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Datasheet

Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 24 July 2015
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Heracleum mantegazzianum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • giant hogweed
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • H. mantegazzianum has spread rapidly in a number of European countries after introduction as an ornamental from its native area in Russia and Georgia. It continues to be available as an ornamental, and also occurs as a contaminant of food produce ...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed); urban infestation showing habit. Plants can reach 5m in height, with flower umbels up to 50cm in diameter. (Note person for scale.) Stevenage, Hertfordshire, UK.
TitleHabit
CaptionHeracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed); urban infestation showing habit. Plants can reach 5m in height, with flower umbels up to 50cm in diameter. (Note person for scale.) Stevenage, Hertfordshire, UK.
Copyright©Richard H. Shaw/CABI BIOSCIENCE
Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed); urban infestation showing habit. Plants can reach 5m in height, with flower umbels up to 50cm in diameter. (Note person for scale.) Stevenage, Hertfordshire, UK.
HabitHeracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed); urban infestation showing habit. Plants can reach 5m in height, with flower umbels up to 50cm in diameter. (Note person for scale.) Stevenage, Hertfordshire, UK.©Richard H. Shaw/CABI BIOSCIENCE
Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed); inflorescence and flowers. Suffolk, UK.
TitleInflorescence
CaptionHeracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed); inflorescence and flowers. Suffolk, UK.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed); inflorescence and flowers. Suffolk, UK.
InflorescenceHeracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed); inflorescence and flowers. Suffolk, UK.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed) flowering plant. Suffolk, UK, 2003.
TitleHabit
CaptionHeracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed) flowering plant. Suffolk, UK, 2003.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed) flowering plant. Suffolk, UK, 2003.
HabitHeracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed) flowering plant. Suffolk, UK, 2003.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed); flowering plant. Suffolk, UK.
TitleHabit
CaptionHeracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed); flowering plant. Suffolk, UK.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed); flowering plant. Suffolk, UK.
HabitHeracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed); flowering plant. Suffolk, UK.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed); urban infestation showing typical habit. (Note person for scale) Stevenage, Hertfordshire, UK.
TitleInfestation
CaptionHeracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed); urban infestation showing typical habit. (Note person for scale) Stevenage, Hertfordshire, UK.
Copyright©Richard H. Shaw/CABI BIOSCIENCE
Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed); urban infestation showing typical habit. (Note person for scale) Stevenage, Hertfordshire, UK.
InfestationHeracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed); urban infestation showing typical habit. (Note person for scale) Stevenage, Hertfordshire, UK.©Richard H. Shaw/CABI BIOSCIENCE
Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed); habit, showing developing leaves. In leeward coastal dune vegetation, showing its vegetative habit before inflorescences emerge. Nr Den Hague, Netherlands. May 2016.
TitleHabit
CaptionHeracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed); habit, showing developing leaves. In leeward coastal dune vegetation, showing its vegetative habit before inflorescences emerge. Nr Den Hague, Netherlands. May 2016.
Copyright©Andrew Praciak-2016
Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed); habit, showing developing leaves. In leeward coastal dune vegetation, showing its vegetative habit before inflorescences emerge. Nr Den Hague, Netherlands. May 2016.
HabitHeracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed); habit, showing developing leaves. In leeward coastal dune vegetation, showing its vegetative habit before inflorescences emerge. Nr Den Hague, Netherlands. May 2016.©Andrew Praciak-2016

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Levier (1895)

Preferred Common Name

  • giant hogweed

Other Scientific Names

  • Heracleum asperum M. Bieb. (1819)
  • Heracleum caucasicum Steven (1812)
  • Heracleum circassicum Mandenova (1970)
  • Heracleum giganteum Fischer ex Hornem. (1819)
  • Heracleum grossheimii Mandenova (1950)
  • Heracleum lehmannianum Bunge
  • Heracleum panaces Willd. ex Steven
  • Heracleum sibiricum Sphalm
  • Heracleum speciosum Weinm.
  • Heracleum stevenii Manden.
  • Heracleum tauricum Steven
  • Heracleum villosum Fischer ex Sprengel (1818)

International Common Names

  • English: cartwheel flower; giant cow parsnip; giant hogweed
  • French: berce de Caucase; berce de Mantegazzi; berce géante
  • Russian: boršcevik drevovidnyj; boršcevik Mantegacii; boršcevik sibirskij

Local Common Names

  • Canada: giant cow parsnip
  • Czech Republic: bolševník velkolepý
  • Denmark: kæmpe-bjørneklo
  • Finland: kæmpe-bjørneklo; kaukasianjattiputki
  • Germany: Herkuleskraut; Herkulesstaude; Kaukasischer Bärenklau; Riesen-baerenklau
  • Italy: Panace di Mantegazza; Panace gigante
  • Netherlands: bereklauw, Perzische; Reuzenbereklauw
  • Norway: kjempebjørnekjeks
  • Poland: barszcz kaukaski; barszcz mantegazyjski; barszcz Mantegazziego
  • Sweden: jättebjörnfloka; Kaukasisk jättefloka
  • USA: cartwheel flower; giant cow parsnip

EPPO code

  • HERMZ (Heracleum mantegazzianum)

Summary of Invasiveness

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H. mantegazzianum has spread rapidly in a number of European countries after introduction as an ornamental from its native area in Russia and Georgia. It continues to be available as an ornamental, and also occurs as a contaminant of food produce in international trade, and is therefore likely to spread further. It is an undesirable invader on account of its large size, prolific seed production and vigorous growth leading to gross changes in vegetation, obstruction of access to river banks, soil erosion, and serious dermatological effects on skin contact. A large volume of information on this weed is incorporated into the volume by Pysek et al. (2007b).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Apiales
  •                         Family: Apiaceae
  •                             Genus: Heracleum
  •                                 Species: Heracleum mantegazzianum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Other names used for Heracleum mantegazzianum in the British Isles (Tiley et al., 1996) have included H. asperum M. Bieb., H. caucasicum Steven, H. circassicum Manden., H. giganteum Fischer ex Hornem., H. grossheimii Manden., H. lehmannianum Bunge, H. panaces Willd. ex Steven, H. persicum Desf. ex Fischer, H. sibiricum Sphalm, H. speciosum Weinm., H. stevenii Manden., H. tauricum Steven, and H. villosum Fischer ex Sprengel, but it is understood that some of these (H. lehmannianum, H. persicum, and H. villosum) are treated as distinct species by at least some authorities (Satsyperova,1984; Jahodová, 2007a,b; Denness et al., 2013) and are not strictly synonyms. Jahodová et al. (2007a,b) reported AFLP studies which show H. persicum to be genetically distinct from H. mantegazzianum. Denness et al. (2013) showed distinct morphometric differences in the fruits of H. mantegazzianum and H. lehmannianum. Brummitt (1968) commented that the taxonomy and nomenclature of the naturalized plants from south-west Asia require further investigation. They are very variable in duration, height, shape, dissection and pubescence of the leaves and shape and size of fruit, and probably represent more than one species. Perennial plants with leaves pinnately divided into five segments may perhaps be referable to H. lehmannianum from central Asia. H. persicum is probably distinct and occasionally naturalized in Europe. See Similarities to Other Species for further comment on these and other species.

