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Datasheet

Lantana camara (lantana)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 03 October 2016
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Lantana camara
  • Preferred Common Name
  • lantana
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • L. camara is a highly variable ornamental shrub, native of the neotropics. It has been introduced to most of the tropics and subtropics as a hedge plant and has since been reported as extremely weedy and invasive in many countries. It is generally...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
L. camara is a perennial shrub 2-5 m tall.
TitleLeaves and flowers
CaptionL. camara is a perennial shrub 2-5 m tall.
CopyrightNOVARTIS
L. camara is a perennial shrub 2-5 m tall.
Leaves and flowersL. camara is a perennial shrub 2-5 m tall.NOVARTIS
Serrated leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate (up to 10 cm long, 7.5 cm wide).
TitleLeaves and flowers
CaptionSerrated leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate (up to 10 cm long, 7.5 cm wide).
Copyright©Colin Wilson
Serrated leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate (up to 10 cm long, 7.5 cm wide).
Leaves and flowersSerrated leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate (up to 10 cm long, 7.5 cm wide).©Colin Wilson
Black fleshy drupes borne in clusters, 3-6 mm in diameter, containing 1-2 seeds.
TitleBerries
CaptionBlack fleshy drupes borne in clusters, 3-6 mm in diameter, containing 1-2 seeds.
Copyright©Colin Wilson
Black fleshy drupes borne in clusters, 3-6 mm in diameter, containing 1-2 seeds.
BerriesBlack fleshy drupes borne in clusters, 3-6 mm in diameter, containing 1-2 seeds.©Colin Wilson
Lantana camara (common lantana) close-up of flowers growing by the roadside in Fiji.
TitleClose-up of flowers
CaptionLantana camara (common lantana) close-up of flowers growing by the roadside in Fiji.
Copyright©Bill Parsons
Lantana camara (common lantana) close-up of flowers growing by the roadside in Fiji.
Close-up of flowersLantana camara (common lantana) close-up of flowers growing by the roadside in Fiji.©Bill Parsons
Flowers (9 mm long) are usually yellow and pink, later turning orange then red.
TitleFlower
CaptionFlowers (9 mm long) are usually yellow and pink, later turning orange then red.
Copyright©Colin Wilson
Flowers (9 mm long) are usually yellow and pink, later turning orange then red.
FlowerFlowers (9 mm long) are usually yellow and pink, later turning orange then red.©Colin Wilson
Lantana camara (common lantana) in flower in the Melbourne Botanical Gardens.
TitlePlants in flower
CaptionLantana camara (common lantana) in flower in the Melbourne Botanical Gardens.
CopyrightBill Parsons
Lantana camara (common lantana) in flower in the Melbourne Botanical Gardens.
Plants in flowerLantana camara (common lantana) in flower in the Melbourne Botanical Gardens.Bill Parsons
Flowers are usually yellow and pink, later turning orange then red.
TitleFlowers
CaptionFlowers are usually yellow and pink, later turning orange then red.
CopyrightBill Parsons
Flowers are usually yellow and pink, later turning orange then red.
FlowersFlowers are usually yellow and pink, later turning orange then red.Bill Parsons
L. camara (common lantana) growing in Melbourne Botanical Gardens - a perennial shrub 2-5 m tall.
TitleGrowth habit
CaptionL. camara (common lantana) growing in Melbourne Botanical Gardens - a perennial shrub 2-5 m tall.
CopyrightBill Parsons
L. camara (common lantana) growing in Melbourne Botanical Gardens - a perennial shrub 2-5 m tall.
Growth habitL. camara (common lantana) growing in Melbourne Botanical Gardens - a perennial shrub 2-5 m tall.Bill Parsons

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Lantana camara L.

Preferred Common Name

  • lantana

Other Scientific Names

  • Camara vulgaris Benth.
  • Lantana antidotalis Thonning (1827)
  • Lantana camara var. aculeata
  • Lantana crocea Jacq.
  • Lantana glandulosissima Hayek
  • Lantana mexicana Turner
  • Lantana mixta Medik.
  • Lantana moritziana Otto & A.Dietr.
  • Lantana sanguinea Medik.
  • Lantana scabrida Ait.
  • Lantana spinosa L. ex Le Cointe
  • Lantana undulata Raf.
  • Lantana urticifolia Mill.
  • Lantana x aculeata f. crocea (Jacq.) Voss

International Common Names

  • English: arch man; common lantana; large leaf lantana; pink-flowered lantana; prickly lantana; red sage; red-flowered sage; shrub verbena; tickberry; white sage; wild sage; yellow sage
  • Spanish: camar; cariaquillo; cinco cincos; cinco negritos; comida de paloma; corroncho; cuasquito; filigrana; frutilla; jaral; jarrila; mora de caballo; morita; palo del diablo; santo negrito; soterre; venturosa
  • French: corbeille d’or; galabert; lantanier; mille fleurs; vieille fille
  • Chinese: ma ying dan

Local Common Names

  • Assam: guphul
  • Brazil: camara; cambara de espinho
  • Cambodia: ach mann
  • Cook Islands: ranatana; tataramoa
  • Costa Rica: cinco negritos; flor de duende; tres colores
  • El Salvador: bandera española
  • Fiji: kauboica
  • French Polynesia: tatara moa
  • Germany: wandelroeschen
  • Guinea: boulé kogno; kogno porto
  • Haiti: bonbonier; herbe à plomb; herbe au diable; herbe bourrique
  • Hawaii: lakana; lanakana; mikinolia hihiu; mikinolia kuku
  • India: bands; nagaairi; phullaki; putus; tantbi
  • Indonesia: boenga pagar; chente; kembang satik; kembang telek; oblo; puchengan; puyengan; saliara; saliyere; sliyara; tahi agam; tai hayam; tai kotok; telekan; tembelek; tembelekan; teterapan; waung; wileran
  • Japan: shichihenge
  • Kiribati: te kaibuaka
  • Lesser Antilles: measle bush; rangoat leaf; sauge; scrubby tree
  • Madagascar: fankatavinakoho; fotatra; mandadrieko; radredreka; rajejeka; ramity
  • Malaysia: bunga asam senyur; bunga pagar; bunga tahi anjing; bunga tahi asu; bunga tahi ayam; bunga tahi ayam busok; tahi ayam munai
  • Mauritius: vieille fille
  • Mexico: alantana; alfombrilla hedionda (Michoacán); carrasposa; confite; confituria; confiturilla (Sonora-Chihuahua); confiturio (Baja California); flor de San Cayetano; lampana; matizadilla; pasaruin; scrubby cap; sonora roja (Sinaloa); uña de gato (Morelia)
  • Micronesia, Federated states of: randana (Pohnpei)
  • Nicaragua: cuasquito
  • Philippines: bahug-bahug; sapinit
  • Portugal: cambará
  • Puerto Rico: cariaquillo
  • Ryukyu Archipelago: shichi-henge
  • Saint Helena: wild currant
  • Samoa: Lantana; latana
  • South Africa: boesmandruiwe; cherry-pie; common lantana; gewone lantana; gomdagga; sumba; voelbrandewyn; wild lantana; wilderoosmaryn; yellow sage
  • Spain: bandera; banderita; espuela de galán
  • Sri Lanka: ganda-pana; garda-pana; genda-pana; katu-hinguru; rata-guru; ton-kinna
  • Thailand: kamkung; paka krawng; pha-ka-krong
  • Tonga: Talamoa; talatala
  • Venezuela: cariaquillo; cariaquito
  • Vietnam: thom oi
  • Zimbabwe: chiponiwe

EPPO code

  • LANCA (Lantana camara)

Summary of Invasiveness

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L. camara is a highly variable ornamental shrub, native of the neotropics. It has been introduced to most of the tropics and subtropics as a hedge plant and has since been reported as extremely weedy and invasive in many countries. It is generally deleterious to biodiversity and has been reported as an agricultural weed resulting in large economic losses in a number of countries. In addition to this, it increases the risk of fire, is poisonous to livestock and is a host for numerous pests and diseases. L. camara is difficult to control. In Australia, India and South Africa aggressive measures to eradicate L. camara over the last two centuries have been largely unsuccessful, and the invasion trajectory has continued upwards despite control measures. This species has been the target of biological control programmes for over a century, with successful control only being reported in a few instances. 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Lamiales
  •                         Family: Verbenaceae
  •                             Genus: Lantana
  •                                 Species: Lantana camara

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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L. camara is a highly variable species which has been widely cultivated for over 300 years. Hundreds of cultivars and hybrids exist (Howard, 1969) and most of them belong to the L. camara complex (Stirton, 1979). Cultivars can be distinguished morphologically (flower size, shape and colour; leaf size, hairiness and colour; stem thorniness; height and branch architecture), physiologically (growth rates, toxicity to livestock) and by their chromosome number and DNA content (Stirton, 1979; Gujral and Vasudevan, 1983; Scott et al., 1997). Two groups are often recognised: one with few or no spines commonly found in the neotropics and one with spines in other parts of the world where the species is troublesome (Howard, 1970; Swarbrick, 1986). In the Pacific Islands the most common variety is the prickly L. camara var. aculeata (Thaman, 1974).

