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Datasheet

Plantago lanceolata (ribwort plantain)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 October 2015
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Plantago lanceolata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • ribwort plantain
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • There are little data to suggest that this species is a priority invasive species in its native range: it is principally a weed of arable field margins rather than the fields themselves. However it has dispersed widely throughout the temperate, and s...
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Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Plantago lanceolata L.

Preferred Common Name

  • ribwort plantain

International Common Names

  • English: buckhorn plantain; English plantain; lance-leaf plantain; lanceolate plantain; narrowleaf plantain; narrow-leaved plantain; ribgrass; ribwort
  • Spanish: llantén menor
  • French: petit plantain
  • Portuguese: tanchagem menor

Local Common Names

  • Cuba: llantén
  • Germany: Spitzwegerich
  • Italy: cinquenervi; lanciuola cinquenervi; mestolaccio; piantaggine commune
  • Japan: heraoobako
  • Netherlands: weegbree, smalle
  • South Africa: bolilanyana; German psyllium; klein tongblaar; lamb's tongue; narrow leaved ribwort; oorpynhoutjie; oorpynwortels; ripplegrass; smalblaarplantago; small plantain; smalweeblaar; smalweebree; smalweegbree; weeblaar; wild sago
  • Sweden: kaempar, svart-; spetsgroblad

EPPO code

  • PLALA (Plantago lanceolata)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of pageThere are little data to suggest that this species is a priority invasive species in its native range: it is principally a weed of arable field margins rather than the fields themselves. However it has dispersed widely throughout the temperate, and some of the tropical world, and is common in arable land and pastures. It has proved a problem in specific instances in the tropics and its lack of invasiveness in other areas may reflect global prophylactic use of broadleaf herbicides rather than an inherent lack of invasiveness in the species. It is a perennial and is, therefore, susceptible to cultivation. Traditional chemical control has proved effective.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Plantaginales
  •                         Family: Plantaginaceae
  •                             Genus: Plantago
  •                                 Species: Plantago lanceolata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of pageSagar and Harper (1964) note that a number of varieties have been recognised on the basis of hairiness, etc., but that the differences are often obscured as a result of phenotypic variation, and have not been adequately researched.

Description

Top of pageP. lanceolata is a small, glabrous to pubescent perennial with one to several rosettes; leaves linear- to narrowly ovate-elliptic, 2-30 x 0.5-3.5 cm, very gradually narrowed to the petiole, entire to sparsely and weakly toothed; bracts 2.5-3.5 mm, the anterior connate for most of their length but their midribs separate, often shortly hairy. Scapes to 50 cm deeply furrowed. Inflorescence a spike, up to 4(-8) cm long. Flowers bisexual, inconspicuous, corolla 4-lobed, tubular, almost as long as surrounding calyx. Corolla tube 2-3 mm, glabrous, the lobes 1.5-2.5 mm lanceolate to ovate, acute or acuminate, glabrous. Stamens 4, exserted, conspicuous, 3-5 mm long, the anthers yellowish. The fruit, 3-4 mm long, is a capsule opening with an operculum, containing 1-2 smooth, boat-shaped, mucilaginous. This species has a well-developed taproot (Lamp and Collet, 1979; Stace, 1997).

Plant Type

Top of pageHerbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

Top of pageThis remarkably widespread species is apparently native to Europe, North Africa and West and South Asia (USDA-ARS, 2003) but has been introduced extremely widely elsewhere and now occurs e.g. in every continental state of USA as well as in Hawaii, in Australia and New Zealand, 'throughout Japan' (Morita, 2002) and in many countries of Africa, where it thrives at high altitude.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

CountryDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferencesNotes

ASIA

AfghanistanPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
ArmeniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
AzerbaijanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
BhutanRestricted distributionIntroducedNot invasiveGrierson et al., 2001
ChinaWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al., 1979
-FujianPresentIntroducedInvasiveWang et al., 1990
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedInvasiveWang et al., 1990
-GuangxiPresentIntroducedInvasiveWang et al., 1990
-GuizhouPresentIntroducedInvasiveWang et al., 1990
-HubeiPresentIntroducedInvasiveWang et al., 1990
-HunanPresentIntroducedInvasiveWang et al., 1990
-JiangsuPresentIntroducedInvasiveWang et al., 1990
-ShaanxiPresentIntroducedInvasiveWang et al., 1990
-SichuanPresentIntroducedInvasiveWang et al., 1990
-XinjiangPresentIntroducedInvasiveWang et al., 1990
-YunnanPresentIntroducedInvasiveWang et al., 1990
-ZhejiangPresentIntroducedInvasiveWang et al., 1990
Georgia (Republic of)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
IndiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
IranPresentNativeMirkamaly Maddah, 1973
IraqPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
IsraelPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
JapanWidespreadHolm et al., 1979; Morita, 2002
JordanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
KazakhstanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
Korea, Republic ofPresentHolm et al., 1979
KyrgyzstanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
LebanonPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
NepalPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
PakistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
PhilippinesPresentNativeOviedo Prieto et al., 2012
Saudi ArabiaPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
SyriaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
TaiwanPresentIntroducedChen et al., 1996; Holm et al., 1979
TajikistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
TurkeyPresentNativeCobanoglu, 2000; Holm et al., 1979
TurkmenistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
UzbekistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
YemenPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003

