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Datasheet

Amaranthus hybridus (smooth pigweed)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 October 2015
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Amaranthus hybridus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • smooth pigweed
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Amaranthus hybridus (smooth pigweed); flowering habit.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionAmaranthus hybridus (smooth pigweed); flowering habit.
Copyright©Markus Hagenlocher - CC BY-SA 3.0
Amaranthus hybridus (smooth pigweed); flowering habit.
Flowering habitAmaranthus hybridus (smooth pigweed); flowering habit.©Markus Hagenlocher - CC BY-SA 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Amaranthus hybridus L. (1753)

Preferred Common Name

  • smooth pigweed

Other Scientific Names

  • Amaranthus chlorostachys Willd.
  • Amaranthus frumentaceus Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb.
  • Amaranthus incurvatus Timeroy ex Gren. & Godr.
  • Amaranthus patulus Bertol. (1837)

International Common Names

  • English: green amaranth; slim amaranth
  • Spanish: bledo; quelite
  • French: amarante hybride
  • Portuguese: caruru-de-folha-larga

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: caruru-branco; caruru-roxo
  • Germany: Bastard - Amarant; Gruenaehriger Amarant; Gruenaehriger Fuchsschwanz
  • Japan: honagaaogeito
  • Netherlands: basterdamarant

EPPO code

  • AMACH (Amaranthus hybridus)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Caryophyllales
  •                         Family: Amaranthaceae
  •                             Genus: Amaranthus
  •                                 Species: Amaranthus hybridus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of pageA. hybridus has a chromosome number of 2n = 32 (Murray, 1940; Grant, 1959). It readily hybridizes with closely related species, but the F1 generation is highly sterile (Tucker and Sauer, 1958). Hybrids often have oddly shaped inflorescences. Brenan (1961) distinguished three subspecies of A. hybridus on the basis of the relative length of the bracts compared with the length of the sepals.

A. hybridus is sometimes confused with the cultivated species A. hypochondriacus and A. caudatus (love-lies-bleeding), both of which have long, thin often reddish inflorescences. However, Sauer (1967) contends that A. hypochondriacus was derived mainly from A. powellii, and A. caudatus mainly from A. quitensis. A. hybridus is thought to be the progenitor of A. cruentus, a cultivated grain and ornamental plant. Introgression has undoubtedly occurred among the weedy and domesticated amaranths. While this represents the current status of A. hybrudus in the strictest sense, it must be noted that the 'cultivated' A. cruentus often occurs as a weed and is sometimes referred to as 'A. hybridus' in weed literature. Hence it is likely that a number of the recorrds in this data-sheet might refer more strictly to A. cruentus (or to other closely related species).

Description

Top of pageA. hybridus is an annual herbaceous plant which reproduces only by seeds. It produces a tap root and erect, often branched stems from 0.1 to 2.0 m in height. The stems are thick and often ribbed or tinged with red. Its leaves are alternate, long-stalked, and ovate to rhombic-ovate. Leaf and stem surfaces have small fine hairs. Flowers are numerous, green, and crowded into finger-like spikes forming a long, dense terminal panicle, with axillary spikes below. The terminal spike is often lax. Perianth segments 5, lanceolate, acute, 2-3 mm long, subtended by bracteoles somewhat longer, about 4 mm, with a long, sharp tip, causing the inflorescence to feel distinctly prickly. Stamens 5. At maturity, the entire plant may be reddish in colour. Seeds are round, dark brown, shiny, somewhat flattened, and 1.0 to 1.5 mm in diameter.

Distribution

Top of pageA. hybridus is a native riverbank pioneer of eastern North America and parts of Mexico, Central America and northern South America (Sauer, 1967). It is much more common in the eastern than the western half of the USA. Its range has expanded to Africa, south-central Asia and Australia, possibly because of its use as a green vegetable.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

CountryDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferencesNotes

ASIA

BhutanPresentParker, 1992
IndiaPresentHolm et al., 1991
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentDagar et al., 1991
IndonesiaPresentHolm et al., 1991
JapanPresentHolm et al., 1991
JordanPresentAbu-Irmaileh, 1982
LebanonPresentHolm et al., 1991
PakistanPresentHolm et al., 1991
ThailandWidespreadHolm et al., 1991

