Canada and Russia to China in 1997 (Wan and Wang, 1989) and 1988 (Wan and Wang, 1990). However, 10 years after it was introduced into Russia it was only moderately successful due to low population establishment (Reznik et al., 1994) and poor movement (Reznik et al., 1990).

A. artemisiifolia is a known host for Ophraella communa (ragweed leaf beetle) (Knowles et al., 1999). O. communa was introduced into Japan in 1996 (Moriya, 1999; Yamazaki et al., 2000; Moriya and Shiyake, 2001; Moriya et al., 2002) and Taiwan (Wang and Chiang, 1998). Tarachidia candefacta was introduced into Russia from Canada in 1967 and became established (Shurov, 1998).

Potential biological control agents such as Epiblema strenuana (Wan, 1991), Pseudomonas syringae pv. tagetis (Johnson et al., 1996), Protomyces gravidus (Cartwright and Templeton, 1988) Phyllachora ambrosiae (Vajna et al., 2000) and Septoria epambrosiae (Bohár and Schwarczinger, 1999; Becker, 2001; Farr and Castlebury, 2001) have been pursued and the possibility of biological control of A. artemisiifolia is still being considered.

In the autumn of 2001, an epidemic of downy mildew (Plasmopara halstedii) occurred on A. artemisiifolia over large areas of central Hungary (Vajna, 2002).

The herbicidal effect of essential oils (1%, v/v) from red thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) and clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry] on shoots of A. artemisiifolia was determined in laboratory and greenhouse experiments (Tworkoski, 2002). The oils may be useful as natural product herbicides for organic farming systems.

Sesquiterpenoid lactones extracted from A. taurica were highly toxic against the seeds of A. artemisiifolia (C50 10.4-56.8 mg/litre) (Konovalov et al., 2002).

Chemical Control

A number of post- and pre-emergence chemicals have been used to control A. artemisiifolia with varied success.

Pre-emergence application of mesotrione controlled A. artemisiifolia by at least 80%, whereas post-emergence provided control from 56-97% (Armel et al., 2003).

Diphenyl ether herbicides (lactofen, fomesafen and acifluorfen) (Holowid and Smith, 1986; Monks et al., 1993; Zhan et al., 1993; Lee et al., 1995; Nelson and Renner, 1998), cloransulam-methyl (Nelson and Renner, 1998, Askew et al., 1999) and chlorimuron (Moseley and Hagood, 1991, Monks et al., 1993, Prostko and Meade, 1993) have been used for post-emergence control of A. artemisiifolia in soybean. Pre-emergence use of flumioxazin and chlorimuron plus metribuzin controlled A. artemisiifolia in no-till soybean (Niekamp et al., 1999; Niekamp and Johnson, 2001) whereas glufosinate alone controlled A. artemisiifolia in glufosinate-resistant soybean by more than 85% (Beyers et al., 2002).

In maize, Isoxaflutole (Luscombe and Pallett, 1996; Sprague et al., 1999), atrazine (Culpepper and York, 1999), diflufenzopyr plus dicamba (Sikkema et al., 1999), atrazine plus bromoxynil (Wiese et al., 1986) and atrazine plus bentazone (Hamill and Zhang, 1997) have been used to control A. artemisiifolia. However, herbicide resistance of A. artemisiifolia to atrazine has been reported (Igrc, 1987, Maceljski and Igrc, 1990). Dicamba and rimsulfuron plus thifensulfuron-methyl tank-mixed with primisulfuron-methyl were also found to control A. artemisiifolia in maize by at least 88% (Isaacs et al., 2002).

For spring barley, Metsulfuron-methyl, 2,4-D plus dicamba, and triasulfuron plus dicamba plus 2,4-D controlled A. artemisiifolia (Zhidkov et al., 2002).

