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Datasheet

Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 02 May 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Spodoptera frugiperda
  • Preferred Common Name
  • fall armyworm
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda is a Lepidpopteran pest that feeds in large numbers on leaves and stems of more than 80 plant species, causing major damage to economically important cultivated grasses such as maize, rice, sorghum, sugarcan...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); adult. Museum set specimen. Links to Spodoptera ID: http://www.invasive.org/publications/aphis/Handout_Spodoptera_Wings_2013.pdf - http://www.invasive.org/publications/aphis/Handout_Spodoptera_genitalia.pdf
TitleAdult
CaptionSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); adult. Museum set specimen. Links to Spodoptera ID: http://www.invasive.org/publications/aphis/Handout_Spodoptera_Wings_2013.pdf - http://www.invasive.org/publications/aphis/Handout_Spodoptera_genitalia.pdf
Copyright©Lyle J. Buss/University of Florida/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); adult. Museum set specimen. Links to Spodoptera ID: http://www.invasive.org/publications/aphis/Handout_Spodoptera_Wings_2013.pdf - http://www.invasive.org/publications/aphis/Handout_Spodoptera_genitalia.pdf
AdultSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); adult. Museum set specimen. Links to Spodoptera ID: http://www.invasive.org/publications/aphis/Handout_Spodoptera_Wings_2013.pdf - http://www.invasive.org/publications/aphis/Handout_Spodoptera_genitalia.pdf©Lyle J. Buss/University of Florida/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); adult at rest, lateral view. Laboratory image. USA.
TitleAdult
CaptionSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); adult at rest, lateral view. Laboratory image. USA.
Copyright©Mark Dreiling/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); adult at rest, lateral view. Laboratory image. USA.
AdultSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); adult at rest, lateral view. Laboratory image. USA.©Mark Dreiling/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); egg mass on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).
TitleEgg mass
CaptionSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); egg mass on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).
Copyright©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); egg mass on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).
Egg massSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); egg mass on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larva on maize cob. The larvae, which are marked with a distinct inverted "Y" on the front of the head, feed on a wide variety of plants, and are a particular problem in fall seeded alfalfa and wheat.  Milo, sweet corn, and field corn also are important hosts. Laboratory image. USA.
TitleLarva
CaptionSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larva on maize cob. The larvae, which are marked with a distinct inverted "Y" on the front of the head, feed on a wide variety of plants, and are a particular problem in fall seeded alfalfa and wheat. Milo, sweet corn, and field corn also are important hosts. Laboratory image. USA.
Copyright©Phil Sloderbeck/Kansas State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larva on maize cob. The larvae, which are marked with a distinct inverted "Y" on the front of the head, feed on a wide variety of plants, and are a particular problem in fall seeded alfalfa and wheat.  Milo, sweet corn, and field corn also are important hosts. Laboratory image. USA.
LarvaSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larva on maize cob. The larvae, which are marked with a distinct inverted "Y" on the front of the head, feed on a wide variety of plants, and are a particular problem in fall seeded alfalfa and wheat. Milo, sweet corn, and field corn also are important hosts. Laboratory image. USA.©Phil Sloderbeck/Kansas State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larval damage in whorl of maize (Zea mays).
TitleLarval damage
CaptionSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larval damage in whorl of maize (Zea mays).
Copyright©University of Georgia/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larval damage in whorl of maize (Zea mays).
Larval damageSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larval damage in whorl of maize (Zea mays).©University of Georgia/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larval damage on maize (Zea mays).
TitleLarval damage
CaptionSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larval damage on maize (Zea mays).
Copyright©University of Georgia/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larval damage on maize (Zea mays).
Larval damageSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larval damage on maize (Zea mays).©University of Georgia/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larva on bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon).
TitleLarva
CaptionSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larva on bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon).
Copyright©Clemson University/USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larva on bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon).
LarvaSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larva on bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon).©Clemson University/USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larva on hay grass. USA. August 2006.
TitleLarva
CaptionSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larva on hay grass. USA. August 2006.
Copyright©Chazz Hesselein/Alabama Cooperative Extension System/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larva on hay grass. USA. August 2006.
LarvaSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larva on hay grass. USA. August 2006.©Chazz Hesselein/Alabama Cooperative Extension System/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larva on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).
TitleLarva
CaptionSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larva on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).
Copyright©Alton N. Sparks, Jr./University of Georgia/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larva on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).
LarvaSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larva on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).©Alton N. Sparks, Jr./University of Georgia/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larva, on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
TitleLarva
CaptionSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larva, on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
Copyright©Russ Ottens/University of Georgia/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larva, on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
LarvaSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larva, on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.©Russ Ottens/University of Georgia/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larva, on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). USA.
TitleLarva
CaptionSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larva, on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). USA.
Copyright©Russ Ottens/University of Georgia/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larva, on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). USA.
LarvaSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larva, on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). USA.©Russ Ottens/University of Georgia/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); early instar larvae (arrowed), and damage on cotton boll bract  (Gossypium hirsutum).
TitleLarvae
CaptionSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); early instar larvae (arrowed), and damage on cotton boll bract (Gossypium hirsutum).
Copyright©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); early instar larvae (arrowed), and damage on cotton boll bract  (Gossypium hirsutum).
LarvaeSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); early instar larvae (arrowed), and damage on cotton boll bract (Gossypium hirsutum).©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); severe larval damage on cotton boll (Gossypium hirsutum).
TitleLarval damage
CaptionSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); severe larval damage on cotton boll (Gossypium hirsutum).
Copyright©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); severe larval damage on cotton boll (Gossypium hirsutum).
Larval damageSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); severe larval damage on cotton boll (Gossypium hirsutum).©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larval damage on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor).
TitleLarval damage
CaptionSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larval damage on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor).
Copyright©Clemson University/USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larval damage on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor).
Larval damageSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larval damage on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor).©Clemson University/USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larva feeding on rice (Oryza sativa).
TitleLarva
CaptionSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larva feeding on rice (Oryza sativa).
Copyright©Natalie Hummel/Louisiana State University AgCenter/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larva feeding on rice (Oryza sativa).
LarvaSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larva feeding on rice (Oryza sativa).©Natalie Hummel/Louisiana State University AgCenter/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larval cannibalism. Honduras.
TitleLarval cannibalism
CaptionSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larval cannibalism. Honduras.
Copyright©Frank Peairs/Colorado State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larval cannibalism. Honduras.
Larval cannibalismSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); larval cannibalism. Honduras.©Frank Peairs/Colorado State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith

Preferred Common Name

  • fall armyworm

Other Scientific Names

  • Caradrina frugiperda
  • Laphygma frugiperda Guenee, 1852
  • Laphygma inepta Walker, 1856
  • Laphygma macra Guenee, 1852
  • Noctua frugiperda J.E. Smith
  • Phalaena frugiperda Smith & Abbot, 1797
  • Prodenia autumnalis Riley, 1870
  • Prodenia plagiata Walker, 1856
  • Prodenia signifera Walker, 1856
  • Trigonophora frugiperda Geyer, 1832

