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Datasheet

Plantago major (broad-leaved plantain)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 October 2015
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Plantago major
  • Preferred Common Name
  • broad-leaved plantain
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • P. major is native to Europe and Asia but is now widely distributed around the world, particularly in temperate, but also tropical parts. It is easily distributed and maintained by anthropogenic activities, particularly soil disturbance and compactio...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Plantago major, growing in hard-surfaced road. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK.  21st October 2010.
TitleHabit
CaptionPlantago major, growing in hard-surfaced road. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK. 21st October 2010.
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway
Plantago major, growing in hard-surfaced road. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK.  21st October 2010.
HabitPlantago major, growing in hard-surfaced road. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK. 21st October 2010.©A.R. Pittaway

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Plantago major L.

Preferred Common Name

  • broad-leaved plantain

International Common Names

  • English: broadleaf plantain; common plantain; greater plantain; plantain; ribgrass; ribwort; white-man's foot
  • Spanish: llantén; llantén común; llantén major
  • French: grand plantain; plantain majeur
  • Portuguese: tanachagem major

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Breitwegerich
  • Italy: petacciola; piantaggine maggiore
  • Japan: onioobako; seiyooobako
  • Netherlands: weegbree, groote
  • South Africa: broad-leaved ribwort; cart-track plant; indlebe-ka-tekwane; large plantain; larger ribwort plantain; ripplegrass; rippleseed plantain; wild sago
  • Sweden: groblad

EPPO code

  • PLAMA (Plantago major)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of pageP. major is native to Europe and Asia but is now widely distributed around the world, particularly in temperate, but also tropical parts. It is easily distributed and maintained by anthropogenic activities, particularly soil disturbance and compaction. Its small seeds may be spread as a contaminant. There is a possibility for invasion of naturally disturbed habitats (e.g. riparian) as well as anthropogenically disturbed areas and grasslands.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Plantaginales
  •                         Family: Plantaginaceae
  •                             Genus: Plantago
  •                                 Species: Plantago major

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of pageA number of subspecies of P. major have been named: for example, dostalii, major, winteri, intermedia and pleiosperma (Penkova, 1986; Akeroyd and Doogue, 1988; Lotz et al., 1990).

Description

Top of pageP. major is a glabrous to pubescent perennial with one rosette, leaves ovate to broadly so, abruptly narrowed to petiole usually more or less as long as leaves 1.5-40 cm, entire to weakly toothed. Scapes to 40 cm, not furrowed. Inflorescence a spike up to 20 cm long. Many small flowers subtended by bracts 1-2 mm, ovate, glabrous, brownish white with green keel. Sepals 1.5-2.5 mm, green. Corolla tube ca. 2 mm, glabrous, the lobes ca.1 mm, yellowish white, subobtuse, glabrous. Stamens exserted to 2-3 mm, anthers at first lilac, later dirty yellow. Fruits 2-4 mm. Seeds are two celled. This species is wind pollinated.

Subspecies major: leaves mostly with five to nine veins, usually obtuse at the apex, subcordate to rounded at the base and subentire; capsules mostly with 4-15 seeds; seeds (1)1.2-1.8 (2.10) mm.

Subspecies intermedia: plants usually smaller with much shorter spikes; leaves mostly with three to five veins, usually subacute at apex, broadly cunate at base and +/- undulate toothed near base; capsules mostly with (9)14-25 (36) seeds; seeds (0.6) 0.8-1.2 (1.5) mm.

The morphology of P. major is fairly variable, even within populations and at a small spatial scale of tens of metres for some sites (Lotz et al., 1990). Populations subject to intensive grazing or cutting are generally lower growing and less erect, and variation in growth form has been shown to contain a genetic component (Warwick and Briggs, 1979, 1980).

P. major forms a basal rosette with a compressed stalk and leafless flower stalk. Root contraction has been observed in this species and is related to resistance to treading. The fruit is a capsule opening with an operculum and the seed is mucilaginous and easily transported by cattle or man (Soekarjo, 1992).

