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Paratrechina longicornis (crazy ant)


  • Last modified
  • 27 July 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Paratrechina longicornis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • crazy ant
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Paratrechina longicornis, the crazy ant (not to be confused with the yellow crazy ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes) is a tramp ant, which, by definition, is an ant that is widely dispersed through commerce...
  • Principal Source
  • Global Invasive Species Database  
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Paratrechina longicornis (Latreille, 1802)

Preferred Common Name

  • crazy ant

Other Scientific Names

  • Formica gracilescens Nylander (1856)
  • Formica longicornis Latreille (1802)
  • Formica vagans Jerdon (1851)
  • Paratrechina currens Motschoulsky (1863)
  • Paratrechina longicornis (Latreille) (1925)
  • Prenolepis (Nylanderia) longicornis Emery (1910)
  • Prenolepis longicornis
  • Prenolepis longicornis Roger (1863)
  • Tapinoma gracilescens F. Smith (1858)

International Common Names

  • English: black crazy ant; crazy ant; hairy ant; higenaga-ameiro-ari; long-horned ant; slender crazy ant

EPPO code

  • PAATLO (Paratrechina longicornis)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Paratrechina longicornis, the crazy ant (not to be confused with the yellow crazy ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes) is a tramp ant, which, by definition, is an ant that is widely dispersed through commerce and other human-assisted avenues. The crazy ant’s ability to use many artificial environments is one explanation for its success as an invasive; its mode of reproduction may also contribute towards its invasive success (see ‘Distribution’ and ‘Biology and Ecology’ sections). P. longicornis is extremely easy to identify by observing its rapid and erratic movements. It is highly adaptable to various environments and can be a major pest. It occurs in large numbers in homes or outdoors and is capable of displacing other ants and possibly other invertebrates. It can also negatively affect agriculture by promoting sap-sucking pests, and may spread disease in the hospital environment. P. longicornis forages over long distances away from its nest, making the nest hard to find and the ants difficult to control.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hymenoptera
  •                         Family: Formicidae
  •                             Genus: Paratrechina
  •                                 Species: Paratrechina longicornis


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The crazy ant (Paratrechina longicornis) is extremely easy to identify by observing its rapid and erratic movements. The antennae have 12-segments without a club and the scape, the basal segment of the antenna, is extraordinarily long with the apex surpassing the posterior border of the head by at least one-half the scape length. Workers are relatively small (2.3-3mm). Head, thorax, petiole and gaster are dark brown to blackish and the body often has a faint bluish iridescence. All workers in a colony are monomorphic and have only one node between the propodeum and the gaster. Eyes are elliptical, strongly convex, and placed close to the posterior border of the head. Legs are extraordinarily long. The head is elongate and the mandibles narrow. Each mandible has five teeth. A stinger is lacking but P. longicornis may bite an intruder and curve its abdomen forward to inject a formic acid secretion from its acidopore onto the wound. Confirmation of identification may be made with the aid of a hand lens, through which the extremely long antennal scape, long legs and erect setae are very apparent. (Creighton, 1950; Harris and Berry, 2005; Nickerson and Barbara, 2000; and Onoyama and Morisita, 2003).

Please click on AntWeb: Paratrechina longicornis for more images and assistance with identification. The AntWeb image comparison tool lets you compare images of ants at the subfamily, genus, species or specimen level. You may also specify which types of images you would like to compare: head, profile, dorsal, or label.
Please see PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) Species Content Page Ants: Crazy ant for high quality diagnostic and overview images.

Please follow this link for a fully illustrated Lucid key to common invasive ants [Hymenoptera: Formicidae] of the Pacific Island region [requires the most recent version of Java installed]. The factsheet on Paratrechina longicornis contains an overview, diagnostic features, comparison charts, images, nomenclature and links. (Sarnat, 2008).



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Paratrechina longicornis is one of the most widely distributed ant species. It is found throughout much of the tropics and subtropics where it is an agricultural and household pest, and is found in temperate zones as an indoor pest. The crazy ant’s widespread distribution is due, at least in part, to its ability to thrive in disturbed and artificial environments including on cargo ships at sea; in addition because they can live indoors in heated houses, their distribution is not restricted by latitude. P. longicornis is rarer in natural undisturbed habitats. It is also less common in inland areas except along major waterways such as the Nile, Congo and Amazon rivers, but P. longicornis may begin to spread more widely inland with increasing air commerce (Wetterer, 2008).

