Cookies on Invasive Species Compendium

Like most websites we use cookies. This is to ensure that we give you the best experience possible.

Continuing to use www.cabi.org means you agree to our use of cookies. If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use.

Datasheet

Ambrosia artemisiifolia

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. artemisiifolia is an annual herb native to Central and Northern America. It has been accidentally introduced into a large number of countries as a contaminant of seed and grains. A. artemisiifolia t...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
A. artemisiifolia plant with leaves 5-10 cm long, opposite at the base, and pinnately lobed.
TitleA. artemisiifolia plant
CaptionA. artemisiifolia plant with leaves 5-10 cm long, opposite at the base, and pinnately lobed.
CopyrightKelly Nelson
A. artemisiifolia plant with leaves 5-10 cm long, opposite at the base, and pinnately lobed.
A. artemisiifolia plantA. artemisiifolia plant with leaves 5-10 cm long, opposite at the base, and pinnately lobed.Kelly Nelson

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

A. artemisiifolia is an annual herb native to Central and Northern America. It has been accidentally introduced into a large number of countries as a contaminant of seed and grains. A. artemisiifolia typically colonises disturbed land where it produces a large number of seeds which can remain viable in the soil for 40 years or more. The pollen produced by species of Ambrosia is highly allergenic and can induce allergic rhinitis, fever, or dermatitis. As a result, high medical costs have been reported in areas with large infestations in both its native and introduced range. A. artemisiifolia can also invade agricultural land where it acts as a weed in a number of crops (in particular in sunflower, maize, soybean and cereals) and can cause significant decreases in yields.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Ambrosia
  •                                 Species: Ambrosia artemisiifolia

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

A. artemisiifolia was described by Linnaeus (1753: 988) as one of the four listed Ambrosia species (the other three species are: A. trifida L., A. elatior L., and A. maritima L.). The lectotype was designated by Hind et al. (1993) on a specimen preserved at LINN (The Linnean Society, 2016).

The name Ambrosia means food of the gods (Spencer, 1957). Pigs and sheep will consume A. artemisiifolia, thus the common name hogweed (Crockett, 1977).

Description

Top of page

Annual herb (therophyte), (10-)20-60(-150) cm tall. Stems erect. Leaves opposite (proximal) and alternate, with blades lanceolate or elliptic [(20-)25-55(-90) × 20-30(-50) mm], 1-2-pinnately lobed, sparsely pubescent abaxially, glandular-dotted on both faces, petioled [petiole 25-35(-60) mm long]. Flowers arranged in capitula, the male capitula (5-20 flowers per capitulum, the involucre being cup-shaped, glabrous to pubescent) forming a terminal spike-like inflorescence, the female capitula proximal to the male ones. Fruit globose to pyriform, 2-3 mm long, more or less pubescent.

Plant Type

Top of page Annual
Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

Top of page

A. artemisiifolia is native to North and Central America (Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Kovalev, 1989). It is now widely distributed across the world; Africa (CJB, 2016), Asia (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2011), Australia (Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2016) and Europe (Euro+Med, 2016).

A. artemisiifolia has become a dominant alien plant in countries such as Italy (Siniscalo and Barni, 1994), Lithuania (Gudzinskas, 1993) and Hungary. A. artemisiifolia is not as prominent in subtropical and tropical regions (Allard, 1943; King, 1966). The hot, dry summers in southern Europe and Mediterranean areas are not favourable for its growth (Allard, 1943; King, 1966). In addition to this A. artemisiifolia is relatively rare in northern Europe (Norway, Sweden, Scotland and Ireland) (Gerber et al., 2011).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanPresentIntroducedEPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
ChinaPresentIntroduced1930 Invasive Duan and Chen, 2000; Ling et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014
-AnhuiPresentIntroduced Invasive EPPO, 2014
-BeijingPresentIntroduced Invasive EPPO, 2014
-FujianPresentIntroduced Invasive EPPO, 2014
-GuangdongPresentIntroduced Invasive EPPO, 2014
-GuizhouPresentIntroduced Invasive EPPO, 2014
-HainanPresentIntroduced Invasive EPPO, 2014
-HebeiPresentIntroduced Invasive EPPO, 2014
-HeilongjiangPresentIntroduced Invasive EPPO, 2014
-HenanPresentIntroduced Invasive EPPO, 2014
-HubeiPresentIntroduced Invasive EPPO, 2014
-HunanPresentIntroduced Invasive EPPO, 2014
-JiangsuPresentIntroducedZhan et al., 1993
-JiangxiPresentIntroduced Invasive EPPO, 2014
-JilinPresentIntroduced Invasive EPPO, 2014
-LiaoningPresentIntroducedZhirong, 1990; EPPO, 2014
-ShandongPresentIntroduced Invasive EPPO, 2014
-ShanghaiPresentIntroduced Invasive EPPO, 2014
-SichuanPresentIntroduced Invasive EPPO, 2014
-YunnanPresentIntroduced Invasive EPPO, 2014
-ZhejiangPresentIntroduced Invasive EPPO, 2014
Georgia (Republic of)PresentIntroducedEPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
IndiaPresentEPPO, 2014North-eastern India
-MeghalayaPresentIntroducedSingh and Lal, 1994; Sahoo, 1998
JapanPresentIntroduced Invasive Holm et al., 1979; Nakayama, 1998; Ohtsuka, 1998; Moriya, 1999; EPPO, 2014
KazakhstanPresentIntroducedEPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Kim et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014
TaiwanPresentIntroduced Invasive Wang and Chiang, 1998; EPPO, 2014
TurkeyPresentIntroducedByfield and Baytop, 1998; EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016

Africa

AlgeriaPresentIntroducedCJB, 2016
BurundiPresentIntroducedCJB, 2016
EgyptPresentIntroducedCJB, 2016
LibyaPresentIntroducedCJB, 2016
MauritiusPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
South AfricaPresentIntroducedWells et al., 1986; CJB, 2016

North America

BermudaPresentAllard, 1943
CanadaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-AlbertaPresentNativeCrockett, 1977; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-British ColumbiaPresentNativeBassett and Crompton, 1975; Crockett, 1977; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-ManitobaPresentNativeCrockett, 1977; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-New BrunswickPresentNativeCrockett, 1977; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentNativeBassett and Crompton, 1975; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-Northwest TerritoriesPresentNativeBassett and Crompton, 1975; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-Nova ScotiaPresentNativeHaselwood and Motter, 1966; Bassett and Crompton, 1975; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-OntarioWidespreadNativeCrockett, 1977; Frick and Thomas, 1992; Deen et al., 1998; Sikkema et al., 1999; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-Prince Edward IslandPresentNativeBassett and Crompton, 1975; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-QuebecPresentNativeCrockett, 1977; Briere et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-SaskatchewanPresentNativeBassett and Crompton, 1975; Crockett, 1977; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
MexicoPresentIntroducedAllard, 1943; EPPO, 2014
USAWidespreadNative Invasive Holm et al., 1979; Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-AlabamaPresentNativeMiller, 1990; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-AlaskaPresentNativeStrother, 2006; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-ArizonaPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Strother, 2006; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-ArkansasPresentNativeCartwright and Templeton, 1988; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-CaliforniaPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Strother, 2006; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-ColoradoPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-ConnecticutPresentIntroducedLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-DelawarePresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-District of ColumbiaPresentNativeStrother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-FloridaPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Richburg et al., 1996; Keese, 1997; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-GeorgiaPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Richburg et al., 1996; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedHaselwood and Motter, 1966; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-IdahoPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Strother, 2006; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-IllinoisPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Krausz et al., 1998; Young et al., 1999; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-IndianaPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Siegelin and Lehman, 1998; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-IowaPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-KansasPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-KentuckyPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-LouisianaPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-MainePresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-MarylandPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Beste, 1989; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-MassachusettsPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-MichiganPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Fausey et al., 1999; Nelson and Renner, 1999; Sprague et al., 1999; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-MinnesotaPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Johnson et al., 1998; Netzer et al., 1998; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-MississippiPresentNativeStrother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-MissouriPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Niekamp et al., 1999; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-MontanaPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-NebraskaPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Stubbendieck et al., 1995; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-NevadaPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Strother, 2006; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-New HampshirePresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-New JerseyPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Prostko and Meade, 1993; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-New MexicoPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Strother, 2006; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-New YorkPresentNative, ; Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-North CarolinaPresentNativeCoble et al., 1981; Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Culpepper and York, 1998; Askew and Wilcut, 1999; Culpepper and York, 1999; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-North DakotaPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-OhioPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Loux and Berry, 1991; Forcella et al., 1997; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-OklahomaPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-OregonPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Strother, 2006; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-PennsylvaniaPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Spackman et al., 1995; Henry et al., 1999; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-Rhode IslandPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-South CarolinaPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Tedford and Fortnum, 1988; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-South DakotaPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Forcella et al., 1997; Clay et al., 1999; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-TennesseePresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Eaton et al., 1990; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-TexasPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-UtahPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Strother, 2006; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-VermontPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-VirginiaPresentNativeWilcut and Swann, 1990; Jordan et al., 1994; Ackley et al., 1997; Ackley et al., 1998; Strother, 2006; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-WashingtonPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Strother, 2006; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-West VirginiaPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-WisconsinPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Banaras, 1993; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-WyomingPresentNativeLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Strother, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016

Central America and Caribbean

BahamasPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
CubaPresentEPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016
Dominican RepublicPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedEPPO, 2014
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
JamaicaPresentHolm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016
MartiniquePresentIntroducedEPPO, 2014