International Common Names

  • English: alfalfa worm; armyworm, fall; buckworm; budworm; corn budworm; corn leafworm; cotton leaf worm; daggy's corn worm; grass caterpillar; grass worm; maize budworm; overflow worm; rice caterpillar; southern armyworm; southern grassworm; wheat cutworm; whorlworm
  • Spanish: cogollero del maíz; grillo cogollero; gusano cogollero; gusano cogollero del maíz; gusano de la hierba; oruga del cogollo del maíz; oruga militar; oruga militar del maíz; oruga negra; oruga peladora de los pastos; palomilla del maíz
  • French: légionnaire d'automne

Local Common Names

  • Argentina: isoca militar tardia
  • Brazil: curuquere dos capinzais; curuquere dos milharais; lagarta do cartucho do milho; lagarta militar
  • Germany: Heerwurm
  • Mexico: gusano cogollero del maiz

EPPO code

  • LAPHFR (Spodoptera frugiperda)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda is a Lepidpopteran pest that feeds in large numbers on leaves and stems of more than 80 plant species, causing major damage to economically important cultivated grasses such as maize, rice, sorghum, sugarcane but also other vegetable crops and cotton. It has been repeatedly interecepted at quarantine in Europe and was first reported from Africa in 2016 where it is causing significant damage to maize crops and has great potential for further spread and economic damage. In April 2017, in response to the continuing spread of fall armyworm in Africa, DFID and CABI rapidly published a summary of the pest's present and possible future distribution on the continent, also summarizing information on its impacts, and control measures 'Fall Armyworm Status. Impacts and control options in Africa: Preliminary Evidence Note (April 2017)'.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Noctuidae
  •                             Genus: Spodoptera
  •                                 Species: Spodoptera frugiperda

Description

Top of pageEgg

Eggs are spherical (0.75 mm diameter); they are green at the time of oviposition and become light brown prior to eclosion. Egg maturity takes 2-3 days (20-30°C). Eggs are usually laid in masses of approximately 150-200 eggs which are laid in two to four layers deep on the surface of the leaf. The egg mass is usually covered with a protective, felt-like layer of grey-pink scales (setae) from the female abdomen. Up to 1000 eggs may be laid by each female.

Larva

Larvae are a light green to dark brown with longitudinal stripes. In the sixth instar, larvae are 3-4 cm long. Larvae have eight prolegs and a pair of prolegs on the last adbominal segment. On hatching they are green with black lines and spots, and as they grow they either remain green or become buff-brown and have black dorsal and spiracular lines. If crowded (by a high population density and food shortage) the final instar can be almost black in its armyworm phase. Large larvae are characterized by an inverted Y-shape in yellow on the head, black dorsal pinaculae with long primary setae (two each side of each segment within the pale dorsal zone) and four black spots arranged in a square on the last abdominal segment. There are usually six larval instars, occasionally five. A full description of the larvae is given in Crumb (1956). Levy and Habeck (1976) give diagnostic features, and colour plates are provided by King and Saunders (1984).

Pupa

Pupae are shorter than mature larvae (1.3-1.5 cm in males and 1.6-1.7 cm in females in Mexico), and are shiny brown.

Adult Male

Male body length is 1.6 cm and wingspan 3.7 cm. The forewing is mottled (light brown, grey, straw) with a discal cell containing straw colour on three quarters of the area and dark brown on one quarter of the area.

Adult Female

Female body length is 1.7 cm and wingspan 3.8 cm. The forewing is mottled (dark brown, grey). Hindwings are straw colour with a dark brown margin.

Distribution

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S. frugiperda is native to tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas. In 2016 it was reported for the first time from the African continent, in Nigeria, Sao Tomé, Benin and Togo (IITA, 2016; IPPC, 2016). It has now been confirmed in Ghana (CABI, 2017), Zimbabwe (FAO, 2017), Swaziland (IPPC, 2017), Kenya (Republic of Kenya Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, 2017), Zambia (IPPC, 2017d) and Congo Democratic Republic (IPAPEL-FAO, 2017), and there are preliminary reports of the pest in Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia and South Africa (BBC, 2017).

More information on its presence in Africa in 2017 can be found here: https://twitter.com/CABI_Invasives/timelines/831799538025373696

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

CountryDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferencesNotes

AFRICA

BeninPresentIntroducedInvasiveIITA, 2016
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentIntroducedIPAPEL-FAO, 2017
GhanaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI, 2017
KenyaPresentIntroducedRepublic of Kenya Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock & Fisheries, 2017
NigeriaPresentIntroduced2016InvasiveIITA, 2016First reported in Jan. 2016 in the southwest, within a few months, also in northern Nigeria, Edo and additional southwest areas
Sao Tome and PrincipeWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveIPPC, 2016
SwazilandRestricted distributionIntroducedInvasiveIPPC, 2017b
TogoPresentIntroducedInvasiveIITA, 2016Kara and Plateau regions
ZambiaPresentIntroducedIPPC, 2017dPreliminary report. CABI barcoded specimens.
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedFAO, 2017

NORTH AMERICA

BermudaPresentEPPO, 2014
CanadaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-ManitobaPresentEPPO, 2014
-New BrunswickPresentEPPO, 2014
-Nova ScotiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-OntarioPresentStarratt & McLeod, 1982; EPPO, 2014
-Prince Edward IslandPresentEPPO, 2014
-QuebecPresentMartel et al., 1980; EPPO, 2014
MexicoWidespreadSifuentes, 1978; EPPO, 2014
USAPresentGreathead & Greathead, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-AlabamaPresentEPPO, 2014
-ArizonaPresentEPPO, 2014
-ArkansasPresentEPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaPresentEPPO, 2014
-ColoradoPresentEPPO, 2014
-ConnecticutPresentEPPO, 2014
-DelawarePresentEPPO, 2014
-FloridaPresentEPPO, 2014
-GeorgiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-IllinoisPresentEPPO, 2014
-IndianaPresentEPPO, 2014
-IowaPresentEPPO, 2014
-KansasPresentEPPO, 2014
-KentuckyPresentEPPO, 2014
-LouisianaPresentEPPO, 2014
-MainePresentEPPO, 2014
-MarylandPresentEPPO, 2014
-MassachusettsPresentEPPO, 2014
-MichiganPresentEPPO, 2014
-MinnesotaPresentEPPO, 2014
-MississippiPresentEPPO, 2014
-MissouriPresentEPPO, 2014
-MontanaPresentEPPO, 2014
-NebraskaPresentEPPO, 2014
-New HampshirePresentEPPO, 2014
-New JerseyPresentEPPO, 2014
-New MexicoPresentEPPO, 2014
-New YorkPresentEPPO, 2014
-North CarolinaPresentEPPO, 2014
-North DakotaPresentEPPO, 2014
-OhioPresentEPPO, 2014
-OklahomaPresentEPPO, 2014
-PennsylvaniaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Rhode IslandPresentEPPO, 2014
-South CarolinaPresentEPPO, 2014
-South DakotaPresentEPPO, 2014
-TennesseePresentEPPO, 2014
-TexasPresentEPPO, 2014
-VirginiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-West VirginiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-WisconsinPresentEPPO, 2014
-WyomingPresentEPPO, 2014