Native range: Africa and Asia (Nickerson and Barbara, 2000); Southeast Asia and Melanesia (Wetterer, 2008). Precise native range is ambiguous since the species has long been recorded as having a widespread distribution.
Known introduced range: Australasia-Pacific Region, Europe, North America, and South America (Andersen et al. 2004; Freitag et al. 2000; Nickerson and Barbara, 2000; and Torres and Snelling, 1997).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


BahrainPresentIntroduced1951ISSG, 2011
BangladeshPresentIntroduced2005ISSG, 2011
British Indian Ocean TerritoryPresentIntroduced1971ISSG, 2011
Brunei DarussalamUnconfirmed recordIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
ChinaPresentIntroduced1921ISSG, 2011
Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)PresentIntroduced1933ISSG, 2011
East TimorPresentIntroduced2005ISSG, 2011
IndiaPresentIntroduced1851ISSG, 2011; Lokeshwari et al., 2015
IndonesiaPresentIntroduced1866ISSG, 2011
IranPresentIntroduced2000 Invasive ISSG, 2011
IraqPresentIntroduced1917ISSG, 2011
IsraelPresentIntroduced1880ISSG, 2011
JapanPresentIntroduced1924ISSG, 2011
LebanonPresentIntroduced1970ISSG, 2011
MalaysiaPresentIntroduced1914ISSG, 2011
MaldivesPresentIntroduced2004ISSG, 2011
MyanmarPresentIntroduced1887ISSG, 2011
NepalPresentIntroduced1956ISSG, 2011
OmanPresentIntroduced1985ISSG, 2011
PakistanPresentIntroduced2007ISSG, 2011
PalestinePresentEarliest record = 1880Wetterer, 2008
PhilippinesPresentIntroduced1913ISSG, 2011
Saudi ArabiaPresentIntroduced1979ISSG, 2011
SingaporePresentIntroduced1931ISSG, 2011
Sri LankaPresentIntroduced1858ISSG, 2011
SyriaPresentIntroduced1880ISSG, 2011
TaiwanPresentIntroduced1909ISSG, 2011
ThailandPresentIntroduced1928ISSG, 2011
United Arab EmiratesPresentIntroduced1995ISSG, 2011
VietnamPresentIntroduced1920ISSG, 2011
YemenPresentIntroduced1880ISSG, 2011


AlgeriaPresentEarliest record 1962ISSG, 2011
CameroonPresentEarliest record 1916ISSG, 2011
Cape VerdePresentEarliest record 1953ISSG, 2011
Central African RepublicPresentEarliest record 1911ISSG, 2011
ComorosPresentEarliest record 1994ISSG, 2011
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentEarliest record = 1901ISSG, 2011
EgyptPresentEarliest record = 1880ISSG, 2011
Equatorial GuineaPresentEarliest record = 1940ISSG, 2011
EritreaPresentEarliest record 1906ISSG, 2011
EthiopiaPresentEarliest record = 1933ISSG, 2011
GambiaPresentEarliest record 2007ISSG, 2011
GhanaPresentEarliest record 1968ISSG, 2011
GuineaPresentEarliest record = 1876ISSG, 2011
KenyaPresentEarliest record < 2004ISSG, 2011
MadagascarPresentEarliest record = 1891ISSG, 2011
MalawiUnconfirmed recordIntroduced<1970 Invasive ISSG, 2011
MaliPresentEarliest record 1970ISSG, 2011
MauritiusPresentEarliest record 1942ISSG, 2011
MoroccoPresentEarliest record = 1929ISSG, 2011
NigeriaPresentEarliest record = 1914ISSG, 2011
RéunionPresentEarliest record = 1895ISSG, 2011
Rodriguez IslandPresentEarliest record = 1879ISSG, 2011
Saint HelenaPresentIntroduced1994ISSG, 2011
-AscensionPresentIntroduced1958ISSG, 2011
Sao Tome and PrincipePresentEarliest record = 1920ISSG, 2011
SenegalPresentEarliest record = 1802ISSG, 2011
SeychellesPresentEarliest record = 1897ISSG, 2011
Sierra LeonePresentEarliest record 1976ISSG, 2011
SomaliaPresentEarliest record 1913ISSG, 2011
South AfricaPresentEarliest record = 1922ISSG, 2011
-Canary IslandsPresentEarliest record = 1893ISSG, 2011
SudanPresentEarliest record = 1911ISSG, 2011
TanzaniaPresentEarliest record 1912ISSG, 2011