Description

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H. mantegazzianum is a monocarpic perennial herb, growing from a yellow, branched root system 40-60 cm deep and up to 15 cm across at the crown when mature. The root is somewhat contractile pulling the crown down to about 10 cm below the soil surface. While still vegetative, there is a rosette of leaves, increasing in size each year. These are alternate, the lowermost eventually up to 3 m long, to 1.7 m broad, ternately or pinnately lobed and coarsely toothed. Upper leaves on the flowering stem are progressively smaller. The upper leaf surface is glabrous but the underside and petiole are covered in bristles. When it finally flowers, usually after 3-5 years, there is a single hollow stem up to 2-5 m high and 10 cm in diameter. The stem is ridged, with purple blotches, and covered in pustulate bristles. The main inflorescence is a terminal compound umbel up to 80 cm across with about 100 unequal hairy rays, each 10-40 cm long. There are also up to eight satellite umbels which overtop the main one, and others developing on branches below. The main umbel is hermaphrodite; the lower ones, maturing earlier, may be only male. Flowers, on pedicels 10-20 mm long, are white or pinkish with petals up to 12 mm long. Numerous fruit flattened, elliptical, 6-18 mm long by 4-10 mm wide, narrowly winged, the larger fruits occurring on the main inflorescence and the smaller on satellites; glabrous to villous, splitting into two mericarps, each with 3-5 elongated oil ducts. For the first few years, the above-ground growth dies down each winter. Once it has flowered, the plant dies altogether (from Tiley et al., 1996.) Nielsen et al. (2005) have excellent line drawings of H. mantegazzianum and related species.

Plant Type

Top of pageBiennial
Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

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H. mantegazzianum is native to the southern slopes of the western Greater Caucasus in southern Russia and Georgia. Korovin et al. (1951) refer to its distribution as 'Caucasus: Ciscaucasus, W. Transcaucasus (N.)'. However, it is now becoming widely naturalised throughout northern Europe, with a continually increasing distribution. Pyšek et al. (1998), Collingham et al. (2000) and Nielsen et al. (2008) showed that winter temperatures are the best explanation factor for the species' distribution in Europe. It is also established and spreading in Canada, USA, Australia and New Zealand. Some of the spread into Russia could be natural but elsewhere the initial establishment is due to mainly deliberate introductions over the past 190 years.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

CountryDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferencesNotes

ASIA

Georgia (Republic of)Restricted distributionNativeGRIN, 2002; EPPO, 2014
IranPresentEPPO, 2014
IraqAbsent, no pest recordEPPO, 2014
TurkeyPresentEPPO, 2014

NORTH AMERICA

CanadaLocalisedIntroduced1944InvasivePage et al., 2006; Tiley et al., 1996; EPPO, 2014Increasingly common in southwestern British Columbia and southern Ontario
-British ColumbiaPresentEPPO, 2014; Morton, 1975; Dawe & White, 1979; Page et al., 2006
-New BrunswickPresentIntroduced2000Page et al., 2006
-Nova ScotiaPresentIntroduced1980Page et al., 2006
-OntarioWidespreadIntroduced1949InvasivePage et al., 2006
-QuebecPresentIntroduced1990Page et al., 2006
USALocalisedIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2007; Tiley et al., 1996; EPPO, 2014
-District of ColumbiaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-FloridaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-IllinoisLocalisedIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2007
-IndianaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-MaineLocalisedIntroduced1981InvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2007; EPPO, 2014
-MarylandRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-MassachusettsRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-MichiganLocalisedIntroduced1992InvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2007; Case & Beaman, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-New YorkWidespreadIntroduced1981InvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2007; Berenbaum, 1981; PLANTS, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-North CarolinaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-OregonRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-PennsylvaniaLocalisedIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2007; EPPO, 2014
-VermontLocalisedIntroducedWestbrooks, 1991; EPPO, 2014
-WashingtonWidespreadIntroduced1953InvasiveMorton, 1975; USDA-NRCS, 2007; EPPO, 2014

EUROPE

AustriaRestricted distributionIntroducedInvasiveTiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014
BelgiumRestricted distributionIntroducedInvasiveTiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicWidespreadIntroduced1862InvasivePysek, 1994; Tiley et al., 1996; Pergl et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014
DenmarkWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveTiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014
EstoniaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014As HERMZ (Heracleum mantegazzianum)
FinlandLocalisedIntroducedInvasiveTiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014
FranceWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveTiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014
-CorsicaAbsent, no pest recordEPPO, 2014
GermanyWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveTiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014
HungaryLocalisedIntroduced1962InvasivePysek, 1994; Tiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014
IcelandPresentIntroducedJahodová et al., 2007a
IrelandWidespreadIntroduced1800sInvasiveTiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014
ItalyLocalisedIntroducedInvasiveTiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014
LatviaRestricted distributionIntroducedFowler et al., 1991; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014
LiechtensteinLocalisedIntroducedInvasiveTiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014
NetherlandsLocalisedIntroducedInvasiveTiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014
NorwayWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveTiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014
PolandRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
Russian FederationLocalisedNativeKorovin et al., 1951; EPPO, 2014
-Southern RussiaRestricted distributionNativeKorovin et al., 1951; EPPO, 2014
SlovakiaWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveTiley et al., 1996; EPPO, 2014
SwedenWidespreadIntroduced1800sInvasiveLundstrom, 1984; Tiley et al., 1996; EPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandWidespreadIntroducedInvasiveTiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014
UKRestricted distributionIntroduced1817InvasiveTiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014

OCEANIA

AustraliaLocalisedIntroducedWestbrooks, 1991; EPPO, 2014
-South AustraliaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-TasmaniaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
New ZealandPresentIntroducedWeber &, 2003

History of Introduction and Spread

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H. mantegazzianum has been repeatedly introduced to other countries as a garden ornamental, often initially via botanic gardens, as is known for UK (Jahodová et al., 2007a). It was available as seed from Kew Botanic Gardens in 1817, presumably brought in from the Caucasus, and by 1828 was recorded as naturalised in Cambridgeshire. It was subsequently recorded in the Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany, Ireland, Denmark and, by 1862, in the Czech Republic. First records for other countries are indicated in the Distribution Table. Nielsen et al. (2005) produced a table showing the first records of H. mantegazzianum in the wild for 16 European countries, the latest being Slovakia and Iceland in about 1945. Whether it arrived directly from the Caucasus or via elsewhere in Europe is not generally known, but Jahodová et al. (2007a,b) suggested that it is likely that the current pattern of genetic diversity in Europe resulted from multiple introductions.

Spread following initial introduction is usually delayed, with a lag of 10-50 years being typical. Pysek et al. (2007d) indicated that it was first found in the wild in Czech Republic in 1877, 15 years after first introduction. Pysek and Prach (1993) and Pysek (1994), discussing the weed's spread in the Czech Republic, indicated that from 1862 up to about 1943, spread appeared to be exclusively due to cultivation as a garden ornamental but after that there was natural spread along the main rivers, and later along roadsides and railways. A genetic study from the western Swiss Alps (Henry et al., 2009) also reported anthropogenic as well as natural long-distance dispersal along rivers as main historical drivers of invasion. The role of the two mechanisms of spread appears to change with scale, with humans play a crucial role at the continental and regional scale and species traits at local level (Pyšek et al., 2008). 