For control of A. artemisiifolia in peanut, bentazone plus paraquat followed by imazapic (Richburg et al., 1996), acifluorfen plus bentazone (Wilcut, 1991; York et al., 1995), acifluorfen plus 2,4-DB (Wilcut, 1991), preplant incorporated tank-mixtures (Jordan et al., 1994), ethalfluralin plus vernolate preplant incorporated and paraquat applied one week after emergence (Wilcut and Swann, 1990) have been used successfully. Pre-emergence treatments of diclosulam controlled common ragweed by 100% (Price and Wilcut, 2002).

In glyphosate-tolerant cotton, A. artemisiifolia was controlled with clomazone pre-emergence and glyphosate (Scott et al., 2002). Flumioxazin tank-mixed with the isopropylamine salt of glyphosate, paraquat or the trimethylsulfonium salt of glyphosate controlled common ragweed by 96%, 29 to 43 days after treatment in strip-tillage cotton (Price et al., 2002). Bromoxynil plus pyrithiobac post-emergence or with MSMA controlled (90%) common ragweed in bromoxynil-resistant cotton early season.

In other crops, A. artemisiifolia has been controlled with fluroxypyr in small grains (Riggle et al., 1999), oxyfluorfen in broccoli (Eaton et al., 1990), sulfometuron in Pinus taeda seedlings (Miller, 1990), terbacil applied pre-emergence in watermelon (Beste, 1989) and clopyralid in rutabagas (Brolley, 1990). In tomato (Ackley et al., 1997) or potato (Ackley et al., 1996), control of A. artemisiifolia was attained with rimsulfuron plus metribuzin, or metribuzin plus metolachlor applied pre-emergence in potato (Hoyt and Monks, 1996; Bailey et al., 2001).

An acetolactate synthase (ALS)-resistant A. artemisiifolia biotype has been found in Indiana (Patzoldt et al., 2001) and Ohio, USA (Taylor et al., 2002).

IPM

Crop rotations using herbicides that control A. artemisiifolia are crucial for managing A. artemisiifolia in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) fields. Mechanical weed control of A. artemisiifolia and other weeds has been shown to increase seed yield of sunflower (Fleck et al., 1989).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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More detailed phytosociological studies of non-native areas in which A. artemisiifolia is naturalized/invasive could be conducted to provide a better insight on the impact of this species.

References

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Ackley JA, Wilson HP, Hines TE, 1996. Efficacy of rimsulfuron and metribuzin in potato (Solanum tuberosum). Weed Technology, 10(3):475-480.

Ackley JA, Wilson HP, Hines TE, 1997. Rimsulfuron and metribuzin efficacy in transplanted tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Weed Technology, 11(2):324-328.

Ackley JA, Wilson HP, Hines TE, 1998. Weed management in transplanted bell pepper (Capsicum frutescens) with clomazone and rimsulfuron. Weed Technology, 12(3):458-462.

Albasser G, 1992. Ragweed pollen sampling in Gallarate (north-west of Milan) during four years (1987-1990). Aerobiologia, 8(1):31-33

Allard HA, 1943. The North American ragweeds and their occurrence in other parts of the world. Science, 98:292-294.

Altieri MA, Liebman M, 1988. Weed management in agroecosytems: ecological approaches. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press, Inc., viii + 354 pp.

Armel GR, Wilson HP, Richardson RJ, Hines TE, 2003. Mesotrione combinations in no-till corn (Zea mays). Weed Technology, 17(1):111-116.

Askew SD, Wilcut JW, 1999. Cost and weed management with herbicide programs in glyphosate-resistant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Weed Technology, 13(2):308-313.

Askew SD, Wilcut JW, Langston VB, 1999. Weed management in soybean (Glycine max) with preplant-incorporated herbicides and cloransulam-methyl. Weed Technology, 13(2):276-282.

Auda Y, Blasco F, Gastellu-Etchegorry JP, Marty G, DTchamp C, 2002. Preliminary studies of the detection of Ambrosia populations by spatial remote sensing. Revue Française d Allergologie et d Immunologie Clinique, 42(5):533-538.

Bailey WA, Wilson HP, Hines TE, 2001. Influence of cultivation and herbicide programs on weed control and net returns in potato (Solanum tuberosum). Weed Technology, 15(4):654-659.

