Pissodes castaneus (small banded pine weevil)
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PicturesTop of page
|Caption||P. castaneus adult.|
|Adult||P. castaneus adult.||Marc Kenis|
|Title||Galleries under bark|
|Caption||Galleries and pupal chambers of P. castaneus with emergence holes.|
|Galleries under bark||Galleries and pupal chambers of P. castaneus with emergence holes.||Marc Kenis|
|Caption||Young Pinus sp. killed by P. castaneus.|
|Damage symptoms||Young Pinus sp. killed by P. castaneus.||Marc Kenis|
|Caption||Adult Dolichomitus terebrans; a Hymenopteran parasitoid of P. castaneus.|
|Natural enemy||Adult Dolichomitus terebrans; a Hymenopteran parasitoid of P. castaneus.||Marc Kenis|
|Caption||Adult Eubazus semirugosus; a Hymenopteran parasitoid of P. castaneus.|
|Natural enemy||Adult Eubazus semirugosus; a Hymenopteran parasitoid of P. castaneus.||Marc Kenis|
|Caption||Adult Coeloides sordidator; a Hymenopteran parasitoid of P. castaneus.|
|Natural enemy||Adult Coeloides sordidator; a Hymenopteran parasitoid of P. castaneus.||Marc Kenis|
|Title||Larva and parasitoid|
|Caption||Larva of P. castaneus in pupal chamber, with small larva of Coeloides sordidator.|
|Larva and parasitoid||Larva of P. castaneus in pupal chamber, with small larva of Coeloides sordidator.||Marc Kenis|
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Pissodes castaneus (DeGeer, 1775)
Preferred Common Name
Other Scientific Names
- Curculio castaneus DeGeer, 1775
- Pissodes fabricii Stephens, 1831
- Pissodes notatus (Fabricius, 1787)
International Common Names
- English: banded pine weevil; lesser banded pine weevil; pine banded weevil; weevil, banded pine; weevil, minor pine
- Spanish: gorgojo do los pinos; gorgojo pequeno del pino; pissodes manchado
- French: petit charançon du pin; pissode du pin; pissode note; pissodes ponctue
Local Common Names
- Denmark: lille fyrresnudebille
- Finland: taimipikikärsäkäs
- Germany: Kiefernkulturrüssler; Ruesselkaefer, Kleiner Kiefern-; Ruessler, Kiefernjungholz-; Ruessler, Kiefernkultur-
- Italy: Pissode notato
- Netherlands: Dennensnuittor, kleine; Dennesnuitkever, kleine
- Sweden: mindre tallvivel
- PISONO (Pissodes castaneus)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
P. castaneus is considered invasive in South America (Abgrall et al., 1999) but Wibmer and O'Brien (1986) state that it is a misidentification of P. radiatae.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Uniramia
- Class: Insecta
- Order: Coleoptera
- Family: Curculionidae
- Genus: Pissodes
- Species: Pissodes castaneus
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
Pissodes castaneus is often better known under the junior synonym Pissodes notatus. P. castaneus is morphologically very similar to Pissodes validirostris (Sahlberg) whose larvae feed in pine cones. Viedma (1972, 1973) provides diagnostic characters for the two species.
DescriptionTop of page
Ivory-white, turgescent, ellipsoidal; length 0.70-0.75 mm, width 0.45-0.48 mm, posterior pole slightly more obtuse than anterior pole. Deposited singly or up to eight in each hole in the bark made by the female; number dependent on diameter of stem selected.
The final instar is 8-10 mm long; head protracted, as broad as long, broadest in the middle, rounded posteriorly, dark orange-brown, paler in paired dorsal and lateral stripes, ocellus present on each side. Body white, curved, crescent-shaped, lacking thoracic legs; slender pointed dense asperities covering entire surface; setae, especially those at abdominal apex, strong and long. Abdominal segments, except apical, tripartite; spiracles annular biforous, inconspicuous. For a generic larval diagnosis see Anderson (1947) and for detailed larval descriptions and keys including P. castaneus see Viedma (1963), Scherf (1964) and Angelov (1979). Alauzet (1984) provides measurements of the head capsule width for each instar of P. castaneus.