AFRICA

AlgeriaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
BotswanaPresentIntroducedWells et al., 1986
EgyptPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
EthiopiaPresentHolm et al., 1979
GabonPresentIntroducedVerdcourt, 1971
KenyaPresentIntroducedVerdcourt, 1971
LesothoPresentIntroducedWells et al., 1986
LibyaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
MalawiPresentIntroducedVerdcourt, 1971
MauritiusPresentIntroducedMcIntyre & Barbe, 1994
MoroccoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
NamibiaPresentIntroducedWells et al., 1986
South AfricaPresentIntroducedGlen, 1998; Holm et al., 1979; Wells et al., 1986
SpainIraola Calvo et al., 1999; Holm et al., 1979
-Canary IslandsPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
SudanPresentIntroducedVerdcourt, 1971
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedVerdcourt, 1971
TunisiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
ZimbabwePresentNativeHolm et al., 1979

NORTH AMERICA

CanadaPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979; Cavers, 1980
MexicoPresentIntroducedLopez & Tellez Reyes, 1999
USAWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al., 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2003
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-AlaskaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-ColoradoPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-ConnecticutPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-DelawarePresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-FloridaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-IdahoPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-IllinoisPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-IndianaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-IowaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-KansasPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-KentuckyPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-MainePresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-MarylandPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-MassachusettsPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-MichiganPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-MinnesotaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-MississippiPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-MissouriPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-MontanaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-NebraskaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-NevadaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-New HampshirePresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-New MexicoPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-New YorkPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-North DakotaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-OhioPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-OklahomaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-OregonPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-Rhode IslandPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-South DakotaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-TennesseePresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-TexasPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-UtahPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-VermontPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-WashingtonPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-West VirginiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-WisconsinPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-WyomingPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2003

CENTRAL AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOviedo Prieto et al., 2012
Puerto RicoPresentHolm et al., 1979

SOUTH AMERICA

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedConticello & Gandullo, 1991; Holm et al., 1979
ChilePresentIntroducedRamirez et al., 1989; Holm et al., 1979
EcuadorPresentHolm et al., 1979
UruguayPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979

EUROPE

AlbaniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
AustriaPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
BelarusPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
BelgiumPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
BulgariaPresentNativeMilusheva & Rankova, 2002
CyprusPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
DenmarkPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
EstoniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
FinlandPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
FrancePresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
GermanyPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
GreecePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
HungaryPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
IcelandPresentHolm et al., 1979
IrelandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
ItalyPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
LatviaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
LithuaniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
MaltaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
MoldovaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
NetherlandsPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
NorwayPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
PolandPresentNativeKozlowski et al., 1997; Grzegorczyk & Alberski, 1999
PortugalPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979; Sousa, 1998
-AzoresPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
RomaniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
Russian FederationPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
-Russia (Europe)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
-Western SiberiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
SpainPresentNativeIraola Calvo et al., 1999; Holm et al., 1979
SwedenPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
SwitzerlandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
UKPresentNativeRoberts & Boddrell, 1984; Holm et al., 1979; Mohd Norowi, 1999
UkrainePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
Yugoslavia (former)PresentNativeHolm et al., 1979

OCEANIA

AustraliaPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedJames, 1988
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedLane, 1976
New ZealandPresentIntroducedFerguson & Fraser, 1993; Suckling et al., 1998; Holm et al., 1979

Risk of Introduction

Top of pageAlthough not a federally listed noxious weed in USA, P. lanceolata is listed and regulated by many individual states (USDA-ARS, 2003).

Habitat

Top of pageP. lanceolata is a plant of grasslands and wastelands with neutral or basic soils (Clapham et al., 1989). It is found in a wider range of grassland microclimates and soil types than some close relatives (such as P. major and P. media), but is not found in the hottest and driest grasslands (Stoutjesdijk, 1992). In general, it is restricted to comparatively open vegetation where there is plenty of light at ground level (Aart et al., 1992).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural landPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areasPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchardsPresent, no further details
Managed grasslands (grazing systems)Present, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsidesPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areasPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural grasslandsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of pageThis species is quick to colonize, establish and spread in disturbed agricultural areas. Its small size and low vigour, however, mean that it is seldom reported as a principal weed for a particular crop (Holm et al., 1977). It has been reported as a weed of lucerne in Iran (Mirkamaly and Maddah, 1973) and of citrus and mango in Mauritius (McIntyre and Barbe, 1994).