Plant Type

Top of pageBroadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

Top of pageP. major is a worldwide weed originating from Eurasia (USDA-ARS, 2003). It is distributed widely throughout Europe, North Africa, North and Central Asia and has naturalized throughout most of the world in temperate climates (Clapham et al., 1989); it is also present in some tropical areas.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

CountryDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferencesNotes

ASIA

AfghanistanPresentHolm et al., 1979
ChinaPresentHolm et al., 1979
-Hong KongPresentHolm et al., 1979
-HubeiPresentYao et al., 1992
-JiangsuPresentWang et al., 1990
-LiaoningPresentWang et al., 1990
-ShandongPresentWang et al., 1990
-ZhejiangPresentWang et al., 1990
IndiaPresentSen & Kasera, 1988; Sharma et al., 1994; Holm et al., 1979
-Himachal PradeshPresentGupta & Bhardwaj, 1998
-NagalandPresentSharma et al., 1994
IndonesiaPresentHolm et al., 1979
IsraelPresentHolm et al., 1979
JapanPresentKobayashi & Hori, 1999; Holm et al., 1979
-ShikokuPresentKanai & Konta, 1987
LebanonPresentHolm et al., 1979
MalaysiaPresentHolm et al., 1979
MyanmarPresentAye et al., 1996b; Aye et al., 1996a
Saudi ArabiaPresentHolm et al., 1979
SingaporePresentChua et al., 1994
TurkeyPresentBasaran et al., 1997; Holm et al., 1979
VietnamPresentHolm et al., 1979

AFRICA

AngolaPresentIntroducedVerdcourt, 1971
Cape VerdePresentPinto Basto, 1996
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentIntroducedVerdcourt, 1971
EgyptPresentHolm et al., 1979
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedVerdcourt, 1971
KenyaPresentIntroducedVerdcourt, 1971
LesothoPresentWells et al., 1986
MauritiusPresentHolm et al., 1979
NamibiaPresentWells et al., 1986
Sao Tome and PrincipePresentIntroducedVerdcourt, 1971
South AfricaPresentGlen, 1998; Holm et al., 1979; Wells et al., 1986
SwazilandPresentWells et al., 1986

NORTH AMERICA

CanadaPresentThomas Ivany, 1990; Hawthorn, 1974; Holm et al., 1979; Wein et al., 1992
-OntarioPresentHawthorne, 1978
-Prince Edward IslandPresentThomas Ivany, 1990
-QuebecPresentPotvin & Vasseur, 1997
MexicoPresentLopez-Tellez & Reyes, 1999
USAWidespreadHolm et al., 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2003
-AlabamaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-AlaskaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-ArizonaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-ArkansasPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-CaliforniaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-ColoradoPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-ConnecticutPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-DelawarePresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-FloridaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-GeorgiaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-HawaiiPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-IdahoPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-IllinoisPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-IndianaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-IowaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-KansasPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-KentuckyPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-LouisianaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-MainePresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-MarylandPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-MassachusettsPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-MichiganPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-MinnesotaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-MississippiPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-MissouriPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-MontanaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-NebraskaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-NevadaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-New HampshirePresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-New JerseyPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-New MexicoPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-New YorkPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-North CarolinaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-North DakotaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-OhioPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-OklahomaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-PennsylvaniaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-South CarolinaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-South DakotaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-TennesseePresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-TexasPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-UtahPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-VermontPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-VirginiaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-West VirginiaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-WisconsinPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-WyomingPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003

CENTRAL AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

Costa RicaPresentHolm et al., 1979
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOviedo Prieto et al., 2012
Dominican RepublicPresentHolm et al., 1979
HondurasPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2003
JamaicaPresentHolm et al., 1979
NicaraguaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2003
PanamaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2003
Puerto RicoPresentHolm et al., 1979
United States Virgin IslandsPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2003

SOUTH AMERICA

ArgentinaPresentHolm et al., 1979
BoliviaPresentHolm et al., 1979
BrazilPresentHoletz et al., 2002
-BahiaPresentFranca et al., 1996
-Minas GeraisPresentSilva Filho et al., 1994
-Sao PauloPresentRamos et al., 2002
ChilePresentHolm et al., 1979
ColombiaPresentHolm et al., 1979
EcuadorPresentHolm et al., 1979
PeruPresentHolm et al., 1979
VenezuelaPresentWatson, 1977; Holm et al., 1979

EUROPE

BelgiumPresentHolm et al., 1979
Czech RepublicPresentPysek & Pysek, 1988
DenmarkPresentMolgaard, 1992; Andreasen et al., 1996; Holm et al., 1979
FinlandPresentHolm et al., 1979
FrancePresentHolm et al., 1979
GermanyPresentBottcher, 1993
GreecePresentBabalonas et al., 1987
HungaryPresentHolm et al., 1979
IcelandPresentHolm et al., 1979
IrelandPresentAkeroyd & Doogue, 1988; Reynolds, 1990
ItalyPresentHolm et al., 1979
NetherlandsPresentMolgaard, 1992; Holm et al., 1979
NorwayPresentHaland, 1989
PolandPresentTrzaskos, 1996; Holm et al., 1979; Holeksa & Holeksa, 1987
RomaniaPresentCoste, 1970; Cristea & Groza, 1983
Russian FederationPresentBekmansurov, 1996; Zhukova et al., 1996; Ivshin, 1998; Holm et al., 1979
-Western SiberiaPresentKryukova & Persidskaya, 1986
SlovakiaPresentKliment, 1991
SloveniaPresentBatic et al., 1997
SpainPresentTizado & Morales Nieto Nafría, 1991; Paton et al., 1997; Holm et al., 1979
SwedenPresentFogelfors, 1984; Holm et al., 1979
UKPresentBastin & Thomas, 1999; Holm et al., 1979
Yugoslavia (former)PresentSegulja & Topic, 1987; Holm et al., 1979