Banaras M, 1993. Impact of weed competition on potato production. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 14 (1):64-71.

Bassett IJ, Crompton CW, 1975. The biology of Canadian weeds. 11. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. and A. psilostachya DC. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 55(2):463-476

Bassett IJ, Crompton CW, Marmelee JA, 1978. Canada Department of Agriculture. Ottowa, Canada 334 pp.

Becker H, 2001. Fungi can whack invasive weeds. Agricultural Research (Washington), 49(11):18-19.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
SMARTER Sustainable management of Ambrosia artemisiifolia in Europehttp://ragweed.eu/

Contributors

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06/11/2016 Updated by:

Duilio Iamonico, University of Rome Sapienza, Rome, Italy

Distribution Maps

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Distribution map Albania: Present, introduced
USDA-ARS, 2016Argentina: Present, introduced
Allard, 1943; King, 1966; EPPO, 2014Austria: Present, introduced
Love, 1976; Essl et al., 2009; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Australia: Present
EPPO, 2014Australia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAzerbaijan: Present, introduced
EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Azerbaijan: Present, introduced
EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Bosnia-Hercegovina: Present, introduced
Euro+Med, 2016Belgium: Present, introduced
Allard, 1943; Love, 1976; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Bulgaria: Present, introduced
Euro+Med, 2016Burundi: Present, introduced
CJB, 2016Bermuda: Present
Allard, 1943Bolivia: Present
EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016Brazil: Present
Haselwood & Motter, 1966; Holm et al., 1979; Fleck et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016Bahamas: Present, introduced
USDA-ARS, 2016Bahamas: Present, introduced
USDA-ARS, 2016Belarus: Present, introduced
Euro+Med, 2016Canada: Widespread
EPPO, 2014Canada
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada
See regional map for distribution within the countrySwitzerland: Present, introduced
EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Chile: Present
Holm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016China: Present, introduced, invasive
Duan & Chen, 2000; EPPO, 2014; Ling et al., 2012China: Present, introduced, invasive
Duan & Chen, 2000; EPPO, 2014; Ling et al., 2012China
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryColombia: Present, introduced
Holm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014Colombia: Present, introduced
Holm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014Cuba: Present
EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016Cuba: Present
EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016Czech Republic: Present, introduced, invasive
Jehlik, 1995; Love, 1976; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Germany: Present, introduced, invasive
Allard, 1943; Love, 1976; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016; Chauvel & Martinez, 2012Denmark: Present, introduced
NOBANIS, 2010; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Dominican Republic: Present only in captivity/cultivation, introduced
USDA-ARS, 2016Dominican Republic: Present only in captivity/cultivation, introduced
USDA-ARS, 2016Algeria: Present, introduced
CJB, 2016Algeria: Present, introduced
CJB, 2016Estonia: Present, introduced
Euro+Med, 2016Egypt: Present, introduced
CJB, 2016Spain: Present, introduced
Allard, 1943; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Spain: Present, introduced
Allard, 1943; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Finland: Present, introduced
NOBANIS, 2010; EPPO, 2014France: Present, introduced, invasive
Bertrand & Maupas, 1996; Chollet et al., 1998; Déchamp, 1999; Love, 1976; Chauvel et al., 2006; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016France
See regional map for distribution within the countryUK: Present, introduced
Allard, 1943; Salisbury, 1961; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016; Chauvel & Martinez, 2012Georgia (Republic of): Present, introduced
EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Georgia (Republic of): Present, introduced
EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Guadeloupe: Present, introduced
EPPO, 2014Greece: Present, introduced
Euro+Med, 2016Greece: Present, introduced
Euro+Med, 2016Guatemala: Present, introduced
Holm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014Guatemala: Present, introduced
Holm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014Croatia: Present, introduced, invasive
Igrc et al., 1995; Silic & Solic, 1999; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Hungary: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Toth et al., 1989; Reisinger, 1992; Bruckner et al., 1997; Love, 1976; Bohár & Schwarczinger, 1999; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Ireland: Present, introduced
Euro+Med, 2016India: Present
EPPO, 2014India
See regional map for distribution within the countryIceland: Present, introduced
Euro+Med, 2016Iceland: Present, introduced
Euro+Med, 2016Italy: Present, introduced
Albasser, 1992; Siniscalo & Barni, 1994; Allard, 1943; Love, 1976; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016; Gentili et al., 2016Jamaica: Present
