Cookies on Invasive Species Compendium

Like most websites we use cookies. This is to ensure that we give you the best experience possible.

Continuing to use www.cabi.org means you agree to our use of cookies. If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use.

Datasheet

Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Helicoverpa armigera
  • Preferred Common Name
  • cotton bollworm
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); eggs on chickpea: yellowish-white and glistening at first, changing to dark-brown before hatching; pomegranate-shaped, diameter 0.4-0.6 mm.
TitleEggs
CaptionHelicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); eggs on chickpea: yellowish-white and glistening at first, changing to dark-brown before hatching; pomegranate-shaped, diameter 0.4-0.6 mm.
Copyright©Andrew B.S. King
Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); eggs on chickpea: yellowish-white and glistening at first, changing to dark-brown before hatching; pomegranate-shaped, diameter 0.4-0.6 mm.
EggsHelicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); eggs on chickpea: yellowish-white and glistening at first, changing to dark-brown before hatching; pomegranate-shaped, diameter 0.4-0.6 mm.©Andrew B.S. King
Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); larva.
TitleLarva
CaptionHelicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); larva.
Copyright©USDA-ARS
Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); larva.
LarvaHelicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); larva.©USDA-ARS
Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); young tomatoes are invaded and fall, larger larvae may bore into older fruits.
TitleLarva on tomato
CaptionHelicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); young tomatoes are invaded and fall, larger larvae may bore into older fruits.
Copyright©Andrew B.S. King
Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); young tomatoes are invaded and fall, larger larvae may bore into older fruits.
Larva on tomatoHelicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); young tomatoes are invaded and fall, larger larvae may bore into older fruits.©Andrew B.S. King
Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); larvae (two colour forms) on pearl millet.
TitleLarvae on pearl millet
CaptionHelicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); larvae (two colour forms) on pearl millet.
Copyright©Andrew B.S. King
Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); larvae (two colour forms) on pearl millet.
Larvae on pearl milletHelicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); larvae (two colour forms) on pearl millet.©Andrew B.S. King
Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); larvae on pigeon pea pod.
TitleLarvae on pigeon pea
CaptionHelicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); larvae on pigeon pea pod.
Copyright©Andrew B.S. King
Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); larvae on pigeon pea pod.
Larvae on pigeon peaHelicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); larvae on pigeon pea pod.©Andrew B.S. King
Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); larva feeding at base of cotton flower.
TitleLarva on cotton flower
CaptionHelicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); larva feeding at base of cotton flower.
Copyright©Andrew B.S. King
Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); larva feeding at base of cotton flower.
Larva on cotton flowerHelicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); larva feeding at base of cotton flower.©Andrew B.S. King
Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); adult. wingspan 3.5-4 cm, 14-18 mm long; forewings with 7-8 blackish spots on the margin and a broad, irregular, transverse brown band. Hindwings pale-straw colour with a broad dark-brown border containing a paler patch, with yellowish margins.
TitleAdult
CaptionHelicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); adult. wingspan 3.5-4 cm, 14-18 mm long; forewings with 7-8 blackish spots on the margin and a broad, irregular, transverse brown band. Hindwings pale-straw colour with a broad dark-brown border containing a paler patch, with yellowish margins.
Copyright©ICRISAT
Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); adult. wingspan 3.5-4 cm, 14-18 mm long; forewings with 7-8 blackish spots on the margin and a broad, irregular, transverse brown band. Hindwings pale-straw colour with a broad dark-brown border containing a paler patch, with yellowish margins.
AdultHelicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); adult. wingspan 3.5-4 cm, 14-18 mm long; forewings with 7-8 blackish spots on the margin and a broad, irregular, transverse brown band. Hindwings pale-straw colour with a broad dark-brown border containing a paler patch, with yellowish margins.©ICRISAT
Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); adult.
TitleAdult
CaptionHelicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); adult.
Copyright©Georg Goergen/IITA Insect Museum, Cotonou, Benin
Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); adult.
AdultHelicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); adult.©Georg Goergen/IITA Insect Museum, Cotonou, Benin
Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); transmission EM of H. armigera NPV. Original image x 96,000.
TitleTEM
CaptionHelicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); transmission EM of H. armigera NPV. Original image x 96,000.
Copyright©J.R. Adams
Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); transmission EM of H. armigera NPV. Original image x 96,000.
TEMHelicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); transmission EM of H. armigera NPV. Original image x 96,000.©J.R. Adams
Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); interior surface of the right valva: A. Helicoverpa armigera. B.  Helicoverpa assulta. Note mm scale bar.
TitleAdult genitalia
CaptionHelicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); interior surface of the right valva: A. Helicoverpa armigera. B. Helicoverpa assulta. Note mm scale bar.
Copyright©Shin-ichi Yoshimatsu
Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); interior surface of the right valva: A. Helicoverpa armigera. B.  Helicoverpa assulta. Note mm scale bar.
Adult genitaliaHelicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); interior surface of the right valva: A. Helicoverpa armigera. B. Helicoverpa assulta. Note mm scale bar.©Shin-ichi Yoshimatsu