OCEANIA

AustraliaPresentHolm et al., 1979
FijiPresentHolm et al., 1979
New ZealandPresentPopay et al., 1995; Holm et al., 1979

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of pageThis species is synanthropic (often associated with human activities and landuse such as agriculture, earthworks). It has thus spread from Eurasia to much of the rest of the world, particularly temperate areas. Its pollen is used as an indicator of human settlement from the Neolithicum onwards (Aart and Vulto, 1992a). In the Americas it is known as 'white man's foot' (Mitch, 1987). Godwin (1944) notes the increase in abundance of this species in Denmark's prehistoric pollen record as original forest cover was replaced by cultivated land. The seedbank of this species in Danish arable soil is thought to have decreased significantly over the period 1964-1992 (Jensen and Hjellsson, 1992).

Habitat

Top of pageLike other Plantago species, this is a plant of open, well lit (Aart and Vulto, 1992b), often grassy habitats (Stace, 1997) in a range of climates. Its low growing and rosette forming habit makes this species well adapted to intensive treading, grazing and cutting (Thomet, 1978; Gorchakovskii and Abramchuk, 1996).

P. major is found in grass seed mixes for a range of purposes (Kolb and Schwarz, 1983) and therefore it is present in a wide range of seeded grassland habitats. It is tolerant of high nutrient conditions and is found in agriculturally improved grasslands (Aart and Vulto, 1992b). This species is also a plant of man-made habitats such as urban areas and disturbed ground (Bastin and Thomas, 1999).

P. major subsp. intermedia tends to be found in damp, usually saline places near the sea and less often inland (Stace, 1997).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural landPresent, no further details
Disturbed areasPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchardsPresent, no further details
Managed forests, plantations and orchardsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems)Present, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsidesPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areasPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forestsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslandsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
RiverbanksPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of pageP. major is mainly found in grassland.

Biology and Ecology

Top of pageGenetics

P. major has a chromosome number of 2n=12 (Stace, 1997). Populations show a high level of genetic structure, with a tendency to form a range of morphological variants specialized to fit particular niches. At least some of this specialization is thought to be due to: 1) the high rate of self-fertilization in the species, which restricts gene flow between variants, and 2) the high chromosome variability of this species. Such specialization and interrupted gene flow contrast with the free gene flow of some other Plantago species which are outbreeding generalists (Sharma et al., 1992; Sharma and Koul, 1995). Alloenzyme variation evidence corroborates this analysis, and shows high variation and low gene flow in P. major (Dijk and Wolff, 1992).

P. major tends to show wide variability across, but uniformity within, populations. Analysis of the inter- and intraspecific variation of chloroplast DNA of four European Plantago species (P. major, P. lanceolata, P. media and P. coronopus) by Hooglander et al. (1993) showed P. major to be most closely related to P. media. A short mutation (70 base pairs) could discriminate between the subspecies major and pleiosperma. Wolff and Morgan-Richards (1998) have also distinguished P. major subspecies using PCR markers.

Physiology and Phenology

P. major seed dormancy is broken by stratification (1-7 days), exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3) and potassium nitrate (Saruhan et al., 2002). Light is normally required for germination (Blom, 1978; Pons and Toorn, 1988; Pons, 1991) and an approximately linear decrease in germination rate with increasing soil depth has been observed (Bliss and Smith, 1985). Imbibition (soaking) and alternating temperature (20°C/30°C) increase germination (Deschenes and Moineau, 1972); ethylene treatment was inhibitory and thereafter germination occurred only in the presence of light (Heydecker et al., 1972). Two- to 5-year-old seed showed a higher germination rate than fresh seed (Blom, 1992). Seeds of this species have been shown to survive passage through the digestive tract of a cow and will germinate if followed by a period of low temperature (5°C) but not when followed by a period of higher temperature (20°C) (Holub and Lhotska, 1991).

Under optimal conditions, P. major shows higher rates of emergence and establishment in uncompacted rather than compacted soils. However the roots of this species have a marked ability to penetrate compacted soils and, under conditions of low moisture, P. major does better in compacted than loose sandy soil (Blom, 1976). Although perennial, P. major may behave as an annual, flowering and setting seeds within 6 weeks of germination. In Britain, flowering normally starts in early June and continues for about 3 months (Sagar and Harper, 1964). A micropropagation protocol for this species has been produced by Mederos et al. (1998) and involves shoot tip culture on modified MS medium.