Holm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016Jamaica: Present
Holm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016Japan: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979; Ohtsuka, 1998; Nakayama, 1998; Moriya, 1999; EPPO, 2014Korea, Republic of: Restricted distribution, introduced, invasive
Kim et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014Kazakhstan: Present, introduced
EPPO, 2014Kazakhstan: Present, introduced
EPPO, 2014Liechtenstein: Present, introduced
Euro+Med, 2016Lithuania: Present, introduced, not invasive
Gudzinskas, 1993; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Luxembourg: Present, introduced
EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Latvia: Present, introduced
NOBANIS, 2010; Euro+Med, 2016Libya: Present, introduced
CJB, 2016Moldova: Present, introduced
EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Macedonia: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Konstantinovic et al., 1989; Maceljski & Igrc, 1990Martinique: Present, introduced
EPPO, 2014Mauritius: Present, introduced
Holm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014Mexico: Present, introduced
Allard, 1943; EPPO, 2014Mexico: Present, introduced
Allard, 1943; EPPO, 2014Netherlands: Present, introduced
Allard, 1943; Euro+Med, 2016; Chauvel & Martinez, 2012Norway: Present, introduced
NOBANIS, 2010; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016New Zealand: Present, introduced
Webb, 1987; EPPO, 2014Peru: Present
EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016Poland: Present, introduced, invasive
Love, 1976; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Portugal: Present, introduced
Allard, 1943; Love, 1976; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Portugal
See regional map for distribution within the countryPortugal
See regional map for distribution within the countryParaguay: Present
EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016Romania: Present, introduced
Love, 1976; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Serbia: Present, introduced
Vasic, 1988; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Russian Federation: Present, introduced, invasive
Vasiliev, 1958; Moskalenko, 2001; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016; Reznik, 2009Russian Federation: Present, introduced, invasive
Vasiliev, 1958; Moskalenko, 2001; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016; Reznik, 2009Russian Federation
See regional map for distribution within the countryRussian Federation
See regional map for distribution within the countryRussian Federation
See regional map for distribution within the countryRussian Federation
See regional map for distribution within the countryRussian Federation
See regional map for distribution within the countryRussian Federation
See regional map for distribution within the countrySweden: Present, introduced
EPPO, 2014Slovenia: Present
EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Slovakia: Present, introduced, invasive
Beres, 1994; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Turkey: Present, introduced
Byfield & Baytop, 1998; EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Turkey: Present, introduced
Byfield & Baytop, 1998; EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Turkey: Present, introduced
Byfield & Baytop, 1998; EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Taiwan: Present, introduced, invasive
Wang & Chiang, 1998; EPPO, 2014Taiwan: Present, introduced, invasive
Wang & Chiang, 1998; EPPO, 2014Ukraine: Present, introduced, invasive
Song & Prots, 1998; Marjushkina, 1986; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Ukraine: Present, introduced, invasive
Song & Prots, 1998; Marjushkina, 1986; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016USA: Widespread, native, invasive
Holm et al., 1979; Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016USA: Widespread, native, invasive
Holm et al., 1979; Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016USA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUruguay: Present
EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro): Present, introduced, invasive
Love, 1976; Euro+Med, 2016South Africa: Present, introduced
Wells et al., 1986; CJB, 2016
  • = Present, no further details
  • = Evidence of pathogen
  • = Widespread
  • = Last reported
  • = Localised
  • = Presence unconfirmed
  • = Confined and subject to quarantine
  • = See regional map for distribution within the country
  • = Occasional or few reports
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Distribution map (asia) Azerbaijan: Present, introduced
EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016China: Present, introduced, invasive
Duan & Chen, 2000; EPPO, 2014; Ling et al., 2012Anhui: Present, introduced, invasive
EPPO, 2014Beijing: Present, introduced, invasive
EPPO, 2014Fujian: Present, introduced, invasive
EPPO, 2014Guangdong: Present, introduced, invasive
EPPO, 2014Guizhou: Present, introduced, invasive
EPPO, 2014Hainan: Present, introduced, invasive
EPPO, 2014Hubei: Present, introduced, invasive
EPPO, 2014Hebei: Present, introduced, invasive
EPPO, 2014Heilongjiang: Present, introduced, invasive
EPPO, 2014Henan: Present, introduced, invasive
EPPO, 2014Hunan: Present, introduced, invasive
EPPO, 2014Jilin: Present, introduced, invasive
