Cookies on Invasive Species Compendium

Like most websites we use cookies. This is to ensure that we give you the best experience possible.

Continuing to use www.cabi.org means you agree to our use of cookies. If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use.

Datasheet

Pissodes castaneus (small banded pine weevil)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 05 October 2015
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pissodes castaneus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • small banded pine weevil
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • P. castaneus is considered invasive in South America (Abgrall et al., 1999) but Wibmer and O'Brien (1986) state that it is a misidentification of P. radiatae.
    ...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
P. castaneus adult.
TitleAdult
CaptionP. castaneus adult.
CopyrightMarc Kenis
P. castaneus adult.
AdultP. castaneus adult.Marc Kenis
Galleries and pupal chambers of P. castaneus with emergence holes.
TitleGalleries under bark
CaptionGalleries and pupal chambers of P. castaneus with emergence holes.
CopyrightMarc Kenis
Galleries and pupal chambers of P. castaneus with emergence holes.
Galleries under barkGalleries and pupal chambers of P. castaneus with emergence holes.Marc Kenis
Young Pinus sp. killed by P. castaneus.
TitleDamage symptoms
CaptionYoung Pinus sp. killed by P. castaneus.
CopyrightMarc Kenis
Young Pinus sp. killed by P. castaneus.
Damage symptomsYoung Pinus sp. killed by P. castaneus.Marc Kenis
Adult Dolichomitus terebrans; a Hymenopteran parasitoid of P. castaneus.
TitleNatural enemy
CaptionAdult Dolichomitus terebrans; a Hymenopteran parasitoid of P. castaneus.
CopyrightMarc Kenis
Adult Dolichomitus terebrans; a Hymenopteran parasitoid of P. castaneus.
Natural enemyAdult Dolichomitus terebrans; a Hymenopteran parasitoid of P. castaneus.Marc Kenis
Adult Eubazus semirugosus; a Hymenopteran parasitoid of P. castaneus.
TitleNatural enemy
CaptionAdult Eubazus semirugosus; a Hymenopteran parasitoid of P. castaneus.
CopyrightMarc Kenis
Adult Eubazus semirugosus; a Hymenopteran parasitoid of P. castaneus.
Natural enemyAdult Eubazus semirugosus; a Hymenopteran parasitoid of P. castaneus.Marc Kenis
Adult Coeloides sordidator; a Hymenopteran parasitoid of P. castaneus.
TitleNatural enemy
CaptionAdult Coeloides sordidator; a Hymenopteran parasitoid of P. castaneus.
CopyrightMarc Kenis
Adult Coeloides sordidator; a Hymenopteran parasitoid of P. castaneus.
Natural enemyAdult Coeloides sordidator; a Hymenopteran parasitoid of P. castaneus.Marc Kenis
Larva of P. castaneus in pupal chamber, with small larva of Coeloides sordidator.
TitleLarva and parasitoid
CaptionLarva of P. castaneus in pupal chamber, with small larva of Coeloides sordidator.
CopyrightMarc Kenis
Larva of P. castaneus in pupal chamber, with small larva of Coeloides sordidator.
Larva and parasitoidLarva of P. castaneus in pupal chamber, with small larva of Coeloides sordidator.Marc Kenis

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pissodes castaneus (DeGeer, 1775)

Preferred Common Name

  • small banded pine weevil

Other Scientific Names

  • Curculio castaneus DeGeer, 1775
  • Pissodes fabricii Stephens, 1831
  • Pissodes notatus (Fabricius, 1787)

International Common Names

  • English: banded pine weevil; lesser banded pine weevil; pine banded weevil; weevil, banded pine; weevil, minor pine
  • Spanish: gorgojo do los pinos; gorgojo pequeno del pino; pissodes manchado
  • French: petit charançon du pin; pissode du pin; pissode note; pissodes ponctue

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: lille fyrresnudebille
  • Finland: taimipikikärsäkäs
  • Germany: Kiefernkulturrüssler; Ruesselkaefer, Kleiner Kiefern-; Ruessler, Kiefernjungholz-; Ruessler, Kiefernkultur-
  • Italy: Pissode notato
  • Netherlands: Dennensnuittor, kleine; Dennesnuitkever, kleine
  • Sweden: mindre tallvivel

EPPO code

  • PISONO (Pissodes castaneus)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of pageP. castaneus is considered invasive in South America (Abgrall et al., 1999) but Wibmer and O'Brien (1986) state that it is a misidentification of P. radiatae.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Curculionidae
  •                             Genus: Pissodes
  •                                 Species: Pissodes castaneus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of pagePissodes castaneus is often better known under the junior synonym Pissodes notatus. P. castaneus is morphologically very similar to Pissodes validirostris (Sahlberg) whose larvae feed in pine cones. Viedma (1972, 1973) provides diagnostic characters for the two species.

Description

Top of pageEggs

Ivory-white, turgescent, ellipsoidal; length 0.70-0.75 mm, width 0.45-0.48 mm, posterior pole slightly more obtuse than anterior pole. Deposited singly or up to eight in each hole in the bark made by the female; number dependent on diameter of stem selected.