CENTRAL AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

AnguillaPresentEPPO, 2014
Antigua and BarbudaPresentEPPO, 2014
BahamasPresentEPPO, 2014
BarbadosPresentEPPO, 2014
BelizePresentEPPO, 2014
British Virgin IslandsPresentEPPO, 2014
Cayman IslandsPresentEPPO, 2014
Costa RicaPresentEPPO, 2014; Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería Servicio Fitosanitario del Estad
CubaPresentEPPO, 2014
DominicaPresentEPPO, 2014
Dominican RepublicPresentEPPO, 2014
El SalvadorPresentEPPO, 2014
GrenadaPresentEPPO, 2014
GuadeloupePresentEPPO, 2014
GuatemalaPresentEPPO, 2014
HaitiPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014
HondurasPresentEPPO, 2014
JamaicaPresentEPPO, 2014
MartiniqueWidespreadEPPO, 2014
MontserratPresentEPPO, 2014
NicaraguaPresentVan, 1981; EPPO, 2014
PanamaPresentEPPO, 2014
Puerto RicoPresentEPPO, 2014
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentEPPO, 2014
Saint LuciaPresentEPPO, 2014
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentEPPO, 2014
Trinidad and TobagoWidespreadEPPO, 2014
United States Virgin IslandsPresentEPPO, 2014

SOUTH AMERICA

ArgentinaPresentEPPO, 2014
BoliviaPresentEPPO, 2014
BrazilPresentEPPO, 2014
-AmapaPresentEPPO, 2014
-BahiaPresentSoares & Silva, 2003
-CearaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Espirito SantoPresentPratissoli et al., 2007; EPPO, 2014
-GoiasPresentEPPO, 2014
-MaranhaoPresentEPPO, 2014
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentEPPO, 2014
-Minas GeraisPresentEPPO, 2014
-ParaPresentEPPO, 2014
-ParaibaPresentEPPO, 2014
-ParanaPresentEPPO, 2014
-PernambucoPresentEPPO, 2014
-Rio de JaneiroPresentEPPO, 2014
-Rio Grande do NortePresentSilva et al., 2000
-Rio Grande do SulPresentEPPO, 2014
-Santa CatarinaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Sao PauloPresentEPPO, 2014
-TocantinsPresentDidonet et al., 2001
ChileRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
ColombiaPresentEPPO, 2014
EcuadorWidespreadEPPO, 2014
French GuianaPresentEPPO, 2014
GuyanaPresentRambajan, 1981; EPPO, 2014
ParaguayWidespreadEPPO, 2014
PeruPresentEPPO, 2014
SurinamePresentEPPO, 2014
UruguayWidespreadEPPO, 2014
VenezuelaPresentEPPO, 2014; Solano et al., 2015Western

EUROPE

EuropeAbsent, intercepted onlySeymour et al., 1985
GermanyPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014
NetherlandsAbsent, confirmed by surveyEPPO, 2014; NPPO of the Netherlands, 2013Based on long-term annual surveys, 362 survey observations in 2012.

Risk of Introduction

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S. frugiperda is on the EPPO A1 list of quarantine pests and is intercepted occasionally in Europe on imported plant material (Seymour et al., 1985). Although the pathway(s) of introduction are as yet unidentified, its appearance in Africa in 2016 raises the level of threat to other African locations and tropical or subtropical regions of the world. 

Phytosanitary Measures

Plants for planting should come from a place of production inspected and found free from the pest during the previous months.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of pageS. frugiperda is a polyphagous pest which shows a definite preference for the Poaceae. It is most commonly recorded from wild and cultivated grasses; from maize, rice, sorghum and sugarcane.

Host Plants/Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Agrostis (bentgrasses)PoaceaeWild host
Agrostis gigantea (black bent)PoaceaeOther
Alcea rosea (Hollyhock)MalvaceaeOther
AlliumLiliaceaeMain
Allium cepa (onion)LiliaceaeOther
Amaranthus (amaranth)AmaranthaceaeOther
Andropogon virginicus (broomsedge)PoaceaeWild host
Arachis hypogaea (groundnut)FabaceaeMain
Asparagus officinalis (asparagus)LiliaceaeOther
Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade)SolanaceaeWild host
Avena sativa (oats)PoaceaeOther
BetaChenopodiaceaeOther
Beta vulgaris (beetroot)ChenopodiaceaeOther
Beta vulgaris var. saccharifera (sugarbeet)ChenopodiaceaeMain
Brassica oleracea (cabbages, cauliflowers)BrassicaceaeMain
Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage)BrassicaceaeOther
Brassica oleracea var. viridis (collards)BrassicaceaeOther
Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera (turnip rape)BrassicaceaeOther
Brassica rapa subsp. rapa (turnip)BrassicaceaeMain
Brassicaceae (cruciferous crops)BrassicaceaeMain
Capsicum (peppers)SolanaceaeOther
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeMain
Carex (sedges)CyperaceaeWild host
Carya (hickories)JuglandaceaeOther
Carya illinoinensis (pecan)JuglandaceaeOther
Cenchrus incertus (Spiny burrgrass)PoaceaeWild host
Chenopodium album (fat hen)ChenopodiaceaeWild host
Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa)ChenopodiaceaeOther
Chloris gayana (rhodes grass)PoaceaeOther
Chrysanthemum (daisy)AsteraceaeOther
Chrysanthemum morifolium (chrysanthemum (florists'))AsteraceaeMain
Cicer arietinum (chickpea)FabaceaeOther
Citrullus lanatus (watermelon)CucurbitaceaeOther
Citrus aurantium (sour orange)RutaceaeOther
Citrus limon (lemon)RutaceaeOther
Citrus reticulata (mandarin)RutaceaeOther
Citrus sinensis (navel orange)RutaceaeOther
Codiaeum variegatum (croton)EuphorbiaceaeOther
Convolvulus (morning glory)ConvolvulaceaeWild host
Cucumis sativus (cucumber)CucurbitaceaeMain
Cucurbitaceae (cucurbits)CucurbitaceaeMain
Cyperus rotundus (purple nutsedge)CyperaceaeOther
Dahlia pinnata (garden dahlia)AsteraceaeOther
Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation)CaryophyllaceaeMain
Echinochloa colona (junglerice)PoaceaeOther
Eryngium foetidumApiaceaeOther
Fagopyrum esculentum (buckwheat)PolygonaceaeOther
Fragaria ananassa (strawberry)RosaceaeOther
Fragaria chiloensis (Chilean strawberry)RosaceaeOther
Gladiolus hybrids (sword lily)IridaceaeOther
Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeMain
Gossypium (cotton)MalvaceaeMain
Gossypium herbaceum (short staple cotton)MalvaceaeOther
Hevea brasiliensis (rubber)EuphorbiaceaeOther
Hibiscus cannabinus (kenaf)MalvaceaeOther
Hordeum vulgare (barley)PoaceaeOther
Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato)ConvolvulaceaeMain
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory)ConvolvulaceaeWild host
Lactuca sativa (lettuce)AsteraceaeOther
Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeOther
Medicago sativa (lucerne)FabaceaeMain
Mucuna pruriens (velvet bean)FabaceaeOther
Musa (banana)MusaceaeMain
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)SolanaceaeMain
Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain
Panicum miliaceum (millet)PoaceaeOther
Pelargonium (pelargoniums)GeraniaceaeMain
Pennisetum clandestinum (kikuyu grass)PoaceaeOther
Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet)PoaceaeOther
Phaseolus (beans)FabaceaeMain
Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeMain
Phleum pratense (timothy grass)PoaceaeOther
Pisum sativum (pea)FabaceaeOther
Platanus occidentalis (sycamore)PlatanaceaeOther
Plumeria (frangipani)ApocynaceaeOther
Poa annua (annual meadowgrass)PoaceaeOther
Poa pratensis (smooth meadow-grass)PoaceaeOther
Poaceae (grasses)PoaceaeMain
Portulaca oleracea (purslane)PortulacaceaeOther
Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeOther
Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)PoaceaeMain
Secale cereale (rye)PoaceaeOther
Setaria italica (foxtail millet)PoaceaeOther
Setaria viridis (green foxtail)PoaceaeOther
Solanum (nightshade)SolanaceaeWild host
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeMain
Sorghum bicolor (sorghum)PoaceaeMain
Sorghum caffrorumPoaceaeOther
Sorghum halepense (Johnson grass)PoaceaeOther
Sorghum sudanense (Sudan grass)PoaceaeOther
Spinacia oleracea (spinach)ChenopodiaceaeMain
Trifolium (clovers)FabaceaeMain
Trifolium pratense (purple clover)FabaceaeOther
Trifolium repens (white clover)FabaceaeOther
Triticum aestivum (wheat)PoaceaeOther
turfgrassesOther
UrochloaPoaceaeWild host
Vaccinium corymbosum (blueberry)EricaceaeOther
Vigna unguiculata (cowpea)FabaceaeOther
Viola (violet)ViolaceaeOther
Vitis (grape)VitaceaeOther
Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeOther
Xanthium strumarium (common cocklebur)AsteraceaeWild host
Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeMain
Zea mays subsp. mays (sweetcorn)PoaceaeMain
Zea mays subsp. mexicana (teosinte)PoaceaeOther
Zingiber officinale (ginger)ZingiberaceaeMain

