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Datasheet

Phloeomyzus passerinii (poplar woolly aphid)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 October 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Phloeomyzus passerinii
  • Preferred Common Name
  • poplar woolly aphid
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • P. passerinii outbreaks are increasing in frequency in northern Italy (Allegro, 1997), with heavy economic losses from the...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Alate oviparous female of Ph. passerinii.
TitleOviparous female
CaptionAlate oviparous female of Ph. passerinii.
CopyrightIstituto di Sperimentazione per la Pioppicoltura/Casale Monf. AL Italy
Alate oviparous female of Ph. passerinii.
Oviparous femaleAlate oviparous female of Ph. passerinii.Istituto di Sperimentazione per la Pioppicoltura/Casale Monf. AL Italy
Apterous virginoparous females and larvae of Ph. passerinii.
TitleFemales and larvae
CaptionApterous virginoparous females and larvae of Ph. passerinii.
CopyrightIstituto di Sperimentazione per la Pioppicoltura/Casale Monf. AL Italy
Apterous virginoparous females and larvae of Ph. passerinii.
Females and larvaeApterous virginoparous females and larvae of Ph. passerinii.Istituto di Sperimentazione per la Pioppicoltura/Casale Monf. AL Italy
Colonies of Ph. passerinii in the crevices of the bark of a poplar tree (Populus sp.).
TitleColonies on bark
CaptionColonies of Ph. passerinii in the crevices of the bark of a poplar tree (Populus sp.).
CopyrightIstituto di Sperimentazione per la Pioppicoltura/Casale Monf. AL Italy
Colonies of Ph. passerinii in the crevices of the bark of a poplar tree (Populus sp.).
Colonies on barkColonies of Ph. passerinii in the crevices of the bark of a poplar tree (Populus sp.).Istituto di Sperimentazione per la Pioppicoltura/Casale Monf. AL Italy
Colonies of Ph. passerinii widely spread on the trunk of a poplar tree (Populus sp.).
TitleAbundant colonies on bark
CaptionColonies of Ph. passerinii widely spread on the trunk of a poplar tree (Populus sp.).
CopyrightIstituto di Sperimentazione per la Pioppicoltura/Casale Monf. AL Italy
Colonies of Ph. passerinii widely spread on the trunk of a poplar tree (Populus sp.).
Abundant colonies on barkColonies of Ph. passerinii widely spread on the trunk of a poplar tree (Populus sp.).Istituto di Sperimentazione per la Pioppicoltura/Casale Monf. AL Italy
Poplar (Populus sp.) cuttings artificially inoculated with Ph. passerinii in the laboratory.
TitleLaboratory colonies
CaptionPoplar (Populus sp.) cuttings artificially inoculated with Ph. passerinii in the laboratory.
CopyrightIstituto di Sperimentazione per la Pioppicoltura/Casale Monf. AL Italy
Poplar (Populus sp.) cuttings artificially inoculated with Ph. passerinii in the laboratory.
Laboratory coloniesPoplar (Populus sp.) cuttings artificially inoculated with Ph. passerinii in the laboratory.Istituto di Sperimentazione per la Pioppicoltura/Casale Monf. AL Italy

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Phloeomyzus passerinii (Signoret, 1875)

Preferred Common Name

  • poplar woolly aphid

Other Scientific Names

  • Phloeomyzus dearborni Smith
  • Phloeomyzus dubius Börner
  • Phloeomyzus redelei Hille Ris Lambers

Local Common Names

  • France: puceron lanigère du peuplier
  • Italy: afide lanigero del pioppo
  • Netherlands: schimmelluis
  • Spain: afido lanigero del chopo

EPPO code

  • PHLOPA (Phloeomyzus passerinii)

Summary of Invasiveness

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P. passerinii outbreaks are increasing in frequency in northern Italy (Allegro, 1997), with heavy economic losses from the death of thousands of trees and due to the need for expensive chemical control. There is evidence that in France pest populations are increasing (S Augustin, INRA Unite de Zoologie Forestiere/Ardon, personal communication, 2002). The pest is not present on 'alert lists' of phytosanitary organizations.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Aphidoidea
  •                                 Genus: Phloeomyzus
  •                                     Species: Phloeomyzus passerinii

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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P. passerinii was described as Schizoneura passerinii by Signoret (1875); it was later attributed to the genus Löwia (Lichtenstein, 1885) and finally to the genus Phloeomyzus by Horváth (1896). Originally included in the large family Aphididae (Hemiptera, Homoptera), it was subsequently moved to the family Thelaxidae and then to the Phloeomyzidae. Phloeomyzus dubius, Phloeomyzus redelei and Phloeomyzus dearborni are considered synonyms of P. passerinii (Eastop and Hille Ris Lambers, 1976; Masutti, 1982).