Length 4.5-7.0 mm, white. Pupation in hollowed chamber, constructed at the end of the larval gallery in sapwood. Cocoon is covered by long whitish woody fibres and wood chips. The pupa is illustrated by Cecconi (1924) and Joly (1975), and those of other European species by Scherf (1964).
Body length 5.0-11.0 mm, including rostrum; elbowed antennae inserted at about the middle of the curved rostrum; femora unarmed; large specimens resemble small individuals of Hylobius abietis but in these the antennae are inserted preapically on the rostrum and the femora are spurred ventrally; red-brown to dark-brown; elytra with two transverse squamose fasciae, the antemedian is yellowish, interrupted medially, the postmedian white or grey-white, yellow laterally, uninterrupted; scales on lateral region of prothorax between pronotum proper and coxa, white, large, round, never more than 1.5-2 times longer than broad. In the related Pissodes validirostris the majority of these scales are brown, smaller, elongate and more than 2 times longer than broad (Bevan, 1971). For further characters to separate these formerly confused species see Viedma (1972, 1973) and Roudier (1988) and for keys to the European species see Endrödi (1963) and Freude et al. (1983).
DistributionTop of page
Introduced in Uruguay and Argentina (Anon., 1970; Abgrall et al., 1999), but possibly a misidentification of Pissodes radiatae (Wibmer and O'Brien, 1986).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Country||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||References||Notes|
|Algeria||Present||CAB European, 1998; El Hassani et al., 1994; EPPO, 2014|
|Morocco||Present||CAB European, 1998; El Hassani et al., 1994; EPPO, 2014|
|Spain||CAB European, 1998; Romanyk, 1960; Viedma, 1963; EPPO, 2014|
|-Canary Islands||Present||Native||Plata-Negrache & Prendes-Ayala, 1979; CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014|
|USA||Absent, intercepted only||CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014|
|-New York||Absent, intercepted only||CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014|
|Argentina||Absent, invalid record||Anon., 1970; EPPO, 2014||Possibly a misidentification of Pissodes radiatae.|
|Brazil||Present||Iede et al., 2007|
|-Parana||Present||Iede et al., 2007|
|-Rio Grande do Sul||Present||Iede et al., 2007|
|-Santa Catarina||Present||Iede et al., 2007|
|Chile||Present||Abgrall et al., 2000|
|Uruguay||Absent, invalid record||Anon., 1970; Abgrall et al., 1999; EPPO, 2014||Possibly a misidentification of Pissodes radiatae.|
|Austria||Present||Native||CAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014|
|Belarus||Present||Native||CAB European, 1998; Lavrova, 1967; EPPO, 2014|
|Belgium||Present||Native||Mayné, 1926; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014|
|Bulgaria||Widespread||Native||****||CAB European, 1998; Angelov, 1979; EPPO, 2014|
|Croatia||Restricted distribution||Native||CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014|
|Czech Republic||Widespread||Native||****||CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014|
|Czechoslovakia (former)||Widespread||Native||CAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987|
|Denmark||Restricted distribution||Native||CAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014|
|Finland||Restricted distribution||Native||CAB European, 1998; Kangas, 1938; EPPO, 2014|
|France||Restricted distribution||Native||Alauzet, 1982; Kenis & Mills, 1994; CAB European, 1998; Carle, 1967; Alauzet, 1969; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014|
|Germany||Widespread||Native||CAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014|
|Greece||Present||Native||CAB European, 1998; Karaman, 1968; EPPO, 2014|
|Hungary||Restricted distribution||Native||****||CAB European, 1998; Endrödi, 1963; EPPO, 2014; Györfi, 1942|
|Ireland||Restricted distribution||EPPO, 2014|
|Italy||Widespread||Native||****||CAB European, 1998; Cecconi, 1924; EPPO, 2014|
|Latvia||Present||Native||CABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014|
|Lithuania||Restricted distribution||EPPO, 2014|
|Moldova||Present||Native||CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014|
|Netherlands||Restricted distribution||Native||CAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014|
|Norway||Absent, invalid record||EPPO, 2014|
|Poland||Present||Native||CAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014|
|Portugal||Present, few occurrences||Native||CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014|
|-Azores||Present||Native||CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014|
|-Madeira||Present||Native||CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014|