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedAllard, 1943; King, 1966; EPPO, 2014
BoliviaPresentEPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016Conflicting reports as to whether native or introducted
BrazilPresentHaselwood and Motter, 1966; Holm et al., 1979; Fleck et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016Conflicting reports as to whether native or introducted
ChilePresentHolm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016Conflicting reports as to whether native or introducted
ColombiaPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
ParaguayPresentEPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016Conflicting reports as to whether native or introducted
PeruPresentEPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016Conflicting reports as to whether native or introducted
UruguayPresentEPPO, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016Conflicting reports as to whether native or introducted

Europe

AlbaniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
AustriaPresentIntroduced1883Love, 1976; Essl et al., 2009; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
BelarusPresentIntroducedEuro+Med, 2016
BelgiumPresentIntroducedAllard, 1943; Love, 1976; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
Bosnia-HercegovinaPresentIntroducedEuro+Med, 2016
BulgariaPresentIntroducedEuro+Med, 2016
CroatiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Igrc et al., 1995; Silic and Solic, 1999; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
Czech RepublicPresentIntroduced Invasive Love, 1976; Jehlik, 1995; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
DenmarkPresentIntroducedNOBANIS, 2010; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
EstoniaPresentIntroducedEuro+Med, 2016
FinlandPresentIntroducedNOBANIS, 2010; EPPO, 2014
FrancePresentIntroduced1863 Invasive Love, 1976; Bertrand and Maupas, 1996; Chollet et al., 1998; Déchamp, 1999; Chauvel et al., 2006; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
-CorsicaTransient: actionable, under eradicationEPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
GermanyPresentIntroduced1863 Invasive Allard, 1943; Love, 1976; Chauvel and Martinez, 2012; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
GreecePresentIntroducedEuro+Med, 2016
HungaryWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Love, 1976; Toth et al., 1989; Reisinger, 1992; Bruckner et al., 1997; Bohár and Schwarczinger, 1999; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
IcelandPresentIntroducedEuro+Med, 2016
IrelandPresentIntroducedEuro+Med, 2016
ItalyPresentIntroduced1902Allard, 1943; Love, 1976; Albasser, 1992; Siniscalo and Barni, 1994; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016; Gentili et al., 2016
LatviaPresentIntroducedNOBANIS, 2010; Euro+Med, 2016
LiechtensteinPresentIntroducedEuro+Med, 2016
LithuaniaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Gudzinskas, 1993; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
LuxembourgPresentIntroducedEPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
MacedoniaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Konstantinovic et al., 1989; Maceljski and Igrc, 1990
MoldovaPresentIntroducedEPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
NetherlandsPresentIntroduced1860Allard, 1943; Chauvel and Martinez, 2012; Euro+Med, 2016
NorwayPresentIntroducedNOBANIS, 2010; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
PolandPresentIntroduced Invasive Love, 1976; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
PortugalPresentIntroducedAllard, 1943; Love, 1976; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
-MadeiraPresentIntroducedAllard, 1943; Euro+Med, 2016
RomaniaPresentIntroducedLove, 1976; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
Russian FederationPresentIntroduced1918 Invasive Vasiliev, 1958; Moskalenko, 2001; Reznik, 2009; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
-Central RussiaPresentIntroducedMoskalenko, 2001; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
-Eastern SiberiaPresentIntroducedEuro+Med, 2016
-Northern RussiaPresentIntroducedMoskalenko, 2001; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
-Russian Far EastRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Kuznetsov et al., 1987; Moskalenko, 2001; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
-Southern RussiaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Moskalenko, 2001; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
-Western SiberiaPresentIntroducedMoskalenko, 2001; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
SerbiaPresentIntroducedVasic, 1988; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
SlovakiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Beres, 1994; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
SloveniaPresentEPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
SpainPresentIntroducedAllard, 1943; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
SwedenPresentIntroducedEPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandPresentIntroducedEPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
UKPresentIntroduced1895Allard, 1943; Salisbury, 1961; Chauvel and Martinez, 2012; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
UkrainePresentIntroduced Invasive Marjushkina, 1986; Song and Prots, 1998; EPPO, 2014; Euro+Med, 2016
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentIntroduced Invasive Love, 1976; Euro+Med, 2016

Oceania

AustraliaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentIntroducedCrothers, 1993
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedLazarides et al., 1997; Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2016
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedLazarides et al., 1997; Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2016
-South AustraliaPresentIntroducedLazarides et al., 1997; Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2016
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedCouncil of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2016
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedLazarides et al., 1997; Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2016
New ZealandPresentIntroducedWebb, 1987; EPPO, 2014

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

A. artemisiifolia is a neophyte which was introduced in Africa, Europe and Asia after the year 1492 (the discovery of America). Some studies on the history of introduction were published for Europe, in various regions such as France (Chauvel et al., 2006), Austria (Essl et al., 2009) and central and eastern Europe. A. artemisiifolia was reported in Germany in 1863 (Bassett and Crompton, 1975; Kovalev, 1989). A. artemisiifoliais found almost throughout Hungary although it has not been recorded in northern regions because climatic conditions prevent the seeds from ripening (Beres, 1994). In Russia, A. artemisiifolia was collected for the first time near Stavropol in 1918. It was also found in the Krasnodar region (Vasiliev, 1958). The distribution of the weed has rapidly increased; in 1950 it infested 200,000 ha in the Krasnodar region (Makodzeba, 1955); in 1950-1955 it occurred in the Rostov region (Bezruchenko and Chukarin, 1956); in 1963 it was found in the Primorski region (Voroshilov, 1966); and in 1973 in the Khabarovsk region (Nechaev and Nechaev, 1973). A. artemisiifolia has been spreading in Russia for more than 80 years, affecting more than 5 million ha and without the phytosanitary measures that have limited its distribution, could potentially occupy all areas of the country (Moskalenko, 2001). A. artemisiifolia was collected in 1995 from north-east Anatolia, Turkey, where well-established populations of the weed now exist (Byfield and Baytop, 1998).

No comprehensive studies about the history of introduction appear to be available for Asia and Africa however Ling et al. (2012) stated that this species was introduced into China in 1930.

A. artemisiifolia was first recorded in Australia in 1908 (Julien et al., 2012).

Introductions

Top of page
Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Australia 1908 Yes Julien et al., 2012
Austria North America 1883 Yes Essl et al., 2009
China 1930 Yes Ling et al., 2012
France North America 1863 Yes Chauvel et al., 2006
Germany North America 1863 Yes Chauvel and Martinez, 2012
Italy North America 1902 Yes Gentili et al., 2016
Netherlands North America 1860 Yes Chauvel and Martinez, 2012
Russian Federation North America 1918 Yes Reznik, 2009
UK North America 1895 Yes Chauvel and Martinez, 2012

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

It is possible that A. artemisiifolia will spread further as it is accidentally introduced as a contaminant of seed and grain into other countries. Temperature is the main factor limiting the spread of A. artemisiifolia; under cooler conditions plants fail to produce flowers or seeds fail to ripen (Bullock et al., 2010). It is possible that as a result of climate change, A. artemisiifolia may increase its distribution.

Habitat

Top of page

A. artemisiifolia is typically found on disturbed sites such as, railways, wasteland, uncultivated and cultivated land (field crops, orchards, vineyards, nurseries) and constructions sites. It is naturally found along river banks but may also be found in grasslands and dry meadows.

Habitat List

Top of page
CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Freshwater
Rivers / streams Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rivers / streams Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial-managed
Buildings Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Buildings Principal habitat Natural
Cultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Principal habitat Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Riverbanks Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Principal habitat Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

Experiments carried out by Vidotto et al. (2013) showed that A. artemisiifolia inhibits the germination and growth of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) by more than 50%. The same authors showed also a reduction in growth for lettuce (Brassica spp.). In corn, season-long interference from dense populations of A. artemisiifolia in Illinois was found to reduce yields by 74% in two years. A. artemisiifolia also has an impact on the growth of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) and was ranked as one of the worst weeds to control during cultivation (Wilcut and Swann, 1990; Clewis et al., 2002).

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

A. artemisiifolia is a diploid taxon with 2n = 36 (CCDB, 2016). Hybrids were described with A. psilostachya (A. × integradiensis W.H.Wagner) and A. trifida L. (A. × helenae Rouleau) (Strother, 2006).

Reproductive Biology

A. artemisiifolia is a fast growing herb which can completes its growth cycle in 115 to 183 days (Bassett and Crompton, 1975; Li et al., 1989; Beres, 1994), with each plant producing a high number of viable seeds which are small in size and low in weight (Yurukova-Grancharova et al., 2015). Pollination is performed by wind, the pollen being small (20-30 µm), tricolporate, sphaerical, with short and sparse spines andcavae (Payne et al., 1970; Bassett et al., 1978).

Physiology and Phenology

A. artemisiifolia uses the C3 pathway of photosynthesis. It is one of the earliest emerging summer annual weed species and may germinate once soil temperatures reach 11-13°C (Forcella et al., 1997). It is a pioneer annual in temperate regions, and rapidly succeeds in the first year of old fields from buried seed (Ohtsuka, 1998). In the autumn, ploughing generally favours establishment of this weed (Altieri and Liebman, 1988).

Photoperiod and temperature are the main factors affecting growth and development of A. artemisiifolia (King, 1966; Deen et al., 1998). Flowering starts approximately 119 days after germination (Li et al., 1989). Long days favour the development of male flowers, whereas female flowers are favoured by shortened days (King, 1966). Increasing of atmospheric CO2 in urban areas resulted in increased pollen production by A. artemisiifolia according to Ziska et al. (2003). Feher et al. (1998) reported that high daily temperatures and great variations of diurnal temperatures promoted pollination, whereas rain, clouds and humid weather reduced pollination. Typically, peak pollen production often occurs from mid-August to mid-September (Albasser, 1992).

