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Datasheet

Meloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Meloidogyne javanica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • sugarcane eelworm
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Family: Meloidogynidae
  •         Genus: Meloidogyne

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Meloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); anterior, juvenile. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
TitleJuvenile
CaptionMeloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); anterior, juvenile. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
Copyright©Zeng Zhao/Landcare Research/via PaDIL - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); anterior, juvenile. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
JuvenileMeloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); anterior, juvenile. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)©Zeng Zhao/Landcare Research/via PaDIL - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); juvenile, posterior. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
TitleJuvenile
CaptionMeloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); juvenile, posterior. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
Copyright©Zeng Zhao/Landcare Research/via PaDIL - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); juvenile, posterior. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
JuvenileMeloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); juvenile, posterior. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)©Zeng Zhao/Landcare Research/via PaDIL - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); male, perineal pattern. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
TitlePerineal pattern
CaptionMeloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); male, perineal pattern. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
Copyright©Zeng Zhao/Landcare Research/via PaDIL - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); male, perineal pattern. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
Perineal patternMeloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); male, perineal pattern. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)©Zeng Zhao/Landcare Research/via PaDIL - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); male, perineal pattern. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
TitlePerineal pattern
CaptionMeloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); male, perineal pattern. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
Copyright©Zeng Zhao/Landcare Research/via PaDIL - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); male, perineal pattern. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
Perineal patternMeloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); male, perineal pattern. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)©Zeng Zhao/Landcare Research/via PaDIL - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); male, perineal pattern. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
TitlePerineal pattern
CaptionMeloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); male, perineal pattern. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
Copyright©Zeng Zhao/Landcare Research/via PaDIL - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); male, perineal pattern. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
Perineal patternMeloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); male, perineal pattern. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)©Zeng Zhao/Landcare Research/via PaDIL - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); male, perineal pattern. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
TitlePerineal pattern
CaptionMeloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); male, perineal pattern. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
Copyright©Zeng Zhao/Landcare Research/via PaDIL - CC BY 3.0 AU
Meloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); male, perineal pattern. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)
Perineal patternMeloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm); male, perineal pattern. (see http://www.padil.gov.au/maf-border/pest/main/141264 for detailed descriptions)©Zeng Zhao/Landcare Research/via PaDIL - CC BY 3.0 AU
Reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1972. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 1, No. 3. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
TitleLine art
CaptionReproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1972. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 1, No. 3. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
Copyright©CAB International
Reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1972. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 1, No. 3. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
Line artReproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1972. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 1, No. 3. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.©CAB International
Reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1972. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 1, No. 3. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
TitleLine art
CaptionReproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1972. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 1, No. 3. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
Copyright©CAB International
Reproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1972. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 1, No. 3. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
Line artReproduced from Orton Williams KJ, 1972. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 1, No. 3. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.©CAB International

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885) Chitwood, 1949

Preferred Common Name

  • sugarcane eelworm

Other Scientific Names

  • Anguillula javanica (Treub 1885) Lavergne 1901
  • Heterodera javanica Treub 1885
  • Meloidogyne javanica bauruensis Lordello 1956
  • Tylenchus (Heterodera) javanica (Treub 1885) Cobb 1890

International Common Names

  • French: anguillule javanaise a noeud des racines; nématode à galles; nématode cécidogène; nématode galligène javanais
  • English: Javanese root knot nematode; root-knot nematode
  • Spanish: nemátodo javanés de quiste; nemátodo nodulador javanés
  • Portuguese: nematóide das galhas

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Aelchen, Javanisches Wurzelgallen-
  • Japan: Zyawa-nekobu-sentyu
  • Turkey: kok ur nematodu

EPPO code

  • MELGJA (Meloidogyne javanica)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Family: Meloidogynidae
  •                 Genus: Meloidogyne
  •                     Species: Meloidogyne javanica

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page The systematics of the genus Meloidogyne is complex: reliable specific identification can be difficult even for the expert. (See Sasser and Carter, 1985.)