North America

BermudaPresentIntroduced1990 Invasive ISSG, 2011
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroduced1994ISSG, 2011
-OntarioPresentIntroduced1978ISSG, 2011
-QuebecPresentIntroduced1963ISSG, 2011
MexicoPresentIntroduced1859ISSG, 2011
-AlabamaPresentIntroduced1910ISSG, 2011
-ArizonaPresentIntroduced1993ISSG, 2011
-ArkansasPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced1967 Invasive ISSG, 2011
-FloridaPresentIntroduced1906ISSG, 2011
-GeorgiaPresentIntroduced1913ISSG, 2011
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced1887ISSG, 2011
-IllinoisPresentIntroduced1988ISSG, 2011
-IndianaPresentIntroduced1921ISSG, 2011
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced1943ISSG, 2011
-MarylandPresentIntroduced1913ISSG, 2011
-MassachusettsPresentIntroduced1928 Invasive ISSG, 2011
-MississippiPresentIntroduced1922ISSG, 2011
-MissouriPresentIntroduced1901ISSG, 2011
-New MexicoPresentIntroduced2000ISSG, 2011
-New YorkPresentIntroduced1886ISSG, 2011
-North CarolinaPresentIntroduced1937ISSG, 2011
-OhioPresentIntroduced1998ISSG, 2011
-OklahomaPresentIntroduced1935ISSG, 2011
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroduced1906ISSG, 2011
-South CarolinaPresentIntroduced1934ISSG, 2011
-TexasPresentIntroduced1905ISSG, 2011
-VirginiaPresentIntroduced1915ISSG, 2011
-WashingtonPresentIntroduced1886ISSG, 2011

Central America and Caribbean

AnguillaPresentIntroduced2006ISSG, 2011
Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroduced1918ISSG, 2011
ArubaPresentIntroduced1994ISSG, 2011
BahamasPresentIntroduced1904ISSG, 2011
BarbadosPresentIntroduced1918ISSG, 2011
BelizePresentIntroduced1906ISSG, 2011
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroduced2008ISSG, 2011
Costa RicaPresentIntroduced1899ISSG, 2011
CubaPresentIntroduced1876ISSG, 2011
DominicaPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced1915ISSG, 2011
El SalvadorPresentIntroduced1958ISSG, 2011
GrenadaPresentIntroduced1897ISSG, 2011
GuadeloupePresentIntroduced1990ISSG, 2011
GuatemalaPresentIntroduced1911ISSG, 2011
HaitiPresentIntroduced1907ISSG, 2011
HondurasPresentIntroduced1916ISSG, 2011
JamaicaPresentIntroduced1906 Invasive ISSG, 2011
MartiniquePresentIntroduced1913ISSG, 2011
MontserratPresentIntroduced1934ISSG, 2011
NicaraguaPresentIntroduced1897ISSG, 2011
PanamaPresentIntroduced1899 Invasive ISSG, 2011
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced1906ISSG, 2011
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroduced1934ISSG, 2011
Saint LuciaPresentIntroduced1935 Invasive ISSG, 2011; Krauss, 2012
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroduced1892ISSG, 2011
Sint MaartenPresentEarliest record = 1994Wetterer, 2008
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced1895ISSG, 2011
Turks and Caicos IslandsPresentIntroduced1953ISSG, 2011
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced1878ISSG, 2011

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroduced1915ISSG, 2011
BrazilPresentIntroduced1876ISSG, 2011
ChilePresentIntroduced1859ISSG, 2011
-Easter IslandPresentIntroduced1971ISSG, 2011
ColombiaPresentIntroduced1876ISSG, 2011
EcuadorPresentIntroduced1969ISSG, 2011
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroduced1906 Invasive ISSG, 2011
French GuianaPresentIntroduced1868ISSG, 2011
GuyanaPresentIntroduced1911ISSG, 2011
ParaguayPresentIntroduced1997ISSG, 2011
PeruPresentIntroduced1939ISSG, 2011
SurinamePresentIntroduced1932ISSG, 2011
VenezuelaPresentIntroduced1935ISSG, 2011