AFRICA

BotswanaPresentWells et al., 1986
Côte d'IvoirePresentHutchinson et al., 1954
EgyptPresentTackholm, 1974
EthiopiaWidespreadHolm et al., 1991
GhanaPresentHutchinson et al., 1954
GuineaPresentHutchinson et al., 1954
KenyaWidespreadHolm et al., 1991; Townsend, 1985
LesothoPresentWells et al., 1986
MalawiPresentTownsend, 1988
MaliPresentHutchinson et al., 1954
MoroccoPresentHolm et al., 1991
MozambiquePresentTownsend, 1988
NamibiaPresentWells et al., 1986
NigeriaPresentHolm et al., 1991; Hutchinson et al., 1954
Sierra LeonePresentHutchinson et al., 1954
South AfricaWidespreadHolm et al., 1991; Wells et al., 1986
SwazilandPresentWells et al., 1986
TanzaniaWidespreadHolm et al., 1991; Townsend, 1985
UgandaPresentTownsend, 1985
ZambiaWidespreadHolm et al., 1991; Townsend, 1988
ZimbabwePresentRambakudzibga, 1991; Townsend, 1988

NORTH AMERICA

CanadaPresentWeaver & McWilliams, 1980
-OntarioPresentWeaver & McWilliams, 1980
MexicoWidespreadHolm et al., 1991
USAWidespreadLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Holm et al., 1991
-ArkansasPresentde Lugo et al., 1995
-CaliforniaPresentHauptli & Jain, 1978
-ColoradoPresentAnderson, 1994
-GeorgiaPresentVencill & Banks, 1994
-HawaiiPresentHolm et al., 1991
-IllinoisPresentSimpson & Stoller, 1995
-KansasPresentChaisattapagon & Zhang, 1992
-KentuckyPresentScott et al., 1995
-MarylandPresentJordan, 1996
-MississippiPresentMcLean & Roy, 1991
-New JerseyPresentMajek et al., 1993
-New YorkPresentSenesac, 1985
-North CarolinaPresentYenish et al., 1996
-PennsylvaniaPresentHartzler & Roth, 1993
-South CarolinaPresentTedford & Fortnum, 1988
-TexasPresentGraham et al., 1988
-VirginiaPresentJordan, 1996
-WisconsinPresentBirschbach et al., 1993

CENTRAL AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

Costa RicaPresentSalas, 1985
HondurasPresentPortillo et al., 1996

SOUTH AMERICA

ArgentinaWidespreadHolm et al., 1991
BrazilWidespreadHolm et al., 1991
-Espirito SantoPresentLorenzi, 1982
-GoiasPresentLorenzi, 1982
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentLorenzi, 1982
-Minas GeraisPresentLorenzi, 1982
-ParanaPresentLorenzi, 1982
-Rio Grande do SulPresentLorenzi, 1982; Ferreira et al., 1991
-Santa CatarinaPresentLorenzi, 1982
-Sao PauloPresentLorenzi, 1982
ChilePresentHolm et al., 1991
ColombiaWidespreadHolm et al., 1991
PeruWidespreadHolm et al., 1991
VenezuelaPresentMorros et al., 1990

EUROPE

AlbaniaPresentAellen & Akeroyd, 1993
AustriaPresentAellen & Akeroyd, 1993
BulgariaPresentAellen & Akeroyd, 1993
Czech RepublicPresentAellen & Akeroyd, 1993
FrancePresentAellen & Akeroyd, 1993
GermanyPresentAellen & Akeroyd, 1993
GreecePresentAellen & Akeroyd, 1993
HungaryPresentAellen & Akeroyd, 1993
ItalyPresentAellen & Akeroyd, 1993
PortugalPresentQueiros, 1989; Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993
-AzoresPresentAellen & Akeroyd, 1993
RomaniaPresentChirila & Pintilie, 1985; Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993
Russian FederationPresentAellen & Akeroyd, 1993
SpainPresentCavero et al., 1996; Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993
-Balearic IslandsPresentAellen & Akeroyd, 1993
SwitzerlandPresentAellen & Akeroyd, 1993
UKPresentAellen & Akeroyd, 1993
Yugoslavia (former)PresentAellen & Akeroyd, 1993

OCEANIA

AustraliaPresentHolm et al., 1991
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentLazarides et al., 1997
-New South WalesPresentLazarides et al., 1997
-QueenslandPresentLazarides et al., 1997
-South AustraliaPresentLazarides et al., 1997
-TasmaniaPresentLazarides et al., 1997
-VictoriaPresentLazarides et al., 1997
-Western AustraliaPresentLazarides et al., 1997
New ZealandWidespreadHolm et al., 1991

Habitat

Top of pageA. hybridus is found on a wide variety of soil types and textures. It is a common weed of cultivated fields, gardens, waste places, roadsides, riverbanks, and other open, disturbed habitats where annual weeds predominate. It is seldom found in closed or shaded communities (Weaver and McWilliams, 1980).