Description

Top of page Description (after Orton Williams, 1972)

Female
Endoparasitic; body nearly spherical in adult with projecting neck tapering to head; posterior end rounded, or with slightly protruding perineal region. Head with one annule behind head cap, slightly wider than first body annule. Stylet slender, dorsally curved, knobs rounded. Excretory pore located about 3 stylet lengths posterior to head. Posterior cuticular pattern (= perineal pattern) round or oval to pear-shaped, dorsal arch varying from rounded, to moderate height, sometimes flattened dorsally. Striae smooth to wavy, tail tip often marked by an irregular whorl. Typically lateral fields well defined by a double incisure bordering a definite break in the striae clearly dividing pattern into dorsal and ventral sectors. Lateral fields may be visible for some distance from tail but do not extend into the neck region, or may be poorly marked. Phasmids usually distinct.

Male
Head not offset; outline in lateral view characteristic with first annule projecting antero-laterally, well separated by constriction from a wider basal annule which may be subdivided into two annules either completely or partially (giving the appearance of one annule on one side of the body and two on the other). In dorsal or ventral view head outline rounded, amphidial apertures distinct. Stylet knobs rounded, not prominent. Valves of oesophageal bulb large. Oesophageal gland overlaps intestine for some distance ventrally. Excretory pore distinct, duct visible for some way along body. Hemizonid 0-4 annules anterior to pore. One testis or two. Intersexes common, displaying female characters to varying degrees ranging from a slight swelling anterior to cloaca to possession of a well developed vulva. Lateral field usually with 4 incisures ending at terminus or just anterior. Bands between incisures plain or outer ones sometimes areolated to some degree. Torsion of the posterior region of the body occurs to some extent making true lateral views of the tail hard to obtain. Tail shape somewhat variable, digitate in lateral view, bluntly rounded in ventral. Terminus not clearly striated. Phasmids located in lateral field at cloacal level or slightly anterior. Spicules slightly curved, with ventral flange distally, tips pointed. Gubernaculum thin, crescentic.

Juvenile
Head not offset, in lateral view truncate cone shape with 3 annules behind head cap; more rounded in dorsal and ventral view with one annule behind head cap. Stylet knobs rounded, not prominent. Hemizonid usually three annules long immediately anterior to excretory pore. Lateral field with four incisures, outer bands not clearly cross-striated. Rectum inflated; tail tapering to sub-acute or finely rounded terminus, annules coarsening posteriorly.

Measurements (from Orton Williams, 1972)

20 females: L = 541-804 µm (657); width = 311-581 µm (431); stylet = 14-18 (15) µm width stylet base (10) = 2-5 µm (4); dorsal oesophageal gland orifice = 2-5 µm (3) behind stylet base; length median bulb (10) = 38-46 µm (42); width median bulb (10) = 31-44 µm (35); length median bulb valves (10) = 14-19 µm (16); width median bulb valves (10) = 10-13 µm (11).

25 males: L = 757-1297 µm (1131); a = 17.5-42.9 (37.5); length head (24) = 5.8-7.6 µm (6.6); stylet = 20.0-23.0 µm (21.2); width stylet base (24) = 3.6-5.4 µm (4.3); dorsal oesophageal gland orifice (10) = 2.2-4.7 µm (2.9) behind stylet base; b1 = 13.0-18.4 (15.7); c (24) = 50-144 (91); length median bulb = 15.1-23.7 µm (19.7); width median bulb = 9.4-12.9 µm (10.9); spicules (length of arc) (30) = 20.9-31.7 µm (26.7); gubernaculum (14) = 7.2-9.4 µm (8.4).

25 juveniles: L = 387-459 µm (417); a = 27.1-35.9 (30.6); b (16) = 2.10-3.35 (2.42); b1 = 7.1-8.0 (7.5); length tail = 36-56 µm (49); d = 4.5-7.0 (5.5); c = 7.3-11.1 (8.5); length body to middle of genital primordium = 217-282 µm (255); stylet (24) = 9.4-11.4 µm (10.4); length median bulb = 10.8-13.7 µm (12.1); width median bulb = 5.4-7.6 µm (6.6); length median bulb valves (24) = 3.2-5.0 µm (4.3).