Reproductive Biology

P. major reproduces mainly by seeds and cannot multiply freely by vegetative means (Holm et al., 1977). The species is wind pollinated, but relies heavily on self-pollination (Sharma et al., 1992; Sharma and Koul, 1995). There may be 3-30 seeds per capsule and a seed production of 14,000 seeds per plant per year has been recorded (Holm et al., 1977). Sharma and Koul (1995) and Sharma et al. (1992) describe the reproductive strategy of this species as making a greater investment in female rather than male reproductive components and relying heavily on self-fertilization. Sagar and Harper (1964) note that seed is set rapidly after fertilization but is frequently not dispersed from the capsules until the following year.


Environmental Requirements

There is some evidence that P. major is more shade tolerant than other members of the genus (Toorn and Pons, 1988). There is also evidence that this species has a higher soil moisture requirement than some other Plantago species (Blom, 1976). Stoutjesdijk (1992) indicates that P. major tolerates a narrower range of temperature, solar radiation and humidity than other Plantago species such as P. lanceolata. Sagar and Harper (1964) note that P. major occurs on a wide range of soil types in Britain, being absent only from extremely acid peats and mountain grasslands.

P. major is particularly resistant to trampling and compaction (Engelaar et al., 1993; Engelaar, 1995; Gorchakovskii and Abramchuk, 1996). Zelikov and Psonnova (1961) and Kolb and Schwarz (1983) found it inhabited soil with a mean density of 1.42 g/cm3, and its abundance has been positively correlated with soil compaction (Crawford and Liddle, 1977; Aspinall and Pye, 1987). Thomet (1978) and Holeksa and Holeksa (1987) found P. major to be an indicator of excessive treading in permanent pastures. A number of studies show this species to be capable of withstanding considerable foot traffic and it is often an important component of well worn turf (Montacchini and Siniscalco, 1982).

Associations

Sagar and Harper (1964) provide detailed lists of plants associated with P. major in the British Isles.

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall00mm; lower/upper limits

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded
  • seasonally waterlogged
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of pageSagar and Harper (1964) provide a long list of natural enemies including invertebrates, fungi and viruses but imply that these have much less influence than livestock management.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of pageNatural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

The small seeds are dispersed by the wind.

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

The seeds are mucilaginous and are dispersed by humans and animals (Soekarjo, 1992).

Accidental Introduction

Because of the small size of its seeds, P. major may be introduced as a contaminant of agricultural produce.

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers, Inflorescences, Cones, CalyxseedsNo
Fruits (inc. pods)seedsNoYesPest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Growing medium accompanying plantsroots; seedsNo
RootsrootsNo
Seedlings, Micropropagated plantswhole plantsNo
True seeds (inc. grain)seedsNo
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs, Tubers, Corms, Rhizomes
Leaves
Stems (above ground), Shoots, Trunks, Branches
Wood

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collectionsNone
Animal/plant productsNone
Biodiversity (generally)None
Crop productionNegative
Environment (generally)None
Fisheries / aquacultureNone
Forestry productionNone
Human healthPositive
Livestock productionPositive
Native faunaNone
Native floraNone
Rare/protected speciesNone
TourismNone
Trade/international relationsNone
Transport/travelNone

Impact

Top of pageP. major has been described as an agricultural, pastoral and environmental weed competing with other plants for light, water and nutrients and replacing preferred vegetation. P. lanceolata and P. major have together been reported as weeds in over 50 countries affecting a wide range of crops (Holm et al., 1977). It is a field rather than field margin weed, although it colonizes disturbed margins (Kress, 1988).

In the UK it affects the majority of local authority owned sports turf (Raikes et al., 1994). In Prince Edward Island, Canada, it is present in 80% of cereal fields with a mean density of over 14 plants per m² (Thomas and Ivany, 1990).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Impact mechanisms

  • Competition - monopolizing resources

Impact outcomes

  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts tourism
  • Reduced amenity values

Invasiveness

  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc

Likelihood of entry/control

  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult/costly to control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally

Uses

Top of pageP. major has medicinal properties and is a popular Chinese medicine. It contains phenylethanoid glycosides. It is used to treat inflammation (Nunez Guillen et al., 1997), gastritis and peptic ulcers (Aye et al., 1996b), leishmanial ulcers (Franca et al., 1996), to reduce pain (Nunez Guillen et al., 1997), and as an antidiarrhoeal agent (Heinrich, 1998). It is also used in the treatment of dermatological conditions (Brown and Dattner, 1998), common cold, viral hepatitis (Chiang et al., 2002), and has expectorant, cicatrizant and astringent properties (Ramos et al., 2002). Aqueous extracts of P. major have a significant effect on aspirin-induced ulceration in rats (Aye et al., 1996b), some effects on pain and inflammation (Nunez Guillen, 1997; Aye et al., 1996a). Navarro et al. (1998) report P. major to be effective at controlling dental plaque and gingivitis. Extracts of this species show some degree of antibacterial activity (Holetz et al., 2002).