Larva

The final instar is 8-10 mm long; head protracted, as broad as long, broadest in the middle, rounded posteriorly, dark orange-brown, paler in paired dorsal and lateral stripes, ocellus present on each side. Body white, curved, crescent-shaped, lacking thoracic legs; slender pointed dense asperities covering entire surface; setae, especially those at abdominal apex, strong and long. Abdominal segments, except apical, tripartite; spiracles annular biforous, inconspicuous. For a generic larval diagnosis see Anderson (1947) and for detailed larval descriptions and keys including P. castaneus see Viedma (1963), Scherf (1964) and Angelov (1979). Alauzet (1984) provides measurements of the head capsule width for each instar of P. castaneus.

Pupa

Length 4.5-7.0 mm, white. Pupation in hollowed chamber, constructed at the end of the larval gallery in sapwood. Cocoon is covered by long whitish woody fibres and wood chips. The pupa is illustrated by Cecconi (1924) and Joly (1975), and those of other European species by Scherf (1964).

Adult

Body length 5.0-11.0 mm, including rostrum; elbowed antennae inserted at about the middle of the curved rostrum; femora unarmed; large specimens resemble small individuals of Hylobius abietis but in these the antennae are inserted preapically on the rostrum and the femora are spurred ventrally; red-brown to dark-brown; elytra with two transverse squamose fasciae, the antemedian is yellowish, interrupted medially, the postmedian white or grey-white, yellow laterally, uninterrupted; scales on lateral region of prothorax between pronotum proper and coxa, white, large, round, never more than 1.5-2 times longer than broad. In the related Pissodes validirostris the majority of these scales are brown, smaller, elongate and more than 2 times longer than broad (Bevan, 1971). For further characters to separate these formerly confused species see Viedma (1972, 1973) and Roudier (1988) and for keys to the European species see Endrödi (1963) and Freude et al. (1983).

Distribution

Top of pageIntroduced in Uruguay and Argentina (Anon., 1970; Abgrall et al., 1999), but possibly a misidentification of Pissodes radiatae (Wibmer and O'Brien, 1986).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

CountryDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferencesNotes

ASIA

TurkeyPresentEPPO, 2014

AFRICA

AlgeriaPresentCAB European, 1998; El Hassani et al., 1994; EPPO, 2014
MoroccoPresentCAB European, 1998; El Hassani et al., 1994; EPPO, 2014
SpainCAB European, 1998; Romanyk, 1960; Viedma, 1963; EPPO, 2014
-Canary IslandsPresentNativePlata-Negrache & Prendes-Ayala, 1979; CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014

NORTH AMERICA

USAAbsent, intercepted onlyCAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014
-New YorkAbsent, intercepted onlyCAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014

SOUTH AMERICA

ArgentinaAbsent, invalid recordAnon., 1970; EPPO, 2014Possibly a misidentification of Pissodes radiatae.
BrazilPresentIede et al., 2007
-ParanaPresentIede et al., 2007
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIede et al., 2007
-Santa CatarinaPresentIede et al., 2007
ChilePresentAbgrall et al., 2000
UruguayAbsent, invalid recordAnon., 1970; Abgrall et al., 1999; EPPO, 2014Possibly a misidentification of Pissodes radiatae.

EUROPE

AustriaPresentNativeCAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014
BelarusPresentNativeCAB European, 1998; Lavrova, 1967; EPPO, 2014
BelgiumPresentNativeMayné, 1926; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014
BulgariaWidespreadNative****CAB European, 1998; Angelov, 1979; EPPO, 2014
CroatiaRestricted distributionNativeCAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicWidespreadNative****CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014
Czechoslovakia (former)WidespreadNativeCAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987
DenmarkRestricted distributionNativeCAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014
FinlandRestricted distributionNativeCAB European, 1998; Kangas, 1938; EPPO, 2014
FranceRestricted distributionNativeAlauzet, 1982; Kenis & Mills, 1994; CAB European, 1998; Carle, 1967; Alauzet, 1969; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014
GermanyWidespreadNativeCAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014
GreecePresentNativeCAB European, 1998; Karaman, 1968; EPPO, 2014
HungaryRestricted distributionNative****CAB European, 1998; Endrödi, 1963; EPPO, 2014; Györfi, 1942
IrelandRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
ItalyWidespreadNative****CAB European, 1998; Cecconi, 1924; EPPO, 2014
-SardiniaPresentEPPO, 2014
-SicilyPresentEPPO, 2014
LatviaPresentNativeCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
LithuaniaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
MoldovaPresentNativeCAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014
NetherlandsRestricted distributionNativeCAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014
NorwayAbsent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014
PolandPresentNativeCAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014
PortugalPresent, few occurrencesNativeCAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014
-AzoresPresentNativeCAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014
-MadeiraPresentNativeCAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014
RomaniaPresentNativeCAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014; Simionescu & Mihalache, 2000
Russian FederationRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-Central RussiaPresentNativeBukzeeva, 1972; CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014
-Eastern SiberiaPresentNativeCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-Northern RussiaPresentNativeCAB European, 1998; Volkova, 1961; EPPO, 2014
-Russian Far EastPresentNativeCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-Southern RussiaPresentNativeCAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014
-Western SiberiaRestricted distributionNativeCAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014
SerbiaPresentEPPO, 2014
SlovakiaRestricted distributionNative****CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014
SpainPresentNativeCAB European, 1998; Romanyk, 1960; Viedma, 1963; EPPO, 2014
SwedenRestricted distributionNativeCAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandPresentNativeCAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014
UKRestricted distributionNative****Bevan, 1987; CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014
-Channel IslandsPresentEPPO, 2014
-England and WalesRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-Northern IrelandPresentClawson & Anderson, 2006
UkrainePresentNativeKozak, 1978; EPPO, 2014
Yugoslavia (former)PresentNativeGrujic & Milanovic, 1963
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentCAB European, 1998