Distribution

Top of page M. javanica is widely distributed in warm and tropical climates where it is often the dominant root-knot species. The geographic range includes Africa, Australia, South America, Asia, the USA and greenhouses in Europe. M. javanica is considered particularly common in Central Africa and the savannah regions of West Africa (Egunjobi, 1985; Saka, 1985) and it is considered to predominate in drier areas (less than 500 mm per year rainfall) (Sasser and Carter, 1985).

M. javanica has also been recorded from the following areas of protected agriculture; for example, in soils in and around many temperate research stations and other areas of intensive horticulture. In some cases the nematodes have been able to overwinter because of mild winters and could be expanding their geographic range:

Heilongjiang and Ningxia in China (Yang et al., 1991), Moldavia (Batyr and Kozhokaru, 1985), Poland (Brzeski et al., 1978), European part of Russia (Gushchin and Efremenko, 1975; Batyr and Kozhokaru, 1985; Mar'enko, 1989), Russian Far East (Kondratenko, 1985; Kondratenko and Metlitskii, 1989) and United Kingdom (IIP, 1992).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ArmeniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
BangladeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
Brunei DarussalamPresentFAO, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2002
ChinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-FujianPresentPan, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-GuangdongPresentYang et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-GuangxiPresentYang et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-HainanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-HebeiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-HenanWidespreadLi and Yu, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-JiangsuRestricted distributionShen et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-JiangxiPresentYang et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-Nei MengguPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-ShaanxiPresentMao et al., 2007
-SichuanRestricted distributionChen et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-YunnanRestricted distribution, ; CABI/EPPO, 2002; Wang et al., 2014
-ZhejiangPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; Zhao et al., 2010
IndiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsWidespreadSalam, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-Andhra PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-Arunachal PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-AssamPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-BiharRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2002
-ChhattisgarhPresentSahu et al., 2011
-DelhiRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2002
-GujaratPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-HaryanaPresentHaryana, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-Himachal PradeshWidespreadNirmal-Singh et al., 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-Indian PunjabPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-Jammu and KashmirPresentSingh and Gupta, 2011; Singh, 2012
-KarnatakaWidespreadNarayanaswamy and Setty, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-KeralaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-Madhya PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; Shweta and Khan, 2010
-MaharashtraRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2002
-OdishaPresentMukhopadhyay and Roy, 2006
-RajasthanPresentMathur et al., 1970; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-Tamil NaduRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2002
-TripuraPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-Uttar PradeshWidespread, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-UttarakhandPresentRathour et al., 2006
-West BengalPresent, ; CABI/EPPO, 2002
IndonesiaWidespreadMadamba, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-JavaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2002
-SulawesiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
IranWidespreadAbivardi and Sharafeh, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2002
IraqPresentStephan, 1978; Stephan, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2002; Ali et al., 2014
IsraelWidespreadTarjan, 1953; CABI/EPPO, 2002
JapanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-HokkaidoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-HonshuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-KyushuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentFukudome, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2002
JordanWidespreadBridge, 1978; Hashim, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2002
KazakhstanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
Korea, Republic ofRestricted distributionCho et al., 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2002
LebanonWidespreadSaad and Tanveer, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2002
MalaysiaWidespreadMadamba, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-SabahPresentLiu, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-SarawakPresent, ; Kheng, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2002
MyanmarPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
NepalWidespreadBhardwaj and Hogger, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2002
OmanRestricted distributionWaller and Bridge, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2002
PakistanWidespread, ; Gul and Saeed, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2002
PhilippinesWidespreadTimm, 1965; Madamba, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2002
Saudi ArabiaRestricted distributionEissa, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2002
SingaporePresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
Sri LankaWidespreadSivapalan, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2002
SyriaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2002
TaiwanWidespreadMadamba, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2002
TajikistanRestricted distributionDzhuraeva, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2002
ThailandPresentKanjanasoon, 1964; Chunram, 1972; Madamba, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2002
TurkeyRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2002
TurkmenistanWidespreadArtyunov, 1985; Shagalina and Shagalin, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2002
UzbekistanRestricted distributionNarbaev, 1973; Khurramov, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2002
VietnamWidespread, ; CABI/EPPO, 2002
YemenPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002