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of pageA. hybridus is a common weed of many field and horticultural row crops throughout the temperate areas of the world.

Host Plants/Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Beta vulgaris (beetroot)ChenopodiaceaeMain
Capsicum (peppers)SolanaceaeOther
Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeMain
Gossypium (cotton)MalvaceaeMain
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)SolanaceaeOther
Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeMain
Pisum sativum (pea)FabaceaeOther
Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeOther
Sorghum bicolor (sorghum)PoaceaeMain
Triticum aestivum (wheat)PoaceaeOther
Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeMain

Biology and Ecology

Top of pageA. hybridus is a summer annual herbaceous weed that reproduces solely by seed with maximum emergence in late spring or early summer (Weaver and McWilliams, 1980; Anderson, 1994). Plants which emerge in late May generally begin to flower in late July or early August, and produce ripe seed by the beginning of September (Weaver, 1984). Its small seeds are easily dispersed by wind, and germinate primarily from the top 2 cm of soil in disturbed habitats. Germination is stimulated by light and/or high temperatures, with greatest germination occurring at alternating temperatures of 20/35°C in the light (Weaver and McWilliams, 1980; Weaver, 1984).

A. hybridus possesses the C4 pathway of photosynthesis, a low carbon dioxide compensation point, little photorespiration, and its optimum temperature for net photosynthesis lies between 30 and 40°C (Patterson, 1976). Separate male and female flowers occur on the inflorescence, and pollination is generally by wind. A single vigorous plant may produce as many as 100,000 seeds. Seed longevity has not been reported, but seeds of the closely related species A. retroflexus and A. powellii, can remain viable for many years when buried in soil.

Natural Enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Albugo blitiPathogenStems/Leaves
Coleophora lineapuluellaHerbivoreSeeds
Coleophora versurellaHerbivoreLeaves
Contrachelus seniculusHerbivoreLeaves
Erwinia rhaponticiPathogenLeaves
Herpetogramma bipunctalisHerbivoreLeaves

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of pageA. hybridus is a host plant for a variety of insect pests and diseases which attack crops, however damage is rarely severe enough to serve as biological control.

Impact

Top of pageA. hybridus is a principal weed in a variety of field and vegetable row crops, and has been reported to substantially reduce yields of maize, soyabeans, cotton, sugarbeet, sorghum and peas (Holm et al., 1977; Weaver and McWilliams, 1980). It can also reduce harvesting efficiency because of increased lodging of weed infested crops (Nave and Wax, 1971).

A. hybridus accumulates nitrates in its tissues and has caused poisoning of cattle (Ferreira et al., 1991).

A. hybridus is an alternative host for members of the parasitic nematode genus Meloidogyne and for tobacco mosaic tomabovirus (Holm et al., 1977; Tedford and Fortnum, 1988). It also serves as a host for Colletotrichum capsici, which causes anthracnose on tomato fruit and cotton seedlings (McLean and Roy, 1991).

Amaranthus species have been reported to cause allergic reactions in humans, primarily due to wind-borne pollen (Weber et al., 1978; Mitchell and Rook, 1979).

Uses

Top of pageA. hybridus has been reported to be a highly nutritious herbage and a potentially valuable forage crop (Mugerwa and Bwabye, 1974). It is used as a green vegetable in parts of South Africa, India, Mexico and the southern USA (Holm et al., 1977; Sealy et al., 1990). Hauptli and Jain (1978) suggested that it could be used as breeding material for recombining desirable yield characteristics in the cultivated grain amaranths.