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
UK1817Botanical gardens and zoos (pathway cause)YesJahodová et al., 2007; Jahodová et al., 2007bDeliberate introduction

Risk of Introduction

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There is certainly risk of further spread – to further countries in Europe, and to further states in USA and Canada. This risk may be enhanced by some apparent adaptation of the weed to warmer climates, whereby it may need less cold winters for completion of the ‘stratification’ process to break dormancy (Jahodova et al., 2007a, quoting Krinke et al., 2005). Conversely, global warming could help to counteract this trend. Spread may occur by natural means (wind, water, etc) but also both accidentally and deliberately by human action. Although movement across borders is now restricted by quarantine regulations in many countries, there is still the temptation to import this very striking plant as an ornamental. It is freely available via internet mail-order.

Habitat

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H. mantegazzianum in its native areas shows a wide ecological amplitude, occurring in a variety of habitats between 50 and 2000 m altitude, with annual rainfall between 1000 and 2000 mm per annum and a temperate, continental climate of hot summers and cold winters. At lower elevations it occurs as a constituent of nitrophilous tall-forb vegetation (Galio-Urticetae) in alluvial forests and old fields. At higher altitudes it grows in sub-alpine meadows and sub-alpine tall-forb vegetation (Mulgedio- Aconitetea) but is not dominant in these species-rich communities (Otte et al., 2007). In other areas, it has been commonly introduced to gardens as an ornamental and has spread from these foci to invade a variety of habitat types, especially along roadsides, river banks, railways, woodland fringes, graslands and arable fields, scrublands and ruderal sites such as rubbish dumps and waste ground. It is also increasingly found, in Germany and the Czech Republic, in abandoned grasslands and even at grasslands managed less intensively (Pyšek and Pyšek, 1995; Thiele and Otte, 2008;). In the Czech Republic, it has flourished in military areas. These sites are characterised by rich resource supply and disturbance but lack of regular or intensive management (Tiley et al., 1996; Thiele et al., 2007; Thiele and Otte, 2008). In Germany, the species dominates ruderal Arrhenatherion grasslands (endangered semi-natural grasslands) and Galio-Urticetea tall-forb stands (secondary successions from grasslands to woodlands after land abandonment). Maximum densities occur prevalently at young successional stages (Thiele and Otte, 2006). Invasion is discouraged by regular land use, shading by trees and low soil nutrients (Thiele et al., 2007). Pyšek et al. (2007d) showed that H. mantegazzianum changes its habitat preferences during the course of invasion. 

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areasSecondary/tolerated habitatHarmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-managed
Disturbed areasPrincipal habitatHarmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems)Secondary/tolerated habitatHarmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsidesPrincipal habitatHarmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areasPrincipal habitatHarmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forestsSecondary/tolerated habitatHarmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslandsSecondary/tolerated habitat
RiverbanksSecondary/tolerated habitatHarmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublandsSecondary/tolerated habitatHarmful (pest or invasive)
WetlandsSecondary/tolerated habitatHarmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

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H. mantegazzianum is not normally a weed of crops but there are reports of its encroachment into crop fields, such as potatoes in Sweden (Lundstrom, 1984). It has also been reported spreading into forest margins and sparse forest canopies (Thiele et al., 2007).

Growth Stages

Top of pageFruiting stage, Pre-emergence

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number is 2n = 22 (Tiley et al., 1996). This number is shared by most if not all Heracleum species. Hybridization is recorded with H. sphondyllium in the UK (Stace, 1991; Tiley et al., 1996), and in Germany (Ochsmann, 1996), H. sphondylium always being the female parent (Steward and Grace, 1984; Perglova et al., 2007), but this is relatively infrequent even where both species occur. The hybrids are virtually sterile.

Reproductive Biology

Propagation is completely by seeds, which are produced in very large numbers, varying from 5000 to 100,000 per plant, on the flowers produced after 2-5 years, after which the plant dies (Perglová et al., 2007). Fruits comprise a pair of mericarps, which separate from each other before being shed and dispersed over a short distance (2-10 m) by wind. Longer-distance dispersal is achieved by water; seeds are reported to be able to float for 8 hours (Moravcová et al., 2007) or up to 3 days (Dawe and White, 1979). Seeds can also be spread by man (via vehicles or collecting the seed-heads for ornament).

The main umbel is hermaphrodite; the lower ones, maturing later, may be only male. Reproduction is amphimictic, the flowers being insect-pollinated and self compatible, though, within any umbel, all the anthers normally dehisce before the stigmas are receptive, ensuring out-crossing. There can, however, be some self-fertilization between primary and secondary or lower umbels (Perglová et al., 2006). Selfing can be seen as an advantage to an invasive species, allowing reproduction from widely isolated individuals. Flowers are visited by a wide range of insects, many of which are believed to be involved in pollination, including a number of Hymenoptera and Diptera and at least one Coleoptera (Tiley et al., 1996; Perglova et al., 2007). A detailed description of the phenology of flowering is provided by Otte and Franke (1998) and Perglova et al. (2006, 2007). In central Europe, elongation of the flowering stem begins in early June and first flowers open at the end of June. The terminal umbel flowers for about 10 days and fruits are mature after 44 days. Secondary, third, and fourth-order umbels flower successively later, but flowering finishes about the end of August as seed shed begins. Plant produce 20,000 seeds on average (Perglová et al., 2006).

Seeds when shed have an underdeveloped embryo and will not germinate in the autumn after shedding but require moist chilling, about 2 months below 8°C (stratification), over the winter to allow maturation of the embryo and breaking of dormancy (Moravcová et al., 2006, 2007). Germination can then occur, if slowly, at temperatures as low as 2°C (Moravcová et al., 2007). In practice this occurs in January to March in the UK. Drying tends to delay eventual germination or results in a requirement for additional or longer stratification. This may account for the association of the species with moist habitats. Inundation, however, can result in rotting of the seeds. Exposure to light is not apparently required for germination (Tiley et al., 1996).

Although seeds of H. mantegazzianum may remain viable for up to 15 years when stored dry (Lundström, 1989), their longevity in the field is normally much shorter. Moravcova et al. (2007) classify it has having a short-term persistent seed bank. They quote results of a trial in which over 90% of seeds germinated (or decayed) after the first winter, leaving 8.8% viable. This proportion declined to 2.7 and 1.2% in the following years. In one study no viable seeds were found after 7 years (Tiley et al., 1996).

Physiology and Phenology

After germination, a strong tap-root is formed which soon contracts to pull the crown downwards. The first true leaf develops about April, small and almost round, replaced in succession by steadily larger leaves, the fifth or sixth taking the adult form. Tiley et al. (1996) have detailed descriptions and drawings. The established vegetative plant has 3-4 leaves at any time.