Africa

AlgeriaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2002
AngolaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2002
BotswanaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
BurundiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
ComorosPresent, ; CABI/EPPO, 2002
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
Côte d'IvoireWidespreadFortuner, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2002
EgyptWidespread, ; , ; CABI/EPPO, 2002
EritreaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
GabonPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
GambiaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2002
GhanaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
KenyaWidespreadKanyagia, 1979; Kanyagia, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002
LiberiaWidespreadLamberti et al., 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002
LibyaWidespreadDabaj and Jenser, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2002
MadagascarWidespreadKeetch and Buckley, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2002
MalawiWidespreadSaka and Siddiqi, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2002
MauritaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
MauritiusWidespreadLamberti et al., 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2002
MoroccoWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2002
MozambiquePresentOever and Mangane, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2002
NigeriaWidespreadAdesiyan and Odihirin, 1978; Babatola, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2002
RéunionPresentLamberti et al., 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
RwandaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
SenegalWidespreadTaylor, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2002
South AfricaWidespread, ; Loubser, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002
Spain
-Canary IslandsRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2002
SudanRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2002
TanzaniaWidespreadAhmed, 1975; Ebbels and Allen, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2002
TunisiaRestricted distributionWaldmann, 1971; CABI/EPPO, 2002
UgandaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
ZambiaWidespreadAnon., 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2002
ZimbabweWidespreadMartin and Armstrong, 1975; Way, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2002

North America

MexicoPresentSosa, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2002
USAPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-AlabamaWidespreadWalters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-ArizonaPresentTaylor et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-CaliforniaWidespreadTaylor et al., 1982; Walters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-FloridaWidespreadTaylor et al., 1982; Walters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-GeorgiaWidespreadWalters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-HawaiiWidespreadWalters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-LouisianaWidespreadWalters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-MississippiWidespreadWalters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-New MexicoWidespreadWalters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-North CarolinaWidespreadWalters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-South CarolinaWidespreadTaylor et al., 1982; Walters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-TennesseeWidespreadWalters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-TexasWidespreadWalters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-VirginiaWidespreadWalters and Barker, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaWidespreadSosa, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2002
CubaWidespreadFernandez et al., 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002
El SalvadorWidespreadSosa, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2002
GuadeloupeWidespread, ; CABI/EPPO, 2002
GuatemalaWidespreadSosa, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2002
HondurasWidespreadPinochet, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2002
JamaicaWidespread, ; Sosa, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2002
MartiniqueWidespread, ; CABI/EPPO, 2002
NicaraguaWidespreadSosa, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2002
PanamaWidespreadSosa, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2002
Puerto RicoWidespreadSosa, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2002
Trinidad and TobagoWidespreadBala, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2002

South America

ArgentinaWidespreadCostilla et al., 1976; Doucet and Pinochet, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2002
BoliviaPresentTaylor et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2002
BrazilPresentSharma, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2002; de Souza et al., 2015
-AcrePresentCavalcante et al., 2005
-BahiaWidespreadFreire and Ponte, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-CearaWidespreadPonte, 1968; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-GoiasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-MaranhaoWidespread, ; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-Mato GrossoPresentSilva and Da-Silva, 1991
-Mato Grosso do SulWidespreadLordello and Marini, 1974; Tihohod and Ferraz, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-Minas GeraisWidespreadFreire and Ferraz, 1977; Campos, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-ParaWidespreadFreire, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-ParaibaWidespreadLopes and Lordello, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-ParanaWidespreadSantos and Silva, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2002; Machado et al., 2013
-PernambucoRestricted distributionMoura and Almeida, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-Rio de JaneiroPresentLima et al., 2005
-Rio Grande do NorteRestricted distributionPonte et al., 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-Rio Grande do SulWidespreadLordello and Marini, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-Santa CatarinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-Sao PauloWidespreadCuri and Silveira, 1978; Lordello et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-SergipeWidespreadSharma and Loof, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2002
ChileRestricted distribution, ; CABI/EPPO, 2002
ColombiaWidespread, ; CABI/EPPO, 2002
EcuadorWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2002
ParaguayWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2002
PeruPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
SurinameWidespreadSosa, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2002
UruguayPresentTaylor et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2002
VenezuelaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002