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner, 1809)

Preferred Common Name

  • cotton bollworm

Other Scientific Names

  • Chloridea armigera Hübner
  • Chloridea obsoleta
  • Helicoverpa obsoleta Auct.
  • Heliothis armigera Hübner
  • Heliothis fusca Cockerell
  • Heliothis obsoleta Auct.
  • Heliothis rama Bhattacherjee & Gupta
  • Noctua armigera Hübner

International Common Names

  • English: African cotton bollworm; corn earworm; gram pod borer; grub, tomato; old world bollworm; tobacco budworm
  • Spanish: gusano bellotero del algodon; gusano de la cápsula; gusano del elote del maiz; gusano verde de la cápsula; noctua del tomate; oruga de las cápsulas del algodón; oruga del choclo
  • French: chenille des epis du mais; noctuelle des tomates; ver de la capsule

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: amerikansk bomuldsugle
  • Germany: Altweltlicher Baumwollkapselwurm
  • Italy: elotide del cotone; elotide del granturco; elotide del pomodoro; elotide del tabacco; nottua del granturco; nottua gialla del granturco
  • Netherlands: mimosa-rups

EPPO code

  • HELIAR (Helicoverpa armigera)
  • HELIRA (Heliothis rama)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Noctuidae
  •                             Genus: Helicoverpa
  •                                 Species: Helicoverpa armigera

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page The taxonomic situation is complicated and presents several problems. Hardwick (1965) reviewed the New World corn earworm species complex and the Old World African bollworm, most of which had previously been referred to as a single species (Heliothis armigera or H. obsoleta), and pointed out that there was a complex of species and subspecies involved. He proposed that the New World H. zea (first used in 1955) was distinct from the Old World H. armigera on the basis of male and female genitalia, and he described the new genus Helicoverpa to include these important pest species. Some 80 or more species were formerly placed in Heliothis (sensu lato), and Hardwick referred 17 species (including 11 new species) to Helicoverpa on the basis of differences in both male and female genitalia. Within this new genus the zea group contains eight species, and the armigera group two species with three subspecies. See also Hardwick (1970).

Because the old name of Heliothis for the pest species (four major pest species and three minor) is so well established in the literature, and as dissection of genitalia is required for identification, there has been resistance to the name change (e.g. Heath and Emmet, 1983), but Hardwick's work is generally accepted and so the name change must also be accepted (see Matthews, 1991).

Description

Top of page Egg

Yellowish-white and glistening at first, changing to dark-brown before hatching; pomegranate-shaped, 0.4-0.6 mm in diameter; the apical area surrounding the micropyle is smooth, the rest of the surface sculptured in the form of approximately 24 longitudinal ribs, alternate ones being slightly shorter, with numerous finer transverse ridges between them; laid on plants which are flowering, or are about to produce flowers.