Description

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L. camara is a medium-sized perennial aromatic shrub, 2-5 m tall, with quadrangular stems, sometimes having prickles. The posture may be sub-erect, scrambling, or occasionally clambering (ascending into shrubs or low trees, clinging to points of contact by means of prickles, branches, and leaves). Frequently, multiple stems arise from ground level. The leaves are generally oval or broadly lance-shaped, 2-12 cm in length, and 2-6 cm broad, having a rough surface and a yellow-green to green colour. The flat-topped inflorescence may be yellow, orange, white, pale violet, pink, or red. Flowers are small, multicoloured, in stalked, dense, flat-topped clusters to 4 cm across. Fruit is a round, fleshy, 2 seeded drupe, about 5 mm wide, green turning purple then blue-black (similar in appearance to a blackberry).

Plant Type

Top of pagePerennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Vine / climber
Woody

Distribution

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L. camara is native to Central and South America but its original distribution is unclear due to the introduction of a number of ornamental varieties. The species has also been poorly investigated in its native range, where it is not usually considered to be a serious pest, and the extent of its original native range is unclear. In the West Indies it is found in dry thickets (Adams, 1976). The weed is noted to be present in the Galapagos Islands of Ecuador (Cruz et al., 1986). This species has been widely promoted as an ornamental since the early 1800s and it is widely naturalized throughout the Neotropics. It is present on all continents expect Antartica. It has become very widespread in Australia, India and South Africa, infesting millions of hectares of land (Bhagwat et al., 2012).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

CountryDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferencesNotes

ASIA

BangladeshPresentIntroducedInvasiveIslam et al., 2001
Brunei DarussalamPresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993
CambodiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWaterhouse, 1993
Chagos ArchipelagoPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER, 2013
ChinaPresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al., 1979; Corlett, 1992
-FujianPresentIntroducedInvasiveFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2012Naturalized
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedInvasiveFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2012Naturalized
-GuangxiPresentIntroducedInvasiveFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2012Naturalized
-HainanPresentIntroducedInvasiveFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2012Naturalized
-Hong KongPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedca 1851InvasiveHolm et al., 1979
East TimorWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveMcWilliam, 2000
IndiaPresentIntroduced1809InvasiveBurkill, 1935
-Andhra PradeshPresentIntroducedInvasiveRawat, 1997
-AssamWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveGujral & Vasudevan, 1983
-BiharWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveGujral & Vasudevan, 1983
-DelhiWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveGujral & Vasudevan, 1983
-Himachal PradeshWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveGujral & Vasudevan, 1983
-Indian PunjabWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveGujral & Vasudevan, 1983
-Jammu and KashmirWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveGujral & Vasudevan, 1983
-KarnatakaWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveGujral & Vasudevan, 1983
-Madhya PradeshWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveGujral & Vasudevan, 1983
-MaharashtraPresentIntroducedInvasiveSinha & Sharma, 1984
-OdishaPresentIntroducedInvasiveSinha & Sharma, 1984
-RajasthanWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveGujral & Vasudevan, 1983
-Tamil NaduWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveNair & Henry, 1983
-Uttar PradeshWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveGujral & Vasudevan, 1983
-West BengalPresentIntroducedInvasiveSinha & Sharma, 1984
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWaterhouse, 1993
-JavaWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveSmiet, 1992
-KalimantanWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al., 1979
-SulawesiWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveWhitten et al., 2002
IsraelPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedHolm et al., 1979
Japan
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoRestricted distributionIntroducedInvasiveWalker, 1976
MalaysiaRestricted distributionIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993
MaldivesPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER, 2013
MyanmarPresentIntroducedInvasiveWaterhouse, 1993
NepalPresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al., 1979
PakistanPresentIntroducedInvasiveKhan et al., 2010
PhilippinesWidespreadIntroducedca 1840InvasiveHolm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993; Burkill, 1935
Saudi ArabiaPresentIntroducedDay et al., 2003
SingaporePresentIntroducedInvasiveWaterhouse, 1993; Baretto et al., 1995
Sri LankaWidespreadIntroducedca 1826InvasiveMorton, 1994; Evans, 1999
TaiwanWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveXie Yan et al., 2001
ThailandPresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993
TurkeyWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al., 1979
VietnamPresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993

AFRICA

AngolaPresentIntroducedInvasiveDay et al., 2003
Cape VerdePresentIntroducedca 1851InvasiveChevalier, 1935
ComorosWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveRoby & Dossar, 2000
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentIntroducedInvasiveDay et al., 2003
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al., 1979
EthiopiaWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveBinggeli & Desalegn Dessissa, 2002
GabonPresentIntroducedInvasiveBarreto et al., 1995
GambiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveRobinson, 2001
GhanaWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al., 1979
GuineaPresentIntroducedInvasiveSchnell, 1950
KenyaWidespreadIntroduced1950sInvasiveHolm et al., 1979; IPPC-Secretariat, 2005
LiberiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al., 1979
MadagascarWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al., 1979; Binggeli, 2003
MauritiusWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveMacdonald et al., 1991
MayottePresentIntroducedInvasivePIER, 2013
MozambiqueWidespreadInvasiveHolm et al., 1979
NamibiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveBromilow, 1995
NigeriaWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al., 1979
RéunionPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER, 2013
Rodriguez IslandPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER, 2013
Saint HelenaWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveCronk, 1989
SenegalPresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al., 1979
SeychellesPresentIntroducedInvasiveGerlach, 1993
South AfricaWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveErasmus et al., 1993
SpainDAISIE, 2013
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveDAISIE, 2013
SudanPresentIntroducedInvasiveBarreto et al., 1995
SwazilandPresentIntroducedInvasiveRobertson et al., 2001
TanzaniaWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al., 1979
UgandaWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al., 1979
ZambiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al., 1979
ZimbabweWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al., 1979

NORTH AMERICA

MexicoPresentNativeCONABIO, 2009Weed
USA
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedDoren et al., 2002
-ArizonaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedMorton, 1994
-FloridaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2013Invasive Category I
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedDoren et al., 2002
-HawaiiWidespreadIntroduced1859InvasiveDavis et al., 1992
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedDoren et al., 2002
-MississippiPresentIntroducedDoren et al., 2002
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedMorton, 1994
-OklahomaPresentIntroducedDoren et al., 2002
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedDoren et al., 2002
-TexasPresentIntroducedMorton, 1994
-UtahPresentIntroducedDoren et al., 2002

CENTRAL AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

Antigua and BarbudaPresentNativeFrancis et al., 1994
ArubaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
BahamasPresentInvasiveGovaerts, 2013
BarbadosWidespreadNativeInvasiveMorton, 1994; Gooding et al., 1965; Kairo et al., 2003
BelizePresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
Cayman IslandsPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
Costa RicaWidespreadNativeSchemske, 1983Invasive in pastures and regarded as a problematic weed
CubaPresentNativeSharma et al., 1988
DominicaWidespreadNativeBroome et al., 2007
Dominican RepublicPresentNativeBarreto et al., 1995; Kairo et al., 2003
El SalvadorPresentNativeDay et al., 2003
GrenadaWidespreadNativeBroome et al., 2007
GuadeloupeWidespreadNativeBroome et al., 2007
GuatemalaPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
HaitiPresentNativeDay et al., 2003; Kairo et al., 2003
HondurasPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
JamaicaWidespreadNativeAdams, 1976
MartiniqueWidespreadNativeBroome et al., 2007
MontserratPresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
Netherlands AntillesWidespreadNativeBroome et al., 2007Saba, St Eustatius, St Barthelemy
NicaraguaWidespreadNativeHolm et al., 1979
PanamaPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
Puerto RicoRestricted distributionNativeInvasiveHolm et al., 1979
Saint Kitts and NevisWidespreadNativeBroome et al., 2007
Saint LuciaPresentNativeGraveson, 2012; Broome et al., 2007
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesWidespreadNativeBroome et al., 2007
Trinidad and TobagoWidespreadNativeHolm et al., 1979
Turks and Caicos IslandsPresentInvasiveGovaerts, 2013
United States Virgin IslandsPresentNativeInvasiveMorton, 1994

SOUTH AMERICA

ArgentinaPresentNativeInvasiveMorton, 1994Weed in pasture and agricultural lands
BoliviaPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
Brazil
-AlagoasPresentNativeLorenzi, 1983
-AmazonasPresentNativeBarreto et al., 1995
-BahiaPresentNativeBarreto et al., 1995
-CearaPresentNativeLorenzi, 1983
-Espirito SantoPresentNativeLorenzi, 1983
-GoiasPresentNativeLorenzi, 1983
-MaranhaoPresentNativeLorenzi, 1983
-Mato GrossoPresentNativeSharma et al., 1988
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNativeLorenzo, 1983
-Minas GeraisPresentNativeLorenzi, 1983
-ParaPresentNativeLorenzi, 1983
-ParaibaPresentNativeLorenzi, 1983
-ParanaPresentNativeLorenzi, 1983
-PernambucoPresentNativeLorenzi, 1983
-PiauiPresentNativeLorenzi, 1983
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNativeBarreto et al., 1995
-Rio Grande do NortePresentNativeLorenzi, 1983
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNativeLorenzi, 1983
-Santa CatarinaPresentNativeLorenzi, 1983
-Sao PauloPresentNativeLorenzi, 1983
-SergipePresentNativeLorenzi, 1983
ChilePresentIntroducedInvasivePIER, 2013Invasive on Juan Fernández Island
-Easter IslandPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER, 2013
ColombiaPresentNativeMorton, 1994
EcuadorPresentNativeBarreto et al., 1995
-Galapagos IslandsWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveCruz et al., 1986
French GuianaPresentNativeFunk et al., 2007
GuyanaPresentNativeFunk et al., 2007
ParaguayPresentNativeInvasiveZuloaga et al., 2008
PeruPresentNativeMorton, 1994
SurinamePresentNativeFunk et al., 2007
UruguayPresentNativeZuloaga et al., 2008
VenezuelaPresentNativeMorton, 1994