Risk of Introduction

Top of pageIn Europe, P. castaneus is considered to have reached its natural limits and, thus, it is not listed as a quarantine pest by EPPO. However, it represents a phytosanitary risk for other temperate regions where pine plantations occur. It is listed by COSAVE as a quarantine pest.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of pageP. castaneus attacks nearly all Pinus spp. There are also occasional reports of it attacking Taxus baccata, Larix decidua, Abies sp., A. alba, Picea sp. and P. abies.

Growth Stages

Top of pageSeedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of pageFeeding damage to young Pinus by adult beetles is usually insignificant. They make small holes in the young bark of fine branches and stems and, by reaching the inner bark, cut the resiniferous canals. From these holes resin exudes, so that adult feeding is revealed by the presence on the bark of small droplets of resin. Upon evaporation these droplets solidify and become white. These symptoms are sometimes accompanied by yellowing and death of the shoot extremities. Perfectly circular exit holes made by emerging adults are also visible on the lower parts of the trunk.

The larvae of P. castaneus tunnel between the bark and the wood of young Pinus producing slightly tortuous galleries which proceed downwards in the inner bark and terminate at the root collar. A radiating gallery system is produced in stems of sufficient diameter, from eggs deposited in a mass. In stems of small diameter, the galleries are entirely longitudinal and descend as far as the root collar, where the bark is thickest. They may reach the phloem region of the roots when egg laying has taken place at the base of the trunk, as usually occurs in young Pinus. The galleries become wider with the development of the larvae and are obstructed by compacted sawdust and excrement. Their large dimensions, irregularity and lack of maternal galleries readily distinguish them from those of scolytids.

The larval galleries prevent the circulation of sap, causing a slow desiccation which is manifested by wilting and general yellowing and browning of the needles, and then by death of the tree. Partial browning of needles is also caused by gall midges (Cecidomyiidae), but their small reddish larvae are visible in the sheaths around the needles. If the larval galleries of the weevil do not encircle the stem, some green shoots remain on the otherwise wilting plant. At the base of the trunk, sawdust and a sap exudate are sometimes visible. The detachment of bark, although less frequent in young plants, is a serious symptom of Pissodes attack. This bark loss allows the easy detection of the larval galleries and cushion-like pupal chambers in the lower stem. In trees with larvae and pupae situated in the root neck, the stem is swollen at this point and the trees easily lose their hold in the soil. Figures showing characteristic damage are given by Zarco (1949) (colour plate), Anon. (1970) and Kudela (1974).

Symptoms List

Top of page
SignLife StagesType

Leaves

abnormal colours

Stems

gummosis or resinosis
internal feeding

Whole plant

discoloration
internal feeding
plant dead; dieback

Biology and Ecology

Top of pageAdults of P. castaneus are long-lived, strong fliers and are found during all the warm months of the year. Flight commences in warm southern lands by April, but not until mid-May in colder northerly latitudes, and continues until October. During the sap season the adults cut small, deep holes in the bark using their mandibles and also superficially damage the buds and young shoots.

Oviposition can take place during the entire flight season. Females lay 1 to 5 eggs in punctures in the bark of young Pinus, usually between the root collar and the first whorl of branches and in older trees on the trunk and branches. In the laboratory, females can lay over 500 eggs in a lifetime (Alauzet, 1984). Incubation requires 8-10 days at 22-23°C (Ressouches, 1969) and the head and mandibles are usually visible on the ninth day after laying. After hatching, the larvae penetrate under the bark and furrow the inner bark (bast or phloem) with irregular passages which are more or less radiating when the eggs have been laid in a mass. There are four larval instars (Alauzet, 1985). P. castaneus usually develops without obligatory diapause, as shown in laboratory rearing (Carle, 1967; Alauzet, 1984). However, in the field, Carle (1974) and Alauzet (1986) observed a facultative diapause in the fourth-instar larvae of P. castaneus, possibly induced by temperature and photoperiod conditions. Pupal chambers are constructed at the ends of galleries and hollowed in the sapwood. The phenology is variable and depends on climatic and ecological conditions. In general, there is one generation per year, but two generations are observed in southern Europe whereas in northern Europe, one generation can take two years. Both adults and mature larvae overwinter, and overlapping generations are commonly observed. For further information on biology of P. castaneus, see Kangas (1938) in Finland, Viedma (1961) in Spain, Carle (1967, 1974) and Alauzet (1977, 1984, 1985, 1986) in southern France, and the review by Kudela (1974).