Anthers open with a rise in temperature and low relative humidity (King, 1966). The adaptability of the plant to cooler climates in Hungary has been demonstrated by shortening the time from germination to flowering and seed ripening (Beres, 1994). A study carried out in the USA, using plants originating from Indiana, Michigan, Ohio and Wisconsin, suggested the existence of common ragweed ecotypes based on origin of the seeds (Leif et al., 2000).

Flowering occurs from July to October in both the origin and non-native ranges. Seeds have a low rate of germination at maturity (Sahoo, 1998) and usually require winter stratification before germination; however, seeds may undergo secondary dormancy (Altieri and Liebman, 1988). The burial of seeds increases the non-dormant seed population of A. artemisiifolia by 0.5 to 7.1% (Sahoo, 1998).

One plant may produce 3,000-4,000 seeds (Beres, 1994; Beres et al., 2002). However, up to 32,000 seeds have been counted in a single plant (Bassett and Crompton, 1975). Seed production by A. artemisiifolia may be reduced over 80% depending on its emergence relative to the crop growth stage (Chikoye et al., 1995).

A. artemisiifolia seeds may survive up to 40 years (King, 1966). Germination of seeds is decreased when stored in cattle slurry and was significantly influenced by the time of storage in maize silage. Seeds stopped germinating after 3-5 months in cattle slurry (following storage in maize silage) or after storage in maize silage for 13 months (Lesnik, 2001).

A. artemisiifolia contains phenolic compounds and terpenes (Beres et al., 2002). The allelopathic influences of A. artemisiifolia were tested in bioassays on soyabean, black gram, rice and maize. Aqueous extracts of dried fresh leaves of the weed significantly suppressed the germination, plumule and radicle length of all crops tested. Toxicity increased with the increase in concentration of extracts. The effect of the extracts was greater on the germination of black gram and rice compared to soyabean and maize. A chloroform extract from A. artemisiifolia inhibited the growth and decreased the chlorophyll a concentrations of two green algae (Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas sp.) (Bruckner et al., 2001).

Environmental Requirements

A. artemisiifolia is susceptible to frost and is commonly found between 30-50° at both north and south latitudes in diverse settings (King, 1966). It rarely grows above altitudes of 1000 m (Allard, 1943). It can grow in clay or sandy soils, but grows well on wet, heavy soils at pH 6.0-7.0 (Bassett and Crompton, 1975).

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Preferred < 430mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Df - Continental climate, wet all year Preferred Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Top of page
Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
60-65 50-55

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral
  • very acid

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • saline
  • shallow

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bemisia tabaci Herbivore Leaves not specific
Candidatus Phytoplasma solani Pathogen Leaves
Entyloma compositarum Pathogen Leaves not specific
Entyloma polysporum Pathogen Leaves not specific
Epiblema strenuana Herbivore Leaves not specific
Harpalus pensylvanicus Herbivore Seeds not specific
Hyalesthes obsoletus Herbivore
Liriomyza trifolii Herbivore Leaves/Stems not specific
Macrophomina phaseolina Pathogen Roots not specific
Nemorimyza maculosa Pathogen Leaves not specific
Ophraella communa Herbivore Introduced into Japan and Taiwan
Phyllachora ambrosiae Pathogen
Plasmopara halstedii Pathogen Inflorescence/Leaves not specific
Ponometia candefacta Herbivore Leaves not specific
Protomyces gravidus Pathogen Stems not specific
Pseudomonas syringae pv. tagetis Pathogen
Puccinia conoclinii Pathogen Leaves not specific
Puccinia xanthii Pathogen Leaves not specific
Pustula tragopogonis Pathogen Leaves not specific
Septoria epambrosiae Pathogen
Sphaeraspis vitis Herbivore not specific
Tarachidia candefacta Herbivore Introduced into Russia
Thanatephorus cucumeris Pathogen Leaves/Roots not specific
Verticillium dahliae Pathogen Leaves not specific
Zygogramma suturalis Herbivore Leaves/Seedlings Introduced into Russia, former Yugoslavia, Croatia and China

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

Several natural enemies have been recorded from A. artemisiifolia as this species has been the focus of numerous biological control programmes. Maceljski and Igrc (1990) reported 28 insects including five Orthoptera, three Heteroptera, four Homoptera, six Coleoptera and nine Lepidoptera that fed on A. artemisiifolia. However, several of these insects are common crop pests. According to Julien et al. (2012) more than 70 arthropods have been recorded from A. artemisiifolia in its native range and a total of 20 pathogens identified from Eurasia including Puccinia xanthii (Gerber et al., 2011).

A. artemisiifolia may also serve as an alternative host for crop diseases such as Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 (Tedford and Fortnum, 1988), M. incognita race 3 (Tedford and Fortnum, 1988), Erysiphe cichoracearum (Bassett and Crompton, 1975), Albugo tragopogonis (Bassett and Crompton, 1975), Plasmopara halstedii (Bassett and Crompton, 1975), Entyloma compositarum (Bassett and Crompton, 1975), Entyloma polysporum (Bassett and Crompton, 1975), Puccinia xanthii (Bassett and Crompton, 1975), Aster yellow virus (Bassett and Crompton, 1975), Cucumber mosaic virus (Kazinczi et al., 2001), Cuscuta gronovii (Bassett and Crompton, 1975), Protomyces gravidus (Cartwright and Templeton, 1988), Septoria sp. (Bohár and Schwarczinger, 1999), Phoma sp. (Briere et al., 1995) and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum of sunflower (Bohár and Kiss, 1999). 

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

Natural Dispersal

The fruits of A. artemisiifolia are spread by wind and water. The seeds can remain on the surface of water for two hours or more (Moskalenko, 2001) and can be dispersed in the spring by water in ditches, canals and rivers.

Vector Transmission

The seeds of A. artemisiifolia may be carried to new locations by birds.

Accidental Introduction

Seeds of A. artemisiifolia can be spread from field to field by agricultural practices (Moskalenko, 2001). Seeds are also commonly found in stored and transported grains (Ilic and Kalinovic, 1995; Jehlik, 1995; Moskalenko, 2001). The movement of A. artemisiifolia has linked to the transport of cereals and oil crops (Jehlik, 1995; Semenenko, 2002). In Norway, seeds of A. artemisiifolia have been accidentally imported as a contaminant of bird seed (Jorgensen, 2002).

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Disturbance Yes
Flooding and other natural disasters Yes
Medicinal use Yes Yes
Research Yes Yes
Seed trade Yes Yes
Self-propelled Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aircraft Yes
Host and vector organisms Yes
Land vehiclesRailway freight, dock cargo, agricultural vehicles Yes
Soil, sand and gravelSoil, sand Yes Yes
Wind Yes

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
True seeds (inc. grain) seeds No Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
Wood

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products Negative
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Crop production Negative
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health Negative
Livestock production Negative
Native fauna None
Native flora Negative
Rare/protected species None
Tourism Negative
Trade/international relations Negative
Transport/travel None

Economic Impact

Top of page

A. artemisiifolia can have a negative economic impact on agriculture by decreasing crop yields, crop quality and efficiency of propagation and harvest. There is published data for losses of income in the USA (Loux and Berry, 1991), France (Bertrand and Maupas, 1996), Hungary (Toth et al., 1989) and Germany (Reinhardt et al., 2003). In Germany costs related to the invasion of A. artemisiifolia were estimated of about €32 million (Reinhardt et al., 2003).

In Hungary, A. artemisiifolia at a density of 26 plants per m² in Zea mays (maize) gave yield loss of 69-73% (Varga et al., 2000; Varga et al., 2002). In Phaseolus vulgaris, grain yield may be reduced by 10-22% when A. artemisiifolia emerges with the crop (Chikoye et al., 1995) and 30-75% lost when A. artemisifolia was present from flowering to harvest (Evanylo and Zehnder, 1989). A study by Coble et al. (1981) found that four A. artemisiifolia plants per 10 m of row reduced yields of Glycine max by 8%. Yield was not reduced if A. artemisiifolia competed with G. max less than six weeks after emergence (Coble et al., 1981). One A. artemisiifolia plant per 3 m of row reduced cotton (species of Gossypium) yields by 5-12% (Byrd and Coble, 1991). Plot experiments in Hungary also found that A. artemisiifolia decreased root yield of Beta vulgaris by 40-50% and that the sugar content was reduced by 13-15% (Bosak and Mod, 2000).

A. artemisiifolia may also serve as an alternative host for a number of crop diseases. As a result, these may decrease crop yields and would increase costs required for control of such diseases. Examples of these diseases include Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 (Tedford and Fortnum, 1988), M. incognita race 3 (Tedford and Fortnum, 1988), Erysiphe cichoracearum (Bassett and Crompton, 1975), Albugo tragopogonis (Bassett and Crompton, 1975), Plasmopara halstedii (Bassett and Crompton, 1975), Entyloma compositarum (Bassett and Crompton, 1975), Entyloma polysporum (Bassett and Crompton, 1975), Puccinia xanthii (Bassett and Crompton, 1975), Aster yellow virus (Bassett and Crompton, 1975), Cucumber mosaic virus (Kazinczi et al., 2001), Cuscuta gronovii (Bassett and Crompton, 1975), Protomyces gravidus (Cartwright and Templeton, 1988), Septoria sp. (Bohár and Schwarczinger, 1999), Phoma sp. (Briere et al., 1995) and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum of sunflower (Bohár and Kiss, 1999). In addition, the allopathic effects of A. artemisiifolia on reduced crop germination and growth have been reported (Beres et al., 1998; Bruckner, 1998).

Environmental Impact

Top of page

In introduced areas, A. artemisiifolia can acts as a pioneer species. As a result A. artemisiifolia competes with native plants species for space, nutrients, light and water (Beres et al., 2002) and may result in changes to habitats and a decrease in biodiversity.