EUROPE

CyprusPresentIntroducedInvasiveDAISIE, 2013
EuropePresentIntroduced1692Burkill, 1935
France
-CorsicaPresentIntroducedInvasiveDAISIE, 2013
GreecePresentIntroducedInvasiveDAISIE, 2013
ItalyPresentIntroducedTutin et al., 1972
-SardiniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveDAISIE, 2013
-SicilyPresentIntroducedInvasiveDAISIE, 2013
PortugalPresentIntroducedInvasiveDAISIE, 2013
-AzoresRestricted distributionIntroducedTutin et al., 1972; DAISIE, 2013
-MadeiraRestricted distributionIntroducedInvasivePress & Short, 1994; DAISIE, 2013
SpainRestricted distributionIntroducedNot invasiveSobrino et al., 2002; DAISIE, 2013
-Balearic IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveDAISIE, 2013

OCEANIA

American SamoaWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveThaman, 1974
AustraliaWidespreadIntroduced1841InvasiveSwarbrick, 1986
-Australian Northern TerritoryRestricted distributionIntroducedInvasiveSwarbrick, 1986
-New South WalesWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveSwarbrick, 1986; Anon, 2008
-QueenslandWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveSwarbrick, 1986
-South AustraliaRestricted distributionIntroducedNot invasiveSwarbrick, 1986
-VictoriaRestricted distributionIntroducedNot invasiveSwarbrick, 1986
-Western AustraliaRestricted distributionIntroducedInvasiveSwarbrick, 1986
Cook IslandsWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveThaman, 1974
FijiWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveMune & Parham, 1967
French PolynesiaWidespreadIntroduced1843InvasiveMeyer, 2000
GuamRestricted distributionIntroducedInvasiveThaman, 1974
KiribatiPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER, 2013
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER, 2013
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroducedInvasiveMeyer, 2000; Englberger, 2009Pohnpei, Yap and Chuuk. Not widespread on Pohnpei, but remains a serious pest
NauruWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveMeyer, 2000
New CaledoniaWidespreadIntroducedca 1883InvasiveHeckel, 1911
New ZealandWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al., 1979; Waipara et al., 2009
NiueWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveMeyer, 2000
Norfolk IslandWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveSwarbrick, 1986
Northern Mariana IslandsWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveMeyer, 2000
PalauWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveMeyer, 2000
Papua New GuineaWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al., 1979
Pitcairn IslandWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveFlorence et al., 1995
SamoaWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveThaman, 1974
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveSwarbrick, 1986
TongaWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveThaman, 1974
TuvaluPresentIntroducedPIER, 2013
VanuatuWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveMullen et al., 1993
Wallis and Futuna IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2013

History of Introduction and Spread

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L. camara has been introduced throughout the tropics and subtropics, often used as a hedge plant, and is commonly grown in the temperate zone. Although first cultivated in Europe during the late seventeenth century, reaching Calcutta in 1809 (Burkill, 1935), it was mostly introduced throughout the tropics during the later part of the nineteenth century and a number of cultivars and forms were subsequently disseminated (Howard, 1970). In many tropical regions the thorny forms have invaded huge areas of natural pasture land. In Singapore L. camara became for some time quite abundant but by around 1900 it became less noticeable (Burkill, 1935) and a similar phenomenon has been reported for East Timor (McWilliam, 2000).

Risk of Introduction

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The main spread of L. camara into new countries is via the horticultural trade, spreading numerous different varieties of this species. Once introduced into an area the seeds of L. camara are readily dispersed into new areas by birds. L. camara has already spread widely, but there is potential for its range to expand further under future climate change. In Australia it is found in almost all the climatically suitable habitat, but under future climate change it could expand into new areas in Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania (Taylor et al., 2012; Taylor and Kumar, 2013).

Habitat

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L. camara has a wide environmental tolerance and occurs in a variety of habitats. These include wastelands, rainforest edges and beachfronts (ISSG, 2015). It also grows well in disturbed areas such as roads, railways and areas recovering from fire or logging (ISSG, 2015). This species can tolerate some shade but grows best in open unshaded regions. It cannot directly colonise intact forests but instead grows at forest edges and spreads when gaps are created (ISSG, 2015).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal dunesPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural landPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areasPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchardsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems)Present, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsidesPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forestsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslandsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

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L. camara is an agricultural weed that can cause dramatic losses in yields. In Australia, it was reported that L. camara infested 4 million ha of pasture (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992). A number of plants affected by L. camara are listed in the "Host Plants/Plants Affected" table below.

Host Plants/Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Ananas comosus (pineapple)BromeliaceaeMain
Camellia sinensis (tea)TheaceaeMain
Cocos nucifera (coconut)ArecaceaeMain
Coffea (coffee)RubiaceaeMain
Durio zibethinus (durian)BombacaceaeMain
Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm)ArecaceaeMain
Gossypium (cotton)MalvaceaeMain
Hevea brasiliensis (rubber)EuphorbiaceaeMain
Musa x paradisiaca (plantain)MusaceaeMain
Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain
pasturesMain
Poaceae (grasses)PoaceaeMain
Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)PoaceaeMain
Santalum album (Indian sandalwood)SantalaceaeMain
Shorea robusta (sal)DipterocarpaceaeMain

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The known chromosome numbers of L. camara are 2n = 22, 33, 44, 55, but most invasive varieties appear to be tetraploids (Day et al., 2003). Besides variation in chromosome number there is much variation in DNA content, growth rates and toxicity to livestock (Stirton, 1979; Gujral and Vasudevan, 1983; Scott et al., 1997). In the Tamil Nadu region of India there are differences in toxicity of L. camara, with the red flowered variety being more toxic than the pink flowered form (Thirunavukkarasu et al., 2001).

Physiology and Phenology

Flowering and fruiting take place throughout the year with a peak during the first two months of the rainy season.

In the highlands of western Kenya an investigation of leaf decomposition found that after seven days it had decreased to just under a third of the original mass and by the 77th day the leaves had totally decomposed. The percentage of the initial amount of phosphorus and nitrogen remaining in the leaf material after a week was 42 and 54%, respectively. After 21 days 90% of the phosphorus had been released (Kwabiah et al., 2001).

Reproductive Biology

The flowers of L. camara, when yellow, produce nectar and are pollinated by butterflies and thrips. The species is an obligate outcrosser and it is unclear whether apomixis occurs. Fruits mature rapidly and change colour from dark green to black. A number of bird species, and also sheep and goats disperse the seeds, sometimes over long distances, but natural dispersal between oceanic islands has never been demonstrated. Heavy fruit crops are produced yearly, but the thornless forms produce few, if any, seeds. Seeds germinate when sufficient moisture is available, usually at the start of a rainy season. In Australia, Broughton (1999) found that 57-80% of green and ripe fruits tested had one or two viable seeds whereas 12-34% had none, and between 64 and 90% of dried (older) fruits had two nonviable embryos, suggesting that fruit development stage affects germination. She found no difference in viability within sites or between cultivars investigated. Projections of seed survival indicate that L. camara seeds could survive for up to 11 years under natural rainfall conditions in Australia (Vivian-Smith and Panetta, 2009).

In addition to spread by seed, L. camara is able to produce adventitious shoots, especially shallow lateral roots, following mechanical damage. Hence, it is also able to spread and establish dense thickets by vegetative means. The capacity of the species to spread vegetatively and to inhibit both the growth of other vegetation and seed germination, in conjunction with heavy and regular fruiting, is the main reason why L. camara forms long-lasting permanent thickets. In areas where natural fires occur they stimulate thicker regrowth.

For further information, see Mathur and Mohan Ram (1978), Schemske (1983), Sinha and Sharma (1984) and Thaman (1974).

Environmental Requirements

L. camara can grow between the latitudes 45°N and 45°S and an altitude of up to 1,400 m.

The rapid spread of L. camara throughout the tropics is associated with human-induced disturbances. It forms extensive, dense and impenetrable thickets in forestry plantations, orchards, pasture land, waste land and in natural areas. L. camara thrives in open and disturbed areas as well as in open natural vegetation. Being somewhat shade-tolerant it can become the dominant understorey shrub in open forests, but is absent from closed forests. L. camara grows under a wide range of climatic conditions. In Australia it tolerates a mean annual rainfall from 4000 to less than 1000 mm, and as low as 200 mm per annum elsewhere (Gujral and Vasudevan, 1983). It is found between sea level and nearly 1000 m on Hawaii and higher in East Africa, the upper altitudinal limit being determined by frost, which the plant is susceptible to. In Hong Kong, temperature in the range 3-5°C injured L. camara (Corlett, 1992). It tolerates salt spray. Its distribution is affected by soil type. It has a low tolerance for boggy and saline soils but grows well on poor soils. Studies undertaken by Muvengwi and Ndagurwa (2015) on soil seed bank dynamics and soil nutrient concentrations in the wetlands of New Gada in Zimbabwe, suggest that L. camara-invaded soil had significantly higher levels of calcium, magnesium, sodium and ammonium and lower levels nitrate than non-invaded soils. 