Natural Enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacon palpebratorParasiteLarvae
Bracon hylobiiParasite
Coeloides abdominalisParasiteLarvaeFrancePinus
Coeloides sordidatorParasiteLarvaeFrancePinus
Dolichomitus terebransParasiteLarvae
Eubazus atricornisParasite
Eubazus robustusParasiteLarvae
Eubazus semirugosusParasiteLarvae
Eurytoma annilaiParasiteLarvae
Eurytoma wachtliParasiteLarvae
Metacolus unifasciatusParasiteLarvae
Rhopalicus guttatusParasiteLarvae
Rhopalicus tutelaParasiteLarvae
Spathius rubidusParasiteLarvae
Thanasimus formicariusPredatorAdults

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of pageData on natural enemies are limited to parasitoids. Predators and pathogens have not been studied. The most reliable lists of parasitoids are provided by Alauzet (1982) and Kenis and Mills (1994). Other lists (e.g. Thomson, 1943; Herting, 1973) contain many errors. Parasitism is usually dominated by the Braconidae Eubazus semirugosus and Coeloides sordidator. Other important species include the Braconidae Coeloides abdominalis, the Ichneumonidae Dolichomitus terebrans and the Pteromalidae Rhopalicus tutela and R. guttatus (Alauzet, 1982; Kenis and Mills, 1994). All species are ectoparasitoids of mature instar larvae and are also found on other bark-boring beetles, except Eubazus spp., which are egg-larval endoparasitoids and apparently specific to Pissodes spp. More details on the biology and ecology of Eubazus spp. and Coeloides spp. are found in Alauzet (1987), Kenis (1996, 1997), Kenis and Mills (1994, 1998) and Kenis et al. (1996). Parasitism is an important mortality factor in P. castaneus. In France and the UK, parasitism rates varied between 25 and 75% (Kenis and Mills, 1994).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of pageThe long-lived adults are strong fliers which are probably capable of long-range dispersal. However, under certain conditions, the adults do not spread more than 40 m from a focus of infestation in a season (Bukzeeva, 1972). According to Gillanders (1908), P. castaneus was imported in pit props from Germany and spread to Scotland in the UK. Seedlings of Pinus shipped from the Netherlands had stems infested with full-grown larvae of P. castaneus (Felt, 1910). The pest has been intercepted at ports of entry in the USA, usually as adults in various shipments.

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Stems (above ground), Shoots, Trunks, Branchesadults; eggs; larvae; pupaeYesPest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Woodlarvae; pupaeNoYesPest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs, Tubers, Corms, Rhizomes
Flowers, Inflorescences, Cones, Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings, Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)

Wood Packaging

Top of page
Wood Packaging liable to carry the pest in trade/transportTimber typeUsed as packing
Solid wood packing material with barkPineYes

Impact

Top of pageP. castaneus is an important pest of Pinus spp. in France, UK, Russia, Finland and Spain where large numbers of young trees in new plantations may be killed. In addition, attacks by this weevil cause serious losses of young Pinus in both natural stands and plantations in southeastern Europe and the eastern Mediterranean (Kailidis, 1964). In Portugal, P. castaneus shows a preference for grafted P. pinaster, tunnelling in small branches and endangering the success of the graft. In plantations grown for seed, infestation resulted in severe reductions in yield (Silva and Nogueira, 1967). It almost exclusively attacks 2- to 15-year-old trees, but even 100- to 120-year-old trees are not immune. Development may also occur in felled pine logs and split firewood. The most serious damage is caused by the larvae, whereas the adults cause little damage.

Usually this weevil is a secondary pest of conifers which have been weakened in some way. Often it may be associated with or succeed another pest, for example Pityogenes bidentatus. In the south of France, P. castaneus is a principal pest of Pinus attacked previously by the coccid Matsucoccus feytaudi (Carle, 1974; Arzone and Vidano, 1981); however, Alauzet (1969) showed that from 1962 to 1963, 58% of trees were destroyed by P. castaneus alone and it may, therefore, also be a primary pest of P. pinaster in France.

Environmental Impact

Top of pageAlthough P. castaneus is mainly a plantation pest, it also attacks young trees in natural stands. However, no serious environmental impact is reported.

Detection and Inspection

Top of pageWhen a young pine tree is turning yellow or brown, look under the bark to locate solitary larval galleries and cushion-like pupal chambers.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of pageExternal damage on trees is easily confused with that of bark beetles. Larval galleries and pupal cells are typical for Pissodes spp. However, there are two other species living in pine trunks in Europe, Pissodes pini and P. piniphilus. Although these usually attack older trees, the three species can be found in trees of various ages. Larvae and pupae are difficult to separate (Sherf, 1964), but adults are easily distinguishable (Kudela, 1974; Freude et al., 1983).

Large adult specimens resemble small individuals of Hylobius abietis but in these the antennae are inserted preapically on the rostrum and the femora are spurred ventrally.