Czech RepublicPresentIntroduced1937ISSG, 2011
DenmarkPresentIntroduced1996ISSG, 2011
EstoniaPresentIntroduced1887ISSG, 2011
FrancePresentIntroduced1856ISSG, 2011
GermanyPresentIntroduced1939 Invasive ISSG, 2011
GibraltarPresentIntroduced1956ISSG, 2011
GreecePresentIntroduced1988ISSG, 2011
IrelandUnconfirmed recordIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
ItalyPresentIntroduced1981ISSG, 2011
MaltaPresentIntroduced1975ISSG, 2011
NetherlandsPresentIntroduced1909ISSG, 2011
PortugalPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-AzoresPresentIntroduced1929 Invasive ISSG, 2011
-MadeiraPresentEarliest record = 1859ISSG, 2011
SpainPresentIntroduced1998ISSG, 2011
-Balearic IslandsPresentIntroduced2004ISSG, 2011
SwedenPresentIntroduced1957ISSG, 2011
SwitzerlandPresentIntroduced1999ISSG, 2011
UKPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-England and WalesPresentIntroduced1859ISSG, 2011


AustraliaPresentIntroduced1886ISSG, 2011
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
Cook IslandsPresentIntroduced1925ISSG, 2011
FijiPresentIntroduced1920ISSG, 2011
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced1907 Invasive ISSG, 2011Wetterer (2008) notes earliest records on Austral Islands (2006) and Tuamotus (1996)
-MarquesasPresentIntroduced1925ISSG, 2011
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesEarliest record = 1964Wetterer, 2008Europa Island, part of the 'Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean'.
KiribatiPresentIntroduced1914ISSG, 2011Wetterer (2008) notes earliest record on Banaba Island (1914) and on Gilbert Islands (1957)
Line IslandsPresentEarliest record = 1935Wetterer, 2008
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroduced1937ISSG, 2011
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroduced1935ISSG, 2011
NauruUnconfirmed recordIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced1914ISSG, 2011
New ZealandPresentIntroduced1926ISSG, 2011; Peacock, 2012
NiuePresentIntroduced1967ISSG, 2011
Norfolk IslandUnconfirmed recordIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroduced1911ISSG, 2011
PalauPresentIntroduced1952ISSG, 2011
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroduced1901ISSG, 2011
Phoenix IslandsPresentIntroduced1940-41ISSG, 2011
Pitcairn IslandPresentIntroduced1934ISSG, 2011
SamoaPresentIntroduced1870ISSG, 2011
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroduced1916ISSG, 2011
TokelauPresentIntroduced1924 Invasive ISSG, 2011
TongaPresentIntroduced1923ISSG, 2011
TuvaluPresentIntroduced1976ISSG, 2011
VanuatuPresentIntroduced1930ISSG, 2011
Wake IslandPresentIntroduced1957ISSG, 2011
Wallis and Futuna IslandsPresentIntroduced1965ISSG, 2011


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The crazy ant (Paratrechina longicornis) is highly adaptable, living in both very dry and rather moist habitats. It often nests some distance away from its foraging area and is usually associated with disturbance. They are a common pest ant in houses and seem peculiarly adapted to the interior and immediate vicinity of human habitations. It nests in places such as trash, refuse, cavities in plants and trees, rotten wood, in soil under objects and nests have also been found under debris left standing in buildings for long periods of time. A crazy ant nest site can be found by looking for workers carrying food back to the nest. P. longicornis can also be found in other environments such as beaches, dry tortugas, geothermal areas, farms and even ships. It is also present in some native vegetation in the tropics, such as in conservation areas on offshore islands. In cold climates, the ants nest in centrally heated buildings. On beaches at high tide, nests can be found submerged underwater and are probably protected from flooding by air trapped in the nest galleries (Harris and Berry, 2005; Longino, 2004; and Nickerson and Barbara, 2000).

Habitat List

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Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)PoaceaeMain

Biology and Ecology

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Crazy ant (Paratrechina longicornis) foragers are opportunistic omnivores, feeding on live and dead insects, seeds, honeydew, fruits, plant exudates and many household foods. P. longicornis thrive in places such as shops and cafes, where workers may be seen transporting crumbs and insects. They apparently have a seasonal preference for a high-protein diet and during the summer months may refuse honey or sugar baits. They are attracted to honeydew producing hemipterans in spring and autumn/fall. Honeydew is obtained by tending to the hemipternas – e.g. plant lice, mealy bugs and scales – the hemipterans may benefit from being tended by ants; for example, the ants may protect the hemipterans from predators and parasites (Koch et al. 2011). P. longicornis foragers will also collect seeds. Large prey items, such as a lizard, are carried by a highly concerted group action. Workers feed on many household foods, such as meat, grease, sweets, fruits, vegetables and liquids (Smith 1965)" (Harris and Berry, 2005; and Nickerson and Barbara, 2000).