Larva

The first and second larval instars are generally yellowish-white to reddish-brown in colour, without prominent markings; head, prothoracic shield, supra-anal shield and prothoracic legs are very dark-brown to black, as are also the spiracles and tuberculate bases to the setae, which give the larva a spotted appearance; prolegs are present on the third to sixth, and tenth, abdominal segments. A characteristic pattern develops in subsequent instars. Fully grown larvae are ca 30-40 mm long; the head is brown and mottled; the prothoracic and supra-anal plates and legs are pale-brown, only claws and spiracles remaining black; the skin surface consists of close-set, minute tubercles. Crochets on the prolegs are arranged in an arc. The final body segment is elongated. Colour pattern: a narrow, dark, median dorsal band; on each side, first a broad pale band, then a broad dark band; on the lateral line, a broad, very light band on which the row of spiracles shows up clearly. The underside is uniformly rather pale. On the basic dorsal pattern, numerous very narrow, somewhat wavy or wrinkled longitudinal stripes are superimposed. Colour is extremely variable and the pattern described may be formed from shades of green, straw-yellow, and pinkish- to reddish-brown or even black.

Pupa

Mahogany-brown, 14-18 mm long, with smooth surface, rounded both anteriorly and posteriorly, with two tapering parallel spines at posterior tip.

Adult

Stout-bodied moth of typical noctuid appearance, with 3.5-4 cm wing span; broad across the thorax and then tapering, 14-18 mm long; colour variable, but male usually greenish-grey and female orange-brown. Forewings have a line of seven to eight blackish spots on the margin and a broad, irregular, transverse brown band. Hindwings are pale-straw colour with a broad dark-brown border that contains a paler patch; they have yellowish margins and strongly marked veins and a dark, comma-shaped marking in the middle. Antennae are covered with fine hairs.

For more information, see Dominguez Garcia-Tejero (1957), Hardwick (1965), Cayrol (1972), Delatte (1973), King (1994).

Distribution

Top of page The first issue of the CIE distribution map (CIE, 1952) included the American continent, but the species found there is now known to be Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), the New World bollworm (EPPO/CABI, 1992).

See also CABI/EPPO (1998, No. 77).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
ArmeniaPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
AzerbaijanPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
BangladeshWidespreadIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
BhutanPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
Bismarck ArchipelagoPresentIIE, 1993
Brunei DarussalamPresentWaterhouse, 1993
CambodiaPresentIIE, 1993; Waterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
ChinaRestricted distributionIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-AnhuiPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-BeijingPresentIIE, 1993
-FujianPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-GuangdongPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-GuangxiPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-GuizhouPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-HainanPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-HebeiWidespreadIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-HeilongjiangPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-HenanWidespreadIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-Hong KongWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-HubeiPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-HunanPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-JiangsuWidespreadIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-JiangxiPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-JilinPresentEPPO, 2014
-LiaoningPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-Nei MengguPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-QinghaiPresentZhang et al., 2001
-ShaanxiPresentIIE, 1993
-ShandongWidespreadIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-ShanxiPresentEPPO, 2014
-SichuanPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-TibetPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-XinjiangWidespreadIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-YunnanPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-ZhejiangPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
Cocos IslandsPresent, ; EPPO, 2014
Georgia (Republic of)PresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
IndiaWidespreadIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentEPPO, 2014
-Andhra PradeshPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-AssamPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-BiharPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-ChhattisgarhPresentNetam et al., 2007
-DelhiPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-GujaratPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-HaryanaPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-Himachal PradeshPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-Indian PunjabPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-Jammu and KashmirPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-JharkhandPresentRabindra and Devendera, 2007
-KarnatakaPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014; Manjula et al., 2015
-KeralaPresentLevin et al., 2004
-Madhya PradeshPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-MaharashtraPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-ManipurPresentDevi et al., 2002
-NagalandPresentImosanen, and Singh, 2005
-OdishaPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-RajasthanPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-SikkimPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-Tamil NaduPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-Uttar PradeshPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-UttarakhandPresentKuldeep and Ram, 2007; EPPO, 2014
-West BengalPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
IndonesiaPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-Irian JayaPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-JavaPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-MoluccasPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-Nusa TenggaraPresentEPPO, 2014
-SulawesiPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-SumatraPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
IranWidespreadIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
IraqPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
IsraelWidespreadIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
JapanWidespreadIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-HokkaidoPresent, ; EPPO, 2014
-HonshuPresent, ; EPPO, 2014
-KyushuPresent, ; EPPO, 2014
-ShikokuPresent, ; EPPO, 2014
JordanPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
KazakhstanPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
Korea, DPRPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
KuwaitPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
KyrgyzstanPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
LaosWidespreadIIE, 1993; Waterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
LebanonPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
MalaysiaPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent, ; EPPO, 2014
-SabahPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-SarawakPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
MyanmarPresentIIE, 1993; Waterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
NepalPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
PakistanPresentAPPPC, 1987; IIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
PhilippinesPresentIIE, 1993; Waterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
Saudi ArabiaWidespreadIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
SingaporePresentIIE, 1993; Waterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
Sri LankaPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
SyriaWidespreadIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
TaiwanWidespreadIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
TajikistanWidespreadIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
ThailandPresentIIE, 1993; Waterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
TurkeyRestricted distribution****IIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
TurkmenistanPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
United Arab EmiratesPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
UzbekistanPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
VietnamPresentIIE, 1993; Waterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
YemenWidespreadIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014