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed

Genetic importance

  • Related to

Human food and beverage

  • Vegetable

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of pageA. hybridus is similar in appearance to A. retroflexus and A. powellii, particularly in the vegetative state. Flowering plants of A. retroflexus differ in having shorter, thicker branches on the terminal inflorescence, sepals rounded or blunt and often reflexed, bracteoles less distinctly spiny. A. powelli also has a somewhat thicker inflorescence, the bracteoles are longer (up to 6 mm), and stamens usually 3, not 5.

A. caudatus and A. hypochondriacus are ornamental, domesticated plants, with larger terminal inflorescences, often bright red in colour, with a utricle equalling or exceeding the bract and sepals in length. The utricle of A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, and A. powellii is shorter than the bracts and sepals. The seeds of the weedy amaranths are usually dark brown, whereas many forms of the cultivated grain amaranths have ivory seeds.

Many other Amaranthus species are superficially similar. Of those included as data-sheets in this compendium, A. spinosus has spines, A. viridis has much smaller flowers, A. bitum has indented leaf tips, and A graecizans and A. blitoides have axillary inflorescences. Further species can occur as weeds on a local basis and reference to local floras is therefore recommended.

Prevention and Control

Top of pageCultural Control

Seedlings of A. hybridus can be controlled by cultivation, but older plants often recover from mechanical damage by producing axillary branches and inflorescences.

Chemical Control

A. hybridus is readily controlled by almost all the standard soil-applied and foliar-applied herbicides used for controling broadleaved weeds, including atrazine, simazine, metribuzin, linuron, bromoxynil, 2,4-D, dicamba, imazethapyr, thifensulfuron-methyl, rimsulfuron, nicosulfuron, acifluorfen, fomesafen and pendimethalin (Weaver and McWilliams, 1980; Manley et al., 1996; Robinson et al., 1996). Its pattern of intermittent germination throughout the growing season, however, make the application of residual soil-applied herbicides, or sequential post-emergence treatments, necessary in heavily infested fields. Lorenzi (1984) indicates that A. hybridus is only moderately susceptible to oxyfluorfen, butylate or vernolate.

Populations of A. hybridus resistant to triazine herbicides have been reported in the USA, France, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, Israel and South Africa (Heap, 1997). Populations resistant to the imidazolinone herbicides have been found in the USA (Heap, 1997).

Biological Control

Reputed biological control agents for A. hybridus are the pathogenic bacterium, Erwinia carotovora var. rhapontici [Erwinia rhapontici], (Gonzalez-Mendoza and Rodriguez, 1990), and insects Herpetogramma bipunctalis and Conotrachelus seniculus (Perez Panduro et al., 1990), all in Mexico.

References

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Abu-Irmaileh BE, 1982. Weeds of Jordan. Amman, Jordan: University of Jordan.

Aellen P, Akeroyd JR, 1993. Amaranthus L. In: Tutin TG, Burges NA, Chater AO, Edmondson JR, Heywood VH, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA, eds. Flora Europaea. Volume 1. Psilotaceae to Platanaceae. 2nd edition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 130-132.

Anderson RL, 1994. Characterizing weed community seedling emergence for a semiarid site in Colorado. Weed Technology, 8(2):245-249; 32 ref.

Birschbach ED, Myers MG, Harvey RG, 1993. Triazine-resistant smooth pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus) control in field corn (Zea mays L.). Weed Technology, 7(2):431-436

Brenan JPM, 1961. Amaranthus in Britain. Watsonia, 4:261-280.

Cavero J, Zaragoza C, Gil Ortega R, 1996. Tolerance of direct-seeded pepper (Capsicum annuum) under plastic mulch to herbicides. Weed Technology, 10(4):900-906; 26 ref.

Chaisattapagon C, Zhang NQ, 1992. Identifying effective criteria for weed detection using machine vision. Paper - American Society of Agricultural Engineers, No. 92-3576.

Chirila C, Pintilie C, 1985. The principal weeds and their control (XVIII). Wild pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), field pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus L.) and creeping pigweed (Amaranthus blitoides S. Wats.). Productia Vegetala, Cereale si Plante Tehnice, 37(7):28-31

Dagar JC, Gangwar B, Sharma AK, 1991. Distribution and integrated management of weeds in Bay Islands. Journal of the Andaman Science Association, 7(1-2):31-52.

Ferreira JLM, Riet-Correa F, Schild AL, Méndez MDC, 1991. Poisoning of cattle by Amaranthus spp. (Amaranthaceae) in Rio Grande de Sul, southern Brazil. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira, 11(3/4):49-54; 22 ref.