Host Plants/Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContext
CitrusRutaceaeMain
Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeMain
Medicago sativa (lucerne)FabaceaeMain
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeOther

Biology and Ecology

Top of pageGenetics

P. lancelolata has a chromosome number of 2n=12 (Stace, 1997). The high level of genetic mixing, low polymorphism and lack of population genetic structure in this species are thought to result from its exclusive out-crossing strategy (Sharma and Koul, 1995).

Physiology and Phenology

Evidence suggests that there is little dormancy in this species, and virtually all seeds germinate within the first year (Roberts and Boddrell, 1984; Pons, 1992). However, germination rate seems to increase with storage over 6 months (Sousa et al., 1998). Unlike some close relatives, such as P. major, seed of this species does not require light for germination (Pons and Toorn, 1988; Blom, 1992) although the effect of light intensity on germination rate seems unclear (Roberts and Boddrell, 1984; Sousa et al., 1998). Optimum germination has been obtained at 21% soil moisture (Blom, 1992).

Reproductive Biology

Reproduction is via seed in this species. P. lanceolata is an obligate out-breeder and its flowers are self-incompatible (Sagar and Harper, 1964; Sharma et al., 1992; Sharma and Koul, 1995). The species is considered mainly anemophilous (wind-pollinated) (Sagar and Harper, 1964), but there is evidence to suggest biotic pollination by syrphid flies (Stelleman, 1982) and bees (Apis dorsata and Apis florea) (Sharma et al., 1993). Gynodioecy is observed in P. lanceolata, i.e. populations contain both hermaphrodites and sterile males (Poot et al., 1997).

Environmental Requirements

P. lanceolata is so widely distributed that it is probably not restricted by climate (Holm et al., 1977). Suitable climates include those with winter rainfall (temperate), all-year rainfall (temperate), summer rainfall (temperate), summer rainfall (sub-tropical) (Wells et al., 1986). The deep taproot enables this species to withstand periods of drought. It is seldom reported to be an important weed in the tropics because more vigorous plants keep its growth in check. In open areas, plants will overwinter below ground and, if frosted, they can re-grow from underground storage organs. The chemical and physical characteristics of the soils in which Plantago species grow have been described by Troelstra (1992). Sagar and Harper (1964) note that P. lanceolata is found on a wide variety of soil types in the British Isles and occurs on sand-dunes, and spray-washed cliffs, but is absent from acidic uplands. It is mainly a species of basic and neutral grasslands.

Association

Sagar and Harper (1964) provide detailed lists of plants associated with P. lanceolata in the British Isles.

Natural Enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Chrysolina staphylaeaHerbivoreLeaves
Gibberella sacchariPathogen
Gymnetron pascuorumHerbivoreSeeds
Junonia coeniaHerbivoreLeaves
Phomopsis subordinariaPathogen
Trichosirocalus troglodytesHerbivoreGrowing point

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of pageSagar and Harper (1964) provide a long list of natural enemies including invertebrates, fungi and viruses but imply that these have much less influence than livestock management.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of pageNatural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

P. lanceolata produces a large number of small seeds which can be dispersed by the wind.

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Seeds are mucilaginous and easily transported on animal fur or by man (Soekarjo, 1992). Sagar and Harper (1964) note that seeds retain over 50% viability after passing through cattle.

Accidental introduction

Because of the small size of its seeds, P. lanceolata may be introduced as a contaminant of agricultural produce.

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs, Tubers, Corms, RhizomesrootsNo
Flowers, Inflorescences, Cones, CalyxseedsNo
Fruits (inc. pods)seedsNo
Growing medium accompanying plantsseedsNo
RootsrootsNo
Seedlings, Micropropagated plantswhole plantsNo
Stems (above ground), Shoots, Trunks, BranchesseedsNo
True seeds (inc. grain)seedsNo
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Leaves
Wood

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collectionsNone
Animal/plant productsNone
Biodiversity (generally)None
Crop productionNegative
Environment (generally)None
Fisheries / aquacultureNone
Forestry productionNone
Human healthNegative
Livestock productionNone
Native faunaNone
Native floraNone
Rare/protected speciesNone
TourismNone
Trade/international relationsNone
Transport/travelNone

Impact

Top of pageP. lanceolata has been described as an agricultural, pastoral and environmental weed competing with other plants for light, water and nutrients and replacing preferred vegetation. P. lanceolata and P. major have together been reported as weeds in over 50 countries affecting a wide range of crops (Holm et al., 1977). Holm et al. (1979) record P. lanceolata as a serious weed in Italy, and a principal weed in Canada, Ecuador, Iran, Mauritius and New Zealand.