Growth Stages

Top of pageFlowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of pageSeedlings are fed upon within the whorl. Larger larvae can cut the base of the plant. Mature plants suffer attack on reproductive structures. On tomato plants, buds and growing points may be eaten and fruits pierced. Maize leaves are eaten and the whorl (funnel) may be a mass of holes, ragged edges and larval frass. Young larvae skeletonize the leaf lamina. Early in the season, severe feeding damage to young plants can kill the growing point; a symptom called 'dead heart' in maize. Maize plants may have the cobs attacked by larvae boring through the kernels. At high densities, large larvae may act as armyworms and disperse in swarms, but they often remain in the locality on wild grasses, if available.

Symptoms List

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SignLife StagesType

Fruit

external feeding
internal feeding

Growing point

external feeding
internal feeding; boring

Inflorescence

external feeding

Leaves

external feeding

Stems

external feeding

Whole plant

cut at stem base

Biology and Ecology

Top of pageEggs are laid at night on the leaves of the host, stuck to the lower surface of the lower part of the lower leaves, in tight clusters of 100-300 and sometimes in two layers, usually covered with a protective layer of abdominal bristles. Hatching requires 2-10 days (usually 3-5). The young larvae feed deep in the whorl; the first two instars feed gregariously on the underside of the young leaves causing a characteristic skeletonizing or 'windowing' effect, and the growing point can be killed. Larger larvae become cannibalistic and thus one or two larvae per whorl is usual. The rate of larval development through the six instars is controlled by a combination of diet and temperature conditions, and usually takes 14-21 days. Larger larvae are nocturnal unless they enter the armyworm phase when they swarm and disperse, seeking other food sources. Pupation takes place inside a loose cocoon in an earthen cell, or rarely between leaves on the host plant, and 9-13 days are required for development. Adults emerge at night, and they typically use their natural pre-oviposition period to fly for many kilometres before they settle to oviposit, sometimes migrating for long distances. On average, adults live for 12-14 days.

A threshold temperature of 10.9°C and 559 day-degrees C is required for development. Sandy-clay or clay-sand soils are suitable for pupation and adult emergence. Emergence in sandy-clay and clay-sand soils was directly proportional to temperature and inversely proportional to humidity. Above 30°C the wings of adults tend to be deformed. Pupae require a threshold temperature of 14.6°C and 138 day-degrees C to complete their development (Ramirez-Garcia et al., 1987).

S. frugiperda is a tropical species adapted to the warmer parts of the New World; the optimum temperature for larval development is reported to be 28°C, but it is lower for both oviposition and pupation. In the tropics, breeding can be continuous with four to six generations per year, but in northern regions only one or two generations develop; at lower temperatures, activity and development cease, and when freezing occurs all stages are usually killed. In the USA, S. frugiperda usually overwinters only in southern Texas and Florida. In mild winters, pupae survive in more northerly locations.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

S. frugiperda is a regular annual migrant in the Americas, dispersing throughout the USA and flying into southern Canada virtually every summer. It is suggested that, in this species, migration has evolved as a major component in the life history strategy. The use of the pre-oviposition (maturation) period for widespread dispersal seems to be very effective. In the USA, adult moths have been recorded using a low-level jet stream, which took them from Mississippi to Canada in 30 h.

Larvae frequently act as armyworms in late summer or early autumn and local dispersal is thus effected successfully, which helps to reduce larval mortality.

In most years larvae arrive in Europe carried by air-freight on vegetables or fruit from the New World; sometimes they are also intercepted on herbaceous ornamentals (Seymour et al., 1985). A useful review of this topic was produced by Johnson (1987).