P. major is also used as fodder (Fogelfors, 1984). It is higher in trace elements than pasture grasses and therefore can be considered a useful pasture component (Trzaskos, 1996). It is palatable to sheep (Barcsak and Kispal, 1984).

P. major is cultivated as an ornamental in South Africa (Wells et al., 1986).

Uses List

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Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of pageP. major is distinguished from other Plantago species by its long-petioled leaf blade and many-seeded capsule that opens around the fruit above the base, and the angular seeds which are marked with thread-like ridges and bear a light-coloured hilum (Holm et al., 1977).

Prevention and Control

Top of pageCultural Control

Flooding and trampling regimes aimed at weed control have not been successful against P. major (Engelaar and Blom, 1995). Similarly, a four-course crop rotation (oats, clover, winter wheat, faba beans), using minimal weed control for 4 years, resulted in large increases in weed biomass and surface and subsurface seed bank of P. major (Hill et al., 1989).

Mechanical Control

Mechanized spraying of hot water (85-95°C) in an orchard required two to three repeat sprays for good control of this and other species (Kurfess and Kleisinger, 2000).

Whilst microwave radiation has been tested as a weed control measure, it required more than 32 h of treatment (at 2.45 Ghz, 6 kW) for complete control of P. major in pot experiments. Higher frequencies (13.5 MHz, 50 kW) were effective against some erect weeds but not P. major (Kunisch et al., 1992).

Chemical Control

Treatment with chlorthal-dimethyl + naptalam resulted in successful control in Cucumis crops (Himme et al., 1984). In winter and spring cereals, glyphosate efficiently controlled weeds, including P. major, by pre-harvest application and on stubble after harvesting (Ciuberkis and Petraitis, 1998).

Amitrole or paraquat with diuron failed to control this species in orchards (Himme and Stryckers, 1975a, b), and it is resistant to lenacil (Stryckers and Himme, 1974) and methazole (Tasmanian Department of Agriculture, 1975). In a long-term repeated spraying regime using diuron, P. major was the first weed species to gain resistance (Bulcke et al., 1989).

P. major is controlled less easily with chemicals than are other turf weeds (Schery, 1974). In Festuca rubra / Poa pratensis turf, MCPA or 2,4-D applied in July-August (in northwest USA) provided excellent control of this species (Ebdon and Jagschitz, 1981). In Festuca arundinacea / Poa pratensis turf, the best control of P. major was obtained with 2,4-D (Wehner et al., 1981). In turf close to ornamental shrubs, dicamba + 2,4-D was effective (Hendricks et al., 1983). Neal and Mascianica (1988) found that quinclorac and triclopyr provided adequate control of this species in turf. However, Neal (1990) found 2,4-D and clopyralid + triclopyr were effective treatments but not quinclorac, chlorflurenol or dicamba. MCPA ± mecoprop + dicamba or clopyralid ± triclopyr or chlorflurenol ± clopyralid gave excellent control of Plantago spp. in turf, including P. major (Sawyer and Jagschitz, 1988).

Heavy applications of glyphosate to pasture increased the abundance of P. major (Grabowski, 1990). Vidme (1973) recommends that weed control by herbicide (such as 2,4 D salts or esters) in grassland is combined with heavy nitrogen applications for maximum effect.

Biological Control

P. major has been identified as a priority weed for bioherbicide research of lawn weeds (Gadoury and Watson, 1987).

Integrated Control

This weed was best controlled in rainfed rice (Nagaland, India) by a combination of chemical (2,4-D, butachlor and fluchloralin at 1 day after transplanting (DAT); thiobencarb at 1 and 7 DAT) and hand-weeding (at 25 and 45 DAT; Sharma et al., 1994).

References

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Aart van der PJM, Vulto JC, 1992. Biogeography and human effects. In: Kuiper PJC, Bos M, eds. Plantago: a Multidisciplinary Study. Ecological Studies, Vol. 89. Berlin, Germany: Springer Verlag, 5-6.

Aart van der PJM, Vulto JC, 1992. General ecology. In: Kuiper PJC, Bos M, eds. Plantago: a Multidisciplinary Study. Ecological Studies, Vol. 89. Berlin, Germany: Springer Verlag, 6.