Crazy ant (Paratrechina longicornis) colonies are polygyne. Nests contain up to 2000 workers and 40 queens. Reproduction is throughout the year in warm climates but more restricted in cooler climates. Workers are probably sterile. Colonies occur in temporary nests, are highly mobile, and will move if disturbed. These ants can nest in a variety of locations from dry to moist environments (Harris and Berry, 2005).

Recently, Pearcy et al. (2011) found that P. longicornis has an unusual mode of reproduction whereby workers are produced by normal sexual reproduction, but queens and males are clones of their mothers and fathers respectively.  In this way, the paternal and maternal lines remain distinct and genetically very different from each other; because of this, the sterile workers (which inherit from both the maternal and paternal lines) have high levels of heterozygosity, and this is true even if the queen mates with her brother. This could explain the crazy ant’s invasive success, since worker ants remain heterozygous (i.e. they do not suffer from inbreeding depression) even if produced by a small founder population, as would usually be the case if the species was introduced to a new area on a cargo ship for example.

Lifecycle stages
Crazy ant (Paratrechina longicornis) colonies range from moderate to heavily populous. The colonies may raise sexuals at any time of the year in warmer regions, but in the seasonal climate of north Florida, alate production is apparently limited to the warm rainy months of spring through late summer. On warm, humid evenings, large numbers of males gather outside nest entrances and may mill about excitedly. Workers patrol vegetation and other structures nearby. Periodically, a dealate queen emerges. Trager (1984) has suggested that mating occurs in such groupings around the nest entrance. Wings of queens are removed while still callow and males were never observed to fly or use their wings in any way. However, in several cases it has been observed that males frequently appear at lights (Nickerson and Barbara, 2000).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Introduction pathways to new locations
Nursery trade: On 26 October 1990, Greg Mayer, Tina Kuklenski, and Scott Miller sampled invertebrates from a large shipment (an entire barge) of potted plants being unloaded at Guana Island, British Virgin Islands (BVI). The shipment was infested with large numbers of insects and snails, and included P. longicornis (Miller, 1994).
Other: Human-mediated dispersal has helped the spread of P. longicornis at local, regional, national and international scales (Harris et al. 2005). It can be associated with any commodity and transport mode from countries with established populations and is commonly intercepted on air and sea cargo, including fresh produce, timber, empty sea containers and personal baggage (Simon O'Connor pers comm).

Local dispersal methods
Natural dispersal (local): Natural dispersal is primarily by budding. Neither queens nor males appear to fly (Trager 1984). It is a rapid coloniser and often the first species to arrive in a newly disturbed area (Lee 2002) (Harris and Berry, 2005).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Food Yes
Horticulture Yes
Timber trade Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Bulk freight or cargo Yes
Luggage Yes
Plants or parts of plants Yes


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Crazy ant (Paratrechina longicornis) is an extremely hardy species. Its ability to invade a varying degree of habitats makes it a serious threat, and it can occur in large numbers in both homes and outdoors. P. longicornis is a common tramp ant that invades houses and heated buildings, including hospital buildings where it is known to transport pathogenic microbes. (Roxo et al. 2010). It can also be an indirect pest of agriculture, because, it can enhance populations of sap-sucking hemipterans such as aphids and scale insects (see Nutrition in the ‘Biology and Ecology’ section). P. longicornis is capable of displacing other ants and possibly other invertebrates. For example, Koch et al. (2011) suggested that crazy ants in Madagascar could threaten native stingless bee species by competing with them for honeydew.

Risk and Impact Factors

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Impact mechanisms

  • Competition
  • Pest and disease transmission


  • Highly adaptable to different environments


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Paratrechina longicornis is involved in an important mutualistic relationship with the eggs of the lizard Mabuya longicaudata in its native range of Taiwan. In high moisture environments reptile eggs are able to condense water on their surfaces. These small water droplets are collected by P. longicornis. When water droplets and P. longicornis were experimentally removed from the eggs of M. longicaudata the eggs were attacked by the egg predator ant Pheidole taivanensis. Both ant species actively searched for the reptilian eggs, with P. taivanensis usually finding eggs first. In the absence of P. longicornis, P. taivanensis predation dramatically reduced lizard egg survival. However when P. longicornis found nests later they were usually able to displace the egg predator ant (Huang, 2008).

Detection and Inspection

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The Pacific Invasive Ant Key (PIAKey) manual Pacific Invasive Ants Taxonomy Workshop Manual can both be used in identifying invasive ants in the Pacific region.