The above-ground parts of the plant senesce and die down in late September/October (in the UK) and growth begins again from February/March (Tiley et al., 1996). Flowering occurs mainly in the third or fourth year of growth but may occur in the second year or be delayed to 5 or more years. This appears to depend on the size of the crown and reserves in the root system. Pergl et al. (2006) record some plants as old as 12 years. Plants destined to flower begin growth early, in January/February (Caffrey, 1999; Pergl et a., 2006), and have more erect leaves. Stem elongation is apparent in April/May in UK, in June in Czech Republic. The terminal bud, sheathed in bracts, appears in June and flowers are open from June to August, but mainly in July. Once the plant has flowered, it normally dies altogether. Detailed description of the phenology of flowering is provided by Perglova et al. (2007).

There are no marked differences in the phenology of H. mantegazzianum in native and invaded areas.

Environmental Requirements

Climatic requirements include reasonable moisture with cold winters, with some degree of protection from prevailing winds. Cold winters are required to ensure germination, but may also be necessary for flowering. Although it is generally a plant of open ground, it can establish and grow successfully in open woodland, glade edges and partially shaded habitats. In secondary ranges, it invades nutrient-rich semi-natural grasslands, forest edges, riparian and anthropogenic (disturbed) habitats (Pyšek and Pyšek, 1995; Thiele al., 2007; Nielsen et al., 2008). However, it is also able to establish in nutrient-poor habitats such as peaty meadows or acidic soils in forest clearings (Pyšek et al., 2012). The weed needs moist conditions for much of the year, but can tolerate moderate summer droughts (Tiley et al., 1996). In its native Caucasus range it occupies large altitudinal gradient from 70 to 1950 m above sea level (Otte et al., 2007).

Although the weed tends to be associated with lowland sites in the UK, it was suggested by Willis and Hulme (2002) that this is mainly due to the sources of infestation being originally associated with gardens in the lowlands, and not due to a climatic limitation. In the Czech Republic, it rarely occurs in dry and warm lowlands (Pyšek et al., 2012). The seeds are shown to germinate at all elevations up to 600 m in north-east England.

Occurrence along river banks is usually associated with sandy or silty soils, but it is also recorded on a wide range of soil textures from gravels to clay. Highly organic or water-logged soils are also tolerated. It is usually found on alkaline or only slightly acid soils, from pH 6.0 upwards to 8.5, and appears to favour soils high in nitrogen (Pyšek and Pyšek, 1995). It is occasionally found close to the sea and apparently has some tolerance of salt spray.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summerPreferredWarm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winterToleratedWarm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Ds - Continental climate with dry summerToleratedContinental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winterToleratedContinental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
7040

Air Temperature

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ParameterLower limitUpper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC)-17
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC)-170
Mean annual temperature (ºC)512
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC)1324
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC)-65

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration07number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall5002500mm; lower/upper limits

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded
  • impeded
  • seasonally waterlogged
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • alkaline
  • neutral
  • neutral
  • very alkaline

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • heavy
  • light
  • light
  • medium
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • shallow
  • shallow

Natural Enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Agonopterix heracleanaHerbivoreLeaves
Cavariella theobaldiHerbivoreLeavesnot specific
Depressaria pastinacellaHerbivoreInflorescencenot specific
Euleia heracleiHerbivoreLeaves
Liophloeus tessulatusHerbivoreLeaves/Rootsnot specific
Lixus iridisHerbivoreStems/Leavesnot specific
Melanagromyza heracleanaHerbivoreStemsnot specific
Melanochaeta aotearoaePathogenLeaves
Nastus faustiHerbivoreLeaves/Rootsnot specific
Orthops basalisHerbivoreLeaves
Phaedon tumidulusHerbivoreLeaves
PhomopsisPathogenInflorescence
Phyllachora heracleiPathogenLeaves
Psila rosaeHerbivoreLeavesnot specific
Ramularia heracleiPathogenLeaves
Sclerotinia sclerotiorumPathogenLeavesnot specific
Septoria heracleicolaPathogenLeavesnot specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Hansen et al. (2006b, 2007) recorded 162 species of herbivore on H. mantegazzianum, though only 24 of the more genus- or family-specific species are tabulated. They include Coleoptera, gall-forming Diptera and leaf-mining Agromyzidae, sap-sucking Hemiptera, and stem-boring Lepidoptera. None recorded from the native range was specific to H. mantegazzianum. Hansen et al. (2006a) found two leaf-sucking aphids negatively influencing the plant growth and one stem-sucking aphid living in mutualistic relationship with ants and plant. In their review, Tiley et al. (1996) concluded that none of the organisms they listed caused consistently serious damage, though the damage to roots by the curculionid Liophloeus tesselatus has resulted in suggestions for its exploitation for biocontrol (Burki and Nentwig, 1998). However, Hattendorf et al. (2006) found that mature plants are quite tolerant to herbivory, and successful biological control could not thus be guaranteed. Research should instead be concentrated on earlier stages in the weed’s life cycle. Burki and Nentwig (1998) also listed 34 arthropod species associated with H. mantegazzianum in Switzerland. Berenbaum (1981) studied the insects attacking H. mantegazzianum and other members of Umbelliferae in New York State, USA, and noted that this species, together with H. lanatum, Pastinaca sativa and Angelica atropurpurea, were attacked by a narrower range of insects than other Umbellliferae. This was apparently due to the presence of angular furanocoumarins, which are more toxic than the more widely present linear furanocoumarins, and were not tolerated by the more generalist feeders. The significance of these defence substances is discussed in detail by Hattendorf et al. (2007).

Fowler et al. (1991) record only two fungal pathogens attacking H. mantegazzianum. Seier and Evans (2007) listed 12 species recorded before their own surveys for natural enemies in the native area of the Caucasus began in 2002 with the aim of identifying potential biological control agents (Seier et al., 2003; Seier and Evans, 2007). These revealed an extensive mycobiota associated with H. mantegazzianum, most species being new records for this host. They list 11 species on H. mantegazzianum in its native range and 24 in the invaded range, several occurring in both. Several pathogens were collected, belonging to the genera Ramulariopsis, Septoria, Phloeospora and Phoma, and three of these, including Phloeospora heraclei and Septoria heracleicola, were evaluated further (Seier et al., 2003; Seier and Evans, 2007). See Biological Control for further discussion.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

Propagation is completely by seed, which are produced in very large numbers. Short-distance dispersal (2-10 m) is by wind, whereas longer-distance dispersal is achieved by water. The seeds are reported to float for 8 hours (Moravcová et al., 2007) or up to 3 days (Dawe and White, 1979). Several authors have shown the importance of long-distance dispersal in the species spread (Nehrbass et al. 2007; Pergl et al., 2011; Moenickes and Thiele, 2013).
 
Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Movement occurs by man, collecting the seed-heads for ornament and then disposing on rubbish heaps; also as a result of movement of soil in the course of building works, and by attachment to vehicles or in the slip-stream of road and rail vehicles.

Accidental Introduction

Fowler (1998) notes that H. mantegazzianum is one of the three commonest proscribed species to be intercepted at entry points to USA, comprising 14% of all such interceptions. At least some of these instances are accidental, as in the accidental contamination of cumin seed (Westbrooks, 1991).