Gonzalez Mendoza L, Rodriguez MM de L, 1990. Isolation, identification and pathogenicity of bacteria of Amaranthus hybridus L. and possibilities of their biological control. Revista Chapingo, 15:67-68.

Graham PL, Steiner JL, Wiese AF, 1988. Light absorption and competition in mixed sorghum-pigweed communities. Agronomy Journal, 80(3):415-418

Grant WF, 1959. Cytogenetic studies in Amaranthus. III. Chromosome numbers and phylogenetic aspects. Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology, 1:313-328.

Hartzler RG, Roth GW, 1993. Effect of prior year's weed control on herbicide effectiveness in corn (Zea mays). Weed Technology, 7(3):611-614; 7 ref.

Hauptli H, Jain SK, 1978. Biosystematics and agronomic potential of some weedy and cultivated amaranths. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 52(4):177-185

Heap IM, 1997. International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds. Annual Report, Weed Science Society of America.

Holm LG, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, Plucknett DL, 1991. A Geographic Atlas of World Weeds. Malabar, Florida, USA: Krieger Publishing Company.

Holm LG, Plucknett DL, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, 1977. The World's Worst Weeds. Distribution and Biology. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University Press of Hawaii.

Hutchinson J, Dalziel JM, 1954. Flora of West Tropical Africa, Volume 1, Part 1 (revised by Keay RWJ). London, UK: Crown Agents.

Jordan N, 1996. Effects of the triazine-resistance mutation on fitness in Amaranthus hybridus (smooth pigweed). Journal of Applied Ecology, 33(1):141-150; 32 ref.

Lazarides M, Cowley K, Hohnen P, 1997. CSIRO handbook of Australian weeds. CSIRO handbook of Australian weeds., vii + 264 pp.

Lorenzi H, 1982. Weeds of Brazil, terrestrial and aquatic, parasitic, poisonous and medicinal. (Plantas daninhas de Brasil, terrestres, aquaticas, parasitas, toxicas e medicinais.) Nova Odessa, Brazil: H. Lorenzi, 425 pp.

Lorenzi H, 1984. Manual de Identificacao e Controle de Plantas Danhinas. Odessa, Brazil: H. Lorenzi.

Lorenzi HJ, Jeffery LS(Editors), 1987. Weeds of the United States and their control. New York, USA; Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Ltd., 355 pp.

Lugo Mde L, Gonzßlez A, Talbert RE, 1995. Smooth pigweed (Amaranthus hybrid[u]s L.) interference with snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) quality. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 79(3-4):173-179; 6 ref.

Majek BA, Neary PE, Polk DF, 1993. Smooth pigweed interference in newly planted peach trees. Journal of Production Agriculture, 6(2):244-246

Mamarot J, Rodriguez A, 1997. Sensibilité des Mauvaises Herbes aux Herbicides. 4th edition. Paris, France: Association de Coordination Technique Agricole.

Manley BS, Wilson HP, Hines TE, 1996. Smooth pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus) and livid amaranth (A. lividus) response to several imidazolinone and sulfonylurea herbicides. Weed Technology, 10(4):835-841; 22 ref.

McLean KS, Roy KW, 1991. Weeds as a source of Colletotrichum capsici causing anthracnose on tomato fruit and cotton seedlings. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 13(2):131-134

Mitchell J, Rook A, 1979. Botanical Dermatology: plants and plant products injurious to the skin. Vancouver, Canada: Greengrass.

Morros ME, Trujillo B, Ponce M, 1990. Description of the genus Amaranthus L. with 3 new records for Venezuela and a key for the species. Ernstia, 58-59-60:45-51

Mugerwa JS, Bwabye R, 1974. Yield, composition and in vitro digestibility of Amaranthus hybridus subspecies incurvatus. Tropical Grasslands, 8:49-53.

Murray MJ, 1940. The genetics of sex determination in the family Amaranthaceae. Genetics, 25:409-431.

Nave WR, Wax LM, 1971. Effect of weeds on soybean yield and harvesting efficiency. Weed Science, 19:533-535.

Parker C, 1992. Weeds of Bhutan. Weeds of Bhutan., vi + 236 pp.