Description

Top of page Apterous virginoparous female: pale yellowish-green to dull-white, slightly mealy, with dusky legs and lateral tufts of white or bluish-white woolly and waxy matter on each side toward the apex. Head dusky. Antennae of five segments (sometimes six due to the subdivision of the third one), brown or smoky, pale between the segments, very short, hardly reaching the first pair of legs. Rostrum acuminate and very long, reaching the metacoxae. Eyes very small, black. Legs short, scarcely projecting beyond the body, thick. Anal plate and cauda rounded; three rather large blunt projections on either side of body. Two wax plates each side in front of cauda. Cornicles inconspicuous. Body oval. Total body length 1.6-1.7 mm.

First-instar larva: yellowish-green with dusky antennae, legs and tip of rostrum. Oval-elongated body shape, with parallel sides. Length 0.5 mm. Antennae of four articles. Rostrum thick and very long, exceeding body length. Legs thick and long.

Second-instar larva: in comparison with the first-instar larva, legs and antennae more slender, rostrum shorter, with the tip hardly reaching the apex of the abdomen. Body darker and more oval in shape. Length 0.7 mm.

Third- and fourth-instar larvae: very similar to the second-instar larva, with body more oval in shape. Length 1.10 and 1.30 mm, respectively.

Third- and fourth-instar nymphs: yellowish-green in the third-instar, darker in the fourth-instar, with dusky eyes, legs and rostrum tip. Oval elongated in shape. Antennae with five articles in the third-instar and six articles in the fourth-instar. Wing pads very small in the third-instar and well developed in the fourth-instar. Length 1.1 and 1.4 mm, respectively.

Alate oviparous female: green with dark head and thorax. Dusky antennae and legs. Antennae slender, nearly as long as head and thorax, with six articles and without secondary sensoria. Rostrum long and slender, reaching the metacoxae. Legs slender, with thick femora and long tibiae. Eyes large. Wing veins clouded on each side with brown. Cauda rounded. Generally two eggs in each individual. Length 1.5 mm.

Alate male: smaller than female (length about 1 mm). Antennae with six articles.

Egg: subcylindrical, three times longer than wide. Reddish-orange, shiny. Length 0.3-0.4 mm (Theobald, 1929; Arzone and Vidano, 1984).

Distribution

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P. passerinii has a euro-asiatic distribution. Its native range stretches from European (Italy, Spain, Greece, France, Hungary, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Great Britain, Russia) and Middle-Eastern countries (Israel, Syria, Iran, Egypt) to Pakistan and China, where a new subspecies has been recorded (Zhang and Zhong, 1982). If Phloeomyzus dearborni is considered a synonym of P. passerinii, the pest is now also present in the USA and Canada (Smith, 1974), where it was probably introduced. Further studies are needed in order to define the real taxonomic status of the different populations.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

China
-HebeiPresentNative Not invasive Zhang and Zhong, 1982
-LiaoningPresentNative Not invasive Zhang and Zhong, 1982
-ShandongPresentNative Not invasive Zhang and Zhong, 1982
IranWidespreadNative Invasive Chodjai, 1977
IsraelPresentNative Not invasive Halperin, 1981
PakistanPresentNative Not invasive Habib and Ghani, 1970
SyriaWidespreadNative Invasive Nef and Menu, 1994

Africa

EgyptPresentNative Not invasive Hall, 1928

North America

CanadaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Smith, 1974
USA
-MainePresentIntroduced Not invasive Smith, 1974

Europe

BelgiumPresentNative Not invasive Nef and Menu, 1994
FrancePresentNative Invasive Maugard and Chauvel, 1997
GermanyPresentNative Not invasive Della Beffa, 1936
GreecePresentNative Not invasive Garuphalos and Tsitsones, 1965
HungaryPresentNative Not invasive Nef and Menu, 1994
ItalyWidespreadNative Invasive Della Beffa, 1936
NetherlandsPresentNative Not invasive ,
Russian FederationPresentNative Not invasive Cholodkovsky, 1921
SpainPresentNative Not invasive Aparisi, 1971
UKPresentNative Not invasive Theobald, 1929

History of Introduction and Spread

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P. passerinii was probably introduced in North America from Europe and Asia (where it was described as Phloeomyzus dearborni), and now it is recorded in Maine (USA) and Canada.