Impact: Biodiversity

Top of pageP. lanceolata forms dense swards that crowd out native vegetation and prevent the establishment of native species (Weber, 2003).

Social Impact

Top of pagePollen of this species can cause allergies and respiratory problems (Lamp and Collet, 1979; Mehta and Wheeler, 1991).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page

Impact mechanisms

  • Competition - monopolizing resources

Impact outcomes

  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts human health

Invasiveness

  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc

Likelihood of entry/control

  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Uses

Top of pageP. lanceolata has been used for sward improvement (Stewart, 1996; Trzaskos, 1996; Kozlowski et al., 1997). The commercial cultivars 'Grasslands Lancelot' (Rumball et al., 1997) and 'Ceres Tonic' (Pyne Gould Guinness Ltd, 1996) have been developed in New Zealand for forage yield and suitability for livestock grazing. Sagar and Harper (1964) note that P. lanceolata is one of the most palatable species for sheep.

It also has value as a tough amenity turf component (Odermatt et al., 1998) and has been utilized as permanent ground cover in vineyards (Crozier, 1998).

Medicinal uses include the treatment of respiratory and inflammatory skin diseases (Marchesan et al., 1998; Paper and Marchesan, 1999).

Uses List

Top of page

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of pageP. lanceolata can be distinguished from P. major by its furrowed scape, lanceolate leaves, one- to two-seeded capsule which splits around the middle and the smooth, boat-shaped seeds with a scar around the middle (Holm et al., 1977).

Prevention and Control

Top of pageMechanical Control

Grazing or mowing may reduce growth of P. lanceolata (Weber, 2003). This species is traditionally hand weeded in mango and citrus orchards in Mauritius (McIntyre and Barbe, 1994).

Chemical Control

Around young trees and shrubs: glyphosate applied twice a year controlled P. lanceolata over several years (Frank and Simon, 1981). Alternate treatments of glyphosate and a mixture of diuron + paraquat were also satisfactory (McIntyre and Barbe, 1994).

In arable crops: butralin + linuron was found to be particularly effective (Fererro, 1978) and mecoprop has been recommended to control field margin weeds (including Plantago lanceolata; Birnie, 1984).

In turf: 2,4-D used alone and bromoxynil and mecoprop together were effective (Wehner et al., 1981). Bingham et al. (1986) reported that P. lanceolata was controlled better with a mecoprop than a dichlorprop mixture.

Integrated Control

McIntyre and Barbe (1994) observed acceptable control in young mango and citrus orchards in Mauritius with combined chemical and traditional hand weeding.

References

Top of page

Aart PJM van der, Vulto JC, 1992. General ecology. Plantago: a multidisciplinary study [edited by Kuiper, P. J. C.; Bos, M.] Berlin, Germany; Springer-Verlag, 6

Bingham SW, Rucker EG, Shaver RL, 1986. Broadleaf weed species' response to turfgrass herbicides. Proceedings, Southern Weed Science Society, 39th annual meeting, 110

Birnie JE, 1984. A preliminary study on the effect of some agricultural herbicides on a range of field margin flora. Technical Report, AFRC Weed Research Organization, No.79:24 pp.

Blom CWPM, 1992. Germination and establishment. In: Kuiper PJC, Bos M, eds. Plantago: a Multidisciplinary Study. Ecological Studies, Vol. 89. Berlin, Germany: Springer Verlag, 88-98.

Cavers PB, Bassett IJ, Crompton CW, 1980. The biology of Canadian weeds. 47. Plantago lanceolata L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 60(4):1269-1282

Chen ShihHuei, Tseng YenHsueh, Wu MingJou, Liu ChingYu, 1996. Plantago lanceolata L., a newly naturalized plant in Taiwan. Taiwania, 41(3):180-184; 8 ref.

Clapham AR, Tutin TG, Moore DM, 1989. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Cobanoglu S, 2000. Aphididae (Homoptera) species of Edirne Province (Thrace part of Turkey). Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 136(1628-31):45-52; 18 ref.

Conticello L, Gandullo R, 1991. Survey of summer weeds in the upper valley of Rio Negro y Neuquen. Proceedings of the 12th Argentine meeting on weeds and their control, Mar del Plata, Argentina, 9-11 October 1991., Vol. 1:19-26; 22 ref.

Crozier P, 1998. Permanent ground cover and mulch: agricultural aspects. Phytoma, No. 511:42-45.