Patterson DT, 1976. C4 photosynthesis in smooth pigweed [Amaranthus hybridus]. Weed Science, 24(1):127-130

Perez Panduro A, Solis Aguilar JF, Trujillo Arriaga J, Romero Rosales F, 1990. Biological agents for population regulation of Tithonia tubaeformis (Jacq) Cass (Asteraceae), Amaranthus hybridus L. and A. spinosus L. (Amaranthaceae) in Chapingo, State of Mexico and Tecalitlan, Jalisco. Revista Chapingo, 15(67-68):126-129

Portillo HE, Pitre HN, Meckenstock DH, Andrews KL, 1996. Oviposition preference of Spodoptera latifascia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) for sorghum, maize and non-crop vegetation. Florida Entomologist, 79(4):552-562; 25 ref.

Queir=s M, 1989. Cytotaxonomic studies of Amaranthus in Portugal. Lazaroa, 11:9-17; 63 ref.

Rambakudzibga AM, 1991. Allelopathic effects of aqueous wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw extracts on the germination of eight arable weeds commonly found in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Journal of Agricultural Research, 29(1):77-79.

Robinson DK, Monks DW, Monaco TJ, 1996. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) tolerance and susceptibility of eight weeds to rimsulfuron with and without metribuzin. Weed Technology, 10(1):29-34; 11 ref.

Salas CA, 1985. Wheat in Costa Rica. Wheats for more tropical environments. A proceedings of the international symposium Mexico City, Mexico: CIMMYT, 46-50.

Sauer JD, 1967. The grain amaranths and their relatives: A revised taxonomic and geographic survey. Annals of the Missouri Botanic Garden, 54:103-137.

Scott JE, Weston LA, Jones RT, 1995. Clomazone for weed control in transplanted cole crops (Brassica oleracea). Weed Science, 43(1):121-127

Sealy RL, McWilliams EL, Novak J, Fong F, Kenerley CM, Simon JE, 1990. Vegetable amaranths: cultivar selection for summer production in the south. In: Janick J, ed. Advances in new crops. Proceedings of the First National Symposium 'New Crops: Research, Development, Economics', Indianapolis, USA. Oregon, USA: Timber Press, 396-398.

Senesac AF, 1985. Aspects of the biology and control of pigweed (Amaranthus spp.) in New York. Dissertation Abstracts International, B (Sciences and Engineering), 46(4):1007B

Simpson DM, Stoller EW, 1995. Response of sulfonylurea-tolerant soybean (Glycine max) and selected weed species to imazethapyr and thifensulfuron combinations. Weed Technology, 9(3):582-586

Tackholm V, 1974. Students' Flora of Egypt. 2nd edition. Cairo, Egypt: University of Cairo.

Tedford EC, Fortnum BA, 1988. Weed hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita common in tobacco fields in South Carolina. Annals of Applied Nematology, 2:102-105.

Townsend CC, 1985. Amaranthaceae. In: Polhill RM, ed. Flora of Tropical East Africa. Rotterdam, Netherlands: A.A. Balkema, 1-2, 20-24, 35-36.

Townsend CC, 1988. Amaranthaceae. In: Launert E, ed. Flora Zambesiaca. Volume 9, Part 1. London, UK: Flora Zambesiaca Management Committee, 28-133.

Tucker JM, Sauer JD, 1958. Aberrant Amaranthus populations of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California. Madrono, 14:252-261.

Vencill WK, Banks PA, 1994. Effects of tillage systems and weed management on weed populations in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Weed Science, 42(4):541-547

Weaver SE, 1984. Differential growth and competitive ability of Amaranthus retroflexus, A. powellii and A. hybridus. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 64(3):715-724

Weaver SE, McWilliams EL, 1980. The biology of Canadian weeds. 44. Amaranthus retroflexus L., A. powellii S. Wats. and A. hybridus L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 60(4):1215-1234

Weber RW, Mansfield LE, Nelson HS, 1978. Cross-reactivity among weeds of the amaranth and chenopod families. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 61:172.

Wells MJ, Balsinhas AA, Joffe H, Engelbrecht VM, Harding G, Stirton CH, 1986. A catalogue of problem plants in South Africa. Memoirs of the botanical survey of South Africa No 53. Pretoria, South Africa: Botanical Research Institute.