Prevention and Control

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Paratrechina longicornis forages long distances away from the nest and nests can be in cracks in concrete or around wharf piles, which often makes nests difficult to locate and control. (Harris and Berry, 2005; and Nickerson and Barbara, 2000). Many commercially available chemical controls show limited effectiveness, due to difficulties in attracting the ants to chemical baits (Stanley and Robinson, 2007; and see ‘Management Information’ for further details).

Preventative measures: Early detection by active surveillance and subsequent nest treatment is the best way to prevent any ant species from establishing in novel environments. Pitfalls and attractant baits are both methods that can yield good results (Ireneo and Navaareo, 2010; Simon O'Connor pers.comm).

The Pacific Ant Prevention Programme is a proposal prepared for the Pacific Plant Protection Organisation and Regional Technical Meeting for Plant Protection. This plan aims to prevent the red imported fire ant and other invasive ant species with economic, environmental or social impacts from establishing within or spreading between countries in the Pacific.

A detailed pest risk assessment for the eight species ranked as having the highest potential risk to New Zealand (Anoplolepis gracilipes, Lasius neglectus, Monomorium destructor, Paratrechina longicornis, Solenopsis geminata, Solenopsis richteri, Tapinoma melanocephalum, Wasmannia auropunctata) was prepared as part of 'The invasive ant risk assessment project', (Harris et al. 2005)., for Biosecurity New Zealand by Landcare Research. The invasive ant risk assessment for Paratrechina longicornis can be viewed at Paratrechina longicornis risk assessment
Please see Paratrechina longicornis information sheet for more information on biology, distribution, pest status and control technologies.

Cultural control: Non-chemical control is based on exclusion through good housekeeping practices and cleanliness, eliminating food sources. Crazy ants often nest outdoors so prevention of their entrance by caulking exterior penetrations and weather-stripping may aid in their control (Nickerson and Barbara, 2000).

Chemical control: Inside buildings, chemical controls are based on baits, dusts and spot treatments with residual sprays. Outdoor treatments include chemical formulations such as baits, granules, dusts, and sprays (Nickerson and Barbara, 2000).

Management Information

Compiled by IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

1. Prevention

1.0 Preventative measures

Prevention, quarantine and rapid response are the best management strategies for preventing the establishment of invasive ants. To be successful they require active surveying, early detection and subsequent rapid treatment procedures, often along with quarantines. This type of pro-active management approach remains the most practical strategy for dealing with invasive ants (Krushelnycky, Loope and Reimer, 2005; see also 2.1 Cultural Control).

1.1 Risk Assessments

Risk assessment is a vital management tool for addressing the issue of invasive ants in a country or region. Mapping the potential range of invasive ant species is also a useful tool for assessing risk, preparing risk assessments and estimating the potential threat an invasive ant poses to people and the environment.
In New Zealand an invasive ant risk assessment project (prepared for Biosecurity New Zealand by Landcare Research) identified ant species which pose the greatest potential threat to New Zealand. This project was divided into five sections: (i) gathering data on native and non-native New Zealand ants, (ii) producing a preliminary risk, (iii) producing information sheets on medium-risk and high-risk taxa, (iv) producing a detailed pest risk assessment for the eight highest-risk species, and (v) re-ranking these eight species. Of the 75 ant taxa which were ranked the following ants present the greatest potential risk to New Zealand: Anoplolepis gracilipes, Lasius neglectus, Monomorium destructor, Paratrechina longicornis, Solenopsis geminata, Solenopsis richteri, Tapinoma melanocephalum and Wasmannia auropunctata (Harris undated). An assessment of the current risk of P. longicornis establishing itself in New Zealand (based on climate similarity of native and introduced ranges) led to the prediction that it may establish a limited distribution in non-urban habitat in northern New Zealand, and could establish in and around heated buildings elsewhere (R. Harris unpubl. data, in Stanley 2004). Stanley (2004) also believes that P. longicornis is likely to have a highly restricted distribution in New Zealand.