Ferguson CM, Fraser WJ, 1993. Eurythecta zelaea, an occasional dryland pasture pest. Proceedings of the Forty Sixth New Zealand Plant Protection Conference, Christchurch, New Zealand, 10-12 August 1993 Rotorua, New Zealand; New Zealand Plant Protection Society, 242-244

Ferrero A, 1978. Selective weed control in maize. Rapporti sull'attivita svolta nell'ambito del subprogetto "Fitoiatria del frumento del mais e del sorgo" Progetto finalizzato fitofarmaci e fitoregolatori, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche; coordinatore V. Piglionica, Rome, 1978., 309-316

Frank JR, Simon JA, 1981. Glyphosate and paraquat effectiveness in woody nursery stock. Weed Science, 29(4):455-461

Glen HF, 1998. Investigation of the antiinflammatory activity of liquid extracts of Plantago lanceolata L. FSA contributions 12: Plantaginaceae. Bothalia, 28(2):151-157; 26 ref.

Grierson AJC, Long DG, 2001. Flora of Bhutan including a record of plants from Sikkim and Darjeeling. Volume 2 Part 3. Edinburgh, UK: Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh and Royal Government of Bhutan.

Grzegorczyk S, Alberski J, 1999. The presence of forbs in meadow-pasture plant communities of the Olsztyn Lakeland. Folia Universitatis Agriculturae Stetinensis, Agricultura, No. 75:103-106.

Holm L, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, Plucknett DL, 1979. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. Toronto, Canada: John Wiley and Sons Inc.

Holm LG, Plucknett DL, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, 1977. The World's Worst Weeds. Distribution and Biology. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University Press of Hawaii.

Iraola Calvo VM, Moraza ML, Biurrun R, 1999. Spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae Berlese) and phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae Berlese) in pear orchards and ground cover vegetation in Navarra. Boleti^acute~n de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 25(1):49-58; 27 ref.

James DG, 1988. A new host plant for Junonia villida calybe (Godart) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Australian Entomological Magazine, 15(1):6

Kozlowski S, Golinski P, Swedrzynska D, Kolpak M, 1997. Plantago lanceolata - a commendable sward component of grasslands? Management for Grassland Biodiversity. Proceedings of the International Occasional Symposium of the European Grassland Federation, Warszawa-Lomza, Poland, 19-23 May, 1997. Grassland Science in Europe Vol. 2. Poznan, Poland: Organizing Committee of the International Occasional Symposium of the European Grassland Federation, 227-231.

Lamp C, Collet F, 1979. A field guide to weeds in Australia, revised edition. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press.

Lane D, 1976. The vegetation of roadsides and adjacent farmland of the Mornington Peninsula, Victoria, Australia. Weed Research, 16(6):385-389

Lopez Tellez A, Reyes SA, 1999. Flora de Veracruz: Plantaginaceae, No. 108:1-20. Xalapa, Mexico: Instituto de Ecologia.

Marchesan M, Paper DH, Hose S, Franz G, 1998. Investigation of the antiinflammatory activity of liquid extracts of Plantago lanceolata L. Phytother. Res., 12:33-34.

McIntyre G, Barbe C, 1994. Chemical v/s hand weeding in young citrus and mango orchards. Revue Agricole et Sucriere de l'Ile Maurice, 73:44-47.

Mehta V, Wheeler AW, 1991. IgE-mediated sensitization to English plantain pollen in seasonal respiratory allergy: identification and partial characterisation of its allergenic components. International Archives of Allergy and Applied Immunology, 96(3):211-217

Milusheva S, Rankova Z, 2002. Plum pox potyvirus detection in weed species under field conditions. Acta Horticulturae, No.577:283-287; 10 ref.

Mirkamaly H, Maddah MV, 1973. Weeds of alfalfa fields in Arak area. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 9(2):23-24.

Mohd Norowi Hamid, Perry JN, Powell W, Rennolls K, 1999. The effect of spatial scale on interactions between two weevils and their food plant. Acta Oecologica, 20(5):537-549; 39 ref.

Mook JH, Haeck J, Toorn J van der, Tienderen PH van, 1989. Comparative demography of Plantago. I. Observations on eight populations of Plantago lanceolata. Acta Botanica Neerlandica, 38(1):67-78

Morita H, 2002. Handbook of Arable Weeds of Japan. Tokyo, Japan: Kumiai Chemical Industry Co., Ltd.

Odermatt S, Thomet E, Thomet P, 1998. NARA - development of a low-input turf with low growing ecotypes. In: Boller B, Stadelmann FJ, eds. Breeding for a Multifunctional Agriculture. Proceedings of the 21st meeting of the Fodder Crops and Amenity Grasses Section of EUCARPIA, KartauseIttingen, Switzerland, 9-12 September, 1997. Zurich, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, 115-117.

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al., 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.

Paper DH, Marchesan M, 1999. Plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.): its introduction, analysis, constituents, pharmacology and standardization. Zeitschrift fur Phytotherapie, 20(4):231-238.