Yenish JP, Worsham AD, York AC, 1996. Cover crops for herbicide replacement in no-tillage corn (Zea mays). Weed Technology, 10(4):815-821; 19 ref.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
Distribution map Albania: Present
Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993Argentina: Widespread
Holm et al., 1991Austria: Present
Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993Australia: Present
Holm et al., 1991Australia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryBulgaria: Present
Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993Brazil: Widespread
Holm et al., 1991Brazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBhutan: Present
Parker, 1992Botswana: Present
Wells et al., 1986Canada: Present
Weaver & McWilliams, 1980Canada
See regional map for distribution within the countrySwitzerland: Present
Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993Côte d'Ivoire: PresentChile: Present
Holm et al., 1991Colombia: Widespread
Holm et al., 1991Colombia: Widespread
Holm et al., 1991Costa Rica: Present
Salas, 1985Costa Rica: Present
Salas, 1985Czech Republic: Present
Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993Germany: Present
Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993Egypt: Present
Tackholm, 1974Spain: Present
Cavero et al., 1996; Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993Spain: Present
Cavero et al., 1996; Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993Spain
See regional map for distribution within the countryEthiopia: Widespread
Holm et al., 1991France: Present
Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993UK: Present
Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993Ghana: PresentGuinea: PresentGreece: Present
Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993Greece: Present
Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993Honduras: Present
Portillo et al., 1996Honduras: Present
Portillo et al., 1996Hungary: Present
Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993Indonesia: Present
Holm et al., 1991Indonesia: Present
Holm et al., 1991India: Present
Holm et al., 1991India
See regional map for distribution within the countryItaly: Present
Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993Jordan: Present
Abu-Irmaileh, 1982Jordan: Present
Abu-Irmaileh, 1982Japan: Present
Holm et al., 1991Kenya: Widespread
Holm et al., 1991; Townsend, 1985Lebanon: Present
Holm et al., 1991Lebanon: Present
Holm et al., 1991Lebanon: Present
Holm et al., 1991Lesotho: Present
Wells et al., 1986Morocco: Present
Holm et al., 1991Morocco: Present
Holm et al., 1991Mali: PresentMalawi: Present
Townsend, 1988Mexico: Widespread
Holm et al., 1991Mexico: Widespread
Holm et al., 1991Mozambique: Present
Townsend, 1988Namibia: Present
Wells et al., 1986Nigeria: Present
Holm et al., 1991New Zealand: Widespread
Holm et al., 1991Peru: Widespread
Holm et al., 1991Pakistan: Present
Holm et al., 1991Portugal: Present
Queiros, 1989; Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993Portugal
See regional map for distribution within the countryRomania: Present
Chirila & Pintilie, 1985; Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993Russian Federation: Present
Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993Russian Federation: Present
Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993Sierra Leone: PresentSwaziland: Present
Wells et al., 1986Thailand: Widespread
Holm et al., 1991Tanzania: Widespread
Holm et al., 1991; Townsend, 1985Uganda: Present
Townsend, 1985USA: Widespread
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Holm et al., 1991USA: Widespread
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Holm et al., 1991USA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryVenezuela: Present
Morros et al., 1990Venezuela: Present
Morros et al., 1990Yugoslavia (former): Present
Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993South Africa: Widespread
Holm et al., 1991; Wells et al., 1986Zambia: Widespread
Holm et al., 1991; Townsend, 1988Zimbabwe: Present
Rambakudzibga, 1991; Townsend, 1988
  • = Present, no further details
  • = Evidence of pathogen
  • = Widespread
  • = Last reported
  • = Localised
  • = Presence unconfirmed
  • = Confined and subject to quarantine
  • = See regional map for distribution within the country
  • = Occasional or few reports
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Distribution map (asia) Bhutan: Present
Parker, 1992Indonesia: Present
Holm et al., 1991India: Present
Holm et al., 1991Andaman and Nicobar Islands: Present
Dagar et al., 1991Jordan: Present
Abu-Irmaileh, 1982Japan: Present
Holm et al., 1991Lebanon: Present
Holm et al., 1991Pakistan: Present
Holm et al., 1991Russian Federation: Present
Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993Thailand: Widespread