Social Impact

Top of page

Due to the morphological characteristics of the pollen, A. artemisiifolia is one of the most common seasonal sources of aeroallergens which cause allergic rhinitis, fever, or dermatitis (Déchamp, 1999; Moller et al., 2002).

Increasing atmospheric CO2 in urban areas was found to result in an increase in pollen production (Ziska et al., 2003); a doubling of the atmospheric CO2 concentration stimulated ragweed pollen production by 61% (Wayne et al., 2002). This, combined with an increase in distribution, has resulted in a significant increase in the number of patients in Europe diagnosed with allergic diseases over the past 10-20 years (Farkas et al. 1998). A study by Cakmak et al. (2002) found that an increase of 72 plants-grains per m³ was associated with an increase of about 10% in patient visits to a children's hospital in eastern Ontario for conjunctivitis and rhinitis. It is assumed that native workers, who have been living with the pollen for a long time (i.e. exposed to natural immunotherapy), have developed a natural tolerance to it (Dervaderics et al., 2002). A. artemisiifolia also caused allergenic hay fever in its native range, in particular in Canada and northern USA (Gerber et al., 2011).

In addition to this, cattle may eat A. artemisiifolia after grasses have been exhausted, which may cause nausea and also changes the flavour of the milk producing an undesirable product (Spencer, 1957).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page

Impact mechanisms

  • Causes allergic responses
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
  • Hybridization
  • Induces hypersensitivity
  • Interaction with other invasive species
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Rapid growth

Impact outcomes

  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Increases vulnerability to invasions
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Negatively impacts forestry
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species

Invasiveness

  • Abundant in its native range
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Fast growing
  • Has a broad native range
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc

Likelihood of entry/control

  • Difficult/costly to control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

Top of page

Economic Value

A. artemisiifolia may be used as food for pigs and sheep (Crockett, 1977). Cattle may also eat A. artemisiifolia but they may suffer nausea (Stubbendieck et al., 1995).

Social Benefit

A. artemisiifolia has been used as both an anti-inflammatory agent (Stubbendieck et al., 1995); and an antibacterial agent (Kim et al., 1993).

Environmental Services

A. artemisiifolia can be used for phytoremediation in soils contaminated with heavy metals (Bassett and Crompton, 1975; Kang et al., 1998) and is able to successfully remove soil lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) during repeated croppings (Pichtel et al., 2000).

The fruits of A. artemisiifolia are also often consumed by small birds and animals (Stubbendieck et al., 1995).

Uses List

Top of page

Environmental

  • Soil improvement

Materials

  • Chemicals

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Detection and Inspection

Top of page

Auda et al. (2002) and Danner et al. (2012) showed that it may soon be possible to detect dense populations of A. artemisiifolia using spatial remote sensing methods.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

A. artemisiifolia is similar in appearance to a number of species in the genus Ambrosia.

For example, it is similar to A. acanthicarpa from which differs by the narrower capitula (2-3 vs. 3-7 mm), the shape and lenght of fruits (globose to pyriform, 2-3 mm long vs. more or less fusiform, 3-5 mm long), number and lenght of spines in the fruits (3-5 spines each 0.1-0.5 mm long vs. 8-18 spines each 8-18 mm long) (Strother, 2006).

Another similar species is A. annua which is mainly different by its inflorescence with capitula arranged in panicles.

A. trifida grows taller, has larger seed and has palmate leaves divided into three lobes compared with A. artemisiifolia.

A. bidentata has hairy, notched leaves that clasp the stem. Seed are angled with prominent spines.

A. psilostachya is a perennial with leaves not as finely divided as A. artemisiifolia.

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Control

Cultural Control

Planting red clover (Trifolium pretense) as a cover crop in established winter wheat reduced the biomass of A. artemisiifolia (Mutch et al., 2003).

Mechanical Control

A. artemisiifolia may be controlled by hand weeding, mowing (at 2 cm, from the soil) and by crushing with a roadroller (Vincent et al., 1992). Hand weeding is the most effective in reducing pollen and seed production although it is also the most expensive (Vincent et al., 1992). Mechanical cutting can reduce A. artemisiifolia seed production by up to 74% depending on the number and timing of cuttings (Guan et al., 1991).

Biological Control

A. artemisiifolia has been the subject of a biocontrol programme which has resulted in the release of a number of agents.

Zygogramma suturalis (ambrosia striped leaf beetle) has a preferential appetite for A. artemisiifolia (Igrc and Ilovai, 1996). The beetle may consume 50-70% of the leaf surface area (Kuznetsov et al., 1987). Z. suturalis was introduced from North America into several countries including Russia in 1978 (Reznik et al., 1994), former Yugoslavia in 1984 (Igrc, 1987) and Croatia in 1985 (Igrc et al., 1995). Z. suturalis was introduced from Canada and Russia to China in 1997 (Wan and Wang, 1989) and 1988 (Wan and Wang, 1990). However, 10 years after it was introduced into Russia it was only moderately successful due to low population establishment (Reznik et al., 1994) and poor movement (Reznik et al., 1990).

A. artemisiifolia is a known host for Ophraella communa (ragweed leaf beetle) (Knowles et al., 1999). O. communa was introduced into Japan in 1996 (Moriya, 1999; Yamazaki et al., 2000; Moriya and Shiyake, 2001; Moriya et al., 2002) and Taiwan (Wang and Chiang, 1998). Tarachidia candefacta was introduced into Russia from Canada in 1967 and became established (Shurov, 1998).

Potential biological control agents such as Epiblema strenuana (Wan, 1991), Pseudomonas syringae pv. tagetis (Johnson et al., 1996), Protomyces gravidus (Cartwright and Templeton, 1988) Phyllachora ambrosiae (Vajna et al., 2000) and Septoria epambrosiae (Bohár and Schwarczinger, 1999; Becker, 2001; Farr and Castlebury, 2001) have been pursued and the possibility of biological control of A. artemisiifolia is still being considered.

In the autumn of 2001, an epidemic of downy mildew (Plasmopara halstedii) occurred on A. artemisiifolia over large areas of central Hungary (Vajna, 2002).

The herbicidal effect of essential oils (1%, v/v) from red thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) and clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry] on shoots of A. artemisiifolia was determined in laboratory and greenhouse experiments (Tworkoski, 2002). The oils may be useful as natural product herbicides for organic farming systems.

Sesquiterpenoid lactones extracted from A. taurica were highly toxic against the seeds of A. artemisiifolia (C50 10.4-56.8 mg/litre) (Konovalov et al., 2002).

Chemical Control

A number of post- and pre-emergence chemicals have been used to control A. artemisiifolia with varied success.

Pre-emergence application of mesotrione controlled A. artemisiifolia by at least 80%, whereas post-emergence provided control from 56-97% (Armel et al., 2003).

Diphenyl ether herbicides (lactofen, fomesafen and acifluorfen) (Holowid and Smith, 1986; Monks et al., 1993; Zhan et al., 1993; Lee et al., 1995; Nelson and Renner, 1998), cloransulam-methyl (Nelson and Renner, 1998, Askew et al., 1999) and chlorimuron (Moseley and Hagood, 1991, Monks et al., 1993, Prostko and Meade, 1993) have been used for post-emergence control of A. artemisiifolia in soybean. Pre-emergence use of flumioxazin and chlorimuron plus metribuzin controlled A. artemisiifolia in no-till soybean (Niekamp et al., 1999; Niekamp and Johnson, 2001) whereas glufosinate alone controlled A. artemisiifolia in glufosinate-resistant soybean by more than 85% (Beyers et al., 2002).

In maize, Isoxaflutole (Luscombe and Pallett, 1996; Sprague et al., 1999), atrazine (Culpepper and York, 1999), diflufenzopyr plus dicamba (Sikkema et al., 1999), atrazine plus bromoxynil (Wiese et al., 1986) and atrazine plus bentazone (Hamill and Zhang, 1997) have been used to control A. artemisiifolia. However, herbicide resistance of A. artemisiifolia to atrazine has been reported (Igrc, 1987, Maceljski and Igrc, 1990). Dicamba and rimsulfuron plus thifensulfuron-methyl tank-mixed with primisulfuron-methyl were also found to control A. artemisiifolia in maize by at least 88% (Isaacs et al., 2002).

For spring barley, Metsulfuron-methyl, 2,4-D plus dicamba, and triasulfuron plus dicamba plus 2,4-D controlled A. artemisiifolia (Zhidkov et al., 2002).

For control of A. artemisiifolia in peanut, bentazone plus paraquat followed by imazapic (Richburg et al., 1996), acifluorfen plus bentazone (Wilcut, 1991; York et al., 1995), acifluorfen plus 2,4-DB (Wilcut, 1991), preplant incorporated tank-mixtures (Jordan et al., 1994), ethalfluralin plus vernolate preplant incorporated and paraquat applied one week after emergence (Wilcut and Swann, 1990) have been used successfully. Pre-emergence treatments of diclosulam controlled common ragweed by 100% (Price and Wilcut, 2002).

In glyphosate-tolerant cotton, A. artemisiifolia was controlled with clomazone pre-emergence and glyphosate (Scott et al., 2002). Flumioxazin tank-mixed with the isopropylamine salt of glyphosate, paraquat or the trimethylsulfonium salt of glyphosate controlled common ragweed by 96%, 29 to 43 days after treatment in strip-tillage cotton (Price et al., 2002). Bromoxynil plus pyrithiobac post-emergence or with MSMA controlled (90%) common ragweed in bromoxynil-resistant cotton early season.