Europe

Bosnia-HercegovinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
BulgariaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2002
CyprusPresentPhilis, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2002
FrancePresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
GermanyRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2002
GreeceWidespreadPyrowolakis, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2002; Tzortzakakis et al., 2011
-CretePresentTzortzakakis, 2009; Tzortzakakis et al., 2016
HungaryRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2002
IcelandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
ItalyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-SicilyPresentSpatafora et al., 2004
MacedoniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
MaltaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
MoldovaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
MontenegroPresentPajovic et al., 2007
PolandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
PortugalRestricted distributionSantos et al., 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2002
Russian FederationPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-Central RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-Russian Far EastPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-Southern RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
SpainWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2002
UkrainePresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
Yugoslavia (former)Restricted distributionGrujicic, 1974
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2002

Oceania

AustraliaWidespreadKhair, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-Australian Northern TerritoryWidespreadKhair, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-New South WalesWidespreadKhair, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-QueenslandWidespreadKhair, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-South AustraliaWidespreadKhair, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-VictoriaWidespreadKhair, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-Western AustraliaWidespreadKhair, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
Cook IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
FijiWidespreadBridge, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002
KiribatiWidespreadBridge, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002
NiueWidespreadBridge, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002
Papua New GuineaWidespreadBridge, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002
SamoaWidespreadBridge, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002
Solomon IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
TongaWidespreadBridge, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002

Risk of Introduction

Top of page M. javanica is found worldwide and no specific quarantine measures against it are known to be in force.

Habitat

Top of page Meloidogyne is one of the most widely distributed and economically important genera of plant-parasitic nematodes. M. javanica is considered second only to M. incognita in importance, being found widely in sub-tropical and tropical regions (see Sasser and Carter, 1985). Damage and yield losses caused are generally more severe on coarse-textured sandy soils (Van Gundy, 1985). Meloidogyne species are generally intolerant of flooded soil conditions. They are considered more prevalant on upland rice (Plowright and Hunt, 1994) and are not usually a problem on paddy rice (Fortuner and Merny, 1979).