L. camara has a marked ability to compensate for herbivory as plants survived experimental defoliation for two years (Broughton, 2000).

Associations

L. camara often occurs in pure stands but can be mingled with a variety of species but emergent shrubs and trees in particular.

Air Temperature

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ParameterLower limitUpper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC)0
Mean annual temperature (ºC)13

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall2004000mm; lower/upper limits

Rain Regime

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Summer

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile

Natural Enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aceria lantanaeHerbivoreLeaves/Inflorescence
Aconophora compressaHerbivoreLeavesTaylor et al., 2008Australia
Aecidium lantanaePathogenLeavesBarreto et al., 1995
Aerenicopsis championiHerbivoreStems
Alagoasa prob. quadrilineataHerbivoreLeaves
Anhellia lantanaePathogenLeavesBarreto et al., 1995
Anoncia diveniHerbivoreLeaves
Autoplusia illustrataHerbivoreLeaves
Calycomyza lantanaeHerbivoreLeaves
Ceratobasidium cornigerumPathogenLeavesBarreto et al., 1995
Charidotis pygmaeaHerbivoreLeaves
CoelocephalapionHerbivoreLeaves/Inflorescence
Cremastobombycia lantanellaHerbivoreLeaves
Crocidosema lantanaHerbivoreMicronesia
Dendryphiella asperaPathogenLeavesBarreto et al., 1995
Diastema tigrisHerbivoreLeaves
Ectaga garciaHerbivoreLeaves
Eutreta xanthochaetaHerbivoreFruits/pods
Falconia intermediaHerbivoreLeavesTaylor et al., 2008Australia
Geraeus nr. curvispinisHerbivoreInflorescence
Hepialus sp.HerbivoreStems
Hypena laceratalisHerbivoreLeaves
Hypena strigatusHerbivoreSouth Africa
Langsdorfia franckiiHerbivoreRoots
Leptobyrsa decoraHerbivoreLeaves
Longitarsus sp.HerbivoreLeaves
Micropustulomyces asperaPathogenLeaves
Micropustulomyces mucilaginosusPathogenLeaves
Mycovellosiella lantanae var. lantanaePathogenLeavesBarreto et al., 1995
Neogalea suniaHerbivoreLeaves
Octotoma championiHerbivoreLeaves
Octotoma pliculataHerbivoreLeaves
Octotoma scabripennisHerbivoreLeavesNew Caledonia; South Africa
Omophoita albicollisHerbivoreLeaves/Inflorescence
Ophiomyia camaraeHerbivoreLeavesTaylor et al., 2008South Africa, Australia
Ophiomyia lantanaeHerbivoreInflorescence/Fruits/podsAsia; Micronesia; South Africa
Perisporiopsis lantanaePathogenBarreto et al., 1995
Plagiohammus spinipennisHerbivoreStems
Platyptilia pussilidactylaHerbivore
Prospodium tuberculatumPathogenLeavesto speciesAnon, 2015; Barreto et al., 1995; Tomley & Riding, 2002Australia, New Zealand
Pseudocercospora guianensisPathogenBarreto et al., 1995
Pseudopyrausta acutangularisHerbivoreLeaves
Puccinia lantanaePathogenStems/Leavesto speciesAnon, 2015; Barreto et al., 1995New Zealand
Salbia haemorrhoidalisHerbivoreLeavesSouth Africa
SeptoriaPathogenLeaves
Strymon bazochiiHerbivoreInflorescence/Fruits/pods
Strymon bazochiiHerbivoreLeaves
Teleonemia elataHerbivoreLeaves
Teleonemia harleyiHerbivoreLeaves
Teleonemia prolixaHerbivoreLeaves
Teleonemia scrupulosaHerbivoreLeavesMicronesia; South Africa
Teleonemia validicornisHerbivoreLeaves
Thecla sp.HerbivoreLeaves
Uroplata girardiHerbivoreLeavesMicronesia; New Caledonia; South Africa
Uroplata lantanaeHerbivoreLeaves

Notes on Natural Enemies

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The alkaloid-rich leaves of L. camara make it virtually immune to grazing by livestock, although several hundred phytophagous insects have been recorded on it. In the New World, flowers, flower stalks, leaves, shoots and roots are attacked by many insect species and pathogens although their impact on shrub vigour and seed set is poorly understood. The polyphagous pest Phenacoccus parvus severely damages stands of L. camara in Australia and is not, as commonly reported, a pest of potato and aubergine (Solanum melongena), although it has the potential to attack a variety of plant species inclusive of some crops (Marohasy, 1994). In Mexico a stem sap-sucking membracid bug, Aconophora compressa, causes considerable dieback of stems (Swarbrick et al. 1995).

The following fungi have been found attacking the leaves of L. camara: Dendryphiella aspera, Micropustulomyces mucilaginosus, Mycovellosiella lantanae var. lantanae, Septoria sp., Ceratobasidium lantanae, Prospodium tuberculatum and Puccinia lantanae. For further information on fungal natural enemies of L. camara, see Barreto et al. (1995), Breeÿen et al. (2000), Thomas and Ellison (2000), Trujillo and Norman (1995).

 

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Occasionally abiotic seed dispersal may occur. Flash floods in South Africa, caused by cyclone Demoina in 1983, transported seeds and deposited them on the flood plain of the Ndumu game reserve (Bromilow, 1995). In the Kruger National Park, South Africa, L. camara has primarily spread along rivers (Vardien et al. 2012).

Vector Transmission

The seeds of L. camara are dispersed by native or invasive species of birds. In Hong Kong, L. camara is dispersed by 15 species of native birds (Corlett, 1998), whereas in Hawaii, it is mainly dispersed by exotics such as the Indian myna, Acridotheres tristis (Atkinson and Atkinson, 2000). In the Galapagos Islands it is one of the most dispersed alien plants, being mainly dispersed by two lizard species, and to a minor extent by the birds Myiarchus magnirostris and Mimus melanotis (Heleno et al., 2013). There are also reports of seeds being dispersed by sheep and goats.

Accidental Introduction

Accidental introduction of L. camara via contaminated soil is possible but has not been documented.

Intentional Introduction

As L. camara is such a key ornamental plant, new varieties, some of which have invasive potential, can readily be bought and introduced throughout the tropics.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Hedges/ windbreaksYesYes
HorticultureYesYes
Ornamental purposesYesYes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Mail/postYes
Soil, sand, gravel etc.YesYes
Vector/host speciesBirds, occasionally sheep and goatsYes
WaterFlash floodsYes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collectionsNone
Animal/plant productsNone
Biodiversity (generally)Negative
Crop productionPositive
Environment (generally)Negative
Fisheries / aquacultureNone
Forestry productionNegative
Human healthNegative
Livestock productionNegative
Native faunaNegative
Native floraNegative
Rare/protected speciesNone
TourismNegative
Trade/international relationsNone
Transport/travelNegative

Economic Impact

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In Central America L. camara is common in pastures, waste areas and roadsides; it is also a weed in a number of crops (Schemske, 1983), although infestations are unlikely to be composed of native biotypes, but rather re-introduced cultivars that have become invasive (Stirton, 1977).

In many countries L. camara encroaches on agricultural land, reduces the carrying capacity of pastures and is a weed in many agricultural crops. In Australia, L. camara has infested about 4 million ha of pasture (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992). In the early 1980s this resulted in economic losses of A$7.7 m (Swarbrick et al., 1995). In Fiji it is a major weed of coconut plantations, pastures, neglected arable land and waste places (Mune and Parham, 1967). Holm et al. (1977) reported that in some areas of India the invasion of cultivated lands by this weed led to the shifting of several villages. In forestry it tends to over-run young plantations, prevent access to older ones and increase fire hazards. In Indian sandalwood forests the shrub competes with sandalwood trees and also favours the spread of the sandal spike disease. In Kenya, L. camara is poisonous to livestock and also a habitat for tsetse flies (IPPC-Secretariat, 2005). 

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitat

In natural and semi-natural vegetation L. camara is a major conservation problem. It may smother vegetation and increase fire intensity (due to an increase in dry biomass), thus displacing native scrub communities (Heckel, 1911). Its extensive seed production favours rat populations.