In other crops, A. artemisiifolia has been controlled with fluroxypyr in small grains (Riggle et al., 1999), oxyfluorfen in broccoli (Eaton et al., 1990), sulfometuron in Pinus taeda seedlings (Miller, 1990), terbacil applied pre-emergence in watermelon (Beste, 1989) and clopyralid in rutabagas (Brolley, 1990). In tomato (Ackley et al., 1997) or potato (Ackley et al., 1996), control of A. artemisiifolia was attained with rimsulfuron plus metribuzin, or metribuzin plus metolachlor applied pre-emergence in potato (Hoyt and Monks, 1996; Bailey et al., 2001).

An acetolactate synthase (ALS)-resistant A. artemisiifolia biotype has been found in Indiana (Patzoldt et al., 2001) and Ohio, USA (Taylor et al., 2002).

IPM

Crop rotations using herbicides that control A. artemisiifolia are crucial for managing A. artemisiifolia in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) fields. Mechanical weed control of A. artemisiifolia and other weeds has been shown to increase seed yield of sunflower (Fleck et al., 1989).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

Top of page

More detailed phytosociological studies of non-native areas in which A. artemisiifolia is naturalized/invasive could be conducted to provide a better insight on the impact of this species.

References

Top of page

Ackley JA; Wilson HP; Hines TE, 1996. Efficacy of rimsulfuron and metribuzin in potato (Solanum tuberosum). Weed Technology, 10(3):475-480.

Ackley JA; Wilson HP; Hines TE, 1997. Rimsulfuron and metribuzin efficacy in transplanted tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Weed Technology, 11(2):324-328.

Ackley JA; Wilson HP; Hines TE, 1998. Weed management in transplanted bell pepper (Capsicum frutescens) with clomazone and rimsulfuron. Weed Technology, 12(3):458-462.

Albasser G, 1992. Ragweed pollen sampling in Gallarate (north-west of Milan) during four years (1987-1990). Aerobiologia, 8(1):31-33

Allard HA, 1943. The North American ragweeds and their occurrence in other parts of the world. Science, 98:292-294.

Altieri MA; Liebman M, 1988. Weed management in agroecosytems: ecological approaches. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press, Inc., viii + 354 pp.

Armel GR; Wilson HP; Richardson RJ; Hines TE, 2003. Mesotrione combinations in no-till corn (Zea mays). Weed Technology, 17(1):111-116.

Askew SD; Wilcut JW, 1999. Cost and weed management with herbicide programs in glyphosate-resistant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Weed Technology, 13(2):308-313.

Askew SD; Wilcut JW; Langston VB, 1999. Weed management in soybean (Glycine max) with preplant-incorporated herbicides and cloransulam-methyl. Weed Technology, 13(2):276-282.

Auda Y; Blasco F; Gastellu-Etchegorry JP; Marty G; DTchamp C, 2002. Preliminary studies of the detection of Ambrosia populations by spatial remote sensing. Revue Française d Allergologie et d Immunologie Clinique, 42(5):533-538.

Bailey WA; Wilson HP; Hines TE, 2001. Influence of cultivation and herbicide programs on weed control and net returns in potato (Solanum tuberosum). Weed Technology, 15(4):654-659.

Banaras M, 1993. Impact of weed competition on potato production. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 14 (1):64-71.

Bassett IJ; Crompton CW, 1975. The biology of Canadian weeds. 11. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. and A. psilostachya DC. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 55(2):463-476

Bassett IJ; Crompton CW; Marmelee JA, 1978. Canada Department of Agriculture. Ottowa, Canada 334 pp.

Becker H, 2001. Fungi can whack invasive weeds. Agricultural Research (Washington), 49(11):18-19.

Beres I, 1994. New investigations on the biology of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. 46th International Symposium on Crop Protection, 59:1295-1297.

Beres I; Kazinczi G; Narwal SS, 2002. Allelopathic plants. 4. Common ragweed (Ambrosia elatior L. Syn A. artemisiifolia). Allelopathy Journal, 9(1):27-34.

Beres I; Sardi K; Kaman S; Maillet J, 1998. Allelopathic effects of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. on germination and seedling growth of field crops. Comptes rendus 6eme symposium Mediterraneen EWRS, 89-90.

Bertrand P; Maupas E, 1996. Ragweed, invasive and allergenic!. Phytoma, No. 484:25-26.

Beste CE, 1989. Terbacil selectivity for watermelon. Proceedings of the Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Weeds, Vol. 3:1045-1048

Beyers JT; Smeda RJ; Johnson WG, 2002. Weed management programmes in glufosinate-resistant soyabean (Glycine max). Weed Technology, 16(2):267-273.

Bezruchenko NZ; Chukarin NN, 1956. About Ambrosia artemisiifolia (shoots of weed and control). Botanich. Journal, 41(5):712-713.

Bohár G; Kiss L, 1999. First report of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) in Europe. Plant Disease, 83(3):302.

Bohár G; Schwarczinger I, 1999. First report of Septoria sp. on common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) in Europe. Plant Disease, 83:696.

Bosak P; Mod S, 2000. Influence of different weed species on sugar beet yield. Novenytermeles, 49(5):571-580.

Botanical Survey of India, 2016. Checklist of plants of India. http://efloraindia.nic.in/efloraindia/homePage.action

Briere SC; Watson AK; Paulitz TC; Hallett SG, 1995. First report of a Phoma sp. on common ragweed in north America. Plant Disease, 79(9):968

Brolley B, 1990. Weed control research in rutabagas. Highlights of Agricultural Research in Ontario, 13(2):9-12

Bruckner D; Czimber G; Pinke G, 1997. Changes in the weed flora of maize fields in Szigetkoz (north-west Hungary) between 1990 and 1996. Acta Agronomica Ovariensis, 39:15-19.

Bruckner DJ; Lepossa A; Herpai Z, 2001. Ragweed allelopathy: indirect interactions. Novenytermeles, 50(2-3):231-236.

Brunckner DJ, 1998. The allelopathic effect of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) on the germination of cultivated plants. Novenytermeles, 47(6):635-644.

Bullock J; Haynes T; Beal S; Wheeler B; Dickie I; Phang Xm Tinch R; Civic K; Delbaere B; Jones-Walters L; Hilbert A; Schrauwen A; Prank M; Sofiev M; Niemelä S; Räisänen P; Lees B; Skinner M; Finch F; Brough C, 2010. Assessing and controlling the spread and the effects of common ragweed in Europe. Final report: ENV.B2/ETU/2010/0037. 456 pp. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/invasivealien/docs/Final_Final_Report.pdf

Byfield AJ; Baytop A, 1998. Three alien species new to the flora of Turkey. Turkish Journal of Botany, 22(3):205-208.

Byrd JD Jr; Coble HD, 1991. Interference of selected weeds in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Weed Technology, 5(2):263-269

Cakmak S; Dales RE; Burnett RT; Judek S; Coates F; Brook JR, 2002. Effect of airborne allergens on emergency visits by children for conjunctivitis and rhinitis. Lancet (British edition), 359(9310):947-948.

Cartwright RD; Templeton GE, 1988. Biological limitations of Protomyces gravidus as a mycoherbicide for giant ragweed, Ambrosia trifida. Plant Disease, 72(7):580-582

CCDB, 2016. Chromosome counts database. http://ccdb.tau.ac.il/home/

Chauvel B; Dessaint F; Cardinal-Legrand C; Bretagnolle F, 2006. The historical spread of <i>Ambrosia artemisiifolia</i> L. in France from herbarium records. Journal of Biogeography, 33(4):665-673. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/ref/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2005.01401.x

Chauvel B; Martinez Q, 2012. Second International Ragweed Conference, France, Lyon, 28-29th October, 2012.

Chikoye D; Weise SF; Swanton CJ, 1995. Influence of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) time of emergence and density on white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Weed Science, 43(3):375-380

Chollet D; Mircovich C; PilorgT E, 1998. The control of Ambrosia in sunflower crops. Phytoma, No. 504:30-32; 2 ref.

CJB, 2016. African Plant Database. Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de la Ville de Geneve, Geneva, Switzerland, and South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria, South Africa. Geneva, Switzerland: CJB/SANBI. http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/africa/

Clay SA; Lems GJ; Clay DE; Forcella F; Ellsbury MM; Carlson CG, 1999. Sampling weed spatial variability on a fieldwide scale. Weed Science, 47(6):674-681.

Clewis SB; Askew SD; Wilcut JW, 2002. Common ragweed interference in peanut. Weed-Science, 49(6):768-772.

Coble HD; Williams FM; Ritter RL, 1981. Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) interference in soybeans (Glycine max). Weed Science, 29(3):339-342

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2016. Australia's Virtual Herbarium., Australia: Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria. http://avh.ala.org.au

Crockett LJ, 1977. Wildly Successful Plants: A Handbook of North American Weeds. New York, USA: Mackmillan Publishing Co., Inc.

Crothers M, 1993. Ragweed (Ambrosia spp.). Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (annual ragweed). Ambrosia psilostachya D.C. (perennial or western ragweed). Agnote (Darwin), No. 552:2 pp.

Culpepper AS; York AC, 1997. Weed management in no-till bromoxynil-tolerant cotton Gossypium hirsutum). Weed Technology, 11:335-345.

Culpepper AS; York AC, 1998. Weed management in glyphosate-tolerant cotton. Journal of Cotton Science, 2(4):174-185.

Culpepper AS; York AC, 1999. Weed management in glufosinate-resistant corn (Zea mays). Weed Technology, 13(2):324-333.

Danner K-M; Intress J; Beuche H; Selbeck J; Dworak W, 2012. Discrimination of Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Artemisia vulgaris by hyperspectral image analysis during the growing season. Weed Research, 53(2):146-156.

Déchamp C, 1999. Ragweed, a biological pollutant: current and desirable legal implications in France and Europe. Revue Française d'Allergologie et d'Immunologie Clinique, 39(4):289-294.