Africa

AlgeriaWidespreadIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
AngolaPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
BeninPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
BotswanaPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
Burkina FasoPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
BurundiPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
CameroonPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
Cape VerdePresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
Central African RepublicPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
ChadPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
CongoPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
Côte d'IvoirePresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
EgyptWidespreadIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
EritreaPresentIIE, 1993
EthiopiaPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
GabonPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
GambiaPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
GhanaPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
GuineaPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
KenyaPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
LesothoPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
LibyaWidespreadIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
MadagascarPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
MalawiPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
MaliPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
MauritaniaPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
MauritiusPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
MayottePresentEPPO, 2014
MoroccoRestricted distributionIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
MozambiquePresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
NamibiaPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
NigerPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
NigeriaPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
RéunionPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
RwandaPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
Saint HelenaPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-AscensionPresentIIE, 1993
SenegalPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
SeychellesPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
Sierra LeonePresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
SomaliaPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
South AfricaWidespreadIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
SudanPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
SwazilandPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
TanzaniaPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
TogoPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
TunisiaRestricted distributionIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
UgandaPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
ZambiaPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
ZimbabweWidespreadIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014

North America

USAAbsent, formerly presentNAPPO, 2015; NAPPO, 2016
-FloridaAbsent, formerly presentNAPPO, 2015; NAPPO, 2016

Central America and Caribbean

Puerto RicoRestricted distributionNAPPO, 2014

South America

ArgentinaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014; Murúa et al., 2014
BrazilRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-BahiaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-Espirito SantoPresentPratissoli et al., 2015
-GoiasPresentCzepak et al., 2013; EPPO, 2014
-Mato GrossoPresentCzepak et al., 2013; Wee et al., 2013; EPPO, 2014
-Sao PauloPresentBueno et al., 2014
ParaguayRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014; Murúa et al., 2014
UruguayPresentCastiglioni et al., 2016