Akeroyd JR, Doogue D, 1988. Plantago major L. subsp. intermedia (DC.) Arcangeli (Plantaginaceae) in Ireland. Irish Naturalists' Journal, 22(10):441-443

Andreasen C, Stryhn H, Streibig JC, 1996. Decline of the flora in Danish arable fields. Journal of Applied Ecology, 33(3):619-626; 44 ref.

Aspinall RJ, Pye AM, 1997. The effect of trampling on limestone grassland in the Malham area of North Yorkshire. Journal of Biogeography, 14(2):105-115.

Aye T, Mu MSM, Tin M, Win M, 1996. Anti-oedema activity of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L., Curcuma longa L. and Plantago major L. Myanmar Health Sciences Research Journal, 8(1):36-40.

Aye T, Mu MSM, Win M, Tin M, Su SH, 1996. The anti-ulcerogenic activity of Plantago major Linn. Myanmar Health Sciences Research Journal, 8(2):74-77.

Barcsak Z, Kispal T, 1990. Palatability examination of grasses. In: Gaborcik N, Krajcovic V, Zimkova M, eds. Soil Grassland Animal Relationships. Proceedings of 13th General Meeting of the European Grassland Federation, Banska Bystrica, Czechoslovakia, June 25-29, 1990, Volume 2. Banska Bystrica, Czechoslovakia: Grassland Research Institute, 281-284.

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Blom CWPM, 1976. Effects of trampling and soil compaction on the occurrence of some Plantago species in coastal sand dunes. I. Soil compaction, soil moisture and seedling emergence. Oecologia Plantarum, 11(3):225-241