Intentional Introduction

The interceptions recorded by Fowler (1998) are probably mainly deliberate introductions, such as for use as an ornamental. Such introduction is encouraged by the availability of seed from commercial nurseries via mail-order catalogues and from websites in, for example, Canada, the Netherlands and the UK.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens/ zoosYesYes
Escape from confinement/ garden escapeYesPyšek et al., 2007d
Flooding/ other natural disasterYes
Garden waste disposalYesTiley et al., 1996
HorticultureYesYes
Internet salesYes
Nursery tradeYesYesTiley et al., 1996
Ornamental purposesYesYesTiley et al., 1996
Seed tradeYesYesTiley et al., 1996

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
AircraftInterception at ports of entryYesFowler, 1998; Westbrooks, 1991
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesYes
Land vehiclesYesTiley et al., 1996
Luggage (incl. sailors’ sea chests)Interception at ports of entryYesFowler, 1998; Westbrooks, 1991
Mail/postYes
Soil, sand, gravel etc.YesTiley et al., 1996
WaterYesTiley et al., 1996
WindYesTiley et al., 1996

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
BarklarvaeYesPest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Leaveshyphae; nymphs; sporesYesPest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs, Tubers, Corms, Rhizomes
Flowers, Inflorescences, Cones, Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings, Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground), Shoots, Trunks, Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Economic Impact

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H. mantegazzianum is an alternative host of the carrot fly, Psila rosea, and of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Tiley et al., 1996). Lundstrom (1984) suggests that the presence of the weed may increase the risk of crops being affected by S. sclerotiorum but there are no records of direct impact on crops. There are, however, highly significant cost involved in measures taken to control the weed in amenity and other areas. Thiele and Otte (2007) quote estimates by Reinhardt et al. (2003) for annual costs in Germany amounting to over 12 million euro, including 1 million in health costs, 1.2 million in nature reserves, 2.1 million in road management, 2.4 million in municipal management and 5.6 million in district management.

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

Vanderhoeven et al. (2007) found increased concentrations of exchangeable essential nutrients under the canopy of exotic invasive plants, including H. mantegazzianum in Belgium, most strikingly in K and Mn (32% and 34% increase, respectively). Jandová et al. (2014) showed that longer invasion history increases soil conductivity, pH and extractable phosphorus, and decreased fungal/bacterial ratios. This result fits in well with previous reports of enhanced N dynamics in invaded sites, partly due to higher net primary productivity in exotic invasive plants compared to native vegetation. There are also reports of increased soil erosion resulting from the shading by H. mantegazzianum leading to suppression of grass and other low-growing plants, and bare soil exposed as the weed dies off in winter (Thiele and Otte, 2007). Wille et al. (2013) showed limited evidence for H. mantegazzianum having an allelopathic effect on the germination of native species.

Impact on Biodiversity

In amenity areas, established colonies compete strongly with, and rapidly replace, most other plants except trees (Williamson and Forbes, 1982). H. mantegazzianum tends to form monospecific stands with large standing biomass and extensive litter production. Its early germination allows it to develop populations well ahead of native species (Pyšek et al., 2007b). Nielsen et al. (2007) noted that the weed may change the composition and species diversity of indigenous plant communities, and in central Europe, investigations have shown a reduction in species richness and densities by up to 50-60% in areas that have been invaded (Hejda et al., 2009). However, in older H. mantegazzianum stands both population size and negative impact on biodiversity seem to be reduced (Nehrbass et al., 2006; Dostál et al., 2013). Dense monospecific stands reach the carrying capacity of the habitat and thus stagnate. In contrast, open stands and gaps created from disturbances are quickly filled by expanding population (Pergl et al., 2007).

Substantial programmes have been instituted in a number of European countries and EU Commission in order to control the weed, partly because of the human health hazards involved, but equally to reduce the possibility of environmental damage. Such programmes are described by Lundstrom (1984) in Sweden, Williamson and Forbes (1982) and Tiley and Philp (1992) in Scotland, and Caffrey and Madsen (2001) in Ireland. However, Thiele and Otte (2007) in a detailed analysis of the environmental effects of H. mantegazzianum conclude that its effects are most pronounced in ruderal situations where the species it is displacing or influencing are themselves very common transient species, and where other dominant species such as Urtica dioica may have a similar effect. In these situations its impact can be seen as a symptom of human-driven changes rather than a particular effect of the weed itself.  The greatest danger is along river banks, where it can almost totally replace the natural vegetation and threaten biodiversity (Wade et al., 1997). In Sweden it can build up to a 'giant hogweed landscape' (Lundstrom, 1984).

 

Social Impact

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The bristly hairs on H. mantegazzianum contain furanocoumarins and any contact of skin with the plant can result in phyto-photodermatitis (Dennes et al., 2013; Mehta and Statham, 2007). Symptoms range from painful watery blisters, well illustrated by Nielsen et al. (2005), to full chemical burn (Chan et al., 2011). This occurs within 1-3 days on exposure to sunlight (Jakubska-Busse et al., 2013). Under cloudy conditions there may be no reaction. It may occasionally cause a recurrent dermatitis which can become a serious handicap (Williamson and Forbes, 1982; Klimaszyk et al., 2014). The compounds contained in seed essential oils may pose a risk to the eyes, skin and respiratory system (Jakubska-Busse et al., 2013). Large doses of furanocoumarins can cause cancer or fetus malformation (Nielsen et al., 2005). Immediately after exposure, the skin should be washed with soap and cold water to remove plant sap, and protected from sunlight until at least 48 hours post-exposure even if asymptomatic. Severe cases possibly require hospitalisation (Derraik, 2007). The health hazards of this species are one of the main reasons for concern over its spread. In tests on bacteria, Clarke (1975) showed that the sap of H. mantegazzianum could be mutagenic.

Dense infestations can lower the recreational value of the landscape and seriously interfere with access to amenity areas and river banks. Along roadsides, large stands can reduce visibility and result in a safety hazard.

Risk and Impact Factors

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Impact mechanisms

  • Causes allergic responses
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Induces hypersensitivity
  • Poisoning
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
  • Rapid growth

Impact outcomes

  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts tourism
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity

Invasiveness

  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Gregarious
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Proved invasive outside its native range

Likelihood of entry/control

  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally

Uses

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Buttenschøn and Nielsen (2007) commented that H. mantegazzianum has been widely grown as a forage plant in eastern Europe in the past. In invasive stands fresh weights of up to 94 t/ha have been measured and dry weights of 6-7 t/ha above ground and 2.4 t/ha below. However, its use has now declined due to problems of tainting of milk, and availability of alternatives.

Westbrooks (1991) reports that it is used as a spice in Iranian cooking.

H. mantegazzianum has been widely grown as an ornamental in Europe, thanks to its striking appearance and usefulness in flower arranging. It is still available via the Internet from commercial nurseries in Europe and North America.

A study in Hungary suggested that acetone extracts of H. mantegazzianum could have useful allelopathic effects on other weeds (Solymosi, 1994).

Economic Value

H. mantegazzianum has economic value to those who sell seed, but the growing plant has no consistent value that is not counter-balanced by its noxious characteristics.

Social Benefit

None.

Environmental Services

None. 