Prevention and Control

Top of pagePreventive control can be achieved by ensuring vigorous growth of quality planting material on the best soil. Good husbandry involves removing dead wood, which could act as oviposition sites, or any infected trees or parts. Infected trees should be uprooted and burnt, rather than felled, since pupation occurs close to the ground on young stems. Artificially weakened 'trap' trees can be established in a stand to attract oviposition; these are subsequently carefully removed and burnt. Similarly, piles of bark fragments and twigs can act as hibernation traps.

Chemical control is rarely necessary, and is difficult, as the adult flight period extends from May until September. Satisfactory, though incomplete, control was achieved in Yugoslavia by spraying the trees with an insecticide treatment including malathion (Grujic and Milanovic, 1963). Cobos and Robredo (1982) recommended the use of 5% fenitrothion dust, applied from aircraft, when the intensity of attack is high and the area requiring treatment is very large.

The high rates of parasitism observed in P. castaneus suggest that parasitoids could be manipulated to improve natural control. No biological control project has been carried out against P. castaneus, but parasitoids of P. castaneus have been considered for introduction against the congeneric species Pissodes strobi in Canada (Kenis and Mills, 1994, 1998).

Phytosanitary measures must be carried out to prevent the introduction and establishment of P. castaneus in uninfested regions. Plants for planting of Pinus spp. should be visually inspected for P. castaneus, paying particular attention to the possibility of the weevils boring into young shoots. Wood should be debarked before shipment.

References

Top of page

Abgrall JF, Villèn González V, Porcile JF, 1999. Estudios de investigacion sobre gorgojo de los pinos (I parte). Peligro a la vista. Chile Forestal, 24:9-13.

Abgrall JF, Villén González V, Porcile JF, 2000. Biology and control of the pine weevil. Part II. On all fronts. (Biología y control del gorgojo de los pinos (II parte): desde todos las frentes.) Chile Forestal, 25(279):9-13.

Alauzet C, 1969. Importance relative du rôle du coléoptère curculionide Pissodes notatus et de la rouille Cronartium flaccidum dans la mortalité des pins maritimes de la forêt domaniale de Bouconne (Haute-Garonne). Comptes Rendus des Séances de la Société de Biologie, 163:1221-1223.

Alauzet C, 1977. The life-cycle of Pissodes notatus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) in the region of Toulouse (France). Canadian Entomologist, 109(4):597-603

Alauzet C, 1982. Biocoenosis of Pissodes notatus F., a pest of cluster pine in the Bouconne Forest (Haute-Garonne: France). Nouvelle Revue d'Entomologie, 12(1):81-89

Alauzet C, 1984. BioTcologie de Pissodes notatus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). ThFse d'Etat. Toulouse, France: UniversitT Paul Sabatier.

Alauzet C, 1985. DTveloppement sous-cortical d'un ravageur des pins: Pissodes notatus F. (Col., Curculionidae). I - Exigences thermiques du dTveloppement dans la nature. Bulletin d'Ecologie, 16:265-268.

Alauzet C, 1986. Subcortical development of a pine pest: Pissodes notatus F. (Col., Curculionidae). II. Evidence of a facultative diapause. Journal of Applied Entomology, 101(2):134-140

Alauzet C, 1987. Bioecology of Eubazus semirugosus, Coeloides abdominalis and C. sordidator (Hym.: Braconidae) parasites of Pissodes notatus (Col.: Curculionidae) in southern France. Entomophaga, 32(1):39-47

Anderson WH, 1947. A terminology for the anatomical characters useful in the taxonomy of weevil larvae. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 49:123-132.

Angelov PA, 1979. [Coleoptera, Curculionidae. Part 3. Calandrinae 1]. Fauna na Bulgariya, 9:18-19.

Anon., 1970. Banded pine weevil (Pissodes notatus F.). Cooperative Economic Insect Report. Insects not Known to Occur in the USA, 8:65-66.

Arzone A, Vidano C, 1981. Matsucoccus feytaudi Duc. (Homoptera, Margarodidae), a plant-sucking insect lethal to Pinus pinaster Ait. in Italy. Informatore Fitopatologico, 31(10):3-10

Bevan D, 1971. Notes on Pissodes validirostris Gyll. and P. pini L. (Col., Curculionidae). Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 107:90.

Bevan D, 1987. Forest insects: a guide to insects feeding on trees in Britain. Forestry Commission Handbook, UK, No. 1:153 pp.

Bukzeeva ON, 1971. The ecology of Pissodes notatus. Lesnoi Zhurnal, 14(1):135-136

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

CABI/EPPO, 2006. Pissodes castaneus. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 678. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Carle P, 1967. Contribution à l'étude biologique de Pissodes notatus F. Revue de Zoologie Agricole et Appliquée, 10-12:139-151.

Carle P, 1974. The decline of Pinus pinaster in Provence. Role of insects in changing the biological equilibrium of forests invaded by Matsucoccus feytaudi. Annales des Sciences Forestières, 31:1-26.

Cecconi G, 1924. Manuale di entomologia forestale. Padova, Italy: Tipografia del Seminario.