Habitat

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P. passerinii is generally present at low population levels on Populus species growing in the natural riparian woodlands of the Mediterranean area. Its virulence is highly enhanced by cultural conditions, mainly due to a great reduction of genetic variability of trees (plantations are usually monoclonal) and to a high plant density (more than 300 plants per hectare). Therefore, P. passerinii can be considered as a typical 'cultural pest' (Allegro and Cagelli, 1996).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

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As far as we know, P. passerinii feeds exclusively on Populus species. Populus nigra and Populus canadensis (hybrids between P. nigra and Populus deltoides) are its preferred hosts, but P. deltoides can also be affected, even though its susceptibility to the pest is generally lower (Lapietra and Allegro, 1990). Populus ciliata was recorded as a potential host in Pakistan (Habib and Ghani, 1970), and Chodjai and Loftian (1988) showed its susceptibility in laboratory tests. The pest was also recorded on Populus alba (Theobald, 1929; Della Beffa, 1936). If Phloeomyzus dearborni is considered a synonym of P. passerinii, Populus tremuloides can also be affected in North America (Smith, 1974).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Populus alba (silver-leaf poplar)SalicaceaeMain
Populus canadensis (hybrid black poplar)SalicaceaeMain
Populus ciliata (Himalayan poplar)SalicaceaeOther
Populus deltoides (poplar)SalicaceaeOther
Populus nigra (black poplar)SalicaceaeMain
Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen)SalicaceaeOther

Growth Stages

Top of page Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

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In old poplar stands, P. passerinii generally starts developing in crevices of the bark, often at the insertion of the lowest branches on the trunk, 5-6 m above the ground. North-facing parts of a trunk are more likely to be infested at the beginning of outbreaks. Aphid colonies are revealed by the abundant woolly and whitish waxy flocks, which are produced in abundance mainly by apterous females. When heavy infestations develop, the colonies and their waxy exudates can cover the whole trunk. Feeding activity, which involves the injection of a toxic saliva, causes bark suberization and, during the heaviest attacks, cracks and necroses. Death of the bark causes disruption of water and nutrient circulation, determining a progressive stress for the roots. In some cases, the tree can collapse during the summer or can be broken by the wind (Lapietra and Allegro, 1981).

List of Symptoms/Signs

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Stems

  • external feeding
  • external feeding
  • necrosis
  • necrosis

Whole plant

  • external feeding
  • external feeding
  • plant dead; dieback
  • plant dead; dieback

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Nothing is known about the genetic variability of P. passerinii populations within their natural range. Different ecotypes are likely to be present, as environmental conditions vary consistently between Mediterranean and northern European areas. Moreover, populations physiologically adapted to different Populus species could have evolved. Morphological, physiological and molecular studies could also give new perspectives for a taxonomic revision of the genus. The development of local aphid lineages, owing to the selective pressure of cultivated poplar clones, has not been scientifically demonstrated until now (Lapietra, 1983).

Physiology and Phenology

Nothing is known about the feeding physiology of Ph. passerinii, which is likely to occur on the parenchymal tissues of the bark, rich in carbohydrates and nitrogen compounds (Allegro, 1997). This is true, as demonstrated by Pollard (1973), for many genera belonging to the Adelgidae, Pemphigidae and Phylloxeridae families, which are strictly related to the Phloeomyzidae. A morphological study was carried out on the digestive system of Ph. passerinii (Ponsen, 1982), without investigating the physiology of digestion. The colonies start developing from May to June, when temperatures become favourable, and disappear at the latest from August to September, even if overwintering can be anticipated in the case of adverse climatic conditions such as early cold weather or violent storms. Heavy infestations generally occur sporadically and in the poplar plantations of the Po Valley (northern Italy) these have been recorded at intervals of 5 to 10 years, but favourable climatic trends can determine more frequent events (Allegro, 1997).