In contrast to the widely held view that L. camara is detrimental, Timorese farmers have considered the plant as highly beneficial as it enhanced soil fertility and soil conditioning. This resulted in a reduction in fallow periods under L. camara from 15 to 5-6 years. Another benefit was the supply of firewood (McWilliam, 2000). The idea that L. camara enhances soil fertility has yet to be demonstrated and Binggeli (2001) has postulated that the Pitcairners' selection of sites with thriving L. camara stands for home gardens reflects the species predilection for fertile sites rather than its ability to increase fertility. There are many unsubstantiated statements suggesting that L. camara slows erosion (Ashmole and Ashmole 2000), but it is likely that this may be the case when the plant becomes established on bare ground but not when it displaces native vegetation. It can grow through the pestiferous grass Imperata cylindrica and suppress it in South-East Asia and thus may have some potential in forest restoration (Burkill, 1935).

Impact on Biodiversity

L. camara can readily hybridise with other Lantana species; for example, in Florida it hybridizes with the endangered endemic L. depressa (Langeland and Burks, 2000). The impact on native vegetation is mainly viewed as negative, i.e. reducing species diversity, threatening endemics (Cruz et al., 1986) and leading species to extinction. In Australia, L. camara causes allelopathic suppression of two indigenous tree species (Gentle and Duggin, 1997). It is also generally considered to hinder the regeneration of native tree species (e.g. Islam et al., 2001; Gooden et al., 2009) but there are some occasional references to regeneration of some tree species under its canopy (e.g. Burkill, 1935). Turner and Downey (2010) used L. camara as a case study for their methodology to identify the native biodiversity threatened by an invasive plant. They identified 275 and native plants and 24 native animals requiring protection from L. camara invasions in Australia. The spread of L. camara on the Galapagos Islands is seen as a threat to bird breeding populations (Cruz et al., 1986).

The impact of L. camara on biodiversity is mostly negative but a few instances of a positive impact have been reported. It is often said that it provides habitat for some birds and thus provides refuge for wildlife (Mullen et al., 1993). More specifically, in Kenya thickets of L. camara have been reported to harbour a threatened bird species, Hinde's Babbler, Turdoides hinduei. It provides shelter to the bird that is not now readily available in a human-dominated countryside (Njoroge and Bennun, 2000). The plant plays a minor role in the feeding ecology of some species of conservation interest such as the lion-tailed macaque, Macaca silenus, which feeds extensively on the fruits in southern India (Umapathy and Kumar, 2000).

As it is such a variable species, including variability in stature, specific varieties or forms can be expected to have different impacts on native biodiversity, as well as cropping systems and other human activities; however, no information is available regarding these potential differences.

For more information see Holm et al. (1977), Morton (1994), Schemske (1983), Sharma et al. (1988), Sinha and Sharma (1984) and Thaman (1974).

Social Impact

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Stands of L. camara and of the prickly variety in particular, hinder human's access to invaded habitats. In Tanzania and Uganda, L. camara can be considered a serious health hazard, as its thickets provide breeding grounds for tsetse flies, vectors of trypanosomiasis (Leak, 1999). L. camara thickets are potential breeding places for rats, wild pigs, insect pests and plant diseases. When ingested by cattle and sheep it may cause photosensitive reactions, diarrhoea, jaundice, hepatitis and poisoning. Children have been known to die after eating unripe berries and stems have been used as for toothbrushes (Burkill, 1935; Morton, 1994; Swarbrick et al., 1995).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Impact mechanisms

  • Allelopathic
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Hybridization
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs

Impact outcomes

  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of fire regime
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Negatively impacts forestry
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species

Invasiveness

  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc

Likelihood of entry/control

  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult/costly to control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Since the 19th century L. camara has been one of the main tropical and subtropical garden ornamentals. Under temperate climes it has been, and still is, widely used as a glasshouse ornamental and a pot plant. Apart from its ornamental value, L. camara has few redeeming features. In some mountainous areas (e.g. in Tanzania and India) the presence of L. camara was once considered a good ground cover preventing erosion. In parts of East Africa, in locations where it is not weedy, it has effectively been used as a live fence (Howes, 1946). However, in parts of Ethiopia where the idea of establishing a live fence of L. camara to protect crops from domestic animals was taken up by local villagers in the 1990s but this quickly led to the loss of rough grazing land through the rapid spread of this species (Binggeli and Desalegn Desissa, 2002).

A number of minor uses of L. camara include using the seeds as a source of food for lambs, using straw from L. camara mixed with dung for biogas production and using the twigs as fuel. There is some evidence, although conflicting in nature, that extracts from L. camara may have value as biocides (Ahmed and Agnihotri, 1977). In addition, essential oils from the flowers and leaves may have some value to the perfume industry and as beneficial drugs (Ahmad et al., 1962). In parts of its native range, L. camara is used as a source of medicinal cures, for example, in Ecuador the leaves are ingested to treat stomach disorders (Ellison and Evans, 1996). It is viewed in many regions as an important honey plant (Fichtl and Admasu Adi, 1994). Leaf extracts have strong insecticidal and antimicrobial activity, for example, storing potatoes, Solanum tuberosum, with leaves of L. camara almost eliminates damage by the potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella (Lal, 1987).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed

Environmental

  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization

Fuels

  • Biofuels
  • Fuelwood

General

  • Ornamental

Human food and beverage

  • Honey/honey flora

Materials

  • Pesticide
  • Poisonous to mammals

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Detection and Inspection

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L. camara is conspicuous due to its attractive and multicoloured floral displays and is a well-known species throughout the tropics.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Although large stands of weedy varieties of L. camara are easily recognised, it is in fact a variable polyploid complex of interbreeding taxa resulting from hybridisation with species in the other complexes, such as L. urticifolia (Day et al., 2003). In Florida, USA, it may be confused with the endangered endemic native, L. depressa, with which it has extensively hybridised (Langeland and Burks, 2000).

Prevention and Control

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Cultural Control

Being poisonous to livestock means that the species can not be controlled using large herbivores. In fact, intense grazing by goats and donkeys will favour L. camara infestations by suppressing competition from palatable species (Ashmole and Ashmole, 2000).

Osunkoya et al. (2013) suggest from studies and simulation models in Queensland, Australia that periodic burning could control the weed in forests within 4-10 years if fire frequency is at least every two years. On farms, site-specific control may be achieved by 15 years if the biennial fire frequency is tempered with increased burning intensity.

Mechanical Control

Mechanical control can be effective, particularly where land is cleared, but requires continual follow-up treatment to remove roots and seedlings of L. camara. Slashing and burning stimulate suckering. Both chemical and mechanical control methods are expensive and labour intensive and are only effective in the short term. Cleared areas are rapidly colonised via seeds originating from distant parents or from sprouting roots. Dohn et al. (2013) recommend hand pulling for creating firebreaks or where minimizing damage to native species is paramount.

Chemical Control

The Australian experience in controlling L. camara, reviewed by Swarbrick et al. (1995), indicates that some herbicides are more effective on particular forms of L. camara. The most effective herbicides belong to the phenoxy acid (2,4-D, dichloroprop and MCPA), benzoic acid (dicamba) and pyridine groups. Glyphosate, sulfonylureas (metsulfuron methyl) and imidazolinones (imazapyr) also show good activity. Photosynthetic herbicides (triazine and urea) are not effective. A number of factors affect the effectiveness of the chemical treatment and they include: plant size, time of application, mode of application, and the use of surfactant. Use of herbicide in uncut stands may not be effective in preventing eventual regrowth. Combination of mechanical and chemical control may be the best. The seasonal response of L. camara to applications of fluroxypyr, metsulfuron-methyl, glyphosate and dichlorprop has been reported by Hannan-Jones (1998).

Work carried out in the South African Kruger National Park by Erasmus et al. (1993) showed that chemical control was cheaper and caused less disturbance resulting in higher biodiversity than mechanical control. Chemical control consisted in an application of imazapyr on freshly cut stems and a follow-up operation by spot-spray application of glyphosate. The initial control required 25 man-days per ha and that of the follow-up control 6.8 man-days per ha. Control costs will vary from site to site and will depend on L. camara stem density and cover. Latest South African recommendations are provided by Vermeulen et al. (1996).

In India, eradication of L. camara from sub-watersheds in the Markanda catchment, Himachal Pradesh, was effective and economical using glyphosate sprayed on to regenerated growth, cut four months previously (Rana and Singh, 1999).

In Queensland, Dohn et al. (2013) suggest that foliar spraying with a glyphosate-based herbicide is the most efficient treatment for combating large infestations of L. camara. In Florida, Ferrell et al. (2011) report that this species can be effectively controlled by two applications of fluroxypyr, two applications of fluroxypyr+aminopyralid, or a single application of aminocyclopyrachlor. 

L. camara is resistant to triclopyr, a widely used herbicide for woody weed control (Goodall and Naude, 1998).

Biological Control

Worldwide, well over 200 releases of biocontrol agents have been made (39 different natural enemies have been released in 29 countries), however, in the majority of cases the control agent either failed to become established or became established without achieving control. Despite this limited success, classical biological control is still considered to be the only viable, long-term control option, since it offers a safe, economic and environmentally benign method of suppressing the weed. Most of the releases have been carried out in the Pacific, South Africa and Australia (for historical details see Taylor 1989; Cilliers and Neser, 1991; Denton et al., 1991; Davis et al., 1992; Swarbrick et al., 1995). The most widely established species include Ophiomyia lantanae, Uroplata girardi and Octoma scabripennis. Day et al. (2003) have produced a detailed review of 48 of these control agents.