Natural Enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Agelaius phoeniceusPredator
Alabagrus stigmaParasiteLarvae
Aleiodes laphygmaeParasiteLarvaeHonduras
Alveoplectrus corumbaeParasite
Archytas apiciferParasiteLarvae
Archytas incertusParasiteLarvaeBrazil; Sao Paulomaize
Archytas marmoratusParasiteLarvae/PupaeHondurasmaize; sorghum
Bacillus cereusPathogenLarvae
Bacillus thuringiensisPathogenLarvae
Bacillus thuringiensis alestiPathogenLarvae
Bacillus thuringiensis darmstadiensisPathogenLarvae
Bacillus thuringiensis galleriaePathogenLarvae
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstakiPathogenLarvae
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensisPathogenLarvae
Bacillus thuringiensis tolworthiPathogenLarvae
Baculovirus spodopteraPathogen
Balaustium putmaniPredator
Beauveria bassianaPathogen
Brachymeria ovataParasitePupae
Calleida decoraPredatorLarvae
Calosoma alternansPredatorLarvae
Calosoma sayiPredatorLarvae
Campoletis chlorideaeParasiteBarbadosmaize
Campoletis flavicinctaParasiteLarvaeSilva et al., 2012Brazil; Sao Paulomaize
Campoletis griotiParasite
Campoletis oxylus
Campoletis sonorensisParasiteHondurasmaize; sorghum
CarabidaePredatorLarvae/Pupae
Chelonus curvimaculatusParasiteEggs/Larvae
Chelonus formosanusParasiteLarvaeBarbados; Trinidad and Tobagomaize
Chelonus insularisParasiteEggs/LarvaeBrazil; Sao Paulo; Hondurasmaize; sorghum
Cotesia marginiventrisParasiteLarvaeBarbados; Brazil; Sao Paulo; Honduras; Trinidadmaize
Cotesia ruficrusParasiteLarvaeTrinidad and Tobago
Cryptus albitarsisParasite
Diapetimorpha introitaParasite
Doru luteipesPredator
Doru taeniatumPredator
Ectatomma ruidumPredator
Eiphosoma vitticolleParasiteBrazil; Sao Paulo; Hondurasmaize
Entomophaga aulicaePathogen
Erynia radicansPathogenVenezuelamaize
Euplectrus comstockiiParasite
Euplectrus platyhypenaeParasiteLarvaeGuyana; St Kitts Nevis
Geocoris punctipesPredator
Glabromicroplitis croceipesParasiteLarvae
Granulosis virusPathogenLarvae
Hyposoter annulipesParasite
Labidura ripariaPredator
Lespesia affinisParasiteLarvae
Lespesia archippivoraParasiteLarvaeBrazil; Sao Paulo; Hondurasmaize; sorghum
Limonethe spodopteraeParasite
Lixophaga diatraeaeParasiteLarvae
Metarhizium anisopliaePathogen
Meteorus autographaeParasiteLarvae
Meteorus laphygmaeParasiteLarvae
Microchelonus heliopaeParasiteEggs/LarvaeBarbados maize
Microplitis manilaeParasiteLarvae
Microplitis rufiventrisParasiteLarvae
Nabis capsiformisPredator
Noctuidonema guyanenseParasite
Nomuraea rileyiPathogenLarvaeNicaragua; Venezuelamaize
Nucleopolyhedrosis virusPathogenLarvae
Ophion flavidusParasiteBrazil; Sao Paulo; Hondurasmaize; sorghum
Orius insidiosusPredator
Paecilomyces fumosoroseusPathogen
Podisus connexivusPredator
Podisus maculiventrisPredator
Solenopsis invictaPredator
Spilochalcis chapadaeParasite
Steinernema carpocapsaeParasiteLarvae
Steinernema feltiaeParasite
Steinernema riobravisParasite
Stelopolybia pallipesPredator
Sycanus indagatorPredator
Telenomus remusParasiteEggsBarbados; Bermuda; Florida; Guyana; Suriname; Trinidad and Tobago; Venezuelamaize; vegetables
Temelucha difficilisParasite
Trichogramma achaeaeParasiteEggsBarbadosmaize
Trichogramma chilotraeaeParasiteEggsBarbadosmaize
Trichogramma pretiosumParasiteEggs
Trichogramma rojasiParasiteEggsCamera et al., 2010
Trichospilus pupivoraParasiteBarbadosmaize
Vairimorpha necatrixPathogen
Winthemia rufiventrisParasiteLarvae

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of pageEfforts were made to introduce the egg parasitoid, Telenomus remus, into countries where it had not already been found. These introductions have been credited with reducing the numbers of this and other pest Spodoptera occuring alongside it (Cock, 1985).

Economic Impact

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S. frugiperda is found widely throughout the warmer parts of the New World. Damage results from leaf-eating and healthy plants usually recover quite quickly, but a large pest population can cause defoliation and resulting yield losses; the larvae then migrate to adjacent areas in true armyworm fashion.

In Nicaragua, van Huis (1981) found a 33% increase in maize yield when plants were protected with insecticide. Infestations during the mid- to late-whorl stage of maize development caused yield losses of 15-73% when 55-100% of the plants were infested with S. frugiperda (Hruska and Gould, 1997). Caterpillars of S. frugiperda appear to be much more damaging to maize in West and Central Africa than most other African Spodoptera species (IITA, 2016).

Detection and Inspection

Top of pageDetection is facilitated by searching fields for leaf feeding damage and by pheromone traps.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Larvae of S. frugiperda are distinct in their aggressive feeding behaviour and dark coloration.

Adults of S. frugiperda can be confused with those of S. exempta and S. littoralis. In S. frugiperda the veins of the hindwing are brown and distinct, and in the male forewing the pale orbicular stigma has a pronounced pale 'tail' distally. In the male genitalia the valve is almost rectangular and there is no marginal notch at the position of the tip of the harpe; the female bursa lacks a signum. In Africa it can also be confused with S. exigua (IITA, 2016). An EPPO standard provides guidance for the identification of S. littoralis, S. litura, S. frugiperda and S. eridania (OEPP/EPPO, 2015); Brown and Dewhurst (1975) give details of the African species of Spodoptera, and Todd and Poole (1980) give keys to moths of the genus Spodoptera in the Western Hemisphere.

Prevention and Control

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Introduction

The literature on this pest is extensive (Ashley et al., 1989). This is in part due to the importance of maize, the importance of lepidopteran pests, the quest for alternative control methods following the development of insect resistance to pesticides, and the development of host-plant resistance breeding programmes. On maize, if 5% of seedlings are cut or 20% of whorls of small plants (during the first 30 days) are infested, it is recommended that an insecticide be applied (King and Saunders, 1984); on sorghum the pest threshold level is regarded as one (or two) larvae per leaf whorl and two per head (Pitre, 1985).

Cultural Control

Control is largely achieved in the northern range through a winter kill by exposing larvae and pupae within the upper soil surface. Freezing temperatures cause high larval mortality. Therefore, clean cultivation and weeding are recommended.

Biological Control

A large number of parasitic Hymenoptera, acting as larval parasitoids, have been reared from S. frugiperda, and many predators are recorded; it appears that natural controls are of considerable importance. Natural levels of larval parasitism are often very high (20-70%), mostly by braconid wasps. Some 10-15% of larvae are often killed by pathogens.

The compound N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-glutamine called volicitin was isolated from oral secretions of S. exigua larvae. When applied to damaged leaves of maize seedlings, volicitin induced the seedlings to emit volatile compounds that attracted females of the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris. Mechanical damage of the leaves, without application of this compound, did not trigger release of the same blend of volatiles. Volicitin appears to regulate tritrophic interactions among plants, insect herbivores and natural enemies of S. exigua (Alborn et al., 1997).