Reproductive Biology

Ph. passerinii is usually anholocyclic on poplar through populations of apterous virginoparous females. Over 12 generations per year can be observed in the field, depending on the climate. Each generation lasts 9 to 31 days (on average 11 days), in relation to air temperature and conditions of the host. In the laboratory, there can be 30 or more generations per year. Each female can generate about 170 larvae over an average life span of 36 days. Overwintering occurs in the second or third larval instar (rarely in the fourth-instar), generally in the crevices of the bark of superficial roots. The first-instar larva is the only form able to diffuse the infestation both actively, by reaching a new position on the plant, and passively, by being wind-dispersed together with the waxy flocks. Once the larva has reached its new position and has inserted the stylet into the bark tissues, it develops into the adult stage without moving; also the adult females generally do not move from their original position (Arzone and Vidano, 1984). The winged forms, males and oviparous females, are frequently observed in laboratory-reared populations when the host plants or cuttings start deteriorating. In the field they have only been occasionally observed and mainly in the autumn period. The winged forms probably do not feed (Arzone and Vidano, 1984; Allegro, 1997). Egg laying has never been observed in wild populations, and a heterotopous cycle with a secondary host has never been demonstrated. Most of the biological observations (as well as those on host resistance behaviour) were carried out on laboratory-reared individuals. They were based on artificial inoculations of poplar cuttings kept in jars with water at the bottom, at a constant temperature of 20°C and a relative humidity of 70% (Arru, 1971; Arru, 1974; Lapietra and Allegro, 1990; Allegro et al., 1996).

Environmental Requirements

Moderately high air temperatures (20-25°C), high air humidity (more than 70% RH), limited air movement and scarce sun radiation are favourable for Ph. passerinii. These are the reasons that make dense and old poplar stands, especially if growing in humid riparian areas, very favourable to pest development (Lapietra and Allegro, 1981; Arzone and Vidano, 1984; Allegro, 1997).

 

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Adalia bipunctata Predator Adults/Larvae
Allothrombium fuliginosum Predator Adults/Larvae
Anthocoris confusus Predator Adults/Larvae
Arma custos Predator Adults/Larvae
Chilocorus renipustulatus Predator Sadeghi et al., 2007
Chrysopa pallens Predator Adults/Larvae
Chrysoperla carnea Predator Adults/Larvae
Chrysoperla harrisii Predator Adults/Larvae
Coccinella septempunctata Predator Adults/Larvae
Dasysyrphus venustus Predator Adults/Larvae
Episyrphus balteatus Predator Adults/Larvae
Eupeodes corollae Predator Adults/Larvae
Exochomus nigromaculatus Predator Sadeghi et al., 2007
Exochomus quadripustulatus Predator Adults/Larvae
Leucopis alticeps Predator Adults/Larvae
Lyctocoris campestris Predator Adults/Larvae
Melanostoma mellinum Predator Adults/Larvae
Meliscaeva auricollis Predator Adults/Larvae
Nineta flava Predator Adults/Larvae
Oenopia conglobata Predator Adults/Larvae
Orius minutus Predator Adults/Larvae
Pachyneuron Parasite Sadeghi et al., 2007
Pilophorus clavatus Predator Adults/Larvae
Platycheirus clypeatus Predator Adults/Larvae
Platycheirus manicatus Predator Adults/Larvae
Propylea quatuordecimpunctata Predator Adults/Larvae
Scaeva pyrastri Predator Adults/Larvae
Scymnus ferrugatus Predator Adults/Larvae
Sphaerophoria scripta Predator Adults/Larvae
Sympherobius pygmaeus Predator Adults/Larvae
Syrphus ribesii Predator Adults/Larvae
Syrphus vitripennis Predator Adults/Larvae
Thaumatomyia elongatula Predator Adults/Larvae

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Refer to Vidotti (1960), Arzone (1987) and Raspi (1996) for natural enemy predators of P. passerinii.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

P. passerinii shows very scarce capacity of active movements and dispersal, as only the first-instar larvae move on the tree looking for new positions and only for a short time before inserting their stylets in the bark tissues. First-instar larvae can be easily transported by the wind at considerable distances, together with the waxy exudates of the colonies. The distribution of the colonies inside monoclonal poplar stands is unpredictable, as non-infested trees can grow beside heavily infested ones.

Silvicultural Practices

Dense plantations are favourable for P. passerinii, as it prefers shadow, high relative humidity and scarce air movement. Heavy infestations can start in such favourable habitats and propagate to surrounding plantations.