Pons TL, 1992. Seed germination of Plantago major ssp. major and Plantago lanceolata. Plantago: a multidisciplinary study [edited by Kuiper, P. J. C.; Bos, M.] Berlin, Germany; Springer-Verlag, 161-169

Pons TL, Toorn J van der, 1988. Establishment of Plantago lanceolata L. and Plantago major L. among grass I. Significance of light for germination. Oecologia, 75(3):394-399

Poot P, Broek T van den, Damme JMM van, Lambers H, 1997. A comparison of the vegetative growth of male-sterile and hermaphroditic lines of Plantago lanceolata in relation to N supply. New Phytologist, 135(3):429-437.

Pyne Gould Guinness Ltd, 1996. Variety: 'Ceres Tonic' syn 'PG 30'. Application no: 96/017. Plant Varieties Journal, 9(2):39.

Ramirez GC, San Martin PC, Sempe CJ, 1989. Seasonal changes in plant size, biomass and phenology in an anthropogenic prairie in southern central Chile. Agro Sur, 17(1):19-28.

Roberts HA, Boddrell JE, 1984. Seed survival and seasonal emergence of seedlings of some ruderal plants. Journal of Applied Ecology, 21(2):617-628

Rumball W, Keogh RG, Miller JE, Claydon RB, 1997. 'Grasslands G27' red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 40(3):369-372; 11 ref.

Sagar GR, Harper JL, 1964. Biological Flora of the British Isles. Plantago major L., P. media L. and P. lanceolata L. Journal of Ecology, 52: 189-221.

Sharma N, Koul AK, 1995. Reproductive strategies in weeds - Plantago major, P. lanceolata and their cultivated ally P. ovata. Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy. Part B, Biological Sciences, 61(6):471-478; 20 ref.

Sharma N, Koul P, Koul AK, 1992. Reproductive biology of Plantago: shift from cross- to self-pollination. Annals of Botany, 69(1):7-11

Sharma N, Koul P, Koul AK, 1993. Pollination biology of some species of genus Plantago L. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 111(2):129-138.

Soekarjo R, 1992. General morphology in Plantago. Plantago: a multidisciplinary study., 6-12; [Ecological studies Vol. 89].

Sousa ME, Caixinhas ML, Maillet J, 1998. Seed germination of weeds from grasslands of Portugal. Comptes Rendus 6eme symposium Mediterraneen EWRS, Montpellier, France, 13-15 Mai, 1998. Montpellier, France: ENSA, 236-237.

Stace C, 1997. New Flora of the British Isles. 2nd edition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Stelleman P, 1982. The significance of biotic pollination in Plantago lanceolata. Netherlands: Academisch Proefschrift, University of Amsterdam, 175.

Stewart AV, 1996. Plantain (Plantago lanceolata) - a potential pasture species. Proceedings of the New Zealand Grassland Association, 58:77-86.

Stoutjesdijk P, 1992. Micrometeorological characterization of Plantago sites. Plantago: a multidisciplinary study [edited by Kuiper, P. J. C.; Bos, M.] Berlin, Germany; Springer-Verlag, 48-52

Suckling DM, Burnip GM, Walker JTS, Shaw PW, McLaren GF, Howard CR, Lo P, White V, Fraser J, 1998. Abundance of leafrollers and their parasitoids on selected host plants in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 26(3):193-203; 28 ref.

Taylor RJ, 1978. Industrial impact in northwestern Whatcom County, Washington. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 10(2):99-213.

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Wehner DJ, Haley JE, Yust AK, 1981. Control of plantains and clover in turf with post-em. herbicides. Proceedings North Central Weed Control Conference, Volume 36:36-37