Europe

AlbaniaWidespreadIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
AustriaPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014
BelgiumAbsent, intercepted onlyEPPO, 2014
BulgariaWidespread****IIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
CroatiaAbsent, formerly presentEPPO, 2014
CyprusRestricted distributionIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicEradicated, ; EPPO, 2014
DenmarkAbsent, intercepted onlyIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
EstoniaAbsent, formerly presentEPPO, 2014
FinlandPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014
FranceRestricted distributionIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
GermanyPresent, few occurrencesIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
GreeceWidespreadIIE, 1993; Demirumlaut~er, 2012; EPPO, 2014
HungaryRestricted distribution1951IIE, 1993; Bozsik, 2007; EPPO, 2014
ItalyRestricted distributionIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-SardiniaPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-SicilyPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
LatviaAbsent, formerly presentEPPO, 2014
LithuaniaPresentOstrauskas et al., 2002
MacedoniaPresentEPPO, 2014
MaltaRestricted distributionIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
MoldovaPresentTimus and Croitoru, 2006
MontenegroPresentRadonjic and Hrncic, 2011
NetherlandsEradicated, ; IPPC, 2007; EPPO, 2014Absent, pest eradicated (incidental findings), confirmed by survey. Based on long-term annual surveys, 318 survey observations in 2012.
NorwayAbsent, formerly presentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
PolandPresent, few occurrencesIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
PortugalWidespreadIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-AzoresPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-MadeiraPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
RomaniaWidespreadIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
Russian FederationRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-Russian Far EastPresent,
-Southern RussiaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-Western SiberiaPresentEPPO, 2014
SerbiaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
SlovakiaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
SloveniaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
SpainWidespreadIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
SwedenPresentPalmqvist, 2015
SwitzerlandRestricted distributionIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
UKEradicatedEPPO, 2014
-Channel IslandsAbsent, formerly presentEPPO, 2014
-England and WalesEradicatedEPPO, 2014
UkraineWidespread****IIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Restricted distributionIIE, 1993

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
AustraliaWidespread****IIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-New South WalesPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-QueenslandPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-South AustraliaPresentEPPO, 2014
-TasmaniaPresentEPPO, 2014
-VictoriaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Western AustraliaPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
FijiPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
GuamPresentEPPO, 2014
KiribatiPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
Marshall IslandsPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentEPPO, 2014
New CaledoniaWidespreadIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
New ZealandWidespreadIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-Kermadec IslandsPresentIIE, 1993
Norfolk IslandPresentHolloway, 1977; IIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
PalauPresentEPPO, 2014
Papua New GuineaPresentAPPPC, 1987; IIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
SamoaPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
Solomon IslandsPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
TongaPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
TuvaluPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
VanuatuPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

H. armigera is listed as an A2 quarantine pest by EPPO (OEPP/EPPO, 1981). Although it is certainly a serious outdoor pest in Mediterranean countries, it has probably reached the limits of its natural distribution in the EPPO region. Quarantine status arises from the risk of introduction into glasshouse crops in northern Europe. EPPO recommends (OEPP/EPPO, 1990) that imported propagation material should derive from an area where H. armigera does not occur or from a place of production where H. armigera has not been detected during the previous 3 months.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page The most important crop hosts of which H. armigera is a major pest are cotton, pigeonpea, chickpea, tomato, sorghum and cowpea; other hosts include groundnut, okra, peas, field beans (Lablab spp.), soyabeans, lucerne, Phaseolus spp., other Leguminosae, tobacco, potatoes, maize, flax, a number of fruits (Prunus, Citrus), forest trees and a range of vegetable crops. A wide range of wild plant species support larval development: important species in India include Acanthospermum spp., Datura spp., Gomphrena celosioides and, in Africa, Amaranthus spp., Cleome sp. and Acalypha sp.

See Matthews (1991) and Majunath et al. (1989) for full lists.