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Distribution Maps

Top of page
Distribution map Afghanistan: Present
Holm et al., 1979Angola: Present, introduced
Verdcourt, 1971Argentina: Present
Holm et al., 1979Australia: Present
Holm et al., 1979Belgium: Present
Holm et al., 1979Bolivia: Present
Holm et al., 1979Brazil: Present
Holetz et al., 2002Brazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada: Present
Thomas Ivany, 1990; Hawthorn, 1974; Holm et al., 1979Canada
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada
See regional map for distribution within the countryChile: Present
Holm et al., 1979China: Present
Holm et al., 1979China: Present
Holm et al., 1979China
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryColombia: Present
Holm et al., 1979Colombia: Present
Holm et al., 1979Costa Rica: Present
Holm et al., 1979Costa Rica: Present
Holm et al., 1979Cuba: Present, introduced, invasive
Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012Cuba: Present, introduced, invasive
Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012Cape Verde: Present
Pinto Basto, 1996Czech Republic: Present
Pysek & Pysek, 1988Germany: Present
Bottcher, 1993Denmark: Present
Molgaard, 1992; Andreasen et al., 1996; Holm et al., 1979Dominican Republic: Present
Holm et al., 1979Dominican Republic: Present
Holm et al., 1979Ecuador: Present
Holm et al., 1979Egypt: Present
Holm et al., 1979Spain: Present
Tizado & Morales Nieto Nafría, 1991; Paton et al., 1997; Holm et al., 1979Spain: Present
Tizado & Morales Nieto Nafría, 1991; Paton et al., 1997; Holm et al., 1979Ethiopia: Present, introduced
Verdcourt, 1971Finland: Present
Holm et al., 1979Fiji: Present
Holm et al., 1979France: Present
Holm et al., 1979UK: Present
Bastin & Thomas, 1999; Holm et al., 1979Greece: PresentGreece: PresentHonduras: Present
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Honduras: Present
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Hungary: Present
Holm et al., 1979Indonesia: Present
Holm et al., 1979Indonesia: Present
Holm et al., 1979Ireland: Present
Akeroyd & Doogue, 1988; Reynolds, 1990Israel: Present
Holm et al., 1979Israel: Present
Holm et al., 1979India: Present
Sen & Kasera, 1988; Sharma et al., 1994; Holm et al., 1979India
See regional map for distribution within the countryIndia
See regional map for distribution within the countryIceland: Present
Holm et al., 1979Iceland: Present
Holm et al., 1979Italy: Present
Holm et al., 1979Jamaica: Present
Holm et al., 1979Jamaica: Present
Holm et al., 1979Japan: Present
Kobayashi & Hori, 1999; Holm et al., 1979Japan
See regional map for distribution within the countryKenya: Present, introduced
Verdcourt, 1971Lebanon: Present
Holm et al., 1979Lebanon: Present
Holm et al., 1979Lebanon: Present
Holm et al., 1979Lesotho: Present
Wells et al., 1986Myanmar: Present
Aye et al. ,1996b; Aye et al. ,1996aMauritius: Present
Holm et al., 1979Mexico: PresentMexico: PresentMalaysia: Present
Holm et al., 1979Namibia: Present
Wells et al., 1986Nicaragua: Present
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Nicaragua: Present
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Nicaragua: Present
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Netherlands: Present
Molgaard, 1992; Holm et al., 1979Norway: Present
Haland, 1989New Zealand: Present
Popay et al., 1995; Holm et al., 1979Panama: Present
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Panama: Present
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Peru: Present
Holm et al., 1979Poland: Present
Trzaskos, 1996; Holm et al., 1979; Holeksa & Holeksa, 1987Puerto Rico: Present
Holm et al., 1979Puerto Rico: Present
Holm et al., 1979Romania: Present
Coste, 1970; Cristea & Groza, 1983Russian Federation: Present
Bekmansurov, 1996; Zhukova et al., 1996; Ivshin, 1998; Holm et al., 1979Russian Federation: Present
Bekmansurov, 1996; Zhukova et al., 1996; Ivshin, 1998; Holm et al., 1979Russian Federation
See regional map for distribution within the countrySaudi Arabia: Present
Holm et al., 1979Saudi Arabia: Present
Holm et al., 1979Sweden: Present
Fogelfors, 1984; Holm et al., 1979Singapore: Present
Chua et al., 1994Slovenia: Present
Batic et al., 1997Slovakia: Present
Kliment, 1991Sao Tome and Principe: Present, introduced
Verdcourt, 1971Swaziland: Present
Wells et al., 1986Turkey: Present
Basaran et al., 1997; Holm et al., 1979Turkey: Present
Basaran et al., 1997; Holm et al., 1979Turkey: Present
Basaran et al., 1997; Holm et al., 1979USA: Widespread
Holm et al., 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2003USA: Widespread
Holm et al., 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2003USA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryVenezuela: Present
Watson, 1977; Holm et al., 1979Venezuela: Present
Watson, 1977; Holm et al., 1979United States Virgin Islands: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Vietnam: Present
Holm et al., 1979Yugoslavia (former): Present
Segulja & Topic, 1987; Holm et al., 1979South Africa: Present
Glen, 1998; Holm et al., 1979; Wells et al., 1986Congo Democratic Republic: Present, introduced
Verdcourt, 1971
  • = Present, no further details
  • = Evidence of pathogen
  • = Widespread
  • = Last reported
  • = Localised
  • = Presence unconfirmed
  • = Confined and subject to quarantine
  • = See regional map for distribution within the country
  • = Occasional or few reports
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Distribution map (asia) Afghanistan: Present
Holm et al., 1979China: Present
Holm et al., 1979Hubei: Present
Yao et al., 1992Hong Kong: Present
Holm et al., 1979Jiangsu: Present
Wang et al., 1990Liaoning: Present
Wang et al., 1990Shandong: Present
Wang et al., 1990Zhejiang: Present
Wang et al., 1990Indonesia: Present
Holm et al., 1979Israel: Present
Holm et al., 1979India: Present
Sen & Kasera, 1988; Sharma et al., 1994; Holm et al., 1979Himachal Pradesh: Present
Gupta & Bhardwaj, 1998Nagaland: Present
Sharma et al., 1994Japan: Present
Kobayashi & Hori, 1999; Holm et al., 1979Shikoku: Present
Kanai & Konta, 1987Lebanon: Present
Holm et al., 1979Myanmar: Present
Aye et al. ,1996b; Aye et al. ,1996aMalaysia: Present
Holm et al., 1979Russian Federation: Present
Bekmansurov, 1996; Zhukova et al., 1996; Ivshin, 1998; Holm et al., 1979Saudi Arabia: Present
Holm et al., 1979Singapore: Present
Chua et al., 1994Turkey: Present
Basaran et al., 1997; Holm et al., 1979Vietnam: Present
Holm et al., 1979
Distribution map (europe) Belgium: Present
Holm et al., 1979Czech Republic: Present
Pysek & Pysek, 1988Germany: Present
Bottcher, 1993Denmark: Present
Molgaard, 1992; Andreasen et al., 1996; Holm et al., 1979Spain: Present
Tizado & Morales Nieto Nafría, 1991; Paton et al., 1997; Holm et al., 1979Finland: Present
Holm et al., 1979France: Present
Holm et al., 1979UK: Present