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page Goodey et al. (1965) list a total of 770 host species or varieties, including many weeds as well as crop plants. In addition to those crops in the list of hosts, there are many others of economic importance, including tea, grapevine, many vegetables, fruit trees, cereals and ornamentals.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContext
Abelmoschus esculentus (okra)MalvaceaeOther
Agathosma betulinaRutaceaeOther
Ageratum conyzoides (billy goat weed)AsteraceaeWild host
Amaranthus (amaranth)AmaranthaceaeOther
Anagallis arvensis (scarlet pimpernel)PrimulaceaeOther
Ananas comosus (pineapple)BromeliaceaeOther
Anthemis (chamomile)AsteraceaeOther
Apium graveolens (celery)ApiaceaeOther
Arctium lappa (burdock)AsteraceaeOther
Artemisia absinthium (Wormwood)AsteraceaeOther
Basella alba (Malabar spinach)BasellaceaeHabitat/association
Bauhinia purpurea (purple bauhinia)FabaceaeOther
Beta vulgaris var. saccharifera (sugarbeet)ChenopodiaceaeOther
Borago officinalis (Borage)BoraginaceaeOther
Brassicaceae (cruciferous crops)BrassicaceaeOther
Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold)AsteraceaeOther
Camellia sinensis (tea)TheaceaeMain
CannaCannaceaeOther
Canna indica (canna lilly)CannaceaeHabitat/association
Cannabis sativa (hemp)CannabaceaeOther
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeMain
Carissa macrocarpa (natal plum)ApocynaceaeUnknown
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)ApocynaceaeOther
Chamaerops humilis (dwarf fan palm)ArecaceaeUnknown
Chenopodium album (fat hen)ChenopodiaceaeWild host
Chrysanthemum (daisy)AsteraceaeOther
Cichorium (chicory)AsteraceaeOther
Citrullus lanatus (watermelon)CucurbitaceaeOther
Clitoria ternateaFabaceaeOther
Coleus forskohliiLamiaceaeOther
ColocasiaAraceaeOther
Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed)ConvolvulaceaeWild host
Conyza bonariensis (hairy fleabane)AsteraceaeWild host
Corchorus olitorius (jute)TiliaceaeHabitat/association
Cordyline fruticosa (ti plant)AgavaceaeOther
Cucumis melo (melon)CucurbitaceaeHabitat/association
Cucurbitaceae (cucurbits)CucurbitaceaeMain
Cullen corylifolium (black-dot)FabaceaeOther
Cyperus (flatsedge)CyperaceaeOther
Daucus carota (carrot)ApiaceaeOther
Dioscorea (yam)DioscoreaceaeOther
DuboisiaSolanaceaeOther
Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass)PoaceaeWild host
Euphorbia prostrataEuphorbiaceaeOther
Euphorbia tirucalli (euphorbia)EuphorbiaceaeOther
Eustoma grandiflorum (Lisianthus (cut flower crop))GentianaceaeHabitat/association
Exacum affineGentianaceaeHabitat/association
Fabaceae (leguminous plants)FabaceaeMain
Fragaria ananassa (strawberry)RosaceaeOther
Gomphrena globosa (Globe amaranth)AmaranthaceaeOther
Gossypium (cotton)MalvaceaeOther
Graptophyllum pictumAcanthaceaeHabitat/association
Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke)AsteraceaeOther
Heliconia rostrataHeliconiaceaeHabitat/association
Hibiscus (rosemallows)MalvaceaeHabitat/association
Hibiscus tiliaceus (coast cottonwood)MalvaceaeUnknown
Holmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant)LamiaceaeHabitat/association
Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato)ConvolvulaceaeOther
Jasminum multiflorum (star jasmine)OleaceaeHabitat/association
Jasminum sambac (arabian jasmine)OleaceaeOther
Lavandula (lavender)LamiaceaeOther
Manihot esculenta (cassava)EuphorbiaceaeOther
Melia azedarach (Chinaberry)MeliaceaeUnknown
Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm)LamiaceaeOther
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry)RubiaceaeOther
Musa x paradisiaca (plantain)MusaceaeOther
Nicotiana plumbaginifoliaSolanaceaeWild host
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)SolanaceaeMain
Olea europaea subsp. europaea (European olive)OleaceaeHabitat/association
Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeOther
Oxalis corniculata (creeping woodsorrel)OxalidaceaeWild host
Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed)AsteraceaeHabitat/association
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit)PassifloraceaeOther
Paulownia elongata (elongate paulownia)ScrophulariaceaeOther
Pelargonium (pelargoniums)GeraniaceaeOther
Phoenix canariensis (Canary Island date palm)ArecaceaeUnknown
Pisum sativum (pea)FabaceaeHabitat/association
Plukenetia volubilisEuphorbiaceaeOther
Prunus (stone fruit)RosaceaeOther
Prunus domestica (plum)RosaceaeOther
Prunus salicina (Japanese plum)RosaceaeMain
Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeOther
Raphanus (radish)BrassicaceaeOther
Ricinus communis (castor bean)EuphorbiaceaeOther
Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary)LamiaceaeOther
Rubia tinctorum (Rose madder)RubiaceaeOther
Ruta graveolens (common rue)RutaceaeOther
Sabal palmetto (Cabbage palmetto)ArecaceaeUnknown
Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)PoaceaeOther
Salvia officinalis (common sage)LamiaceaeOther
Samanea saman (rain tree)FabaceaeOther
Sesamum indicum (sesame)PedaliaceaeOther
Sesbania cannabina (corkwood tree)FabaceaeHabitat/association
Sinningia speciosa (gloxinia)GesneriaceaeHabitat/association
SolanaceaeSolanaceaeMain
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum nigrum (black nightshade)SolanaceaeWild host
Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeMain
Tectona grandis (teak)LamiaceaeOther
Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond)CombretaceaeOther
Thymus (thyme)LamiaceaeOther
Trichosanthes dioica (pointed gourd)CucurbitaceaeHabitat/association
Vigna unguiculata (cowpea)FabaceaeHabitat/association
Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeHabitat/association
Xanthosoma (cocoyam)AraceaeOther
Zantedeschia aethiopica (calla lily)AraceaeOther
Zingiber officinale (ginger)ZingiberaceaeOther
Zinnia elegans (zinnia)AsteraceaeOther
Ziziphus spina-christi (Christ thorn)RhamnaceaeUnknown
ZygophyllumOther