Host selection has been summarized by King (1994) and treated in some depth by Fitt (1991), and for all moths by Ramaswamy (1988).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContext
Abelmoschus esculentus (okra)MalvaceaeMain
Acalypha (Copperleaf)EuphorbiaceaeWild host
Albizia procera (white siris)FabaceaeMain
AlliumLiliaceaeMain
Amaranthus (amaranth)AmaranthaceaeWild host
Arachis hypogaea (groundnut)FabaceaeMain
Avena sativa (oats)PoaceaeMain
Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera (Brussels sprouts)BrassicaceaeOther
Brassica oleracea var. italica (broccoli)BrassicaceaeMain
Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis (Chinese cabbage)BrassicaceaeMain
Brassicaceae (cruciferous crops)BrassicaceaeMain
Broussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry)MoraceaeMain
Brugmansia candida (angel's trumpet)SolanaceaeOther
Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea)FabaceaeMain
Callistephus chinensis (China aster)AsteraceaeOther
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeMain
Chenopodium album (fat hen)ChenopodiaceaeWild host
Cicer arietinum (chickpea)FabaceaeMain
CitrusRutaceaeMain
Commelina benghalensis (wandering jew)CommelinaceaeWild host
Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed)ConvolvulaceaeWild host
Cucurbitaceae (cucurbits)CucurbitaceaeMain
Datura (thorn-apple)SolanaceaeWild host
Datura metel (Hindu datura)SolanaceaeWild host
Datura stramonium (jimsonweed)SolanaceaeWild host
Gaillardia pulchella (Indian blanket)AsteraceaeOther
Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeMain
Gomphrena (globe-amaranth)AmaranthaceaeWild host
Gossypium (cotton)MalvaceaeMain
Guizotia abyssinica (niger)AsteraceaeOther
Helianthus annuus (sunflower)AsteraceaeMain
Hordeum vulgare (barley)PoaceaeMain
Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane)SolanaceaeWild host
Hyptis suaveolensLamiaceaeOther
Lablab purpureus (hyacinth bean)FabaceaeMain
Linum usitatissimum (flax)Main
Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeMain
Medicago sativa (lucerne)FabaceaeMain
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)SolanaceaeMain
Papaver somniferum (Opium poppy)PapaveraceaeOther
Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet)PoaceaeMain
Phaseolus (beans)FabaceaeMain
Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeMain
Pinus (pines)PinaceaeMain
Pisum sativum (pea)FabaceaeMain
Plectranthus neochilusLamiaceaeOther
Polyphagous (polyphagous)Main
Prunus (stone fruit)RosaceaeMain
Rosa damascena (Damask rose)RosaceaeOther
Salvia sclareaLamiaceaeOther
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeMain
Sonchus arvensis (perennial sowthistle)AsteraceaeWild host
Sorghum bicolor (sorghum)PoaceaeMain
Tagetes (marigold)AsteraceaeOther
Triticum (wheat)PoaceaeMain
Triticum aestivum (wheat)PoaceaeMain
Vigna unguiculata (cowpea)FabaceaeMain
Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeMain

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page On Cotton

Bore holes are visible at the base of flower buds, the latter being hollowed out. Bracteoles are spread out and curled downwards. Leaves and shoots may also be consumed by larvae. Larger larvae bore into maturing green bolls; young bolls fall after larval damage. Adults lay fewer eggs on smooth-leaved varieties.

On Tomatoes

Young fruits are invaded and fall; larger larvae may bore into older fruits. Secondary infections by other organisms lead to rotting.

On Maize

Eggs are laid on the silks, larvae invade the cobs and developing grain is consumed. Secondary bacterial infections are common.

On Sorghum

Larvae feed on the developing grain, hiding inside the head during the daytime. Compact-headed varieties are preferred.

On Chickpea

Foliage, sometimes entire small plants consumed; larger larvae bore into pods and consume developing seed. Resistant cultivars exist.

On Pigeonpea

Flower buds and flowers bored by small larvae, may drop; larger larvae bore into locules of pods and consume developing seed. Short duration and determinate varieties are subject to greater damage. Less-preferred varieties exist.

On Groundnut

Leaves, sometimes flowers attacked by larvae; severe infestations cause defoliation. Less preferred varieties exist.