1.2 Ant Prevention in the Pacific Region

The Pacific island region includes over 25 countries, most of which are served by two important regional international organizations, the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC), which addresses agricultural issues, and the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP), which addresses biodiversity issues. The biodiversity of the Pacific is particularly vulnerable to effects of invasive species (SPREP 2000).
Special concern regarding ant invasions has arisen now that the red imported fire ant occurs at or near the coast on both sides of the Pacific, and the little fire ant has arrived in Hawaii and is spreading in the western Pacific. These and other species threaten all Pacific islands, including Hawaii and the U.S. affiliated islands of Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas, Federated States of Micronesia, American Samoa, and Palau.
The SPC-Plant Protection Service (SPC-PPS) works in partnership with 22 Pacific members to maintain effective quarantine systems and to assist with regionally coordinated eradication/containment efforts. Priorities for emphasis are determined by member countries, which meet periodically as the Pacific Plant Protection Organization (PPPO).
A workshop sponsored by the Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) of IUCN was held in Auckland, New Zealand, in September 2003, and resulted in the compilation of a draft Pacific Ant Prevention Plan (Pacific Invasive Ant Group 2004). The Pacific Ant Prevention Plan was presented to and embraced by 21 Pacific island countries and territories present at a PPPO meeting, the “Regional Biosecurity, Plant Protection and Animal Health” meeting held by SPC in Suva, Fiji, in March 2004 (Pacific Plant Protection Organization 2004). Like Hawaii’s Red Imported Fire Ant Prevention Plan, the Pacific Ant Prevention Plan is still a conceptual work, but ISSG and others are working toward obtaining the international funding needed to implement the plan with the assistance of SPC. The project presents an exceptional opportunity for agriculture and conservation interests to work together with international and bilateral aid entities at regional and country levels to build much needed quarantine capacity. Increased quarantine protection is desperately needed by PICT in order to address invasions that jeopardize both agriculture and biodiversity.
The information for this section was sourced directly from Krushelnycky Loope and Reimer (2005).

2. Control

2.1 Cultural Control

Non-chemical control is based on exclusion through good housekeeping practices and cleanliness eliminating food sources. Crazy ants nest outdoors so prevention of their entrance by caulking exterior penetrations and weather-stripping may aid in their control (Nickerson and Barbara 2000).

2.2 Chemical Control
2.2.1 General Considerations

Most if not all ant eradications have employed the use of baits and toxicants, many of which are developed for agriculture or urban settings. However, indiscriminate pesticide use in natural areas and fragile island ecosystems is not advocated. While some toxins such as hydramethylnon break down quickly in the environment, any and all pesticide use is likely to be accompanied by at least some undesirable non-target effects. These include increased runoff or drift outside the intended area, adverse effects on beneficial insects and non-target impacts on native species (Krushelnycky Loope and Reimer 2005).
Non-target impacts must be weighed up carefully against the benefits of ant eradication. Cleary, treating whole ecosystems or islands is too risky as entire populations of rare invertebrates may be at risk of extinction. On the other hand, eradicating populations of exotic ants before they become established in a natural ecosystem or island has the potential to prevent the potentially disastrous consequences of ant invasions (Krushelnycky Loope and Reimer 2005).
Baits should be designed with the specific foraging strategies of the target ant in mind. The preferred size, type and dispersal of bait and the nesting, foraging and behavioural traits of the ant should be considered in the planning stages of the operation. The use of appropriately designed and chosen baits and toxins will help reduce the impact of toxins on native ants and non-target fauna (McGlynn 1999).