|Romania||Present||Native||CAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014; Simionescu & Mihalache, 2000|
|Russian Federation||Restricted distribution||EPPO, 2014|
|-Central Russia||Present||Native||Bukzeeva, 1972; CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014|
|-Eastern Siberia||Present||Native||CABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014|
|-Northern Russia||Present||Native||CAB European, 1998; Volkova, 1961; EPPO, 2014|
|-Russian Far East||Present||Native||CABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014|
|-Southern Russia||Present||Native||CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014|
|-Western Siberia||Restricted distribution||Native||CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014|
|Slovakia||Restricted distribution||Native||****||CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014|
|Spain||Present||Native||CAB European, 1998; Romanyk, 1960; Viedma, 1963; EPPO, 2014|
|Sweden||Restricted distribution||Native||CAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014|
|Switzerland||Present||Native||CAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014|
|UK||Restricted distribution||Native||****||Bevan, 1987; CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014|
|-Channel Islands||Present||EPPO, 2014|
|-England and Wales||Restricted distribution||EPPO, 2014|
|-Northern Ireland||Present||Clawson & Anderson, 2006|
|Ukraine||Present||Native||Kozak, 1978; EPPO, 2014|
|Yugoslavia (former)||Present||Native||Grujic & Milanovic, 1963|
|Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)||Present||CAB European, 1998|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
In Europe, P. castaneus is considered to have reached its natural limits and, thus, it is not listed as a quarantine pest by EPPO. However, it represents a phytosanitary risk for other temperate regions where pine plantations occur. It is listed by COSAVE as a quarantine pest.
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
P. castaneus attacks nearly all Pinus spp. There are also occasional reports of it attacking Taxus baccata, Larix decidua, Abies sp., A. alba, Picea sp. and P. abies.
Growth StagesTop of page
Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage
SymptomsTop of page
Feeding damage to young Pinus by adult beetles is usually insignificant. They make small holes in the young bark of fine branches and stems and, by reaching the inner bark, cut the resiniferous canals. From these holes resin exudes, so that adult feeding is revealed by the presence on the bark of small droplets of resin. Upon evaporation these droplets solidify and become white. These symptoms are sometimes accompanied by yellowing and death of the shoot extremities. Perfectly circular exit holes made by emerging adults are also visible on the lower parts of the trunk.
The larvae of P. castaneus tunnel between the bark and the wood of young Pinus producing slightly tortuous galleries which proceed downwards in the inner bark and terminate at the root collar. A radiating gallery system is produced in stems of sufficient diameter, from eggs deposited in a mass. In stems of small diameter, the galleries are entirely longitudinal and descend as far as the root collar, where the bark is thickest. They may reach the phloem region of the roots when egg laying has taken place at the base of the trunk, as usually occurs in young Pinus. The galleries become wider with the development of the larvae and are obstructed by compacted sawdust and excrement. Their large dimensions, irregularity and lack of maternal galleries readily distinguish them from those of scolytids.
The larval galleries prevent the circulation of sap, causing a slow desiccation which is manifested by wilting and general yellowing and browning of the needles, and then by death of the tree. Partial browning of needles is also caused by gall midges (Cecidomyiidae), but their small reddish larvae are visible in the sheaths around the needles. If the larval galleries of the weevil do not encircle the stem, some green shoots remain on the otherwise wilting plant. At the base of the trunk, sawdust and a sap exudate are sometimes visible. The detachment of bark, although less frequent in young plants, is a serious symptom of Pissodes attack. This bark loss allows the easy detection of the larval galleries and cushion-like pupal chambers in the lower stem. In trees with larvae and pupae situated in the root neck, the stem is swollen at this point and the trees easily lose their hold in the soil. Figures showing characteristic damage are given by Zarco (1949) (colour plate), Anon. (1970) and Kudela (1974).