In Hawaii, Neogalea sunia and Epinotia lantanae contribute to the control of L. camara across the islands. In addition, a combination of Hypena strigata, Octotoma scabripennis, Salbia haemorrhoidalis, Teleonemia scrupulosa and Uroplata girardi provide partial to substantial control in drier areas (<1270 mm rainfall), and in wetter areas Plagiohammus spinipennis provides partial control (Julien and Griffiths, 1998).

The release in 1993 of U. girardi on an island of the Russell Island group (Solomon Islands) resulted in the successful control of the 'Hawaiian Pink' form (Swarbrick et al., 1995). U. girardi has proved to be one of the more successful agents and is credited with providing some check on the spread of L. camara in Australia, South Africa and some islands in the Pacific Ocean. In Micronesia seven out of 13 introduced insect species became established and have resulted in acceptable levels of control for current agricultural practices (Denton et al., 1991). As elsewhere the effectiveness of the insect species varied between islands and between varieties of L. camara. Greater success appears to have been achieved in drier areas.


In Uganda, the introduction of T. scrupulosa, which had been widely released after its successful introduction into Hawaii in 1902, was very successful in the area around Serere Research Station in Teso District but it also attacked one of the cultivars of Sesamum indicum grown on the Research Station (Davies and Greathead, 1967). Fortunately, it was unable to breed on that crop and attacks subsided after the L. camara had been controlled. Subsequently other agents for L. camara control were tested on Sesamum and it was found that other Tingidae and the chrysomelid leaf miners would also feed on this crop (Greathead, 1973).

Recent releases of arthropod biocontrol agents in Australia (Queensland and New South Wales) to control L. camara include the treehopper Aconophora compressa (first in 1995), the mirid Falconia intermedia (during 2000-2004), and the leaf miner Ophiomyia camarae (first in 2007). Weather conditions and other factors have resulted in poor establishment or low levels of damage so far (Taylor et al., 2008).

Hersula and Hill (2012) report that populations of F. intermedia released in South Africa to control L. camara had disappeared after initially building up to high densities. It is suggested that some L. camara varieties possess factors enabling them to resist feeding activities after the initial attack. Biological control of L. camara in South Africa is reviewed by Moran et al. (2011), who suggest that it plays a subsidiary role in support of mechanical and chemical control, but that cost benefits justify the continued development of new agents.

Broughton (2000) reviewed biological control programmes of L. camara worldwide and concluded that leaf-, flower- and fruit-feeding species were the most successful feeding groups, and the leaf-mining chrysomelid U. girardi was the most successful control agent. She identified the main factor preventing the establishment of control agents as the number of individuals released and noted that cultivar preferences, parasitism and predation, and climate reduced control. Broughton (2000) concluded that flower- and fruit-feeding species were unlikely to be effective because the seeds of L. camara are only viable for a short period of time and have a low germination, and that defoliating species were likely to be ineffective because of the ability of L. camara to withstand defoliation. Julien and Griffiths (1998) showed that different cultivars display differences in susceptibility to insect herbivores.

A potential pathogen of L. camara (spreading in Hawaii) was identified by Trujillo and Norman (1995) as a leaf-spot fungus, Septoria sp., from Ecuador. Various other pathogens with apparently excellent potential to control a wide range of cultivars have been identified by Barreto et al. (1995) and Thomas and Ellison (2000). In South Africa, permission was granted in 2001 to release the fungus Mycovellosiella lantanae var. lantanae, collected from Florida, USA (Breeÿen et al., 2000, Breeÿen, 2004). In 2001 the rust fungus Prospodium tuberculatum (ex Brazil) was the first pathogen to be released in Australia for biological control of L. camara (Tomley and Riding, 2002; Ellison et al., 2006; Thomas et al., 2006). Drought conditions affected its establishment and spread from the release sites in Queensland and New South Wales and incidence is generally low, although some leaf drop has been observed (Taylor et al., 2008).

In May 2015, the first release of P. lantanae was made on New Zealand’s North Island. The rust had previously been screened by CABI scientists in the UK for its host specificity before being transferred to Landcare’s Plant Pathogen Containment Facility in Auckland. The blister rust is able infect leaves, petioles and stems and can cause systemic infections that lead to stem dieback and defoliation.

In addition, a second rust, P. tuberculatum (the same isolate released in Australia in 2001) was released in New Zealand as part of the same initiative. The leaf rust pathogen causes leaf death and defoliation and as it is subtropical, it is expected to be less dependent on high humidity to compliment P. lantanae in different climatic conditions (Anon, 2015).

References

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Adams CD, 1976. Flowering plants of Jamaica. Mona: University of the West Indies.

Ahmad MN, Bhatty MK, Karimullah, 1962. Some essential oil sources from West Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Science, 14:12-15.

Ahmed SR, Agnihotri JP, 1977. Antifungal activity of some plant extracts. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 7(2):180-181

Anon, 2008. Review of the declaration of Lantana species in New South Wales. Review of the declaration of Lantana species in New South Wales:viii + 62 pp.

Anon, 2015. Pathogens against Lantana: New Zealand releases new agent. Biocontrol News and Information, 36(3):24. http://www.cabi.org/Uploads/bni/news/bni-news-36-3%20(1).pdf

Ashmole P, Ashmole M, 2000. St Helena and Ascension Island: a natural history. Oswestry, UK: A. Nelson.

Atkinson IAE, Atkinson, TJ, 2000. Land vertebrates as invasive species on the islands of the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. In: Sherley G, ed. Invasive Species in the Pacific: A Technical Review and Draft Regional Strategy. Samoa, South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, 19-84.

Baars JR, Neser S, 1999. Past and present initiatives on the biological control of Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) in South Africa. African Entomology Memoir, 1 21-33

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Contributors

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07/12/15 Updated by:

Sarah E. Thomas, CABI, UK

23/09/13 Updated by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Distribution Maps