Deen W; Hunt LA; Swanton CJ, 1998. Photothermal time describes common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) phenological development and growth. Weed Science, 46(5):561-568.

Dervaderics M; Fust G; Otos M; Barok J; Pataky G, 2002. Differences in the sensitisation to ragweed pollen and occurrence of late summer allergic symptoms between native and immigrant workers of the Nuclear Power Plant of Hungary. Immunological Investigations, 31(1):29-40.

Donald WW, 2000. Timing and frequency of between-row mowing and band-applied herbicide for annual weed control in soybean. Agronomy Journal, 92(5):1013-1019.

Duan HuiPing; Chen BiLian, 2000. Biological characters, encroaching habit and control strategy of common ragweed in Shanghai area. Acta Agriculturae Shanghai, 16(3):73-77.

Eaton W; Coffey DL; Mullins CA; Rhodes GNJr, 1990. Weed control with oxyfluorfen in transplanted broccoli. Tennessee Farm and Home Science, No. 154:17-21.

EPPO, 2000. Weeds as potential quarantine pests. EPPO Reporting Service 2000, No.1. 002.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Essl F; Dullinger S; Kleinbauer I, 2009. Changes in the spatio-temporal patterns and habitat preferences of <i>Ambrosia artemisiifolia</i> during its invasion of Austria. Preslia, 81(2):119-133. http://www.preslia.cz/P092Essl.pdf

Euro+Med, 2016. Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. http://www.emplantbase.org/home.html

Evanylo GK; Zehnder GW, 1989. Common ragweed interference in snap beans at various soil potassium levels. Applied Agricultural Research, 4(2):101-105

Farkas I; FehTr Z; Erdei E; Magyar D, 1998. Prevention of allergy, the anti-ragweed campaign. Egeszsegtudomany, 42(2):116-128.

Farr DF; Castlebury LA, 2001. Septoria epambrosiae sp. nov. on Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed). Sydowia, 53(1):81-92.

Fausey JC; Penner D; Renner KA, 1999. Adjuvant effects on CGA-248757 and flumiclorac efficacy and crop tolerance. Weed Technology, 13(4):783-790.

Feher Z; Farkas I; Erdei E; Gallovich E; Csoltko G; Wimmer J; Klatsmanyi JM; Laczik M; Szintaine DJ; Borsanyi A; Oravecz A; Farkas L; Magyar D, 1998. Analysis of ragweed seasons on the basis of Hungarian Aeroallergens Network (1992-1997). Egeszsegtudomany, 42(1):61-69.

Fleck NG; Mengarda IP; Pinto JJO, 1989. Weed interference in sunflower. Competition in space. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, 24(9):1131-1137.

Fleury P; Pérez L, 1996. EXP 30985, a new product combining flurtamone and aclonifen for post-planting/pre-emergence weed control in sunflower. Seizième conférence du COLUMA. Journées internationales sur la lutte contre les mauvaises herbes, Reims, France, 6-8 décembre 1995. Tome 2., 909-914.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Forcella F; Wilson RG; Dekker J; Kremer RJ; Cardina J; Anderson RL; Alm D; Renner KA; Harvey RG; Clay S; Buhler DD, 1997. Weed seed bank emergence across the Corn Belt. Weed Science, 45(1):67-76.

Frick B; Thomas AG, 1992. Weed surveys in different tillage systems in southwestern Ontario field crops. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 72(4):1337-1347.

Gentili R; Gilardelli F; Bona E; Prosser F; Selvaggi A; Alessandrini A; Martini F; Nimis PL; Wilhalm T; Adorni M; Ardenghi NMG; Barni E; Bonafede F; Bonini M; Bouvet D; Buffa G; Ciappetta S; Giordana F; Faggi G; Ghiani A; Ghillani L; Marcucci R; Masin R; Morelli V; Montagnani C; Montanari S; Peccenini S; Pellizzari M; Romani E; Saiani D; Scortegagna S; Sirotti M; Truzzi A; Vignodelli M; Bagli L; Fiandri F; Siniscalco C; Citterio S, 2016. Distribution map of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Asteraceae) in Italy. lant Biosystems:1-6.

Gerber E; Schaffner U; Gassmann A; Hinz HL; Seier M; Müller-Schärer H, 2011. Prospects for biological control of <i>Ambrosia artemisiifolia</i> in Europe: learning from the past. Weed Research (Oxford), 51(6):559-573. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3180.2011.00879.x/full

Guan GQ; Li S; Gao DC; Zhai Q; Wan FH; Wang R; Liu WQ, 1991. Effect of defoliation on growth and fruiting of ragweed. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 2(4):292-297

Gudzinskas Z, 1993. Genus Ambrosia L. (Asteraceae) in Lithuania. Thaiszia, 3(1):89-96

Hager A; Renner K, 1994. Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) control in soybean (Glycine max) and bentazon as influenced by imazethapyr or thifensulfuron tank-mixes. Weed Technology, 8(4):766-771

Hamill AS; Zhang JianHua, 1997. Rate and time of bentazon/atrazine application for broadleaf weed control in corn (Zea mays). Weed Technology, 11(3):549-555.

Haselwood EL; Motter GG, 1966. Handbook of Hawaiian weeds [ed. by Haselwood EL, Motter GG]. Honolulu, HI, USA: Experiment Station/Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, 479 pp.

Henry M; Stevens H; Carson WP, 1999. Plant density determines species richness along an experimental fertility gradient. Ecology, 80(2):455-465.

Hind DJN; Jeffrey C; Scott AJ, 1993. [English title not available]. (Flore de Mascareignes 109. Composées.) . Sugar Industry Research Institute, Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération.

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp.

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1991. A Geographic Atlas of World Weeds. Malabar, Florida, USA: Krieger Publishing Company.

Holowid JR; Smith RL, 1986. Enhancement of acifluorfen control of giant and common ragweed with fertilizers in soybeans. Proceedings, North Central Weed Control Conference Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, Vol.41:47

Hoyt GD; Monks DW, 1996. Weed management in strip-tilled Irish potato and sweetpotato systems. HortTechnology, 6(3):238-240.

Igrc J, 1987. The importance of the species Ambrosia artemisiifolia in the world and in Yugoslavia. Fragmenta Herbologica Jugoslavica, 16(1-2):47-55

Igrc J; DeLoach CJ; Zlof V, 1995. Release and establishment of Zygogramma suturalis F. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Croatia for control of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.). Biological Control, 5(2):203-208.

Igrc J; Ilovai Z, 1996. Zygogramma sutularis F. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), its possible application against ragweed (Ambrosia elatior L.) in biological control. Növényvédelem, 32(10):493-498; 23 ref.

Ilic V; Kalinovic I, 1995. Contribution to knowledge of foreign matters in stored mercantile maize seed. Acta Agronomica Ovariensis, 37(2):145-152.

Isaacs MA; Wilson HP; Toler JE, 2002. Rimsulfuron plus thifensulfuron-methyl combinations with selected postemergence broadleaf herbicides in corn (Zea mays). Weed Technology, 16(3):664-668.

Jehlík V, 1995. Occurrence of alien expansive plant species at railway junctions of the Czech Republic. Ochrana Rostlin, 31(2):149-160.

Johnson DR; Wyse DL; Jones KJ, 1996. Controlling weeds with phytopathogenic bacteria. Weed Technology, 10(3):621-624.

Johnson GA; Hoverstad TR; Greenwald RE, 1998. Integrated weed management using narrow corn row spacing, herbicides, and cultivation. Agronomy Journal, 90(1):40-46.

Johnson WG; Kendig JA; Massey RE; Defelice MS; Becker CD, 1997. Weed control and economic returns with postemergence herbicides in narrow-row soybeans (Glycine max). Weed Technology, 11(3):453-459.

Jordan DL; Wilcut JW; Fortner LD, 1994. Utility of clomazone for annual grass and broadleaf weed control in peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Weed Technology, 8(1):23-27

Jorgensen PM, 2002. Ambrosia, nourishment for gods or dangerous weeds?. Blyttia, 60(3):160-162; 9 ref.

Julien M; McFadyen R; Cullen J, 2012. Biological control of weeds in Australia [ed. by Julien, M.\McFadyen, R.\Cullen, J.]. Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 620 pp.

Kang ByeungHoa; Shim SangIn; Lee SangGak; Kim KwangHo; Chung IllMin, 1998. Evaluation of Ambrosia artemisiifolia var. elatior, Ambrosia trifida, Rumex crispus for phytoremediation of Cu and Cd contaminated soil. Korean Journal of Weed Science, 18(3):262-267.

Kazinczi G; Horvath J; Takacs A, 2001. Role of weeds in the epidemiology of viruses. In: Proceedings of the 5th Slovenian Conference on Plant Protection, Catez ob Savi, Slovenia, 6-8 March 2001, 222-226.

Keese MC, 1997. Does escape to enemy-free space explain host specialization in two closely related leaf-feeding beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)?. Oecologia, 112(1):81-86.

Kim CJ; Kang BH; Lee IK; Ryoo IJ; Park DJ; Lee KH; Lee HS; Yoo ID, 1993. Screening of biologically active compounds from weeds. Korean Journal of Weed Science, 14(1):16-22

King LJ, 1966. Weeds of the World. Biology and Control. New York, USA: Interscience Publ.

Knowles LL; Levy A; McNellis JM; Greene KP; Futuyma DJ, 1999. Tests of inbreeding effects on host-shift potential in the phytophagous beetle Ophraella communa. Evolution, 53(2):561-567.

Konovalov DA; Starykh VV; Shkhanukov YuZ, 2002. Phytotoxic and antifungal activity of lactones from Artemisia taurica Willd. Rastitel'nye Resursy, 38(3):77-81.