Symptoms ListTop of page
|gummosis or resinosis|
|plant dead; dieback|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Adults of P. castaneus are long-lived, strong fliers and are found during all the warm months of the year. Flight commences in warm southern lands by April, but not until mid-May in colder northerly latitudes, and continues until October. During the sap season the adults cut small, deep holes in the bark using their mandibles and also superficially damage the buds and young shoots.
Oviposition can take place during the entire flight season. Females lay 1 to 5 eggs in punctures in the bark of young Pinus, usually between the root collar and the first whorl of branches and in older trees on the trunk and branches. In the laboratory, females can lay over 500 eggs in a lifetime (Alauzet, 1984). Incubation requires 8-10 days at 22-23°C (Ressouches, 1969) and the head and mandibles are usually visible on the ninth day after laying. After hatching, the larvae penetrate under the bark and furrow the inner bark (bast or phloem) with irregular passages which are more or less radiating when the eggs have been laid in a mass. There are four larval instars (Alauzet, 1985). P. castaneus usually develops without obligatory diapause, as shown in laboratory rearing (Carle, 1967; Alauzet, 1984). However, in the field, Carle (1974) and Alauzet (1986) observed a facultative diapause in the fourth-instar larvae of P. castaneus, possibly induced by temperature and photoperiod conditions. Pupal chambers are constructed at the ends of galleries and hollowed in the sapwood. The phenology is variable and depends on climatic and ecological conditions. In general, there is one generation per year, but two generations are observed in southern Europe whereas in northern Europe, one generation can take two years. Both adults and mature larvae overwinter, and overlapping generations are commonly observed. For further information on biology of P. castaneus, see Kangas (1938) in Finland, Viedma (1961) in Spain, Carle (1967, 1974) and Alauzet (1977, 1984, 1985, 1986) in southern France, and the review by Kudela (1974).
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Data on natural enemies are limited to parasitoids. Predators and pathogens have not been studied. The most reliable lists of parasitoids are provided by Alauzet (1982) and Kenis and Mills (1994). Other lists (e.g. Thomson, 1943; Herting, 1973) contain many errors. Parasitism is usually dominated by the Braconidae Eubazus semirugosus and Coeloides sordidator. Other important species include the Braconidae Coeloides abdominalis, the Ichneumonidae Dolichomitus terebrans and the Pteromalidae Rhopalicus tutela and R. guttatus (Alauzet, 1982; Kenis and Mills, 1994). All species are ectoparasitoids of mature instar larvae and are also found on other bark-boring beetles, except Eubazus spp., which are egg-larval endoparasitoids and apparently specific to Pissodes spp. More details on the biology and ecology of Eubazus spp. and Coeloides spp. are found in Alauzet (1987), Kenis (1996, 1997), Kenis and Mills (1994, 1998) and Kenis et al. (1996). Parasitism is an important mortality factor in P. castaneus. In France and the UK, parasitism rates varied between 25 and 75% (Kenis and Mills, 1994).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
The long-lived adults are strong fliers which are probably capable of long-range dispersal. However, under certain conditions, the adults do not spread more than 40 m from a focus of infestation in a season (Bukzeeva, 1972). According to Gillanders (1908), P. castaneus was imported in pit props from Germany and spread to Scotland in the UK. Seedlings of Pinus shipped from the Netherlands had stems infested with full-grown larvae of P. castaneus (Felt, 1910). The pest has been intercepted at ports of entry in the USA, usually as adults in various shipments.
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Stems (above ground), Shoots, Trunks, Branches||adults; eggs; larvae; pupae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Wood||larvae; pupae||No||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Bulbs, Tubers, Corms, Rhizomes|
|Flowers, Inflorescences, Cones, Calyx|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Growing medium accompanying plants|
|Seedlings, Micropropagated plants|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
Wood PackagingTop of page
|Wood Packaging liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Timber type||Used as packing|
|Solid wood packing material with bark||Pine||Yes|
ImpactTop of page
P. castaneus is an important pest of Pinus spp. in France, UK, Russia, Finland and Spain where large numbers of young trees in new plantations may be killed. In addition, attacks by this weevil cause serious losses of young Pinus in both natural stands and plantations in southeastern Europe and the eastern Mediterranean (Kailidis, 1964). In Portugal, P. castaneus shows a preference for grafted P. pinaster, tunnelling in small branches and endangering the success of the graft. In plantations grown for seed, infestation resulted in severe reductions in yield (Silva and Nogueira, 1967). It almost exclusively attacks 2- to 15-year-old trees, but even 100- to 120-year-old trees are not immune. Development may also occur in felled pine logs and split firewood. The most serious damage is caused by the larvae, whereas the adults cause little damage.