2.2.2 Ant Toxins

Ant toxins can be classed into three categories: “stomach” poisons (or metabolic inhibitors), Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs) and neurotoxins. Stomach toxins include hydramethylnon (eg: Maxforce® or Amdro®), sulfuramid and sodium tetraborate decahydrate (eg: Borax). IGRs include compounds such as methoprene, fenoxycarb or pyriproxyfen. Neurotoxins include fipronil (eg: Xstinguish®). Stomach poison kills all workers and reproductives it comes into contact with. IGRs work by disrupting development of the queens ovarian tissues, effectively sterilising the colony. Neurological inhibitors disrupt insect central nervous systems by blocking neuron receptors. The onset of mortality is contingent upon the type of active ingredient. In general, ant baits that contain active ingredients that are metabolic inhibitors have a two to three day delay before extensive mortality occurs in the colony (Oi Vail and Williams 2000). Baits containing IGRs take several weeks before colony populations are reduced substantially (Oi Vail and Williams 2000). The latter (IGRs) provide gradual long-term control, while metabolic inhibitors provide short-term, localised and rapid control (Oi Vail and Williams 2000). This is because while stomach poisons are faster than IGRs, they sometimes eliminate workers before the toxin can be effectively distributed throughout the colony (O’Dowd Green and Lake 1999).
Indoor chemical control is based on baits, dusts or spot treatments with residual sprays. Outdoor treatments include chemical formulations such as baits, granules, dusts and sprays. Read and follow label instructions and precautions before using any insecticide (Nickerson and Barbara 2000).
P. longicornis is notoriously difficult to control with bait (Hedges, 1996a; 1996b; Lee, 2000 in Stanley & Robinson, 2007). It has been reported that it does not feed for long enough on commercial baits to give effective control. Commercial baits are generally designed for control of the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) and are usually oil based. These baits are not preferred by P. longicornis.
Studies have shown that P. longicornis recruits well to Xstinguish™. HExterm-An-Ant® has also been used against P. longicornis, but although attractive to foragers, its ability to kill queens within the nest is unknown. Trials to compare the attractiveness of Xstinguish™ and Exterm-An-Ant® with other potential options for management of P. longicornis are being conducted in Western Australia"" (Harris et al. 2005).
Stanley (2004) found that the Australian-manufactured IGR baits developed for S. invicta control - Engage® (methoprene) and Distance® (pyriproxyfen) - have a lipid attractant and are unlikely to be attractive to such species as Linepithema humile, T. melanocephalum or P. longicornis. Lee et al. (2003) found some evidence that Protect-B® (0.5% methoprene) baits and Combat Ant Killer® bait stations (1% hydramethylnon) are not effective against P. longicornis (Stanley 2004).
Experiments testing food attractants found P. longicornis strongly preferred honey over peanut butter. Lee and Kooi (2004) report that baiting is seldom effective, particularly with paste and granular formulations, against P. longicornis in Singapore and Malaysia, but recommend sugar-based, liquid or gel formulations for control of P. longicornis. Stanley (2004) recommends using protein and carbohydrate, rather than lipid baits, as the attractants in baits for controlling P. longicornis.
In New Zealand Stanley (2004) recommends using Xstinguish® (fipronil) (already registered and available in New Zealand) in spring and summer as it is expected to be effective at controlling P. longicornis. Liquid boron-based baits <1% toxin) would be expected to be effective in autumn and winter (Stanley 2004).
Further research in New Zealand trialled a range of food types and commercial ant baits (Amdro, Maxforce, Xstinguish, Presto) and boric acid for attractiveness to P. longicornis. The most attractive baits were found to be tuna (no toxin), Xstinguish (non-toxic version), sugar water and sugar water + boric acid. The granular baits (Maxforce, Amdro and Presto) were not as attractive to P. longicornis foragers (Stanley & Robinson, 2007). The authors conclude that “Given that tuna is impractical for management programs, the effectiveness of boric acid, sweet liquid baits in eliminating P. longicornis colonies should be compared with that of the toxic version of Xstinguish. If both are effective at eliminating colonies, we recommend sweet liquid baits containing boric acid be used for small-scale incursions (one or two nests), but a more practicable solid bait, such as Xstinguish, be used for larger scale incursions (numerous nests)”

3.0 Research

3.1 Eradication Research

Experimental eradication of ants has been undertaken at several important wildlife refuges in Hawaii’s offshore islets. On Moky Nui (off the windward coast of Oahu, Hawaii) two broadcast applications of Amdro® caused significant declines in S. geminata and P. longicornis, both of which were abundant before treatment (Krushelnycky Loope and Reimer 2005). This small-island experiment is still being evaluated for its efficacy, feasibility and non-target effects and has not lead to standard management practices (Krushelnycky Loope and Reimer 2005).

3.2 Biosecurity New Zealand

Biosecurity New Zealand, the branch of government responsible for managing invasive species, has responded to a series of incursions of exotic invasive ant species by relying heavily on a small number of baits and toxins. The absence of a wide variety of effective baits may compromise the success of incursion responses. As a first step to ensuring effective incursion response, Biosecurity New Zealand commissioned Landcare Research to research and review international literature about the baits and toxins used for ant control (see Stanley 2004). The next step will be testing the most promising of these against a selected group of high-risk invasive ant species.

3.3 Bait and Toxin Research

Stanley (2004) recommends the New Zealand focus research efforts on the species that lack effective strategies and pose some risk to New Zealand (P. longicornis, T. melanocephalum and L. neglectus) to determine which baits can be used to effectively manage them. In an incursion event now, Xstinguish® should be used, but research is required to determine the most effective baits (Stanley 2004).
Stanley (2004) suggests that future research on P. longicornis focus on:
• Determining food preferences and attractants (as there is currently no established best practice for this species)
• Comparing the attractiveness and efficacy of Presto®, Xstinguish® and liquid boron-based baits on P. longicornis.

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    Reviewed by: Simon O&apos;Connor Coordinator, Pacific Ant Prevention Programme Secretariat of the Pacific Community New Zealand
      Compiled by: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

      Last Modified: Monday, October 04, 2010

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