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Ornamental

Materials

  • Poisonous to mammals

Ornamental

  • Seed trade

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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The commonest other Heracleum species in Europe, H. sphondylium, and the correspondingly common species in the USA, H. montanum Bartr. (= H. lanatum Michx.) are not readily confused with H. mantegazzianum, being much smaller, rarely over 2 m high, with grey-green, hairy, less acutely toothed leaves. More readily confused are some of the other more closely related species in Section Pubescentia, including H. persicum which is also smaller, rarely over 2 m, with stems violet, leaves more elongate, with 2-3 pairs of lateral leaf segments, and broad, short lobes, less deeply serrate. It is a true perennial, flowering more than once. This species is native to Turkey and Iran and naturalized locally in Scandinavia. H. sosnowskyi has a native range in the East Caucasus. It resembles H. mantegazzianum more closely in being monocarpic (flowering only once before dying) but is more densely hairy with umbel rays finely scabrous-hairy; it also has less dissected leaves and smaller petals on the marginate flowers. This was also grown as a forage crop in Russia and persists there and in countries bordering the southern and eastern Baltic. See Jahodova et al. (2007a) for discussion of relationships between the large Heracleum spp. Nielsen et al. (2005) have excellent line drawings, descriptions and colour plates of H. mantegazzianum and related species.

Prevention and Control

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Prevention
 
SPS Measures

H. mantegazzianum is already prohibited as a noxious weed in the USA (USDA-NRCS, 2002). In the UK, it is included in legislation requiring land owners to take steps to control it and prevent further spread (Willoughby, 1996). In the EU, a legislation on prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive alien species (COM (2013)620) is now prepared with H. mantegazzianum being a candidate for invasive alien species of the greatest EU concern.

Public Awareness

Nielsen et al. (2005) provided a useful section on preventive measures, early detection and eradication, providing a checklist of actions, from the establishment of policies and guidelines, identification of routes of possible entry, identification of habitats most at risk, awareness campaigns, surveys of incidence and spread, eradication campaigns where necessary, followed up by monitoring. They note that mapping incidence and spread is made easy by the size and conspicuousness of the weed, ensuring that the public can provide reliable help, and even allowing clear monitoring from aerial photographs taken when the weed is in flower (Müllerová et al., 2005, 2013). Fonji et al. (2014) presented successful a project of public participation GIS involving school students monitoring H. mantegazzianum in Latvia.

Control
 
Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

H. mantegazzianum is not effectively controlled by light grazing, but intensive grazing, especially by sheep has provided good control and the rooting of pigs can also be highly effective (Tiley et al., 1996). Anderson and Calov (1996) reported on a 5-year study in Denmark in which the population of the weed was much reduced after 2 years of sheep grazing and completely eliminated after 5 years, when no viable seeds were found to remain in the soil. The weed may be slightly less palatable to cattle, but grazing by cattle as well as pigs is recommended in Ireland (Lucey, 1994).

Buttenschøn and Nielsen (2007) confirm that sheep and goats seek out young plants of H. mantegazzianum and recommend grazing to begin in mid-spring. Herds should preferably include individuals already familiar with the weed to reduce the risk of over-eating and poisoning. Dark-skinned, thick-pelted animals are less likely to suffer dermatitis. Nielsen et al. (2007) give more detail on the management of grazing for control of the weed.

Physical/Mechanical Control

Hand-pulling (with gloves) can be effective on young seedlings but is impractical on larger plants. Mechanical cutting is frequently used to clear river banks, but provides no long-term control, as there is rapid re-growth from below ground, and it may encourage the perennation of flowering shoots which would otherwise die after flowering. Cutting in May and June is somewhat more effective in reducing seed production and/or re-growth than cutting in March, but no single cutting can be relied on to prevent eventual seeding. Even four mowings per year for two years failed to kill the plant (Nielsen et al., 2007). There is a trade-off between early treatment with high regeneration and later umbel removal with more efficient reduction in fecundity, but with a necessity to handle more developed fruits that are able to ripen even on cut-off umbels (Pyšek et al., 2007c). Digging or ploughing to destroy the crown (below 10 cm soil depth), or otherwise severing the tap-root from the crown (‘root-cutting’) can completely kill the plant (Pyšek et al., 2007e).
 
Biological Control

Apart from the use of grazing animals, no other biological control method has yet been developed, though the possibilities have been discussed by Fowler et al. (1991); Fowler and Holden (1994); Burki and Nentwig (1998); and most recently by Cock and Seier (2007). The latter comment that there had been cause for optimism when the intensive ‘Giant Alien’ project was initiated in 2002, but after detailed appraisal of all the potential biocontrol agents listed by Hansen et al. (2007) and Seier and Evans (2007), they can only state that ‘there are still some areas that need clarification before concluding that there is no prospect of finding host-specific natural enemies for biological control of giant hogweed.’ All the most damaging insects and fungi have insufficiently narrow host range and can damage other Apiaceae such as parsnip (Pastinaca sativa L.).

Chemical Control

In the UK, herbicides recommended for control of H. mantegazzianum include glyphosate, triclopyr and imazapyr but all must be applied early in the season (March to May) for best effect. Imazapyr has a residual effect in the soil that will prevent further germination but may also have a later effect on non-target species. Glyphosate is the most widely used compound, usually applied in April or May, when plants are 20-50 cm high, but owing to risks of toxicity to fish and algae, a buffer zone of 2 m should be left unsprayed adjacent to any river or other water body (Marcher, 2001). Nielsen et al. (2005; 2007) comment that the use of herbicides is increasingly controversial in parts of Europe, and there is a general (voluntary) ban on their use in public areas in Denmark. However, this ban was relaxed specially for the use of glyphosate on H. mantegazzianum. They do, however, suggest that herbicide should generally be regarded only as one of the first steps in an integrated control programme.

IPM Programmes

Tiley and Philp (1992) described an integrated two year programme of spraying with glyphosate in April/May, combined with cutting below ground when or where spraying is not feasible, and dealing with large plants threatening to flower before dealing with vegetative plants. Nielsen et al. (2007) discussed the various factors to be considered in arriving at an optimal integrated control system, such as the relative suitability of cutting, umbel removal, root cutting, chemical control and cultivation, according to the size and density of the infestation, and whether eradication or containment is the aim. They also presented a table showing the seasonal schedule for the different operations. Nielsen et al. (2005) produced a table showing the different range of options appropriate to small, medium and large populations of the weed and detailed estimates of the costs of each control method. They also emphasised the importance of re-vegetation as a component of any integrated management strategy. Ravn et al. (2007) discussed this in more detail, though their work mainly relates to H. sosnowskyi. Williamson and Forbes (1982) emphasised that due to the likely spread of seed down a river, it is important to ensure that upstream infestations are dealt with before attempting eradication further down. Müllerová et al. (2005) suggested targeted eradication towards new satellite dispersal foci and linear structures serving as invasion drivers. Deciding on an optimum control programme may be helped by the development of a ‘model-assisted evaluation of control strategies’ by Nehrbass and Winkler (2007), and risk maps predicting the species spread in the future (Cook et al., 2007; Nielsen et al., 2008; Thiele et al., 2008; Wallentin, 2013). Thiele et al. (2008) stated that although the models might not be precise enough for targeted eradication measures in heavily invaded landscapes, they may serve well to identify habitats prone to H. mantegazzianum invasion. Nielsen et al. (2005) finished with a section on ‘Planning a management programme’ with valuable suggestions for defining priorities. Remote sensing means were successfully applied for species monitoring and control to ensure early detection, targeted eradication and regular monitoring (Müllerová et al., 2005, 2013).  