Clawson S, Anderson R, 2006. The banded pine weevils Pissodes pini (Linnaeus, 1758) and P. castaneus (DeGeer, 1775) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) established in Ireland. Entomologist's Gazette, 57(4):269-270. http://www.gempublishing.co.uk

Cobos JM, Robredo F, 1982. Notes on the prevention and chemical control of Pissodes notatus F. (Col.: Curculionidae). Boletn del Servicio de Defensa contra Plagas e Inspeccion Fitopatologica, 8(2):225-235

El Hassani A, Graf P, Hamdaoui M, Harrachi K, Messaoudi J, Mzibri M, Stiki A, 1994. Ravageurs et Maladies des Forets au Maroc. Rabat, Morocco: Editions DPVCTRF.

Endrödi S, 1963. [Curculionidae 3. Coleoptera V., Strepsiptera]. Fauna Hungariae, 64:90-93.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Felt EP, 1910. Recent observations upon European insects in America. Journal of Economic Entomology, 3:341-343.

Freude H, Harde KW, Lohse GA, 1983. Die KSfer Mitteleuropas. Band 11. Curculionidae II. Krefeld, Germany: Goecke & Evers.

Gillanders AT, 1908. Forest Entomology. Edinburgh & London, UK: William Blackwood & Sons.

Grujic D, Milanovic S, 1963. Some observations concerning bionomics and control of Pissodes notatus F. Zastita Bilja, 71:97-100.

Gy÷rfi J, 1942. Die Pissodes-Arten Ungarns. ErdTszeti KisTrletek, 44:258-287.

Herting B, 1973. A catalogue of parasites and predators of terrestrial arthropods, Section A, Volume III, Coleoptera to Strepsiptera. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Iede ET, Reis Filho W, Zaleski SRM, Marques Fde A, Caldato N, 2007. Monitoring and control of Pissodes castaneus on Pinus spp. (Monitoramento e controle de Pissodes castaneus em Pinus spp.) Circular Técnica - Embrapa Florestas, No.130:8 pp.

Joly R, 1975. Insect enemies of pines. Volume I. Volume II. Les insectes ennemis des pins. Volume I. Volume II. Ecole Nationale du Genie Rural, des Eaux et des Forets. Nancy France, 222pp.; 7[+ 45] pp.

Kailidis DS, 1964. A review of forest insect problems in southeast Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean. In: FAO/IUFRO Symposium on Internationally Dangerous Forest Diseases and Insects, Oxford, 20-30 July, 1964. Meeting No. II/III. FAO/Forpest 64, 1-4.

Kangas E, 1938. Zur Biologie und Verbreitung der Pissodes Arten (Col: Curculionidae) Finnlands (Fortsetzung). Annales Entomologici Fennici, 4(2):73-98.

Karaman Z, 1968. Einige Bemerkungen uber die Massenvermehrungen von Pissodes notatus F. in Mazedonien. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 62:462-464.

Kenis M, 1996. Factors affecting sex ratio in rearing of Coeloides sordidator (Hym.: Braconidae). Entomophaga, 41(2):217-224; 31 ref.

Kenis M, 1997. Biology of Coeloides sordidator (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a possible candidate for introduction against Pissodes strobi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in North America. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 7(1):153-164; 19 ref.

Kenis M, Hulme MA, Mills NJ, 1996. Comparative developmental biology of populations of three European and one North American Eubazus spp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), parasitoids of Pissodes spp. weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 86(2):143-153; 47 ref.

Kenis M, Mills NJ, 1994. Parasitoids of European species of the genus Pissodes (Col: Curculionidae) and their potential for the biological control of Pissodes strobi (Peck) in Canada. Biological Control, 4(1):14-21

Kenis M, Mills NJ, 1998. Evidence for the occurrence of sibling species in Eubazus spp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), parasitoids of Pissodes spp. weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 88(2):149-163; 35 ref.

Kozak VT, 1978. [Features of the development of certain weevils of the genus Pissodes (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) damaging pine]. Lesovodstvo i Agrolesomelioratsiya, 51:68-73.

Kudela M, 1974. Curculionidae, Pissodini. In: Schwenke W, ed. Die ForstschSdlinge Europas. 2 Band. Hamburg, Germany: Paul Parey, 299-310.

Lavrova NK, 1967. [Data on the ecology of the pine weevil Pissodes notatus F. (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) in the conditions of Byelorussia]. Fauna I ekologiya nasekomyhk Belorussi: 53-63 Minok.

Lucht WH, 1987. The Middle European Beetles. Katalog. Krefeld, Germany: Goecke and Evers.

Mayné R, 1926. Les Pissodes en Belgique. Annales de Gembloux, 32:234-245.

Plata-Negrache P, Prendes-Ayala C, 1979. Contribution to knowledge of the bioecology of Pissodes notatus F. in pine stands in the Canary Is. Boletin de la Estacion Central de Ecologia, 8(16):33-47

Porcile Maderni JF, 2007. The attack of "the banded pine weevil". (La embestida del "gorgojo de los pinos".) Chile Forestal, No.330:43-46.

Ressouches AP, 1969. Premières observations sur le développement embryonnaire de Pissodes notatus F. (Col. Curculionidae). Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, Série D, 269:191-194.