Movement in Trade

Passive transport by freshly felled poplar trunks, if not debarked, is very likely. Quarantine international rules generally forbid the import/export of trunks with bark.

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Roots larvae No Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; larvae No Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Forestry production Negative
Forestry production Negative

Impact

Top of page P. passerinii is considered an economically important pest of cultivated poplars in Italy, Syria, Belgium and Hungary (Nef and Menu, 1994), but there is evidence of its increasing virulence in other countries such as France (Maugard and Chauvel, 1997) and Spain (Aparisi, 1971). Periodically (at intervals of 5-10 years), P. passerinii is very harmful to poplar plantations in northern Italy, where the majority of cultivated clones (about 80% of the trees) are susceptible to attacks (Arru, 1975).

Economic Impact

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P. passerinii is considered an economically important pest of cultivated poplars in Italy, Syria, Belgium and Hungary (Nef and Menu, 1994), but there is evidence of its increasing virulence in other countries such as France (Maugard and Chauvel, 1997) and Spain (Aparisi, 1971). Periodically (at intervals of 5-10 years), P. passerinii is very harmful to poplar plantations in northern Italy, where the majority of cultivated clones (about 80% of the trees) are susceptible to attacks (Arru, 1975).

Environmental Impact

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As P. passerinii develops outbreaks almost exclusively in cultured conditions, its impact on natural riparian poplar populations is negligible.

Detection and Inspection

Top of page Inspect the bark of freshly felled poplar trunks (if not previously treated with heat or fumigants) especially at crevices and lenticels, looking for the whitish woolly exudates of the aphids. Storage of trunks in a humid room (70-90% RH) for a few days stimulates the development of colonies, making them visible.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page Similar behaviour and symptoms are shown by the pemphigid Eriosoma lanigerum, which is anholocyclic monoecious on Malus sp.

Prevention and Control

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Phytosanitary Measures

P. passerinii occurs in almost all of the Palaearctic area where poplar is cultivated. It is not a quarantine pest, but particular attention should be paid to avoid its introduction into countries of the Southern Hemisphere where poplar cultivation could rise to economic importance. For this reason the import of freshly felled poplar trunks with bark should be strictly forbidden in these countries.

Cultural Control and Sanitary Methods

Complete or satisfactory practical control of the pest can be achieved by growing resistant or moderately resistant poplar clones. The probability of heavy infestations and economical damage can be significantly decreased by widely spacing plants in a stand (more than 6 x 6 m).

Host-Plant Resistance

The resistance behaviour to P. passerinii among the different Populus species and cultivated clones may vary consistently and is genetically modified (Arru, 1967). For this reason, the breeding of poplars for the character of resistance may lead to appreciable results in a reasonably short time (Arru and Lapietra, 1979). A laboratory test based on the artificial inoculation of poplar cuttings (Arru, 1971; Arru, 1974) proved to be very useful; early evaluations of the resistance behaviour of populations belonging to the parental species Populus deltoides (Arru and Lapietra, 1979) and Populus nigra (Allegro and Cagelli, 1996) were obtained. These are bred in order to obtain hybrid clones of cultural interest. P. nigra genotypes showed a wide range of resistance levels from very scarce to very high, with a higher ratio of resistant genotypes among those from southern Italy. In contrast, generally P. deltoides exhibited high resistance levels. The laboratory test was validated by comparing the results obtained in controlled conditions with field behaviour displayed by the same clones during natural infestations of the pest (Lapietra and Allegro, 1986). A corrected methodology in the laboratory test was proposed following the evidence that clones generally display a constant resistance level in time but some of them vary their behaviour according to the season (Allegro et al., 1996). Poplar selection programmes in Italy currently adopt this test in order to obtain early information on the clonal resistance behaviour to P. passerinii. The newly selected hybrid clones range from highly resistant to highly susceptible (Lapietra and Allegro, 1986; Lapietra and Allegro, 1990; Allegro et al., 1996). Iranian poplar species and cultivars were also tested by field and laboratory methods (Chodjai and Loftian, 1988; Chodjai and Loftian, 1990; Shojai et al., 1998; Sadeghi et al., 2002). A study on the biochemical markers of resistance, based on the analysis of phenolic compounds in three groups of P. nigra, each characterized by a different resistance behaviour, showed that phenolics discriminate resistance groups. In particular, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid were statistically relevant in separating the groups; so they are likely to play a role in the resistance mechanism (Allegro et al., 1995).