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Distribution Maps

Top of page
Distribution map Afghanistan: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Albania: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Armenia: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Armenia: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Argentina: Present, introduced
Conticello & Gandullo, 1991; Holm et al., 1979Austria: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Australia: Present, introduced
Holm et al., 1979Australia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAzerbaijan: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Azerbaijan: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Belgium: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Bulgaria: Present, nativeBhutan: Restricted distribution, introduced, not invasiveBotswana: Present, introduced
Wells et al., 1986Belarus: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Canada: Present, introduced
Holm et al., 1979Switzerland: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Chile: Present, introduced
Ramirez et al., 1989; Holm et al., 1979China: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979China: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979China
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryCzechoslovakia (former): Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Cuba: Present, introduced, invasive
Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012Cuba: Present, introduced, invasive
Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012Cyprus: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Cyprus: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Germany: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Denmark: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Algeria: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Algeria: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Ecuador: Present
Holm et al., 1979Estonia: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Egypt: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Spain: Present, native
Iraola Calvo et al., 1999; Holm et al., 1979Spain: Present, native
Iraola Calvo et al., 1999; Holm et al., 1979Spain
See regional map for distribution within the countryEthiopia: Present
Holm et al., 1979Finland: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979France: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Gabon: Present, introduced
Verdcourt, 1971UK: Present, native
Roberts & Boddrell, 1984; Holm et al., 1979Georgia (Republic of): Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Georgia (Republic of): Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Greece: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Greece: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Hungary: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Ireland: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Israel: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Israel: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979India: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Iraq: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Iraq: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Iraq: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Iran: Present, native
Mirkamaly Maddah, 1973Iran: Present, native
Mirkamaly Maddah, 1973Iran: Present, native
Mirkamaly Maddah, 1973Iceland: Present
Holm et al., 1979Iceland: Present
Holm et al., 1979Italy: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Jordan: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Jordan: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Japan: Widespread
Holm et al., 1979; Morita, 2002Kenya: Present, introduced
Verdcourt, 1971Kyrgyzstan: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Korea, Republic of: Present
Holm et al., 1979Kazakhstan: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Kazakhstan: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Lebanon: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Lebanon: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Lebanon: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Lesotho: Present, introduced
Wells et al., 1986Lithuania: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Latvia: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Libya: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Morocco: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Morocco: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Moldova: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Malta: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Malta: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Mauritius: Present, introduced
McIntyre & Barbe, 1994Malawi: Present, introduced
Verdcourt, 1971Mexico: Present, introduced
Lopez & Tellez Reyes, 1999Mexico: Present, introduced
Lopez & Tellez Reyes, 1999Namibia: Present, introduced
Wells et al., 1986Netherlands: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Norway: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Nepal: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003New Zealand: Present, introduced
Ferguson & Fraser, 1993; Suckling et al., 1998; Holm et al., 1979Philippines: Present, native
Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012Philippines: Present, native
Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012Pakistan: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Poland: Present, native
Kozlowski et al., 1997; Grzegorczyk & Alberski, 1999Puerto Rico: Present
Holm et al., 1979Puerto Rico: Present
Holm et al., 1979Portugal: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Portugal
See regional map for distribution within the countryRomania: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Russian Federation: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Russian Federation: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Russian Federation
See regional map for distribution within the countryRussian Federation
See regional map for distribution within the countrySaudi Arabia: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Saudi Arabia: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Sudan: Present, introduced
Verdcourt, 1971Sweden: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Syria: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Syria: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Syria: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Tajikistan: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Turkmenistan: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Tunisia: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Tunisia: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Turkey: Present, native
Cobanoglu, 2000; Holm et al., 1979Turkey: Present, native
Cobanoglu, 2000; Holm et al., 1979Turkey: Present, native
Cobanoglu, 2000; Holm et al., 1979Taiwan: Present, introduced
Chen et al., 1996; Holm et al., 1979Taiwan: Present, introduced
Chen et al., 1996; Holm et al., 1979Tanzania: Present, introduced
Verdcourt, 1971Ukraine: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Ukraine: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003USA: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2003USA: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2003USA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUruguay: Present, introduced
Holm et al., 1979Uzbekistan: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Yemen: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Yemen: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Yugoslavia (former): Present, native
Holm et al., 1979South Africa: Present, introduced
Glen, 1998; Holm et al., 1979; Wells et al., 1986Zimbabwe: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979
  • = Present, no further details
  • = Evidence of pathogen
  • = Widespread
  • = Last reported
  • = Localised
  • = Presence unconfirmed
  • = Confined and subject to quarantine
  • = See regional map for distribution within the country
  • = Occasional or few reports
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Distribution map (asia) Afghanistan: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Armenia: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Azerbaijan: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Bhutan: Restricted distribution, introduced, not invasiveChina: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979Fujian: Present, introduced, invasive
Wang et al., 1990Guangdong: Present, introduced, invasive
Wang et al., 1990Guangxi: Present, introduced, invasive
Wang et al., 1990Guizhou: Present, introduced, invasive
Wang et al., 1990Hubei: Present, introduced, invasive
Wang et al., 1990Hunan: Present, introduced, invasive
Wang et al., 1990Jiangsu: Present, introduced, invasive
Wang et al., 1990Sichuan: Present, introduced, invasive
Wang et al., 1990Shaanxi: Present, introduced, invasive
Wang et al., 1990Xinjiang: Present, introduced, invasive
Wang et al., 1990Yunnan: Present, introduced, invasive
Wang et al., 1990Zhejiang: Present, introduced, invasive
Wang et al., 1990Georgia (Republic of): Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Israel: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979India: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Iraq: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Iran: Present, native
Mirkamaly Maddah, 1973Jordan: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Japan: Widespread
Holm et al., 1979; Morita, 2002Kyrgyzstan: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Korea, Republic of: Present
Holm et al., 1979Kazakhstan: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Lebanon: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Nepal: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Philippines: Present, native
Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012Pakistan: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Russian Federation: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Saudi Arabia: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Syria: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Tajikistan: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Turkmenistan: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Turkey: Present, native
Cobanoglu, 2000; Holm et al., 1979Taiwan: Present, introduced
Chen et al., 1996; Holm et al., 1979Ukraine: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Uzbekistan: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Yemen: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003
Distribution map (europe) Albania: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Armenia: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Austria: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Azerbaijan: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Belgium: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Bulgaria: Present, nativeBelarus: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Switzerland: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Czechoslovakia (former): Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Cyprus: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Germany: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Denmark: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Algeria: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Estonia: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Spain: Present, native
Iraola Calvo et al., 1999; Holm et al., 1979Finland: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979France: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979UK: Present, native
Roberts & Boddrell, 1984; Holm et al., 1979Georgia (Republic of): Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Greece: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Hungary: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Ireland: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Iraq: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Iran: Present, native
Mirkamaly Maddah, 1973Iceland: Present
Holm et al., 1979Italy: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Kazakhstan: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Lebanon: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Lithuania: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Latvia: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Morocco: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Moldova: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Malta: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Netherlands: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Norway: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Poland: Present, native
Kozlowski et al., 1997; Grzegorczyk & Alberski, 1999Portugal: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Azores: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Romania: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Russian Federation: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Russia (Europe): Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Western Siberia: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Sweden: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Syria: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Tunisia: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Turkey: Present, native
Cobanoglu, 2000; Holm et al., 1979Ukraine: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Yugoslavia (former): Present, native
Holm et al., 1979
Distribution map (africa) Botswana: Present, introduced
Wells et al., 1986Cyprus: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Algeria: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Egypt: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Spain: Present, native
Iraola Calvo et al., 1999; Holm et al., 1979Canary Islands: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Ethiopia: Present
Holm et al., 1979Gabon: Present, introduced
Verdcourt, 1971Greece: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Israel: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Iraq: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Iran: Present, native
Mirkamaly Maddah, 1973Jordan: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Kenya: Present, introduced
Verdcourt, 1971Lebanon: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Lesotho: Present, introduced
Wells et al., 1986Libya: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Morocco: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Malta: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Mauritius: Present, introduced
McIntyre & Barbe, 1994Malawi: Present, introduced
Verdcourt, 1971Namibia: Present, introduced
Wells et al., 1986Saudi Arabia: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Sudan: Present, introduced
Verdcourt, 1971Syria: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Tunisia: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003Turkey: Present, native
Cobanoglu, 2000; Holm et al., 1979Tanzania: Present, introduced
Verdcourt, 1971Yemen: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2003South Africa: Present, introduced
Glen, 1998; Holm et al., 1979; Wells et al., 1986Zimbabwe: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979
Distribution map (north america) Canada: Present, introduced
Holm et al., 1979Cuba: Present, introduced, invasive
Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012Iceland: Present
Holm et al., 1979Mexico: Present, introduced
Lopez & Tellez Reyes, 1999Puerto Rico: Present
Holm et al., 1979USA: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2003Alaska: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Alabama: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Arkansas: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003California: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Colorado: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Connecticut: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Delaware: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Florida: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Georgia: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Hawaii: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Iowa: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Idaho: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Illinois: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Indiana: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Kansas: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Kentucky: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Louisiana: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Massachusetts: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Maryland: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Maine: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Michigan: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Minnesota: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Missouri: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Mississippi: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Montana: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003North Carolina: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003North Dakota: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Nebraska: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003New Hampshire: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003New Jersey: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003New Mexico: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Nevada: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003New York: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Ohio: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Oklahoma: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Oregon: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Pennsylvania: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Rhode Island: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003South Carolina: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003South Dakota: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Tennessee: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Texas: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Utah: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Vermont: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Washington: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Wisconsin: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003West Virginia: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003Wyoming: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003
Distribution map (central america) Cuba: Present, introduced, invasive
Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012Mexico: Present, introduced
Lopez & Tellez Reyes, 1999Puerto Rico: Present
Holm et al., 1979USA: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2003Florida: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2003
Distribution map (south america) Argentina: Present, introduced
Conticello & Gandullo, 1991; Holm et al., 1979Chile: Present, introduced
Ramirez et al., 1989; Holm et al., 1979Ecuador: Present
Holm et al., 1979Uruguay: Present, introduced
Holm et al., 1979
Distribution map (pacific) Australia: Present, introduced
Holm et al., 1979New South Wales: Present, introduced
James, 1988Victoria: Present, introduced
Lane, 1976China: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979New Zealand: Present, introduced
Ferguson & Fraser, 1993; Suckling et al., 1998; Holm et al., 1979Philippines: Present, native
Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012Taiwan: Present, introduced
Chen et al., 1996; Holm et al., 1979