Romanyk N, 1960. Dos curculionidos peligrosos de las repoblaciones de pino. Boletin del Servicio de Plagas Forestales, 3:147-158.

Roudier A, 1988. Regarding Pissodes validirostris Gy11. The pine cone weevil (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Pissodinp). Cahiers des Naturalistes, 44(2):21-24

Scherf H, 1964. The developmental stages of Central European Curculionidae (Morphology, Bionomics, Ecology). Abhandlungen hrsg. von der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft, 506:1-335.

Silva FAE, Nogueira CDS, 1967. [Pests of P. pinaster. 1. Insects that attack the current year's growth. Pests that are to be feared in graftings and plantations for seed production]. Lisboa, Portugal: Estudos Divulgacao TTcnica, Direccao Geral dos Servicos Florestais e Agricolas, 18:1-21.

Simionescu A, Mihalache G, eds, 2000. Protectia Padurilor. Bucarest, Romania: Regia Nationala a Padurilor.

Thomson WR, 1943. A Catalogue of the Parasites and Predators of Insect Pests. Section 1, Parasite Host Catalogue. Part 1, Parasites of the Arachnida and Coleoptera. Belleville, Canada: Imperial Parasite Service.

Viedma MG de, 1961. [A monographic study of the genus Pissodes in Spain]. Boletin del Servicio de Plagas Forestales, 4:33-61.

Viedma MG de, 1963. [Contribution to the knowledge of the larvae of European lignivorous Curculionidae]. Eos, 39:257-277.

Viedma MGde, 1972. A note on a character to separate Pissodes notatus F. and P. validirostris Gyll. (Col., Curculionidae). Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 108(1295/97):79

Viedma MGde, 1973. Two new characters to distinguish Pissodes notatus F. and P. validirostris Gyll. (Col. Curculionidae). Boletin de la Estacion Central de Ecologia, 2(3):61-64

Volkova JP, 1961. [Damage to pine regrowth by beetles of the genus Pissodes in Karolia. In: Reforestation and Forest Protection in the Karelian ASSR]. Karel'sk. Fil. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Petrozovodsk, 25:141-145.

Wibmer GJ, O'Brien CW, 1986. Annotated checklist of the weevils (Curculionidae sensu lato) of South America (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea). Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute, 39:1-563.

Zarco E, 1949. [The genus Pissodes Germar in Spain]. Boletin, Instituto Forestal de Investigaciones y Experiencias, 42:1-35.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
Distribution map Austria: Present, native
CAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014Belgium: Present, native
Mayné, 1926; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014Bulgaria: Widespread, native
CAB European, 1998; Angelov, 1979; EPPO, 2014Brazil: Present
Iede et al., 2007Brazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBelarus: Present, native
CAB European, 1998; Lavrova, 1967; EPPO, 2014Switzerland: Present, native
CAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014Chile: Present
Abgrall et al., 2000Czechoslovakia (former): Widespread, native
CAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987Czech Republic: Widespread, native
CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014Germany: Widespread, native
CAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014Denmark: Restricted distribution, native
CAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014Algeria: Present
CAB European, 1998; El Hassani et al., 1994; EPPO, 2014Algeria: Present
CAB European, 1998; El Hassani et al., 1994; EPPO, 2014Spain: Present, native
CAB European, 1998; Romanyk, 1960; Viedma, 1963; EPPO, 2014Spain: Present, native
CAB European, 1998; Romanyk, 1960; Viedma, 1963; EPPO, 2014Spain
See regional map for distribution within the countryFinland: Restricted distribution, native
CAB European, 1998; Kangas, 1938; EPPO, 2014France: Restricted distribution, native
Alauzet, 1982; Kenis & Mills, 1994; CAB European, 1998; Carle, 1967; Alauzet, 1969; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014UK: Restricted distribution, native
Bevan, 1987; CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014UK
See regional map for distribution within the countryUK
See regional map for distribution within the countryUK
See regional map for distribution within the countryGreece: Present, native
CAB European, 1998; Karaman, 1968; EPPO, 2014Greece: Present, native
CAB European, 1998; Karaman, 1968; EPPO, 2014Croatia: Restricted distribution, native
CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014Hungary: Restricted distribution, native
CAB European, 1998; Endrödi, 1963; EPPO, 2014Ireland: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014Italy: Widespread, native
CAB European, 1998; Cecconi, 1924; EPPO, 2014Italy
See regional map for distribution within the countryItaly
See regional map for distribution within the countryItaly
See regional map for distribution within the countryLithuania: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014Latvia: Present, native
CABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014Morocco: Present
CAB European, 1998; El Hassani et al., 1994; EPPO, 2014Morocco: Present
CAB European, 1998; El Hassani et al., 1994; EPPO, 2014Moldova: Present, native
CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014Netherlands: Restricted distribution, native
CAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014Poland: Present, native
CAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014Portugal: Present, few occurrences, native
CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014Portugal
See regional map for distribution within the countryPortugal
See regional map for distribution within the countryPortugal
See regional map for distribution within the countryRomania: Present, native
CAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014Serbia: Present
EPPO, 2014Russian Federation: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014Russian Federation: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014Russian Federation
See regional map for distribution within the countryRussian Federation
See regional map for distribution within the countryRussian Federation
See regional map for distribution within the countryRussian Federation
See regional map for distribution within the countryRussian Federation
See regional map for distribution within the countryRussian Federation
See regional map for distribution within the countrySweden: Restricted distribution, native
CAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014Slovakia: Restricted distribution, native
CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014Turkey: Present
EPPO, 2014Turkey: Present
EPPO, 2014Turkey: Present
EPPO, 2014Ukraine: Present, native
Kozak, 1978; EPPO, 2014Ukraine: Present, native
Kozak, 1978; EPPO, 2014Yugoslavia (former): Present, native
Grujic & Milanovic, 1963Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro): Present
CAB European, 1998
  • = Present, no further details
  • = Evidence of pathogen
  • = Widespread
  • = Last reported
  • = Localised
  • = Presence unconfirmed
  • = Confined and subject to quarantine
  • = See regional map for distribution within the country
  • = Occasional or few reports
Download KML file Download CSV file
Creative Commons Licence
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Please click OK to ACCEPT or Cancel to REJECT