Host-Plant Resistance

Spodoptera spp. resistance breeding programmes have developed field crop varieties with improved resistance, one example being maize (Mihm et al., 1988). One resistance mechanism that appears to be operating in maize is increased leaf toughness vis-à-vis a thicker epidermis (Davis et al., 1995).

Transgenic maize containing genes encoding delta-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki have been commercialized in the USA and Brazil. Vegetative insecticidal proteins (vip) have been isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) during the vegetative phase of growth which show a wide spectrum of activities against lepidopteran pests, especially Spodoptera spp. (Estruch et al., 1996). Spodoptera spp. appear to be controlled by these toxins, but the development of resistance is a concern (Moar et al., 1995). Field-evolved resistance to the Bt maize expressing the Cry1Ab protein is reducing it efficacy in Brazil  (Omoto et al., 2016).

Chemical Control

In some areas resistance to insecticides may be widespread and control can be difficult (Pitre, 1985). Recommended insecticides for Spodoptera spp. include esfenvalerate, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, malathion, permethrin, and lamba-cyhalothrin (Anon., 1997).

Pheromonal Control

The sex pheromone for S. frugiperda contains (Z)-9-Tetradecenyl acetate (Z-9-14:OAca) which is common to Trichoplusia ni, Spodoptera exigua and Agrotis ipsilon exigua (Klun et al., 1996). Mating disruption my be possible given the successes observed for S. exigua in which (9Z,12E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate released at high concentrations, caused mating disruption in tomato, lucerne and cotton fields (Shorey et al., 1994).

IPM Programmes

Integrated control of S. frugiperda has been facilitated through cultivation practices to destroy overwintering sites, improved varieties with resistance to leaf feeding through conventional mechanisms or the introduction of Bt crops. Biological controls are prevalent and should be encouraged through reduced spaying of insecticides.

References

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Anon., 1997. Insect Control Guide. Ohio, USA: Meister Publishing Co., 442 pp.

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CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

Camera C, Dequech STB, Ribeiro Ldo P, Querino RB, 2010. First report of Trichogramma rojasi parasitizing eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda. (First report of Trichogramma rojasi parasitizing eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda.) Ciência Rural, 40(8):1828-1830. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782010000800025&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=pt

Cock MJW (ed.), 1985. A review of biological control of pests in the Commonwealth Caribbean and Bermuda up to 1982. Farnham Royal, United Kingdom; Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, xii + 218 pp.

Cortez-Mondaca E, Armenta-Cárdenas I, Bahena-Juárez F, 2010. Parasitoids and percent parasitism of the fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in southern Sonora, Mexico. (Parasitoides y porcentaje de parasitismo sobre el Gusano Cogollero (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) en el sur de Sonora, México.) Southwestern Entomologist, 35(2):199-203. http://sswe.tamu.edu/

Crumb SE, 1956. The Larvae of the Phalaenidae. Technical Bulletin No. 1135. Washington DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture.

Davis FM, Baker GT, Williams WP, 1995. Anatomical characteristics of maize resistant to leaf feeding by southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Agricultural Entomology, 12(1):55-65.

Didonet J, Didonet APP, Erasmo EL, Santos GRdos, 2001. Incidence and population dynamics of pests and their natural enemies in upland rice in Gurupi, Tocantins. (Incidência e densidade populacional de pragas e inimigos naturais em arroz de terras altas, em Gurupi-TO.) Bioscience Journal, 17(1):67-76.

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EPPO, 2017. EPPO Global database (available online). Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

Estruch JJ, Warren GW, Mullins MA, Nye GJ, Craig JA, Koziel MG, 1996. Vip3A, a novel Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein with a wide spectrum of activities against lepidopteran insects. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 93(11):5389-5394; 23 refs.

FAO, 2017. Fall army worm outbreak, a blow to prospects of recovery for southern Africa. Rome, Italy: FAO. http://www.fao.org/africa/news/detail-news/en/c/469532/

Greathead DJ, Greathead AH, 1992. Biological control of insect pests by insect parasitoids and predators: the BIOCAT database. Biocontrol News and Information, 13(4):61N-68N.

Hruska AJ, Gould F, 1997. Fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Diatraea lineolata (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): impact of larval population level and temporal occurrence on maize yield in Nicaragua. Journal of Economic Entomology, 90(2):611-622; 27 ref.

Huis Avan, 1981. Integrated pest management in the small farmer's maize crop in Nicaragua. Mededelingen Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen, 81(6):221 pp.

IITA, 2016. First report of outbreaks of the "Fall Armyworm" on the African continent. IITA Bulletin, No. 2330. http://bulletin.iita.org/index.php/2016/06/18/first-report-of-outbreaks-of-the-fall-armyworm-on-the-african-continent/

IPAPEL-FAO, 2017. Rapport de mission d'évaluation de l'incidence de l'attaque de la chenille Spodoptera sp et prélèvement des échantillons de la chenille dans les territoires de Kambove et de Pweto à kilwa dans la Province du Haut Katanga du 07 au 10 février 2017. FAO and L'Inspection Provinciale de l'agriculture, pêche et élevage (IPAPEL) ([English title not available])., DR Congo: Université de Lubumbashi.

IPPC, 2016. Les dégâts causés par spodoptera frugiperda. (The damage caused by Spodoptera frugiperda.) IPPC Official Pest Report. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

IPPC, 2017. Detection of Fall Army Worm Spodoptera frugiperda in Swaziland. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. SWZ-02/1. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

IPPC, 2017. First detection of Fall Army Worm (Spodoptera frugiperda). IPPC Official Pest Report, No. ZAF-33/1. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

IPPC, 2017. Occurrence of Fall Arm Worm (Spodoptera frugiperda) in Mozambique. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. MOZ-06/1. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

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Johnson SJ, 1987. Migration and the life history strategy of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda in the western hemisphere. Insect Science and its Application, 8(4-6):543-549.

King ABS, Saunders JL, 1984. The invertebrate pests of annual food crops in Central America. A guide to their recognition and control. London, UK: Overseas Development Administration.

Klun JA, Potts WJE, Oliver JE, 1996. Four species of noctuid moths degrade sex pheromone by a common antennal metabolic pathway. Journal of Entomological Science, 31(4):404-413; 16 ref.

Levy R, Habeck DH, 1976. Descriptions of the larvae of Spodoptera sunia and S. latifascia with a key to the mature Spodoptera larvae of the eastern United States (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 69(4):585-588.

Martel P, Hudon M, Ritchot C, 1980. The incidence of insect pests in certain crops in the south-west of Quebec in 1979. Annals of the Entomological Society of Quebec, 25(3):190-194.

Mihm JA, Smith ME, Deutsch JA, 1988. Development of open-pollinated varieties, non-conventional hybrids and inbred lines of tropical maize with resistance to fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), at CIMMYT. Florida Entomologist, 71(3):262-268.

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Moar WJ, Pusztai-Carey M, Faassen Hvan, Bosch D, Frutos R, Rang C, Luo K, Adang MJ, 1995. Development of Bacillus thuringiensis CryIC resistance by Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 61(6):2086-2092; 35 ref.