EPPO, 2014Jiangsu: Present, introduced
Zhan et al., 1993Jiangxi: Present, introduced, invasive
EPPO, 2014Liaoning: Present, introduced
Zhirong, 1990; EPPO, 2014Shanghai: Present, introduced, invasive
EPPO, 2014Sichuan: Present, introduced, invasive
EPPO, 2014Shandong: Present, introduced, invasive
EPPO, 2014Yunnan: Present, introduced, invasive
EPPO, 2014Zhejiang: Present, introduced, invasive
EPPO, 2014Georgia (Republic of): Present, introduced
EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016India: Present
EPPO, 2014Meghalaya: Present, introduced
Singh & Lal, 1994; Sahoo, 1998Japan: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979; Ohtsuka, 1998; Nakayama, 1998; Moriya, 1999; EPPO, 2014Korea, Republic of: Restricted distribution, introduced, invasive
Kim et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014Kazakhstan: Present, introduced
EPPO, 2014Russian Federation: Present, introduced, invasive
Vasiliev, 1958; Moskalenko, 2001; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016; Reznik, 2009Turkey: Present, introduced
Byfield & Baytop, 1998; EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Taiwan: Present, introduced, invasive
Wang & Chiang, 1998; EPPO, 2014Ukraine: Present, introduced, invasive
Song & Prots, 1998; Marjushkina, 1986; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
Distribution map (europe) Albania: Present, introduced
USDA-ARS, 2016Austria: Present, introduced
Love, 1976; Essl et al., 2009; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Azerbaijan: Present, introduced
EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Bosnia-Hercegovina: Present, introduced
Euro+Med, 2016Belgium: Present, introduced
Allard, 1943; Love, 1976; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Bulgaria: Present, introduced
Euro+Med, 2016Belarus: Present, introduced
Euro+Med, 2016Switzerland: Present, introduced
EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Czech Republic: Present, introduced, invasive
Jehlik, 1995; Love, 1976; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Germany: Present, introduced, invasive
Allard, 1943; Love, 1976; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016; Chauvel & Martinez, 2012Denmark: Present, introduced
NOBANIS, 2010; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Algeria: Present, introduced
CJB, 2016Estonia: Present, introduced
Euro+Med, 2016Spain: Present, introduced
Allard, 1943; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Finland: Present, introduced
NOBANIS, 2010; EPPO, 2014France: Present, introduced, invasive
Bertrand & Maupas, 1996; Chollet et al., 1998; Déchamp, 1999; Love, 1976; Chauvel et al., 2006; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Corsica: Transient: actionable, under eradication
EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016UK: Present, introduced
Allard, 1943; Salisbury, 1961; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016; Chauvel & Martinez, 2012Georgia (Republic of): Present, introduced
EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Greece: Present, introduced
Euro+Med, 2016Croatia: Present, introduced, invasive
Igrc et al., 1995; Silic & Solic, 1999; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Hungary: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Toth et al., 1989; Reisinger, 1992; Bruckner et al., 1997; Love, 1976; Bohár & Schwarczinger, 1999; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Ireland: Present, introduced
Euro+Med, 2016Iceland: Present, introduced
Euro+Med, 2016Italy: Present, introduced
Albasser, 1992; Siniscalo & Barni, 1994; Allard, 1943; Love, 1976; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016; Gentili et al., 2016Kazakhstan: Present, introduced
EPPO, 2014Liechtenstein: Present, introduced
Euro+Med, 2016Lithuania: Present, introduced, not invasive
Gudzinskas, 1993; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Luxembourg: Present, introduced
EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Latvia: Present, introduced
NOBANIS, 2010; Euro+Med, 2016Moldova: Present, introduced
EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Macedonia: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Konstantinovic et al., 1989; Maceljski & Igrc, 1990Netherlands: Present, introduced
Allard, 1943; Euro+Med, 2016; Chauvel & Martinez, 2012Norway: Present, introduced
NOBANIS, 2010; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Poland: Present, introduced, invasive
Love, 1976; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Portugal: Present, introduced
Allard, 1943; Love, 1976; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Madeira: Present, introduced
Allard, 1943; Euro+Med, 2016Romania: Present, introduced
Love, 1976; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Serbia: Present, introduced
Vasic, 1988; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Russian Federation: Present, introduced, invasive
Vasiliev, 1958; Moskalenko, 2001; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016; Reznik, 2009Central Russia: Present, introduced
Moskalenko, 2001; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Eastern Siberia: Present, introduced
Euro+Med, 2016Russian Far East: Restricted distribution, introduced, invasive
Kuznetsov et al., 1987; Moskalenko, 2001; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Northern Russia: Present, introduced