Ecosystem Restoration

The value of re-vegetation following control programmes is discussed under IPM programmes. 

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Further study of potential biocontrol agents is required to clarify whether or not there is some chance of their successful use in control.

 

References

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Anderson UV, Calov B, 1996. Long-term effects of sheep grazing on giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum). In: Caffrey JM, Barrett PRF, Murphy KJ, Wade PM, eds. Management and Ecology of Freshwater Plants. Proceedings, 9th International Symposium on Aquatic Weeds, European Weed Research Society, Dublin, 1994. Hydrobiologia, 340:277-284.

Berenbaum M, 1981. Patterns of furanocoumarin distribution and insect herbivory in Umbelliferae. Plant chemistry and community structure. Ecology, 62:1254-1266.

Brummitt RK, 1968. Heracleum L. In: Tutin, TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA, eds. Flora Europaea, Vol. 2. Rosaceae to Umbelliferae. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Burki C, Nentwig W, 1998. Comparison of herbivore insect communities of Heracleum sphondylium and H. mantegazzianum in Switzerland (Spermatophyta: Apiaceae). Entomologia Generalis, 22:147-155.

Buttenschøn RM, Nielsen C, 2007. Control of Heracleum mantegazzianum by grazing. In: Ecology and management of giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) [ed. by Pys̆ek P, Cock MJW, Nentwig W, Ravn HP] Wallingford, UK: CABI, 240-254.

Caffrey JM, 1999. Phenology and long-term control of Heracleum mantegazzianum. In: Hydrobiologia, 415 [ed. by Caffrey, J. M.\Barrett, P. R. F.\Ferreira, M. T.\Moreira, I. S.\Murphy, K. J.\Wade, P. M.]. 223-228.

Caffrey JM, Madsen JD, 2001. The management of giant hogweed in an Irish river catchment. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management, 39:28-33.

Case MA, Beaman JH, 1992. Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant cow parsnip); another exotic in the Michigan flora. Michigan Botanist, 31:152-154.

Chan JC, Sullivan PJ, O'Sullivan MJ, Eadie PA, 2011. Full thickness burn caused by exposure to giant hogweed: Delayed presentation, histological features and surgical management. Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery, 64(1):128-130.

Clarke CH, 1975. Giant hogweed sap: another environmental mutagen. Mutation Research, 31:63-64

Cock MJW, Seier MK, 2007. The scope for biological control of giant hogweed, Heracleum mantegazzianum. In: Ecology and management of giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) [ed. by Pys̆ek P, Cock MJW, Nentwig W, Ravn HP] Wallingford, UK: CABI, 255-271.

Collingham YC, Wadsworth RA, Huntley B, Hulme PE, 2000. Predicting the spatial distribution of non-indigenous riparian weeds: issues of spatial scale and extent. Journal of Applied Ecology, 37(Suppl. 1):13-27.

Cook A, Marion G, Butler A, Gibson G, 2007. Bayesian inference for the spatio-temporal invasion of alien species. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 69(6):2005-2025. http://www.springerlink.com/content/119979/?p=78a450099cca4821961992abf4873f9f&pi=5

Dawe NK, White ER, 1979. Giant cow parsnip (Heracleum mantegazzianum) on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Canadian Field Naturalist, 93:82-83.

Denness A, Armitage JD, Culham A, 2013. A contribution towards the identification of the giant hogweed species (Heracleum, Apiaceae) naturalised in the British Isles with comments concerning their furanocoumarin content. New Journal of Botany, 3(3):183-196. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/maney/njb

Derraik JGB, 2007. Heracleum mantegazzianum and Toxicodendron succedaneum: plants of human health significance in New Zealand and the National Pest Plant Accord. New Zealand Medical Journal, 120(1239):2657. http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal/120-1259/2657/content.pdf

Dostál P, Müllerová J, Pysek P, Pergl J, Klinerová T, 2013. The impact of an invasive plant changes over time. Ecology Letters, 16(10):1277-1284. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1461-0248

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Fonji SF, Larrivee M, Taff GN, 2014. Public Participation GIS (PPGIS) for Regional Mapping and Environmental Awareness. Journal of Geographic Information System, 6(2):135.

Fowler L, 1998. APHIS interception records revisited. Abstracts, Weed Science Society of America Meeting, 38:26.

Fowler SV, Holden ANG, 1994. Classical biological control for exotic invasive weeds in riparian and aquatic habitats - practice and prospects. Ecology and management of invasive riverside plants., 173-182.

Fowler SV, Holden ANG, Schroeder D, 1991. The possibilities for classical biological control of weeds of industrial and amenity land in the UK using introduced insect herbivores or plant pathogens. Proceedings of the Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Weeds, Vol. 3:1173-1180

Giant Alien, 2004. Giant Hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) a pernicious invasive weed: Developing a sustainable strategy for alien invasive plant management in Europe, EVK2-2001-CT-00128. http://www.flec.kvl.dk/giant-alien/

GRIN, 2002. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) online database. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland, USA. World Wide Web page at http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl?Heracleum+mantegazzianum.

Hansen SO, Hattendorf J, Nentwig W, 2006. Mutualistic relationship beneficial for aphids and ants on giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum). Community Ecology, 7(1):43-52. http://www.terra.hu/comecol

Hansen SO, Hattendorf J, Nielsen C, Wittenberg R, Nentwig W, 2007. Herbivorous arthropods on Heracleum mantegazzianum in its native and invaded distribution range. In: Ecology and management of giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) [ed. by Pys̆ek P, Cock MJW, Nentwig W, Ravn HP] Wallingford, UK: CABI, 170-188.

Hansen SO, Hattendorf J, Wittenberg R, Reznik SY, Nielsen C, Ravn HP, Nentwig W, 2006. Phytophagous insects of giant hogweed Heracleum mantegazzianum (Apiaceae) in invaded areas of Europe and in its native area of the Caucasus. European Journal of Entomology, 103(2):387-395. http://www.eje.cz/scripts/viewabstract.php?abstract=1124&browsevol=103%282%29

Hattendorf J, Hansen SO, Nentwig W, 2007. Defence systems of Heracleum mantegazzianum. In: Ecology and management of giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) [ed. by Pys̆ek P, Cock MJW, Nentwig W, Ravn HP] Wallingford, UK: CABI, 209-225.