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page Symptoms of damage by M. javanica are similar to those caused by other Meloidogyne species and include poor growth with stunting and chlorosis of the aerial parts and a reduced and galled root system (see Dropkin, 1989).

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page

Leaves

  • abnormal colours
  • abnormal forms
  • wilting

Roots

  • galls along length
  • reduced root system
  • swollen roots

Whole plant

  • dwarfing
  • early senescence

Biology and Ecology

Top of page In most essentials the life cycle of M. javanica is very similar to those of other species of Meloidogyne. Mature females in roots produce eggs into a gelatinous egg sac, which may or may not protrude from the root and which completely envelops the eggs and acts as a barrier to water loss. Reproduction is probably always parthenogenetic. Under stress conditions such as overcrowding, food shortage, high temperature, or unsuitable host plant, a high percentage of males and intersexes is produced (Triantaphyllou, 1973). On hatching, infective second-stage juveniles move towards roots and accumulate at root tips, minor wounds or regions of previous penetration. Within a day of penetration of the host there is a rapid loss of mobility and infectivity.

Growth of M. javanica larvae in tomatoes (Bird, 1959) was slow at first, but after about 14 days (the time of the second moult), juveniles had thickened and possessed the spiked tail characteristic of Meloidogyne. The third and fourth moults followed rapidly within the moulted cuticle of the second-stage juvenile. Under Bird's optimum conditions, by the 19th day all specimens were in the final moult or were adults. Egg sac formation began between the 20th and 27th days, followed 2 days later by egg laying. Egg sac growth and rate of egg laying increased rapidly from the 30th to 40th day: the egg sac usually became bigger than the female which produced it. (See also Bird, 1971.)

M. javanica and one or even two other Meloidogyne spp. may sometimes be found in the same host. In mixed inoculations of M. javanica and M. hapla on tomatoes, Kinloch and Allen (1971) found that M. javanica predominated. M. javanica has been shown to interact with other pathogens, causing a disease complex where symptoms are worse than those produced by either pathogen alone. It interacts with the wilt-causing fungus Fusarium oxysporum and its various forms on: cowpeas (Thomason et al., 1959), tobacco (Porter and Powell, 1967) and tomatoes (Oteifa and Ragab, 1958). It also interacts with Rhizoctonia solani [Thanatephorus cucumeris] on soyabeans (Taylor and Wyllie, 1959).

See Bird (1971) for a review of work with special reference to M. javanica. See Taylor (1979) for work on interactions between Meloidogyne and diseases.


Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus subtilis Pathogen
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen
Catenaria anguillulae Pathogen
Hirsutella rhossiliensis Pathogen
Iotonchus monhystera Parasite
Monacrosporium cionopagum Predator
Monacrosporium ellipsosporum Predator
Myrothecium verrucaria Pathogen
Paecilomyces lilacinus Parasite Pakistan
Pasteuria penetrans Pathogen Pakistan
Pseudomonas chitinolytica Pathogen
Steinernema glaseri Parasite
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist
Verticillium chlamydosporium Parasite Eggs

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page A considerable amount of work has been devoted to biological control of root-knot nematodes in general (see Kerry, 1987). This includes much work on the use of natural enemies in the biological control of M. javanica.