Creative Commons Licence
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Please click OK to ACCEPT or Cancel to REJECT

Distribution map (asia) Russian Federation: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014Turkey: Present
EPPO, 2014Ukraine: Present, native
Kozak, 1978; EPPO, 2014
Distribution map (europe) Austria: Present, native
CAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014Belgium: Present, native
Mayné, 1926; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014Bulgaria: Widespread, native
CAB European, 1998; Angelov, 1979; EPPO, 2014Belarus: Present, native
CAB European, 1998; Lavrova, 1967; EPPO, 2014Switzerland: Present, native
CAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014Czechoslovakia (former): Widespread, native
CAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987Czech Republic: Widespread, native
CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014Germany: Widespread, native
CAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014Denmark: Restricted distribution, native
CAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014Algeria: Present
CAB European, 1998; El Hassani et al., 1994; EPPO, 2014Spain: Present, native
CAB European, 1998; Romanyk, 1960; Viedma, 1963; EPPO, 2014Finland: Restricted distribution, native
CAB European, 1998; Kangas, 1938; EPPO, 2014France: Restricted distribution, native
Alauzet, 1982; Kenis & Mills, 1994; CAB European, 1998; Carle, 1967; Alauzet, 1969; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014UK: Restricted distribution, native
Bevan, 1987; CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014Channel Islands: Present
EPPO, 2014England and Wales: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014Northern Ireland: Present
Clawson & Anderson, 2006Greece: Present, native
CAB European, 1998; Karaman, 1968; EPPO, 2014Croatia: Restricted distribution, native
CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014Hungary: Restricted distribution, native
CAB European, 1998; Endrödi, 1963; EPPO, 2014Ireland: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014Italy: Widespread, native
CAB European, 1998; Cecconi, 1924; EPPO, 2014Sicily: Present
EPPO, 2014Sardinia: Present
EPPO, 2014Lithuania: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014Latvia: Present, native
CABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014Morocco: Present
CAB European, 1998; El Hassani et al., 1994; EPPO, 2014Moldova: Present, native
CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014Netherlands: Restricted distribution, native
CAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014Poland: Present, native
CAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014Portugal: Present, few occurrences, native
CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014Azores: Present, native
CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014Madeira: Present, native
CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014Romania: Present, native
CAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014Serbia: Present
EPPO, 2014Russian Federation: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014Central Russia: Present, native
Bukzeeva, 1972; CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014Eastern Siberia: Present, native
CABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014Russian Far East: Present, native
CABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014Northern Russia: Present, native
CAB European, 1998; Volkova, 1961; EPPO, 2014Southern Russia: Present, native
CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014Western Siberia: Restricted distribution, native
CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014Sweden: Restricted distribution, native
CAB European, 1998; Lucht, 1987; EPPO, 2014Slovakia: Restricted distribution, native
CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014Turkey: Present
EPPO, 2014Ukraine: Present, native
Kozak, 1978; EPPO, 2014Yugoslavia (former): Present, native
Grujic & Milanovic, 1963Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro): Present
CAB European, 1998
Distribution map (africa) Algeria: Present
CAB European, 1998; El Hassani et al., 1994; EPPO, 2014Spain: Present, native
CAB European, 1998; Romanyk, 1960; Viedma, 1963; EPPO, 2014Canary Islands: Present, native
Plata-Negrache & Prendes-Ayala, 1979; CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014Greece: Present, native
CAB European, 1998; Karaman, 1968; EPPO, 2014Sicily: Present
EPPO, 2014Morocco: Present
CAB European, 1998; El Hassani et al., 1994; EPPO, 2014Madeira: Present, native
CAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014Turkey: Present
EPPO, 2014
Distribution map (north america)
Distribution map (central america)
Distribution map (south america) Brazil: Present
Iede et al., 2007Parana: Present
Iede et al., 2007Rio Grande do Sul: Present
Iede et al., 2007Santa Catarina: Present
Iede et al., 2007Chile: Present
Abgrall et al., 2000
Distribution map (pacific)