Konstantinovic B; Dimitrijevic M; Arsenovic M, 1989. Evaluation of weed control on the slopes and embankments of the canals. Fragmenta Herbologica Jugoslavica, 18(1):89-93

Konstantinovic B; Dimitrijevic M; Muskinja B, 1986. Herbicide efficiency in sunflower. Znanost i Praksa u Poljoprivredi i Prehrambenoj Tehnologiji, 16(3-4):277-286

Kovalev OV, 1989. Spread of adventitious plants of the tribe Ambrosia in Eurasia and methods of biological control of weeds of the genus Ambrosia L. (Ambrosieae, Asteraceae). Trudy Zoologicheskii, Institut Akademii Nauk SSSR, 189:7-23.

Krausz RF; Kapusta G; Matthews JL, 1998. Sulfentrazone for weed control in soybean (Glycine max). Weed Technology, 12(4):684-689.

Kuznetsov VN; Kovalev OV; Esipenko LP, 1987. The ambrosia striped leaf beetle in the Maritime Territory. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 2:44-45

Lazarides M; Cowley K; Hohnen P, 1997. CSIRO handbook of Australian weeds. CSIRO handbook of Australian weeds., vii + 264 pp.

Lee HJ; Duke MV; Birk JH; Yamamoto M; Duke SO, 1995. Biochemical and physiological effects of benzheterocycles and related compounds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 43(10):2722-2727.

Leif JW; Vollmer JL; Hartberg TJ; Ballard TO, 2000. Growth and response of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) ecotypes to imazethapyr. Weed Technology, 14(1):150-155.

Lesnik M, 2001. The changes in germinability of Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Panicum dichotomiflorum and Sorghum halepense seeds stored in maize silage and cattle slurry. Rostlinna Vyroba, 47(1):34-39.

Li S; Dongchang G; Guangqing G, 1989. A study on the phenology of common ragweed and great ragweed. Journal of Shenyang Agricultural University, 20(3):344-250

Ling X-M; Liao W-J; Wokfe LM; Zhang D-J, 2012. No evolutionary shift in the mating system of North American Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Asteraceae) following its introduction to China. PlosOne, 7(2):e31935.

Linnaeus C, 1753. Species Plantarum. Volume 2. Stockholm, Sweden: Laurentii Salvii, 639 pp.

Lorenzi HJ; Jeffery LS(Editors), 1987. Weeds of the United States and their control. New York, USA; Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Ltd., 355 pp.

Loux MM; Berry MA, 1991. Use of a grower survey for estimating weed problems. Weed Technology, 5(2):460-466

Love D, 1976. CLXIX Compositae. 49. Ambrosia L. In: Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA, 1980. Flora Europaea Volume 4, Plantaginaceae to Compositae (and Rubiaceae). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Luscombe BM; Pallett KE, 1996. Isoxaflutole for weed control in maize. Pesticide Outlook, 7(6):29-32.

Maceljski M; Igrc J, 1990. The phytophagous insect fauna of Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Proceedings of the VIII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds Rome, Italy; Istituto Sperimentale per la Patologia Vegetale, Ministero dell'Agricoltura e delle Foreste, 639-643

Makodzeba IA, 1955. Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Control Methods of this Weed. Moscow, Russia: Selhozgiz.

Marjushkina VYa, 1986. Ambrosia artemisiifolia and biological control of this wed. Kiev, Ukraine: Naukova Dumka.

Miller JH, 1990. Herbaceous weed control trials with a planting machine and a crawler-tractor sprayer - fourth year pine response. Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Southern Weed Science Society, 233-244

Moller H; Spiren A; Svensson A; Gruvberger B; Hindsen M; Bruze M, 2002. Contact allergy to the Asteraceae plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (ragweed) in sesquiterpene lactone-sensitive patients in southern Sweden. Contact Dermatitis, 47(3):157-160.

Monks CD; Wilcut JW; Richburg JS, 1993. Broadleaf weed control in soyabean (Glycine max) with chlorimuron plus acifluorfen or thifensulfuron mixtures. Weed Technology, 7(2):317-321

Moriya S, 1999. Successive rearing of ragweed beetle, Ophraella communa LeSage (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Japan. Annual Report of the Kanto-Tosan Plant Protection Society, No. 46:115-117.

Moriya S; Shiyake S, 2001. Spreading the distribution of an exotic ragweed beetle, Ophraella communa LeSage (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in Japan. Japanese Journal of Entomology (New Series), 4(3):99-102.

Moriya S; Tanaka K; Yamamura K; Shimizu T; Shiyake S, 2002. Expansion of the distribution range of the ragweed beetle, Ophraella communa LeSage, (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and its natural enemies in Japan. Annual Report of the Kanto-Tosan Plant Protection Society, No.49:131-133.

Moseley CM; Hagood ESJr, 1991. Decreasing rates of nonselective herbicides in double-crop no-till soybeans (Glycine max). Weed Technology, 5(1):198-201.

Moskalenko GP, 2001. Quarantine Weeds for Russia. Moscow, Russia: Plant Quarantine Inspectorate.

Mutch DR; Martin TE; Kosola KR, 2003. Red clover (Trifolium pratense) suppression of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). Weed Technology, 17(1):181-185.

Nakayama T, 1998. Positive rates of specific IgE antibody in cases with pollinosis in the south districts of Tokushima prefecture. Shikoku Acta Medica, 54(6):393-397.

Nechaev AP; Nechaev AA, 1973. Flora of Nizshnego Priamuria. Bull. GBS AN SSSR, 8:48-51.

Nelson KA; Renner KA, 1998. Postemergence weed control with CGA-277476 and cloransulam-methyl in soybean (Glycine max). Weed Technology, 12(2):293-299.

Nelson KA; Renner KA, 1998. Weed control in wide- and narrow-row soybean (Glycine max) with imazamox, imazethapyr, and CGA-277476 plus quizalofop. Weed Technology, 12(1):137-144.

Nelson KA; Renner KA, 1999. Weed management in wide- and narrow-row glyphosate resistant soybean. Journal of Production Agriculture, 12(3):460-465.

Nelson KA; Renner KA; Penner D, 1998. Weed control in soybean (Glycine max) with imazamox and imazethapyr. Weed Science, 46(5):587-594; 41 ref.

Netzer DA; Riemenschneider DE; Bauer EO, 1998. Phytotoxic screening of preemergent herbicides on Populus in northern Minnesota. Proceedings North Central Weed Science Society, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA, 8-10 December 1998: volume 53., 105-112.

Niekamp JW; Johnson WG, 2001. Weed management with sulfentrazone and flumioxazin in no-tillage soyabean (Glycine max). Crop Protection, 20(3):215-220.

Niekamp JW; Johnson WG; Smeda RJ, 1999. Broadleaf weed control with sulfentrazone and flumioxazin in no-tillage soybean (Glycine max). Weed Technology, 13(2):233-238.

NOBANIS, 2010. North European and Baltic Network on Invasive Alien Species. North European and Baltic Network on Invasive Alien Species. http://www.nobanis.org/

Ohtsuka T, 1998. A comparative review of early herbaceous stages of secondary succession in temperate and tropical regions. Japanese Journal of Ecology, 48(2):143-157.

Patzoldt WL; Tranel PJ; Alexander AL; Schmitzer PR, 2001. A common ragweed population resistant to cloransulam-methyl. Weed Science, 49(4):485-490.

Payne WW, 1970. Preliminary reports on the flora of Wisconsin. LXII. Compositae-composite family. 6. The genus Ambrosia-the ragweeds. Transact. Wisconsin Acad. Sci, 58:353-371.

Pichtel J; Kuroiwa K; Sawyerr HT, 2000. Distribution of Pb, Cd and Ba in soils and plants of two contaminated sites. Environmental Pollution, 110(1):171-178.

Price AJ; Wilcut JW, 2002. Weed management with diclosulam in strip-tillage peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Weed Technology, 16(1):29-36.

Price AJ; Wilcut JW; Cranmer JR, 2002. Flumioxazin preplant burndown weed management in strip-tillage cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) planted into wheat (Triticum aestivum). Weed Technology, 16(4):762-767.

Price AJ; Wilcut JW; Swann CW, 2002. Weed management with diclosulam in peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Weed Technology, 16(4):724-730.

Prostko EP; Meade JA, 1993. Reduced rates of postemergence herbicides in conventional soybeans (Glycine max). Weed Technology, 7(2):365-369

PTrez GRM, 1996. Anti-inflammatory activity of Ambrosia artemisiaefolia and Rhoeo spathacea. Phytomedicine, 3(2):163-167; 11 ref.

Reinhardt F; Herle M; Bastiansen F; Streit B, 2003. Economic impact of the spread of alien species in Germany. Federal Environmental Agency, Research Report: 201 86 211 UBA-FB 000441e. Germany: Federal Environmental Agency.

Reisinger P, 1992. Relationship between soil properties and weed flora. Acta Ovariensis, 34(2):17-23

Reznik SY, 2009. Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) in Russia: spread, distribution, abundance, harmfulness and control measures (L'ambroisie à feuilles d'armoise (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) en Russie: propagation, distribution, abondance, dangerosité et mesures de contrôle). 10 pp. http://www.zin.ru/labs/expent/pdfs/reznik_2009_ambrosia.pdf

Reznik SY; Belokobyl' skii SA; Lobanov AL, 1994. Weed and herbivourous insect popoulation densities at the broad spatial scale: Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. and Zygogramma suturalis F. (Col., Chrysomelidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 118:1-9.