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Distribution map Europe: Present, introduced
Burkill, 1935Antigua and Barbuda: Present, native
Francis et al., 1994Netherlands Antilles: Widespread, native
Broome et al., 2007Angola: Present, introduced, invasive
Day et al., 2003Argentina: Present, native, invasive
Morton, 1994American Samoa: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Thaman, 1974Australia: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Swarbrick, 1986Australia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAruba: Present, native
Govaerts, 2013Chagos Archipelago: Present, introduced, invasive
PIER, 2013Barbados: Widespread, native, invasive
Morton, 1994; Gooding et al., 1965; Kairo et al., 2003Barbados: Widespread, native, invasive
Morton, 1994; Gooding et al., 1965; Kairo et al., 2003Bangladesh: Present, introduced, invasive
Islam et al., 2001Brunei Darussalam: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993Bolivia: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Brazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBahamas: Present, invasive
Govaerts, 2013Bahamas: Present, invasive
Govaerts, 2013Belize: Present, native
Govaerts, 2013Belize: Present, native
Govaerts, 2013Côte d'Ivoire: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979Cook Islands: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Thaman, 1974Chile: Present, introduced, invasive
PIER, 2013Chile
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979; Corlett, 1992China: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979; Corlett, 1992China
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryColombia: Present, native
Morton, 1994Colombia: Present, native
Morton, 1994Costa Rica: Widespread, native
Schemske, 1983Costa Rica: Widespread, native
Schemske, 1983Cuba: Present, native
Sharma et al., 1988Cuba: Present, native
Sharma et al., 1988Cape Verde: Present, introduced, invasive
Chevalier, 1935Cyprus: Present, introduced, invasive
DAISIE, 2013Cyprus: Present, introduced, invasive
DAISIE, 2013Dominica: Widespread, native
Broome et al., 2007Dominican Republic: Present, native
Barreto et al., 1995; Kairo et al., 2003Dominican Republic: Present, native
Barreto et al., 1995; Kairo et al., 2003Ecuador: Present, native
Barreto et al., 1995Ecuador
See regional map for distribution within the countrySpain: Restricted distribution, introduced, not invasive
Sobrino et al., 2002; DAISIE, 2013Spain: Restricted distribution, introduced, not invasive
Sobrino et al., 2002; DAISIE, 2013Spain
See regional map for distribution within the countrySpain
See regional map for distribution within the countryEthiopia: Widespread, introduced, invasiveFiji: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Mune & Parham, 1967Micronesia, Federated states of: Present, introduced, invasive
Meyer, 2000; Englberger, 2009France
See regional map for distribution within the countryGabon: Present, introduced, invasive
Barreto et al., 1995Grenada: Widespread, native
Broome et al., 2007French Guiana: Present, native
Funk et al., 2007Ghana: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979Gambia: Present, introduced, invasive
Robinson, 2001Guinea: Present, introduced, invasive
Schnell, 1950Guadeloupe: Widespread, native
Broome et al., 2007Greece: Present, introduced, invasive
DAISIE, 2013Greece: Present, introduced, invasive
DAISIE, 2013Guatemala: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Guatemala: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Guam: Restricted distribution, introduced, invasive
Thaman, 1974Guyana: Present, native
Funk et al., 2007Guyana: Present, native
Funk et al., 2007Honduras: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Honduras: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Haiti: Present, native
Day et al., 2003; Kairo et al., 2003Haiti: Present, native
Day et al., 2003; Kairo et al., 2003Indonesia: Present, introduced, invasive
Waterhouse, 1993Indonesia: Present, introduced, invasive
Waterhouse, 1993Indonesia
See regional map for distribution within the countryIndonesia
See regional map for distribution within the countryIndonesia
See regional map for distribution within the countryIndonesia
See regional map for distribution within the countryIndonesia
See regional map for distribution within the countryIsrael: Present, few occurrences, introduced
Holm et al., 1979Israel: Present, few occurrences, introduced
Holm et al., 1979India: Present, introduced, invasive
Burkill, 1935India
See regional map for distribution within the countryIndia
See regional map for distribution within the countryIndia
See regional map for distribution within the countryIndia
See regional map for distribution within the countryIndia
See regional map for distribution within the countryIndia
See regional map for distribution within the countryIndia
See regional map for distribution within the countryIndia
See regional map for distribution within the countryIndia
See regional map for distribution within the countryIndia
See regional map for distribution within the countryIndia
See regional map for distribution within the countryIndia
See regional map for distribution within the countryIndia
See regional map for distribution within the countryIndia
See regional map for distribution within the countryIndia
See regional map for distribution within the countryItaly: Present, introduced
Tutin et al., 1972Italy
See regional map for distribution within the countryItaly
See regional map for distribution within the countryItaly
See regional map for distribution within the countryJamaica: Widespread, native
Adams, 1976Jamaica: Widespread, native
Adams, 1976Japan
See regional map for distribution within the countryKenya: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979; IPPC-Secretariat, 2005Cambodia: Present, introduced, invasive
Waterhouse, 1993Kiribati: Present, introduced, invasive
PIER, 2013Comoros: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Roby & Dossar, 2000Saint Kitts and Nevis: Widespread, native
Broome et al., 2007Cayman Islands: Present, native
Govaerts, 2013Saint Lucia: Present, native
Graveson, 2012; Broome et al., 2007Sri Lanka: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Morton, 1994; Evans, 1999Liberia: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979Madagascar: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979; Binggeli, 2003Marshall Islands: Present, introduced, invasive
PIER, 2013Myanmar: Present, introduced, invasive
Waterhouse, 1993Northern Mariana Islands: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Meyer, 2000Martinique: Widespread, native
Broome et al., 2007Montserrat: Present, native
Broome et al., 2007Mauritius: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Macdonald et al., 1991Maldives: Present, introduced, invasive
PIER, 2013Mexico: Present, native
CONABIO, 2009Mexico: Present, native
CONABIO, 2009Malaysia: Restricted distribution, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993Mozambique: Widespread, invasive
Holm et al., 1979Namibia: Present, introduced, invasive
Bromilow, 1995New Caledonia: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Heckel, 1911Norfolk Island: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Swarbrick, 1986Nigeria: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979Nicaragua: Widespread, native
Holm et al., 1979Nicaragua: Widespread, native
Holm et al., 1979Nicaragua: Widespread, native
Holm et al., 1979Nepal: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979Nauru: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Meyer, 2000Niue: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Meyer, 2000New Zealand: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979; Waipara et al., 2009Panama: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Panama: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Peru: Present, native
Morton, 1994French Polynesia: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Meyer, 2000Papua New Guinea: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979Papua New Guinea: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979Philippines: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993; Burkill, 1935Philippines: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993; Burkill, 1935Pakistan: Present, introduced, invasive
Khan et al., 2010Pitcairn Island: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Florence et al., 1995Puerto Rico: Restricted distribution, native, invasive
Holm et al., 1979Puerto Rico: Restricted distribution, native, invasive
Holm et al., 1979Portugal: Present, introduced, invasive
DAISIE, 2013Portugal
See regional map for distribution within the countryPortugal
See regional map for distribution within the countryPortugal
See regional map for distribution within the countryPalau: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Meyer, 2000Palau: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Meyer, 2000Paraguay: Present, native, invasive
Zuloaga et al., 2008Réunion: Present, introduced, invasive
PIER, 2013Rodriguez Island: Present, introduced, invasive
PIER, 2013Saudi Arabia: Present, introduced
Day et al., 2003Saudi Arabia: Present, introduced
Day et al., 2003Solomon Islands: Present, introduced, invasive
Swarbrick, 1986Seychelles: Present, introduced, invasive
Gerlach, 1993Sudan: Present, introduced, invasive
Barreto et al., 1995Singapore: Present, introduced, invasive
Waterhouse, 1993Saint Helena: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Cronk, 1989Senegal: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979Suriname: Present, native
Funk et al., 2007Suriname: Present, native
Funk et al., 2007El Salvador: Present, native
Day et al., 2003El Salvador: Present, native
Day et al., 2003Swaziland: Present, introduced, invasive
Robertson et al., 2001Turks and Caicos Islands: Present, invasive
Govaerts, 2013Thailand: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993Tonga: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Thaman, 1974East Timor: Widespread, introduced, invasive
McWilliam, 2000Turkey: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979Turkey: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979Turkey: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979Trinidad and Tobago: Widespread, native
Holm et al., 1979Trinidad and Tobago: Widespread, native
Holm et al., 1979Tuvalu: Present, introduced
PIER, 2013Taiwan: Widespread, introduced, invasiveTaiwan: Widespread, introduced, invasiveTanzania: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979Uganda: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979USA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUruguay: Present, native
Zuloaga et al., 2008Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: Widespread, native
Broome et al., 2007Venezuela: Present, native
Morton, 1994Venezuela: Present, native
Morton, 1994United States Virgin Islands: Present, native, invasive
Morton, 1994Vietnam: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993Vanuatu: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Mullen et al., 1993Wallis and Futuna Islands: Present, introduced
PIER, 2013Samoa: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Thaman, 1974Mayotte: Present, introduced, invasive
PIER, 2013South Africa: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Erasmus et al., 1993Zambia: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979Congo Democratic Republic: Present, introduced, invasive
Day et al., 2003Zimbabwe: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979
  • = Present, no further details
  • = Evidence of pathogen
  • = Widespread
  • = Last reported
  • = Localised
  • = Presence unconfirmed
  • = Confined and subject to quarantine
  • = See regional map for distribution within the country
  • = Occasional or few reports
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Distribution map (asia) Chagos Archipelago: Present, introduced, invasive
PIER, 2013Bangladesh: Present, introduced, invasive
Islam et al., 2001Brunei Darussalam: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993China: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979; Corlett, 1992Fujian: Present, introduced, invasive
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012Guangdong: Present, introduced, invasive
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012Guangxi: Present, introduced, invasive
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012Hainan: Present, introduced, invasive
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012Hong Kong: Present, few occurrences, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979Indonesia: Present, introduced, invasive
Waterhouse, 1993Java: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Smiet, 1992Kalimantan: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979Sulawesi: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Whitten et al., 2002Israel: Present, few occurrences, introduced
Holm et al., 1979India: Present, introduced, invasive
Burkill, 1935Andhra Pradesh: Present, introduced, invasive