Hattendorf J, Hansen SO, Reznik SYa, Nentwig W, 2006. Herbivore impact versus host size preference: endophagous insects on Heracleum mantegazzianum in its native range. Environmental Entomology, 35(4):1013-1020. http://docserver.esa.catchword.org/deliver/cw/pdf/esa/freepdfs/0046225x/v35n4s23.pdf

Hejda M, Pysek P, Pergl J, Sádlo J, Chytrý M, Jarosík V, 2009. Invasion success of alien plants: do habitat affinities in the native distribution range matter? Global Ecology and Biogeography, 18(3):372-382. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/geb

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Jahodová Š, Fröberg L, Pyšek P, Geltman D, Trybush S, Karp A, 2007. Taxonomy, identification, genetic relationships and distribution of large Heracleum species in Europe. In: Ecology and management of giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) [ed. by Pys̆ek P, Cock MJW, Nentwig W, Ravn HP] Wallingford, UK: CABI, 1-19.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Giant Alienhttp://www.giant-alien.dk/

Contributors

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30/04/2014 Updated by:

Jana Mullerova, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Czech Republic

30/09/2007 Updated by:

Chris Parker, Consultant, UK

Distribution Maps

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Distribution map Austria: Restricted distribution, introduced, invasive
Tiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014Australia: Localised, introduced
Westbrooks, 1991; EPPO, 2014Australia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryBelgium: Restricted distribution, introduced, invasive
Tiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014Canada: Localised, introduced, invasive
Page et al., 2006; Tiley et al., 1996; EPPO, 2014Canada
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada
See regional map for distribution within the countrySwitzerland: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Tiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014Czech Republic: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Pysek, 1994; Tiley et al., 1996; Pergl et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014Germany: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Tiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014Denmark: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Tiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014Estonia: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014Finland: Localised, introduced, invasive
Tiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014France: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Tiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014France
See regional map for distribution within the countryUK: Restricted distribution, introduced, invasive
Tiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014Georgia (Republic of): Restricted distribution, native
GRIN, 2002; EPPO, 2014Georgia (Republic of): Restricted distribution, native
GRIN, 2002; EPPO, 2014Hungary: Localised, introduced, invasive
Pysek, 1994; Tiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014Ireland: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Tiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014Iraq: Absent, no pest record
EPPO, 2014Iraq: Absent, no pest record
EPPO, 2014Iraq: Absent, no pest record
EPPO, 2014Iran: Present
EPPO, 2014Iran: Present
EPPO, 2014Iran: Present
EPPO, 2014Iceland: Present, introduced
Jahodová et al. ,2007aIceland: Present, introduced
Jahodová et al. ,2007aItaly: Localised, introduced, invasive
Tiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014Liechtenstein: Localised, introduced, invasive
Tiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014Latvia: Restricted distribution, introduced
Fowler et al., 1991; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014Netherlands: Localised, introduced, invasive
Tiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014Norway: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Tiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014New Zealand: Present, introduced
Weber &, 2003Poland: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014Russian Federation: Localised, native
Korovin et al., 1951; EPPO, 2014Russian Federation: Localised, native
Korovin et al., 1951; EPPO, 2014Russian Federation
See regional map for distribution within the countrySweden: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Lundstrom, 1984; Tiley et al., 1996; EPPO, 2014Slovakia: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Tiley et al., 1996; EPPO, 2014Turkey: Present
EPPO, 2014Turkey: Present
EPPO, 2014Turkey: Present
EPPO, 2014USA: Localised, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2007; Tiley et al., 1996; EPPO, 2014USA: Localised, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2007; Tiley et al., 1996; EPPO, 2014USA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the country
  • = Present, no further details
  • = Evidence of pathogen
  • = Widespread
  • = Last reported
  • = Localised
  • = Presence unconfirmed
  • = Confined and subject to quarantine
  • = See regional map for distribution within the country
  • = Occasional or few reports
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Distribution map (asia) Georgia (Republic of): Restricted distribution, native
GRIN, 2002; EPPO, 2014Iraq: Absent, no pest record
EPPO, 2014Iran: Present
EPPO, 2014Russian Federation: Localised, native
Korovin et al., 1951; EPPO, 2014Turkey: Present
EPPO, 2014
Distribution map (europe) Austria: Restricted distribution, introduced, invasive
Tiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014Belgium: Restricted distribution, introduced, invasive
Tiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014Switzerland: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Tiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014Czech Republic: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Pysek, 1994; Tiley et al., 1996; Pergl et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014Germany: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Tiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014Denmark: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Tiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014Estonia: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014Finland: Localised, introduced, invasive
Tiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014France: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Tiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014Corsica: Absent, no pest record
EPPO, 2014UK: Restricted distribution, introduced, invasive
Tiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014Georgia (Republic of): Restricted distribution, native
GRIN, 2002; EPPO, 2014Hungary: Localised, introduced, invasive
Pysek, 1994; Tiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014Ireland: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Tiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014Iraq: Absent, no pest record
EPPO, 2014Iran: Present
EPPO, 2014Iceland: Present, introduced
Jahodová et al. ,2007aItaly: Localised, introduced, invasive
Tiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014Liechtenstein: Localised, introduced, invasive
Tiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014Latvia: Restricted distribution, introduced
Fowler et al., 1991; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014Netherlands: Localised, introduced, invasive
Tiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014Norway: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Tiley et al., 1996; Brummitt, 1968; EPPO, 2014Poland: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014Russian Federation: Localised, native
Korovin et al., 1951; EPPO, 2014Southern Russia: Restricted distribution, native
Korovin et al., 1951; EPPO, 2014Sweden: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Lundstrom, 1984; Tiley et al., 1996; EPPO, 2014Slovakia: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Tiley et al., 1996; EPPO, 2014Turkey: Present
EPPO, 2014
Distribution map (africa) Iraq: Absent, no pest record
EPPO, 2014Iran: Present
EPPO, 2014Turkey: Present
EPPO, 2014
Distribution map (north america) Canada: Localised, introduced, invasive
Page et al., 2006; Tiley et al., 1996; EPPO, 2014British Columbia: Present
EPPO, 2014; Morton, 1975; Dawe & White, 1979; Page et al., 2006New Brunswick: Present, introduced
Page et al., 2006Nova Scotia: Present, introduced
Page et al., 2006Ontario: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Page et al., 2006Quebec: Present, introduced
Page et al., 2006Iceland: Present, introduced
Jahodová et al. ,2007aUSA: Localised, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2007; Tiley et al., 1996; EPPO, 2014District of Columbia: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014Florida: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014Illinois: Localised, introduced
USDA-NRCS, 2007Indiana: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014Massachusetts: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014Maryland: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014Maine: Localised, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2007; EPPO, 2014Michigan: Localised, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2007; Case & Beaman, 1992; EPPO, 2014North Carolina: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014New York: Widespread, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2007; Berenbaum, 1981; PLANTS, 2002; EPPO, 2014Oregon: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014Pennsylvania: Localised, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2007; EPPO, 2014Vermont: Localised, introduced
Westbrooks, 1991; EPPO, 2014Washington: Widespread, introduced, invasive
Morton, 1975; USDA-NRCS, 2007; EPPO, 2014
Distribution map (central america) USA: Localised, introduced, invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2007; Tiley et al., 1996; EPPO, 2014Florida: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014
Distribution map (south america)
Distribution map (pacific) Australia: Localised, introduced
Westbrooks, 1991; EPPO, 2014South Australia: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014Tasmania: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014New Zealand: Present, introduced
Weber &, 2003