Use of the microorganism Pasteuria penetrans against M. javanica has been investigated on several crops, including pigeonpeas (Sharma and Sharma, 1989), mung beans (Shazad et al., 1990), aubergines (Zaki and Maqbool, 1990), tomatoes (Maheswari and Mani, 1988; Daudi and Gowen, 1992) and tobacco (Chen et al., 1994).

The nematode-pathogenic fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus has also been assessed for the control of M. javanica on aubergines and mung beans (Zaki and Maqbool, 1990) and tomatoes (Maheswari and Mani, 1988).

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsEggs and galls in soil. Yes
Containers and packaging - woodEggs and galls in soil. Yes
Land vehiclesEggs and galls in soil. Yes
MailEggs and galls in soil. Yes
Soil, sand and gravelEggs and galls in soil. Yes

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Growing medium accompanying plants adults; eggs; juveniles No Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Impact

Top of page Difficulties of identification within the genus Meloidogyne (see Hartman and Sasser, 1985) and the frequent occurrence of mixed species populations require that, scientifically, reports of the distribution, biology and pest impact of Meloidogyne at the species level often need to be treated with caution. However, as most crops susceptible to one Meloidogyne species will probably be suceptible to others (eg. to both M. incognita and M. javanica), these difficulties may not be important at the practical level (Netscher and Sikora, 1990).

Meloidogyne spp. can cause yield losses of over 30% in various vegetable crops (Netscher and Sikora, 1990). M. javanica is common on cowpeas in California and Australia, pigeonpeas in Puerto Rico and Brazil (Sikora and Greco, 1990) and is a serious problem on tobacco in South Africa and Zimbabwe (Shepherd and Barker, 1990). M. javanica is a major pest of pineapples in many parts of the world (Caswell, et al., 1990)


Detection and Inspection

Top of page Above-ground symptoms are non-specific: examination of roots can reveal the presence of swollen roots and galls typical of root-knot nematodes in general (see Dropkin, 1989).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page Similarities to other Meloidogyne species may lead to difficulties in identification. For authoritative species-level identifications, consult a specialist taxonomist.

Prevention and Control

Top of page Introduction

Methods for the control of Meloidogyne spp. depend largely on crop plant, climate and economic considerations.

Cultural Methods

Fallows have been evaluated (Martin, 1967). Hot-water treatment of potatoes has been used (Martin, 1972).

Crop rotations with various non-host grasses are used to control M. javanica in tobacco (Shepherd and Barker, 1990). Various potential rotation crops, including Tagetes spp., guinea grass and maize have been assessed for the control of M. javanica on mung beans (Vigna radiata) (Toida, et al., 1991). In pot tests, Crotolaria ochroleuca, C. juncea (legumes) Tagetes erecta (African marigold), sesame and groundnuts were identifed as poor hosts for M. javanica (Madulu et al., 1994).

Organic amendments have been assessed to control M. javanica on tomatoes and okra in India (Singh and Sitaramaiah, 1966; 1967) and tested against M. javanica on mung beans (Toida et al., 1994).

Host-Plant Resistance

Root-knot resistance in tomatoes was evaluated against M. javanica in India (Sikora et al., 1973). Various vegetable varieties with resistance to M. javanica, including cowpeas, sweet peppers and tomatoes, have been developed in the USA (Lehman and Cochran, 1991).

Chemical Control

Where cost justifies their use, nematicides can be applied. Nematicides have been used to control M. javanica in tobacco and pineapple (Shepherd and Barker, 1990; Caswell et al., 1990).

References

Top of page

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Ali HH; Fatah KM; Ahmed AI, 2014. First record of nematode root knot on Zennia elegans caused by Meloidogyne javanica plant in Erbil Governorate, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 32(3):276-277. http://www.asplantprotection.org/ASPP_Journal-32-3_2014.html

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