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Omoto C, Bernardi O, Salmeron E, Sorgatto RJ, Dourado PM, Crivellari A, Carvalho RA, Willse A, Martinelli S, Head GP, 2016. Field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ab maize by Spodoptera frugiperda in Brazil. Pest Management Science, 72(9):1727-1736. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ps.4201/abstract

Pitre HN, 1985. Insect problems on sorghum in the USA. Proceedings of the international sorghum entomology workshop, 15-21 July 1984, Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas, USA. Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, 73-81.

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Rambajan I, 1981. Major insect pests of paddy in Guyana. International Rice Research Newsletter, 6(6):16-17.

Ramirez Garcia L, Bravo Mojica H, Llanderal Cazares C, 1987. Development of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under different conditions of temperature and humidity. Agrociencia, 67:161-171.

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Shorey HH, Summers CG, Sisk CB, Gerber RG, 1994. Disruption of pheromone communication in Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in tomatoes, alfalfa, and cotton. Environmental Entomology, 23(6):1529-1533.

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Silva PSLe, Diniz Filho ET, Granjeiro LC, Duarte SR, 2000. Effects of nitrogen rates and deltamethrin application on yields of green ears and grain yield of maize. (Efeitos de níveis de nitrogênio e da aplicação de deltametrina sobre os rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de milho.) Revista Ceres, 47(269):75-87.

Silva RBda, Cruz I, Figueiredo Mde LC, Bortoni MA, Pereira AG, Melo IFde, Camargo LF, Penteado-Dias AM, 2012. Record of new species of parasitoids on larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Dichomeris famulata Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in maize (Zea mays L.) in Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Milho e Sorgo, 11(1):125-129. http://rbms.cnpms.embrapa.br/index.php/ojs/article/view/398

Soares JJ, Silva MS, 2003. Effect of planting date on the production and the ocurrence of pests on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). (Efeito da época de plantio na produção e na ocorrência de pragas em culturas do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum).) Arquivos do Instituto Biológico (São Paulo), 70(3):295-302. http://www.biologico.sp.gov.br/ARQUIVOS/V70_3/soares.PDF

Solano Y, Sosa F, Pérez de Camacaro M, 2015. Record of noctuids (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) associated with strawberry crop in western Venezuela. (Registros de noctuidos (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) asociados al cultivo de fresa en el occidente de Venezuela.) Entomotropica, 30(19):193-200. http://www.entomotropica.org/index.php/entomotropica/article/view/488/616

Starratt AN, McLeod DGR, 1982. Monitoring fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), moth populations in southwestern Ontario with sex pheromone traps. Canadian Entomologist, 114(7):545-549.

Todd EL, Poole RW, 1980. Keys and illustrations for the armyworm moths of the noctuid genus Spodoptera Guenee from the Western Hemisphere. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 73(6):722-738.