Usually this weevil is a secondary pest of conifers which have been weakened in some way. Often it may be associated with or succeed another pest, for example Pityogenes bidentatus. In the south of France, P. castaneus is a principal pest of Pinus attacked previously by the coccid Matsucoccus feytaudi (Carle, 1974; Arzone and Vidano, 1981); however, Alauzet (1969) showed that from 1962 to 1963, 58% of trees were destroyed by P. castaneus alone and it may, therefore, also be a primary pest of P. pinaster in France.
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Although P. castaneus is mainly a plantation pest, it also attacks young trees in natural stands. However, no serious environmental impact is reported.
Detection and InspectionTop of page
When a young pine tree is turning yellow or brown, look under the bark to locate solitary larval galleries and cushion-like pupal chambers.
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
External damage on trees is easily confused with that of bark beetles. Larval galleries and pupal cells are typical for Pissodes spp. However, there are two other species living in pine trunks in Europe, Pissodes pini and P. piniphilus. Although these usually attack older trees, the three species can be found in trees of various ages. Larvae and pupae are difficult to separate (Sherf, 1964), but adults are easily distinguishable (Kudela, 1974; Freude et al., 1983).
Large adult specimens resemble small individuals of Hylobius abietis but in these the antennae are inserted preapically on the rostrum and the femora are spurred ventrally.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Preventive control can be achieved by ensuring vigorous growth of quality planting material on the best soil. Good husbandry involves removing dead wood, which could act as oviposition sites, or any infected trees or parts. Infected trees should be uprooted and burnt, rather than felled, since pupation occurs close to the ground on young stems. Artificially weakened 'trap' trees can be established in a stand to attract oviposition; these are subsequently carefully removed and burnt. Similarly, piles of bark fragments and twigs can act as hibernation traps.
Chemical control is rarely necessary, and is difficult, as the adult flight period extends from May until September. Satisfactory, though incomplete, control was achieved in Yugoslavia by spraying the trees with an insecticide treatment including malathion (Grujic and Milanovic, 1963). Cobos and Robredo (1982) recommended the use of 5% fenitrothion dust, applied from aircraft, when the intensity of attack is high and the area requiring treatment is very large.
The high rates of parasitism observed in P. castaneus suggest that parasitoids could be manipulated to improve natural control. No biological control project has been carried out against P. castaneus, but parasitoids of P. castaneus have been considered for introduction against the congeneric species Pissodes strobi in Canada (Kenis and Mills, 1994, 1998).
Phytosanitary measures must be carried out to prevent the introduction and establishment of P. castaneus in uninfested regions. Plants for planting of Pinus spp. should be visually inspected for P. castaneus, paying particular attention to the possibility of the weevils boring into young shoots. Wood should be debarked before shipment.
ReferencesTop of page
Abgrall JF, Villèn González V, Porcile JF, 1999. Estudios de investigacion sobre gorgojo de los pinos (I parte). Peligro a la vista. Chile Forestal, 24:9-13.
Abgrall JF, Villén González V, Porcile JF, 2000. Biology and control of the pine weevil. Part II. On all fronts. (Biología y control del gorgojo de los pinos (II parte): desde todos las frentes.) Chile Forestal, 25(279):9-13.
Alauzet C, 1969. Importance relative du rôle du coléoptère curculionide Pissodes notatus et de la rouille Cronartium flaccidum dans la mortalité des pins maritimes de la forêt domaniale de Bouconne (Haute-Garonne). Comptes Rendus des Séances de la Société de Biologie, 163:1221-1223.