Moskalenko, 2001; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Southern Russia: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Moskalenko, 2001; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Western Siberia: Present, introduced
Moskalenko, 2001; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Sweden: Present, introduced
EPPO, 2014Slovenia: Present
EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Slovakia: Present, introduced, invasive
Beres, 1994; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Turkey: Present, introduced
Byfield & Baytop, 1998; EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Ukraine: Present, introduced, invasive
Song & Prots, 1998; Marjushkina, 1986; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro): Present, introduced, invasive
Love, 1976; Euro+Med, 2016
Distribution map (africa) Burundi: Present, introduced
CJB, 2016Algeria: Present, introduced
CJB, 2016Egypt: Present, introduced
CJB, 2016Spain: Present, introduced
Allard, 1943; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016Greece: Present, introduced
Euro+Med, 2016Libya: Present, introduced
CJB, 2016Mauritius: Present, introduced
Holm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014Madeira: Present, introduced
Allard, 1943; Euro+Med, 2016Turkey: Present, introduced
Byfield & Baytop, 1998; EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016South Africa: Present, introduced
Wells et al., 1986; CJB, 2016
Distribution map (north america) Bermuda: Present
Allard, 1943Bahamas: Present, introduced
USDA-ARS, 2016Canada: Widespread
EPPO, 2014Alberta: Present, native
Crockett, 1977; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016British Columbia: Present, native
Bassett & Crompton, 1975; Crockett, 1977; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016Manitoba: Present, native
Crockett, 1977; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016New Brunswick: Present, native
Crockett, 1977; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016Newfoundland and Labrador: Present, native
Bassett & Crompton, 1975; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016Nova Scotia: Present, native
Haselwood & Motter, 1966; Bassett & Crompton, 1975; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016Northwest Territories: Present, native
Bassett & Crompton, 1975; USDA-NRCS, 2016Ontario: Widespread, native
Frick & Thomas, 1992; Deen et al., 1998; Sikkema et al., 1999; Crockett, 1977; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016Prince Edward Island: Present, native
Bassett & Crompton, 1975; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016Quebec: Present, native
Briere et al., 1995; Crockett, 1977; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016Saskatchewan: Present, native
Bassett & Crompton, 1975; Crockett, 1977; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016Cuba: Present
EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016Dominican Republic: Present only in captivity/cultivation, introduced
USDA-ARS, 2016Guatemala: Present, introduced
Holm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014Iceland: Present, introduced
Euro+Med, 2016Jamaica: Present
Holm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016Mexico: Present, introduced
Allard, 1943; EPPO, 2014USA: Widespread, native, invasive
Holm et al., 1979; Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016Alaska: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Alabama: Present, native
Miller, 1990; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Arkansas: Present, native
Cartwright & Templeton, 1988; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Arizona: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006California: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Colorado: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Connecticut: Present, introduced
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006District of Columbia: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Delaware: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Florida: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Richburg et al., 1996; Keese, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Georgia: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Richburg et al., 1996; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Hawaii: Present, introduced
Haselwood & Motter, 1966; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016Iowa: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Idaho: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Illinois: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Krausz et al., 1998; Young et al., 1999; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Indiana: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Siegelin & Lehman, 1998; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Kansas: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Kentucky: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Louisiana: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Massachusetts: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Maryland: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Beste, 1989; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Maine: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Michigan: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Nelson & Renner, 1999; Sprague et al., 1999; Fausey et al., 1999; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Minnesota: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Johnson et al., 1998; Netzer et al., 1998; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Missouri: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Niekamp et al., 1999; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Mississippi: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Montana: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006North Carolina: Present, native