Distribution Maps

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Distribution map Antigua and Barbuda: Present
EPPO, 2014Anguilla: Present
EPPO, 2014Argentina: Present
EPPO, 2014Barbados: Present
EPPO, 2014Barbados: Present
EPPO, 2014Benin: Present, introduced, invasive
IITA, 2016Bermuda: Present
EPPO, 2014Bolivia: Present
EPPO, 2014Brazil: Present
EPPO, 2014Brazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBahamas: Present
EPPO, 2014Bahamas: Present
EPPO, 2014Belize: Present
EPPO, 2014Belize: Present
EPPO, 2014Canada: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014Canada
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada
See regional map for distribution within the countryChile: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014Colombia: Present
EPPO, 2014Colombia: Present
EPPO, 2014Costa Rica: Present
EPPO, 2014; Costa Rica: Present
EPPO, 2014; Cuba: Present
EPPO, 2014Cuba: Present
EPPO, 2014Germany: Present, few occurrences
EPPO, 2014Dominica: Present
EPPO, 2014Dominican Republic: Present
EPPO, 2014Dominican Republic: Present
EPPO, 2014Ecuador: Widespread
EPPO, 2014Grenada: Present
EPPO, 2014French Guiana: Present
EPPO, 2014Ghana: Present, introduced, invasive
CABI, 2017Guadeloupe: Present
EPPO, 2014Guatemala: Present
EPPO, 2014Guatemala: Present
EPPO, 2014Guyana: Present
Rambajan, 1981; EPPO, 2014Guyana: Present
Rambajan, 1981; EPPO, 2014Honduras: Present
EPPO, 2014Honduras: Present
EPPO, 2014Haiti: Present, few occurrences
EPPO, 2014Haiti: Present, few occurrences
EPPO, 2014Jamaica: Present
EPPO, 2014Jamaica: Present
EPPO, 2014Kenya: Present, introduced
Republic of Kenya Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock & Fisheries, 2017Saint Kitts and Nevis: Present
EPPO, 2014Cayman Islands: Present
EPPO, 2014Saint Lucia: Present
EPPO, 2014Martinique: Widespread
EPPO, 2014Montserrat: Present
EPPO, 2014Mexico: Widespread
Sifuentes, 1978; EPPO, 2014Mexico: Widespread
Sifuentes, 1978; EPPO, 2014Nigeria: Present, introduced, invasive
IITA, 2016Nicaragua: Present
Van, 1981; EPPO, 2014Nicaragua: Present
Van, 1981; EPPO, 2014Nicaragua: Present
Van, 1981; EPPO, 2014Panama: Present
EPPO, 2014Panama: Present
EPPO, 2014Peru: Present
EPPO, 2014Puerto Rico: Present
EPPO, 2014Puerto Rico: Present
EPPO, 2014Paraguay: Widespread
EPPO, 2014Suriname: Present
EPPO, 2014Suriname: Present
EPPO, 2014Sao Tome and Principe: Widespread, introduced, invasive
IPPC, 2016El Salvador: Present
EPPO, 2014El Salvador: Present
EPPO, 2014Swaziland: Restricted distribution, introduced, invasive
IPPC ,2017bTogo: Present, introduced, invasive
IITA, 2016Trinidad and Tobago: Widespread
EPPO, 2014Trinidad and Tobago: Widespread
EPPO, 2014USA: Present
Greathead & Greathead, 1992; EPPO, 2014USA: Present
Greathead & Greathead, 1992; EPPO, 2014USA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUruguay: Widespread
EPPO, 2014Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: Present
EPPO, 2014Venezuela: Present
EPPO, 2014; Solano et al., 2015Venezuela: Present
EPPO, 2014; Solano et al., 2015British Virgin Islands: Present
EPPO, 2014United States Virgin Islands: Present
EPPO, 2014Zambia: Present, introduced
IPPC ,2017dCongo Democratic Republic: Present, introduced
IPAPEL-FAO, 2017Zimbabwe: Present, introduced
FAO, 2017
  • = Present, no further details
  • = Evidence of pathogen
  • = Widespread
  • = Last reported
  • = Localised
  • = Presence unconfirmed
  • = Confined and subject to quarantine
  • = See regional map for distribution within the country
  • = Occasional or few reports
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Distribution map (asia)
Distribution map (europe) Germany: Present, few occurrences
EPPO, 2014
Distribution map (africa) Benin: Present, introduced, invasive
IITA, 2016Ghana: Present, introduced, invasive
CABI, 2017Kenya: Present, introduced
Republic of Kenya Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock & Fisheries, 2017Nigeria: Present, introduced, invasive
IITA, 2016Sao Tome and Principe: Widespread, introduced, invasive
IPPC, 2016Swaziland: Restricted distribution, introduced, invasive
IPPC ,2017bTogo: Present, introduced, invasive
IITA, 2016Zambia: Present, introduced
IPPC ,2017dCongo Democratic Republic: Present, introduced
IPAPEL-FAO, 2017Zimbabwe: Present, introduced
FAO, 2017
Distribution map (north america) Bermuda: Present
EPPO, 2014Bahamas: Present
EPPO, 2014Belize: Present
EPPO, 2014Canada: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014Manitoba: Present
EPPO, 2014New Brunswick: Present
EPPO, 2014Nova Scotia: Present
EPPO, 2014Ontario: Present
Starratt & McLeod, 1982; EPPO, 2014Prince Edward Island: Present
EPPO, 2014Quebec: Present
Martel et al., 1980; EPPO, 2014Cuba: Present
EPPO, 2014Dominican Republic: Present
EPPO, 2014Guatemala: Present
EPPO, 2014Honduras: Present
EPPO, 2014Haiti: Present, few occurrences
EPPO, 2014Jamaica: Present
EPPO, 2014Mexico: Widespread
Sifuentes, 1978; EPPO, 2014Nicaragua: Present
Van, 1981; EPPO, 2014Puerto Rico: Present
EPPO, 2014El Salvador: Present
EPPO, 2014USA: Present
Greathead & Greathead, 1992; EPPO, 2014Alabama: Present
EPPO, 2014Arkansas: Present
EPPO, 2014Arizona: Present
EPPO, 2014California: Present
EPPO, 2014Colorado: Present
EPPO, 2014Connecticut: Present
EPPO, 2014Delaware: Present
EPPO, 2014Florida: Present
EPPO, 2014Georgia: Present
EPPO, 2014Iowa: Present
EPPO, 2014Illinois: Present
EPPO, 2014Indiana: Present
EPPO, 2014Kansas: Present
EPPO, 2014Kentucky: Present
EPPO, 2014Louisiana: Present
EPPO, 2014Massachusetts: Present
EPPO, 2014Maryland: Present
EPPO, 2014Maine: Present
EPPO, 2014Michigan: Present
EPPO, 2014Minnesota: Present
EPPO, 2014Missouri: Present
EPPO, 2014Mississippi: Present
EPPO, 2014Montana: Present
EPPO, 2014North Carolina: Present
EPPO, 2014North Dakota: Present
EPPO, 2014Nebraska: Present
EPPO, 2014New Hampshire: Present
EPPO, 2014New Jersey: Present
EPPO, 2014New Mexico: Present
EPPO, 2014New York: Present
EPPO, 2014Ohio: Present
EPPO, 2014Oklahoma: Present
EPPO, 2014Pennsylvania: Present
EPPO, 2014Rhode Island: Present
EPPO, 2014South Carolina: Present
EPPO, 2014South Dakota: Present
EPPO, 2014Tennessee: Present
EPPO, 2014Texas: Present
EPPO, 2014Virginia: Present
EPPO, 2014Wisconsin: Present
EPPO, 2014West Virginia: Present
EPPO, 2014Wyoming: Present
EPPO, 2014
Distribution map (central america) Antigua and Barbuda: Present
EPPO, 2014Anguilla: Present
EPPO, 2014Barbados: Present
EPPO, 2014Bahamas: Present
EPPO, 2014Belize: Present
EPPO, 2014Colombia: Present
EPPO, 2014Costa Rica: Present
EPPO, 2014; Cuba: Present
EPPO, 2014Dominica: Present
EPPO, 2014Dominican Republic: Present
EPPO, 2014Grenada: Present
EPPO, 2014Guadeloupe: Present
EPPO, 2014Guatemala: Present
EPPO, 2014Guyana: Present
Rambajan, 1981; EPPO, 2014Honduras: Present
EPPO, 2014Haiti: Present, few occurrences
EPPO, 2014Jamaica: Present
EPPO, 2014Saint Kitts and Nevis: Present
EPPO, 2014Cayman Islands: Present
EPPO, 2014Saint Lucia: Present
EPPO, 2014Martinique: Widespread
EPPO, 2014Montserrat: Present
EPPO, 2014Mexico: Widespread
Sifuentes, 1978; EPPO, 2014Nicaragua: Present
Van, 1981; EPPO, 2014Panama: Present
EPPO, 2014Puerto Rico: Present
EPPO, 2014Suriname: Present
EPPO, 2014El Salvador: Present
EPPO, 2014Trinidad and Tobago: Widespread
EPPO, 2014USA: Present
Greathead & Greathead, 1992; EPPO, 2014Florida: Present
EPPO, 2014Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: Present
EPPO, 2014Venezuela: Present
EPPO, 2014; Solano et al., 2015British Virgin Islands: Present
EPPO, 2014United States Virgin Islands: Present
EPPO, 2014
Distribution map (south america) Argentina: Present
EPPO, 2014Barbados: Present
EPPO, 2014Bolivia: Present
EPPO, 2014Brazil: Present
EPPO, 2014Amapa: Present
EPPO, 2014Bahia: Present
Soares & Silva, 2003Ceara: Present
EPPO, 2014Espirito Santo: Present
Pratissoli et al., 2007; EPPO, 2014Goias: Present
EPPO, 2014Maranhao: Present
EPPO, 2014Minas Gerais: Present
EPPO, 2014Mato Grosso do Sul: Present
EPPO, 2014Para: Present
EPPO, 2014Paraiba: Present
EPPO, 2014Pernambuco: Present
EPPO, 2014Parana: Present
EPPO, 2014Rio de Janeiro: Present
EPPO, 2014Rio Grande do Norte: Present
Silva et al., 2000Rio Grande do Sul: Present
EPPO, 2014Santa Catarina: Present
EPPO, 2014Sao Paulo: Present
EPPO, 2014Tocantins: Present
Didonet et al., 2001Chile: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014Colombia: Present
EPPO, 2014Costa Rica: Present
EPPO, 2014; Ecuador: Widespread
EPPO, 2014French Guiana: Present
EPPO, 2014Guyana: Present
Rambajan, 1981; EPPO, 2014Nicaragua: Present
Van, 1981; EPPO, 2014Panama: Present
EPPO, 2014Peru: Present
EPPO, 2014Paraguay: Widespread
EPPO, 2014Suriname: Present
EPPO, 2014Trinidad and Tobago: Widespread
EPPO, 2014Uruguay: Widespread
EPPO, 2014Venezuela: Present
EPPO, 2014; Solano et al., 2015
Distribution map (pacific)