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Alauzet C, 1982. Biocoenosis of Pissodes notatus F., a pest of cluster pine in the Bouconne Forest (Haute-Garonne: France). Nouvelle Revue d'Entomologie, 12(1):81-89
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Anderson WH, 1947. A terminology for the anatomical characters useful in the taxonomy of weevil larvae. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 49:123-132.
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Arzone A, Vidano C, 1981. Matsucoccus feytaudi Duc. (Homoptera, Margarodidae), a plant-sucking insect lethal to Pinus pinaster Ait. in Italy. Informatore Fitopatologico, 31(10):3-10
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Bevan D, 1987. Forest insects: a guide to insects feeding on trees in Britain. Forestry Commission Handbook, UK, No. 1:153 pp.
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CABI/EPPO, 2006. Pissodes castaneus. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 678. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
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Carle P, 1974. The decline of Pinus pinaster in Provence. Role of insects in changing the biological equilibrium of forests invaded by Matsucoccus feytaudi. Annales des Sciences Forestières, 31:1-26.
Cecconi G, 1924. Manuale di entomologia forestale. Padova, Italy: Tipografia del Seminario.
Clawson S, Anderson R, 2006. The banded pine weevils Pissodes pini (Linnaeus, 1758) and P. castaneus (DeGeer, 1775) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) established in Ireland. Entomologist's Gazette, 57(4):269-270. http://www.gempublishing.co.uk
Cobos JM, Robredo F, 1982. Notes on the prevention and chemical control of Pissodes notatus F. (Col.: Curculionidae). Boletn del Servicio de Defensa contra Plagas e Inspeccion Fitopatologica, 8(2):225-235
El Hassani A, Graf P, Hamdaoui M, Harrachi K, Messaoudi J, Mzibri M, Stiki A, 1994. Ravageurs et Maladies des Forets au Maroc. Rabat, Morocco: Editions DPVCTRF.
Endrödi S, 1963. [Curculionidae 3. Coleoptera V., Strepsiptera]. Fauna Hungariae, 64:90-93.
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Felt EP, 1910. Recent observations upon European insects in America. Journal of Economic Entomology, 3:341-343.
Freude H, Harde KW, Lohse GA, 1983. Die KSfer Mitteleuropas. Band 11. Curculionidae II. Krefeld, Germany: Goecke & Evers.
Gillanders AT, 1908. Forest Entomology. Edinburgh & London, UK: William Blackwood & Sons.
Grujic D, Milanovic S, 1963. Some observations concerning bionomics and control of Pissodes notatus F. Zastita Bilja, 71:97-100.
Gy÷rfi J, 1942. Die Pissodes-Arten Ungarns. ErdTszeti KisTrletek, 44:258-287.
Herting B, 1973. A catalogue of parasites and predators of terrestrial arthropods, Section A, Volume III, Coleoptera to Strepsiptera. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
Iede ET, Reis Filho W, Zaleski SRM, Marques Fde A, Caldato N, 2007. Monitoring and control of Pissodes castaneus on Pinus spp. (Monitoramento e controle de Pissodes castaneus em Pinus spp.) Circular Técnica - Embrapa Florestas, No.130:8 pp.
Joly R, 1975. Insect enemies of pines. Volume I. Volume II. Les insectes ennemis des pins. Volume I. Volume II. Ecole Nationale du Genie Rural, des Eaux et des Forets. Nancy France, 222pp.; 7[+ 45] pp.
Kailidis DS, 1964. A review of forest insect problems in southeast Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean. In: FAO/IUFRO Symposium on Internationally Dangerous Forest Diseases and Insects, Oxford, 20-30 July, 1964. Meeting No. II/III. FAO/Forpest 64, 1-4.
Kangas E, 1938. Zur Biologie und Verbreitung der Pissodes Arten (Col: Curculionidae) Finnlands (Fortsetzung). Annales Entomologici Fennici, 4(2):73-98.
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- = Present, no further details
- = Evidence of pathogen
- = Widespread
- = Last reported
- = Localised
- = Presence unconfirmed
- = Confined and subject to quarantine
- = See regional map for distribution within the country
- = Occasional or few reports