Coble et al., 1981; Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Culpepper & York, 1998; Askew & Wilcut, 1999; Culpepper & York, 1999; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006North Dakota: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Nebraska: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Stubbendieck et al., 1995; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006New Hampshire: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006New Jersey: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Prostko & Meade, 1993; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006New Mexico: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Nevada: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006New York: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Ohio: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Loux & Berry, 1991; Forcella et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Oklahoma: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Oregon: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Pennsylvania: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Spackman et al., 1995; Henry et al., 1999; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Rhode Island: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006South Carolina: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Tedford & Fortnum, 1988; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006South Dakota: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Forcella et al., 1997; Clay et al., 1999; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Tennessee: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Eaton et al., 1990; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Texas: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Utah: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Virginia: Present, native
Wilcut & Swann, 1990; Jordan et al., 1994; Ackley et al., 1997; Ackley et al., 1998; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Vermont: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Washington: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Wisconsin: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Banaras, 1993; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006West Virginia: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006Wyoming: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
Distribution map (central america) Bahamas: Present, introduced
USDA-ARS, 2016Colombia: Present, introduced
Holm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014Cuba: Present
EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016Dominican Republic: Present only in captivity/cultivation, introduced
USDA-ARS, 2016Guadeloupe: Present, introduced
EPPO, 2014Guatemala: Present, introduced
Holm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014Jamaica: Present
Holm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016Martinique: Present, introduced
EPPO, 2014Mexico: Present, introduced
Allard, 1943; EPPO, 2014USA: Widespread, native, invasive
Holm et al., 1979; Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016Florida: Present, native
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Richburg et al., 1996; Keese, 1997; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Strother, 2006
Distribution map (south america) Argentina: Present, introduced
Allard, 1943; King, 1966; EPPO, 2014Bolivia: Present
EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016Brazil: Present
Haselwood & Motter, 1966; Holm et al., 1979; Fleck et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016Chile: Present
Holm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016Colombia: Present, introduced
Holm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014Peru: Present
EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016Paraguay: Present
EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016Uruguay: Present
EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016
Distribution map (pacific) Australia: Present
EPPO, 2014Australian Northern Territory: Present, introduced
Crothers, 1993New South Wales: Present, introduced
Lazarides et al., 1997; Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2016Queensland: Present, introduced
Lazarides et al., 1997; Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2016South Australia: Present, introduced
Lazarides et al., 1997; Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2016Victoria: Present, introduced
Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2016Western Australia: Present, introduced
Lazarides et al., 1997; Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2016China: Present, introduced, invasive
Duan & Chen, 2000; EPPO, 2014; Ling et al., 2012New Zealand: Present, introduced
Webb, 1987; EPPO, 2014Taiwan: Present, introduced, invasive
Wang & Chiang, 1998; EPPO, 2014