Holm et al., 1991
Distribution map (europe) Albania: Present
Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993Austria: Present
Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993Bulgaria: Present
Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993Switzerland: Present
Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993Czech Republic: Present
Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993Germany: Present
Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993Spain: Present
Cavero et al., 1996; Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993Balearic Islands: Present
Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993France: Present
Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993UK: Present
Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993Greece: Present
Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993Hungary: Present
Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993Italy: Present
Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993Lebanon: Present
Holm et al., 1991Morocco: Present
Holm et al., 1991Portugal: Present
Queiros, 1989; Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993Azores: Present
Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993Romania: Present
Chirila & Pintilie, 1985; Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993Russian Federation: Present
Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993Yugoslavia (former): Present
Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993
Distribution map (africa) Botswana: Present
Wells et al., 1986Côte d'Ivoire: PresentEgypt: Present
Tackholm, 1974Spain: Present
Cavero et al., 1996; Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993Ethiopia: Widespread
Holm et al., 1991Ghana: PresentGuinea: PresentGreece: Present
Aellen & Akeroyd, 1993Jordan: Present
Abu-Irmaileh, 1982Kenya: Widespread
Holm et al., 1991; Townsend, 1985Lebanon: Present
Holm et al., 1991Lesotho: Present
Wells et al., 1986Morocco: Present
Holm et al., 1991Mali: PresentMalawi: Present
Townsend, 1988Mozambique: Present
Townsend, 1988Namibia: Present
Wells et al., 1986Nigeria: Present
Holm et al., 1991Sierra Leone: PresentSwaziland: Present
Wells et al., 1986Tanzania: Widespread
Holm et al., 1991; Townsend, 1985Uganda: Present
Townsend, 1985South Africa: Widespread
Holm et al., 1991; Wells et al., 1986Zambia: Widespread
Holm et al., 1991; Townsend, 1988Zimbabwe: Present
Rambakudzibga, 1991; Townsend, 1988
Distribution map (north america) Canada: Present
Weaver & McWilliams, 1980Ontario: Present
Weaver & McWilliams, 1980Honduras: Present
Portillo et al., 1996Mexico: Widespread
Holm et al., 1991USA: Widespread
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Holm et al., 1991Arkansas: Present
de Lugo et al., 1995California: Present
Hauptli & Jain, 1978Colorado: Present
Anderson, 1994Georgia: Present
Vencill & Banks, 1994Hawaii: Present
Holm et al., 1991Illinois: Present
Simpson & Stoller, 1995Kansas: Present
Chaisattapagon & Zhang, 1992Kentucky: Present
Scott et al., 1995Maryland: Present
Jordan, 1996Mississippi: Present
McLean & Roy, 1991North Carolina: Present
Yenish et al., 1996New Jersey: Present
Majek et al., 1993New York: Present
Senesac, 1985Pennsylvania: Present
Hartzler & Roth, 1993South Carolina: Present
Tedford & Fortnum, 1988Texas: Present
Graham et al., 1988Virginia: Present
Jordan, 1996Wisconsin: Present
Birschbach et al., 1993
Distribution map (central america) Colombia: Widespread
Holm et al., 1991Costa Rica: Present
Salas, 1985Honduras: Present
Portillo et al., 1996Mexico: Widespread
Holm et al., 1991USA: Widespread
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; Holm et al., 1991Venezuela: Present
Morros et al., 1990
Distribution map (south america) Argentina: Widespread
Holm et al., 1991Brazil: Widespread
Holm et al., 1991Espirito Santo: Present
Lorenzi, 1982Goias: Present
Lorenzi, 1982Minas Gerais: Present
Lorenzi, 1982Mato Grosso do Sul: Present
Lorenzi, 1982Parana: Present
Lorenzi, 1982Rio Grande do Sul: Present
Lorenzi, 1982; Ferreira et al., 1991Santa Catarina: Present
Lorenzi, 1982Sao Paulo: Present
Lorenzi, 1982Chile: Present
Holm et al., 1991Colombia: Widespread
Holm et al., 1991Costa Rica: Present
Salas, 1985Peru: Widespread
Holm et al., 1991Venezuela: Present
Morros et al., 1990
Distribution map (pacific) Australia: Present
Holm et al., 1991Australian Northern Territory: Present
Lazarides et al., 1997New South Wales: Present
Lazarides et al., 1997Queensland: Present
Lazarides et al., 1997South Australia: Present
Lazarides et al., 1997Tasmania: Present
Lazarides et al., 1997Victoria: Present
Lazarides et al., 1997Western Australia: Present
Lazarides et al., 1997Indonesia: Present
Holm et al., 1991New Zealand: Widespread
Holm et al., 1991