Reznik SYa; Belokobyl'skii SA; Lobanov AL, 1990. Effect of agroecosystem stability on the population density of the ambrosia leaf beetle Zygogramma suturalis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae). Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 69(10):54-59

Richburg JSIII; Wilcut JW; Colvin DL; Wiley GR, 1996. Weed management in southeastern peanut (Arachis hypogaea) with AC 263,222. Weed Technology, 10(1):145-152.

Riggle B; Bearmore R; Mundt G; Jachetta J; Redding K, 1999. Fluroxypyr (Starane) for control of kochia and other broadleaf weeds in wheat and barley. Proceedings of the Western Society of Weed Science, 52:126.

Riggle B; Bearmore R; Mundt G; Jachetta J; Redding K; Christianson K, 1999. Fluroxypyr (Starane) for control of kochia and other broadleaf weeds in wheat and barley. Proceedings of the Western Society of Weed Science, 52:126.

Sahoo UK, 1998. Effect of depth and duration of burial on seed viability and dormancy of four annual weeds. Annals of Agricultural Research, 19(3):304-310.

Salisbury E, 1961. Weeds & Aliens. London, UK: Collins Clear-Type Press.

Scott GH; Askew SD; Wilcut JW, 2002. Glyphosate systems for weed control in glyphosate-tolerant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Weed Technology, 16(1):191-198.

Semenenko LA, 2002. Experiences from the work of weed experts. Zashchita i Karantin Rastenii, No.8:32.

Shurov VI, 1998. Acclimatization of the American ragweed cutworm. Zashchita i Karantin Rastenii, No. 12:31-32.

Siegelin SD; Lehman JD, 1998. Herbicide programs for glyphosate resistant soybeans (Glycine max). Proceedings Northe Central Weed Science Society, 53:17-19.

Sikkema PH; Knezevic SZ; Hamill AS; Tardif FJ; Chandler K; Swanton CJ, 1999. Biologically effective dose and selectivity of SAN 1269H (BAS 662H) for weed control in corn (Zea mays). Weed Technology, 13(2):283-289.

Silic C; Solic ME, 1999. Contribution to the knowledge of the neophytic flora in the Biokovo area (Dalmatia, Croatia). Natura Croatica, 8(2):109-116.

Singh K; Lal SS, 1994. Herbicidal weed-control efficiency and nutrient removal by weeds in potato (Solanum tuberosum) under northeast hills condition. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 39:336-339.

Siniscalco C; Barni E, 1994. The incidence of alien species on flora and vegetation in the city of Turin. Allionia, 32:163-180

Song J-S; Prots B, 1998. Invasion of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Compositae) in the Ukrainian Carpathians Mts. and the Transcarpathian Plain (Central Europe). Korean Journal of Biological Sciences, 2(2):209-216.

Spackman CW; Gover AE; Parks RW; Johnson JM; Kuhns LJ, 1995. Evaluation of prodiamine and norflurazon for vegetation control on roadside and agricultural sites. Proceedings of the forty-ninth annual meeting of the Northeastern Weed Science Society, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, 2-5 January 1995., 45-46.

Spencer ER, 1957. Just Weeds. New York, USA: Charles Scribner's Sons.

Sprague CL; Kells JJ; Penner D, 1999. Weed control and corn (Zea mays) tolerance from soil-applied RPA 201772. Weed Technology, 13(4):713-725.

Stojanovic DV; Curcic SB; Orlovic S; Keresi T; Galic Z, 2011. The first finding of Ponometia candefacta (Hübner, 1831) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in Serbia. (Prvi nalaz sovice Ponometia candefacta (Hübner, 1831) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) u Srbiji.) Biljni Lekar (Plant Doctor), 39(1):31-36.

Strother JL, 2006. Ambrosia L. Volume 8(3). Flora of North America North of México, 8(3).

Stubbendieck J; Friisoe GY; Bolick MR, 1995. Weeds of Nebraska and the Great Plains. Nebraska, USA: Nebraska Department of Agriculture.

Taylor JB; Loux MM; Harrison SK; Regnier E, 2002. Response of ALS-resistant common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) and giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) to ALS-inhibiting and alternative herbicides. Weed Technology, 16(4):815-825.

Tedford EC; Fortnum BA, 1988. Weed hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita common in tobacco fields in South Carolina. Annals of Applied Nematology, 2:102-105.

The Linnean Society, 2016. The Linnean Collections. London, UK. http://linnean-online.org/

Tóth Á; Molnár J; Török T; Fekete A, 1989. Preliminary report on the third nationwide assessment of hard to control weeds. Növényvédelem, 25(9):420-422

Tworkoski T, 2002. Herbicide effects of essential oils. Weed Science, 50(4):425-431.

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). National Plant Germplasm System. Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2016. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Vajna L, 2002. Downy mildew epidemic on common ragweed in Hungary caused by Plasmopara halstedii. Plant Pathology, 51(6):809.

Vajna L; Bohar G; Kiss L, 2000. First report of Phyllachora ambrosiae in Europe causing epidemics on common ragweed. Plant Disease, 84(4):489.

Varga P; BTres I; Reisinger P, 2000. The effect of weeds on yield and leaf-area changes of maize in field trials. Növényvédelem 36(12):625-631.

Varga P; BTres I; Reisinger P, 2002. The competitive effect of three dangerous weeds on the yields of maize in different years. Növényvédelem, 38(5):219-226.

Vasic O, 1988. Further expansion of the weed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. in Serbia. Fragmenta Herbologica Jugoslavica, 17(1-2):1-5

Vasiliev DS, 1958. Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Control Methods of this Weed. Krasnodar, Russia.

Vidotto F; Tesio F; Ferrero A, 2012. Allelopathic effects of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. in the invasive process. Crop Protection, 54:161-167.

Vincent G; Deslauriers S; Cloutier D, 1992. Problems and eradication of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. in Quebec in the urban and suburban environments. Allergie et immunologie (Paris), 24(3):84-89.

Voroshilov VN, 1966. Flora of Soviet Far East. Moscow, Russia: Nauka.

Wan FH, 1991. A literature review on Epiblema strenuana - a potential biological control agent of Ambrosia artemisiifolia and its feasibility of application in China. Chinese Journal of Biological Control, 7(4):177-180

Wan FH; Wang R, 1989. Biology of Zygogramma suturalis (F.) (Col.: Chrysomelidae), an introduced biological control agent of common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Chinese Journal of Biological Control, 5(2):71-75

Wan FH; Wang R, 1990. A cage study on the control effects of Ambrosia artemisiifolia by the introduced biological control agent, Zygogramma suturalis (Col.: Chrysomelidae). Chinese Journal of Biological Control, 6(1):8-12

Wang ChinLing; Chiang MouYen, 1998. New record of a fastidious chrysomelid, Ophraella communa LeSage (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in Taiwan. Plant Protection Bulletin (Taipei), 40(2):185-188; 4 ref.

Wayne P; Foster S; Connolly J; Bazzaz F; Epstein P, 2002. Production of allergenic pollen by ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is increased in CO<SUB(2)>-enriched atmospheres. Annals of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology, 88(3):279-282.

Webb CJ, 1987. Checklist of dicotyledons naturalised in New Zealand. 18. Asteraceae (Compositp) subfamily Asteroidep. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 25(4):489-501

Wells MJ; Balsinhas AA; Joffe H; Engelbrecht VM; Harding G; Stirton CH, 1986. A catalogue of problem plants in South Africa. Memoirs of the botanical survey of South Africa No 53. Pretoria, South Africa: Botanical Research Institute.

Wiese AM; Blaise EA; Jenson JO; Nash RL; Streigel WL; Watteyne KK; Veilleux DP; Wrucke MA; Smith JW; Schwehr RD, 1986. Postemergence control of broadleaf weeds with bromoxynil and atrazine in corn. Proceedings, North Central Weed Control Conference Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, Vol. 41:80

Wilcut JW, 1991. Tropic croton (Croton glandulosus) control in peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Weed Technology, 5(4):795-798

Wilcut JW; Swann CW, 1990. Timing of paraquat applications for weed control in Virginia-type peanuts (Arachis hypogpa). Weed Science, 38(6):558-562

Yamazaki K; Imai C; Natuhara Y, 2000. Rapid population growth and food-plant exploitation pattern in an exotic leaf beetle, Ophraella communa LeSage (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in western Japan. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 35(2):215-223; 30 ref.

York AC; Wilcut JW; Swann CW; Jordan DL; Walls FR Jr, 1995. Efficacy of imazethapyr in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) as affected by time of application. Weed Science, 43(1):107-116

Young BG; Hart SE; Simmons FW, 1999. Preemergence weed control in conventional-till corn (Zea mays) with RPA 201772. Weed Technology, 13(3):471-477.

Yurukova-Grancharova P; Yankova-Tsvenkova E; Badljiev G; Vladimirov V, 2015. Reproductive characteristics of Ambrosia artemisiifolia and iva xanthiifolia - two invasive alien species in Bulgaria. Comptes rendus de l'Academie bulgare des Sciences, 68(7):853-862.

Zhan WM; Luo YL; Jiang RC, 1993. Study on selective herbicides for control of Ambrosia artemisiifolia at different stages. Plant Protection, 19:37.

Zhidkov NI; Burykin SI; Burykina NA, 2002. Laren in the Stavropol region. Zashchita i Karantin Rastenii, No.7:24.

Zhirong W, 1990. Farmland Weeds in China: A Collection of Coloured Illustrative Plates. Beijing, China: Agriculture Publishing House.

Ziska LH; Gebhard DE; Frenz DA; Faulkner S; Singer BD; Straka JG, 2003. Cities as harbingers of climate change: common ragweed, urbanization, and public health. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 111(2):290-295.

Contributors

Top of page

06/11/2016 Updated by:

Duilio Iamonico, University of Rome Sapienza, Rome, Italy

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map