Rawat, 1997Assam: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Gujral & Vasudevan, 1983Bihar: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Gujral & Vasudevan, 1983Delhi: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Gujral & Vasudevan, 1983Himachal Pradesh: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Gujral & Vasudevan, 1983Jammu and Kashmir: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Gujral & Vasudevan, 1983Karnataka: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Gujral & Vasudevan, 1983Maharashtra: Present, introduced, invasive
Sinha & Sharma, 1984Madhya Pradesh: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Gujral & Vasudevan, 1983Odisha: Present, introduced, invasive
Sinha & Sharma, 1984Indian Punjab: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Gujral & Vasudevan, 1983Rajasthan: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Gujral & Vasudevan, 1983Tamil Nadu: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Nair & Henry, 1983Uttar Pradesh: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Gujral & Vasudevan, 1983West Bengal: Present, introduced, invasive
Sinha & Sharma, 1984Ryukyu Archipelago: Restricted distribution, introduced, invasive
Walker, 1976Cambodia: Present, introduced, invasive
Waterhouse, 1993Sri Lanka: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Morton, 1994; Evans, 1999Myanmar: Present, introduced, invasive
Waterhouse, 1993Maldives: Present, introduced, invasive
PIER, 2013Malaysia: Restricted distribution, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993Nepal: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979Papua New Guinea: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979Philippines: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993; Burkill, 1935Pakistan: Present, introduced, invasive
Khan et al., 2010Palau: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Meyer, 2000Saudi Arabia: Present, introduced
Day et al., 2003Singapore: Present, introduced, invasive
Waterhouse, 1993Thailand: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993East Timor: Widespread, introduced, invasive
McWilliam, 2000Turkey: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979Taiwan: Widespread, introduced, invasiveVietnam: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993
Distribution map (europe) Europe: Present, introduced
Burkill, 1935Cyprus: Present, introduced, invasive
DAISIE, 2013Spain: Restricted distribution, introduced, not invasive
Sobrino et al., 2002; DAISIE, 2013Balearic Islands: Present, introduced, invasive
DAISIE, 2013Corsica: Present, introduced, invasive
DAISIE, 2013Greece: Present, introduced, invasive
DAISIE, 2013Italy: Present, introduced
Tutin et al., 1972Sicily: Present, introduced, invasive
DAISIE, 2013Sardinia: Present, introduced, invasive
DAISIE, 2013Portugal: Present, introduced, invasive
DAISIE, 2013Azores: Restricted distribution, introduced
Tutin et al., 1972; DAISIE, 2013Madeira: Restricted distribution, introduced, invasive
Press & Short, 1994; DAISIE, 2013Turkey: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979
Distribution map (africa) Angola: Present, introduced, invasive
Day et al., 2003Côte d'Ivoire: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979Cape Verde: Present, introduced, invasive
Chevalier, 1935Cyprus: Present, introduced, invasive
DAISIE, 2013Spain: Restricted distribution, introduced, not invasive
Sobrino et al., 2002; DAISIE, 2013Canary Islands: Present, introduced, invasive
DAISIE, 2013Ethiopia: Widespread, introduced, invasiveGabon: Present, introduced, invasive
Barreto et al., 1995Ghana: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979Gambia: Present, introduced, invasive
Robinson, 2001Guinea: Present, introduced, invasive
Schnell, 1950Greece: Present, introduced, invasive
DAISIE, 2013Israel: Present, few occurrences, introduced
Holm et al., 1979Sicily: Present, introduced, invasive
DAISIE, 2013Kenya: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979; IPPC-Secretariat, 2005Comoros: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Roby & Dossar, 2000Liberia: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979Madagascar: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979; Binggeli, 2003Mauritius: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Macdonald et al., 1991Mozambique: Widespread, invasive
Holm et al., 1979Namibia: Present, introduced, invasive
Bromilow, 1995Nigeria: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979Madeira: Restricted distribution, introduced, invasive
Press & Short, 1994; DAISIE, 2013Réunion: Present, introduced, invasive
PIER, 2013Rodriguez Island: Present, introduced, invasive
PIER, 2013Saudi Arabia: Present, introduced
Day et al., 2003Seychelles: Present, introduced, invasive
Gerlach, 1993Sudan: Present, introduced, invasive
Barreto et al., 1995Saint Helena: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Cronk, 1989Senegal: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979Swaziland: Present, introduced, invasive
Robertson et al., 2001Turkey: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979Tanzania: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979Uganda: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979Mayotte: Present, introduced, invasive
PIER, 2013South Africa: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Erasmus et al., 1993Zambia: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979Congo Democratic Republic: Present, introduced, invasive
Day et al., 2003Zimbabwe: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979
Distribution map (north america) Bahamas: Present, invasive
Govaerts, 2013Belize: Present, native
Govaerts, 2013Cuba: Present, native
Sharma et al., 1988Dominican Republic: Present, native
Barreto et al., 1995; Kairo et al., 2003Guatemala: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Honduras: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Haiti: Present, native
Day et al., 2003; Kairo et al., 2003Jamaica: Widespread, native
Adams, 1976Mexico: Present, native
CONABIO, 2009Nicaragua: Widespread, native
Holm et al., 1979Puerto Rico: Restricted distribution, native, invasive
Holm et al., 1979El Salvador: Present, native
Day et al., 2003Alabama: Present, introduced
Doren et al., 2002Arizona: Present, introduced
USDA-NRCS, 2013California: Present, introduced
Morton, 1994Florida: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2013Georgia: Present, introduced
Doren et al., 2002Hawaii: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Davis et al., 1992Louisiana: Present, introduced
Doren et al., 2002Mississippi: Present, introduced
Doren et al., 2002North Carolina: Present, introduced
Morton, 1994Oklahoma: Present, introduced
Doren et al., 2002South Carolina: Present, introduced
Doren et al., 2002Texas: Present, introduced
Morton, 1994Utah: Present, introduced
Doren et al., 2002
Distribution map (central america) Antigua and Barbuda: Present, native
Francis et al., 1994Netherlands Antilles: Widespread, native
Broome et al., 2007Aruba: Present, native
Govaerts, 2013Barbados: Widespread, native, invasive
Morton, 1994; Gooding et al., 1965; Kairo et al., 2003Bahamas: Present, invasive
Govaerts, 2013Belize: Present, native
Govaerts, 2013Colombia: Present, native
Morton, 1994Costa Rica: Widespread, native
Schemske, 1983Cuba: Present, native
Sharma et al., 1988Dominica: Widespread, native
Broome et al., 2007Dominican Republic: Present, native
Barreto et al., 1995; Kairo et al., 2003Grenada: Widespread, native
Broome et al., 2007Guadeloupe: Widespread, native
Broome et al., 2007Guatemala: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Guyana: Present, native
Funk et al., 2007Honduras: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Haiti: Present, native
Day et al., 2003; Kairo et al., 2003Jamaica: Widespread, native
Adams, 1976Saint Kitts and Nevis: Widespread, native
Broome et al., 2007Cayman Islands: Present, native
Govaerts, 2013Saint Lucia: Present, native
Graveson, 2012; Broome et al., 2007Martinique: Widespread, native
Broome et al., 2007Montserrat: Present, native
Broome et al., 2007Mexico: Present, native
CONABIO, 2009Nicaragua: Widespread, native
Holm et al., 1979Panama: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Puerto Rico: Restricted distribution, native, invasive
Holm et al., 1979Suriname: Present, native
Funk et al., 2007El Salvador: Present, native
Day et al., 2003Turks and Caicos Islands: Present, invasive
Govaerts, 2013Trinidad and Tobago: Widespread, native
Holm et al., 1979Florida: Present, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2013Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: Widespread, native
Broome et al., 2007Venezuela: Present, native
Morton, 1994United States Virgin Islands: Present, native, invasive
Morton, 1994
Distribution map (south america) Argentina: Present, native, invasive
Morton, 1994Barbados: Widespread, native, invasive
Morton, 1994; Gooding et al., 1965; Kairo et al., 2003Bolivia: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Alagoas: Present, nativeAmazonas: Present, native
Barreto et al., 1995Bahia: Present, native
Barreto et al., 1995Ceara: Present, nativeEspirito Santo: Present, nativeGoias: Present, nativeMaranhao: Present, nativeMinas Gerais: Present, nativeMato Grosso do Sul: Present, nativeMato Grosso: Present, native
Sharma et al., 1988Para: Present, nativeParaiba: Present, nativePernambuco: Present, nativePiaui: Present, nativeParana: Present, nativeRio de Janeiro: Present, native
Barreto et al., 1995Rio Grande do Norte: Present, nativeRio Grande do Sul: Present, nativeSanta Catarina: Present, nativeSergipe: Present, nativeSao Paulo: Present, nativeChile: Present, introduced, invasive
PIER, 2013Easter Island: Present, introduced, invasive
PIER, 2013Colombia: Present, native
Morton, 1994Costa Rica: Widespread, native
Schemske, 1983Ecuador: Present, native
Barreto et al., 1995Galapagos Islands: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Cruz et al., 1986French Guiana: Present, native
Funk et al., 2007Guyana: Present, native
Funk et al., 2007Nicaragua: Widespread, native
Holm et al., 1979Panama: Present, native
Holm et al., 1979Peru: Present, native
Morton, 1994Paraguay: Present, native, invasive
Zuloaga et al., 2008Suriname: Present, native
Funk et al., 2007Trinidad and Tobago: Widespread, native
Holm et al., 1979Uruguay: Present, native
Zuloaga et al., 2008Venezuela: Present, native
Morton, 1994
Distribution map (pacific) American Samoa: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Thaman, 1974Australia: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Swarbrick, 1986Australian Northern Territory: Restricted distribution, introduced, invasive
Swarbrick, 1986New South Wales: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Swarbrick, 1986; Anon, 2008Queensland: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Swarbrick, 1986South Australia: Restricted distribution, introduced, not invasive
Swarbrick, 1986Victoria: Restricted distribution, introduced, not invasive
Swarbrick, 1986Western Australia: Restricted distribution, introduced, invasive
Swarbrick, 1986Cook Islands: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Thaman, 1974China: Present, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979; Corlett, 1992Fiji: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Mune & Parham, 1967Micronesia, Federated states of: Present, introduced, invasive
Meyer, 2000; Englberger, 2009Guam: Restricted distribution, introduced, invasive
Thaman, 1974Indonesia: Present, introduced, invasive
Waterhouse, 1993Kalimantan: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979Sulawesi: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Whitten et al., 2002Kiribati: Present, introduced, invasive
PIER, 2013Marshall Islands: Present, introduced, invasive
PIER, 2013Northern Mariana Islands: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Meyer, 2000New Caledonia: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Heckel, 1911Norfolk Island: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Swarbrick, 1986Nauru: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Meyer, 2000Niue: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Meyer, 2000New Zealand: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979; Waipara et al., 2009French Polynesia: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Meyer, 2000Papua New Guinea: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979Philippines: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Holm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993; Burkill, 1935Pitcairn Island: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Florence et al., 1995Palau: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Meyer, 2000Solomon Islands: Present, introduced, invasive
Swarbrick, 1986Tonga: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Thaman, 1974Tuvalu: Present, introduced
PIER, 2013Taiwan: Widespread, introduced, invasiveVanuatu: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Mullen et al., 1993Wallis and Futuna Islands: Present, introduced
PIER, 2013Samoa: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Thaman, 1974