Biological Control

P. passerinii colonies were sprayed with a suspension of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae under laboratory conditions and no significant mortality was observed (G Allegro, Istituto di Sperimentazione per la Pioppicoltura, Italy, personal communication, 2004). At endemic levels, the natural enemy populations were always ineffective at preventing natural outbreaks of P. passerinii, due to its high reproductive rate under favourable conditions, even if they probably play a significant role in the decline of outbreaks.

Chemical Control

Chemical control is generally needed when outbreaks occur in poplar plantations. Trunk sprays with white mineral oils alone or mixed with organophosphates always proved to be effective, when carried out at the beginning of the outbreaks (Aparisi, 1971; Lapietra and Allegro, 1981; Allegro, 1989; Allegro, 1997; Giorcelli and Allegro, 1999). The use of pyrethroids is not recommended as they can be very harmful to populations of useful arthropods living in the poplar stands (G Allegro, Istituto di Sperimentazione per la Pioppicoltura, Italy, personal communication, 2004). In the same way, preventive sprays are not recommended due to environmental considerations (Allegro, 1997). Trunk injection with systemic insecticides was proposed in Israel against a number of leaf and trunk pests (Halperin, 1981).

Field Monitoring/Economic Threshold Levels

Monitoring older (over 5 years old) poplar plantations made of susceptible clones during the risk period (May to August) is fundamental in order to detect outbreaks early and to plan a rational control strategy. As a rule, the intervention threshold is reached when colonies start spreading out of the bark crevices and covering large areas of the trunk. When colonies cover the whole trunk circumference, a delay of about 2 weeks in applying control methods can be enough to cause serious damage to the tree.

IPM Programmes

In order to set up effective and environmentally safe control strategies, an information model for a reasoned phytosanitary protection of poplar was assessed in Italy (Montermini et al., 1998).

 

References

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Allegro G, 1989. Defence against insect pests of poplar: a revised technique. Informatore Agrario, 45(16):93-96

Allegro G, 1997. Nuove infestazioni di Afide lanigero del pioppo (Phloeomyzus passerinii Sign.) in Pianura Padana. Sherwood - Foreste ed alberi oggi, 27:41-45.

Allegro G; Augustin S; Delplanque A; Giorcelli A; Steenackers M; Pinon J, 1995. Inter-disciplinary research for poplar improvement (Task 2 ‘Genetics of resistance and virulence: molecular, biochemical and conventional approaches’. Sub-Task 2.3 ‘Biochemical markers’). AIR1-CT92-0349, Final Technical Report, 79-110.

Allegro G; Cagelli L, 1996. Susceptibility of Populus nigra L. to the woolly poplar aphid (Phloeomyzus passerinii Sign.). Forest Genetics, 3(1):23-26; 8 ref.

Allegro G; Picco F; Bianco B, 1996. Resistance behaviour to Phloeomyzus passerinii of some recently-selected Italian poplar clones. Proceedings of 20th Session, Budapest, Hungary: FAO/IPC, 1:199-208.

Aparisi C, 1971. Note on the poplar woolly aphid Phloeomyzus passerinii Signoret, and tests on its treatment. Boletin del Servicio de Plagas Forestales, 14(27):3-11

Arru GM, 1967. Resistance to insects in Poplars grown in Italy. Proc. 14th Congr. Int. Union For. Res. Organ., Munich Pt. III, Sect. 22, (861-6). [11 refs.].

Arru GM, 1971. A method for the evaluation of the resistance of poplars to Phloeomyzus passerinii Sign. FAO/CIP/71/24 (Bucarest 27/IX-2/II/71).

Arru GM, 1974. Metodo per valutare la resistenza dei pioppi all’Afide lanigero (Phloeomyzus passerinii Sign.). Cellulosa e Carta, 25(5):45-49.

Arru GM, 1975. Annotated list of the most important insects injurious to the cultivation of poplar in Italy. Cellulosa e Carta, 26(11):47-50

Arru GM; Lapietra G, 1979. Breeding poplars for resistance to insect pests. Proc. Meeting Cons. Poplars in France and Belgium (Orleans e Geraardsbergen).

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