Bastin & Thomas, 1999; Holm et al., 1979Greece: PresentHungary: Present
Holm et al., 1979Ireland: Present
Akeroyd & Doogue, 1988; Reynolds, 1990Iceland: Present
Holm et al., 1979Italy: Present
Holm et al., 1979Lebanon: Present
Holm et al., 1979Netherlands: Present
Molgaard, 1992; Holm et al., 1979Norway: Present
Haland, 1989Poland: Present
Trzaskos, 1996; Holm et al., 1979; Holeksa & Holeksa, 1987Romania: Present
Coste, 1970; Cristea & Groza, 1983Russian Federation: Present
Bekmansurov, 1996; Zhukova et al., 1996; Ivshin, 1998; Holm et al., 1979Western Siberia: Present
Kryukova & Persidskaya, 1986Sweden: Present
Fogelfors, 1984; Holm et al., 1979Slovenia: Present
Batic et al., 1997Slovakia: Present
Kliment, 1991Turkey: Present
Basaran et al., 1997; Holm et al., 1979Yugoslavia (former): Present
Segulja & Topic, 1987; Holm et al., 1979
Distribution map (africa) Angola: Present, introduced
Verdcourt, 1971Cape Verde: Present
Pinto Basto, 1996Egypt: Present
Holm et al., 1979Spain: Present
Tizado & Morales Nieto Nafría, 1991; Paton et al., 1997; Holm et al., 1979Ethiopia: Present, introduced
Verdcourt, 1971Greece: PresentIsrael: Present
Holm et al., 1979Kenya: Present, introduced
Verdcourt, 1971Lebanon: Present
Holm et al., 1979Lesotho: Present
Wells et al., 1986Mauritius: Present
Holm et al., 1979Namibia: Present
Wells et al., 1986Saudi Arabia: Present
Holm et al., 1979Sao Tome and Principe: Present, introduced
Verdcourt, 1971Swaziland: Present
Wells et al., 1986Turkey: Present
Basaran et al., 1997; Holm et al., 1979South Africa: Present
Glen, 1998; Holm et al., 1979; Wells et al., 1986Congo Democratic Republic: Present, introduced
Verdcourt, 1971
Distribution map (north america) Canada: Present
Thomas Ivany, 1990; Hawthorn, 1974; Holm et al., 1979Ontario: PresentPrince Edward Island: Present
Thomas Ivany, 1990Quebec: Present
Potvin & Vasseur, 1997Cuba: Present, introduced, invasive
Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012Dominican Republic: Present
Holm et al., 1979Honduras: Present
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Iceland: Present
Holm et al., 1979Jamaica: Present
Holm et al., 1979Mexico: PresentNicaragua: Present
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Puerto Rico: Present
Holm et al., 1979USA: Widespread
Holm et al., 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2003Alaska: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Alabama: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Arkansas: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Arizona: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003California: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Colorado: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Connecticut: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Delaware: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Florida: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Georgia: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Hawaii: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Iowa: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Idaho: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Illinois: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Indiana: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Kansas: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Kentucky: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Louisiana: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Massachusetts: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Maryland: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Maine: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Michigan: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Minnesota: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Missouri: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Mississippi: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Montana: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003North Carolina: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003North Dakota: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Nebraska: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003New Hampshire: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003New Jersey: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003New Mexico: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Nevada: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003New York: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Ohio: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Oklahoma: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Pennsylvania: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003South Carolina: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003South Dakota: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Tennessee: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Texas: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Utah: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Virginia: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Vermont: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Wisconsin: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003West Virginia: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Wyoming: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003
Distribution map (central america) Colombia: Present
Holm et al., 1979Costa Rica: Present
Holm et al., 1979Cuba: Present, introduced, invasive
Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012Dominican Republic: Present
Holm et al., 1979Honduras: Present
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Jamaica: Present
Holm et al., 1979Mexico: PresentNicaragua: Present
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Panama: Present
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Puerto Rico: Present
Holm et al., 1979USA: Widespread
Holm et al., 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2003Florida: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003Venezuela: Present
Watson, 1977; Holm et al., 1979United States Virgin Islands: Present
USDA-NRCS, 2003
Distribution map (south america) Argentina: Present
Holm et al., 1979Bolivia: Present
Holm et al., 1979Brazil: Present
Holetz et al., 2002Bahia: Present
Franca et al., 1996Minas Gerais: PresentSao Paulo: Present
Ramos et al., 2002Chile: Present
Holm et al., 1979Colombia: Present
Holm et al., 1979Costa Rica: Present
Holm et al., 1979Ecuador: Present
Holm et al., 1979Nicaragua: Present
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Panama: Present
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Peru: Present
Holm et al., 1979Venezuela: Present
Watson, 1977; Holm et al., 1979
Distribution map (pacific) Australia: Present
Holm et al., 1979China: Present
Holm et al., 1979Fiji: Present
Holm et al., 1979Indonesia: Present
Holm et al., 1979New Zealand: Present
Popay et al., 1995; Holm et al., 1979