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page

Fruit

  • external feeding
  • internal feeding
  • lesions: black or brown
  • premature drop

Growing point

  • external feeding

Inflorescence

  • external feeding
  • internal feeding

Leaves

  • external feeding

Biology and Ecology

Top of page In southern Bulgaria, there are two complete generations a year and a partial third, winter being passed in the pupal stage in the soil. Adults emerge in the first 3 weeks of May and, 2-6 days later (rarely 10), oviposition begins. This period lasts 5-24 days and, within this time, a female may lay up to 3180 eggs (up to 457 in 24 h), singly and mainly at night, on chickpeas, cotton, maize, okras, tobacco, tomatoes, Phaseolus and certain weeds. At 25°C, they hatch in 3 days, but can take 10-11 days in colder weather. The first generation larvae (i.e. the larval progeny of the overwintering generation) appear in May and feed for 24-36 days; those of the second generation feed for 16-30 days, and those of the third generation (at 25-26°C) develop in 19-26 days. When fully fed, the larvae descend to the soil and, after 1-7 days, pupate in an earthen cell, 2-8 cm below the surface. The overwintering pupae remain in the soil for 176-221 days, whereas this stage lasts 13-19 days in the first generation, 8-15 days in August and up to 44 days in colder weather in September. Longevity of adults is about 3 weeks.

In southern France, adults appear from May until the end of October. Some are thought to be migrants and others to have overwintered there. A second generation occurs during summer, and third-generation adults appear in September. Second-generation adults from more northern regions migrate towards the south and Mediterranean Basin in autumn. The principal host on which eggs are laid are maize in south-western France and tomatoes in the Rhone Valley.

In Tunisia, Capsicum, tomatoes, maize and cauliflowers are most frequently attacked. The eggs are laid on plants at or near flowering.

In the former USSR, eggs are laid on weeds during spring and early summer; the developing larvae attack cultivated crops and then cotton flowers in August. Larvae rarely move from one plant to another. About 80% of pupae enter diapause at the beginning of October and overwinter in this state.

In Iran, H. armigera also overwinters as the pupal stage, under the soil surface. At the beginning of May, adults emerge and mate promptly. The females lay eggs on weeds and host plants of economic importance, but normally the first generation feeds on weeds. The oviposition period lasts for about 20 days, during which time each female lays 500-2700 eggs. The incubation period takes 3-4 days in summer and about a week during spring and autumn. The larval period lasts 14-18 days in summer and 17-21 days in autumn. During the growing season, H. armigera produces two to six generations according to the climatic conditions. In the northern part of Iran, the most important cotton-growing area in the country, there are four to six generations annually.

In South Africa, the oviposition period is 10-23 days, with an average of 730 eggs per female (total 1600; maximum per night 480). Hairy surfaces are preferred for oviposition, which is closely linked with the period of bud burst and flower production in most host plants. Eggs hatch in 3 days at 22.5°C, and in 9 days at 17.0°C. The larval period lasts 18 days at 22.5°C and 51 days at 17.5°C, development thresholds being 14 and 36°C; rate of development is also affected by food. Fully grown larvae leave the plant to pupate in the soil at a depth of 3-15 cm. In Zimbabwe, pupation may occur in the tip of a maize cob. The pupa may undergo a facultative diapause, which considerably extends the pupal period. In southern Africa, the minimum pupal period in summer is 12 days, increasing as temperature falls to about 57 days. Emerging female moths must feed before their ovarioles are mature. Average life spans for males and females in South Africa are 9 and 14 days, respectively (8 and 11 days in Zimbabwe).

In South and South-East Asia, development times are generally similar to those in South Africa. Egg incubation has been recorded as 2-5, usually 3, days in India and Western Tanganyika (Tanzania). On eclosion the neonate larva usually eats some or all of the empty eggshell before wandering for some distance and starting to feed on the plant, usually in a secluded place such as a flower, flower bud, or the underside of a leaf. Larger larvae prefer to feed on immature fruiting bodies - these are often hollowed out as in cotton and pulses - but will feed on leaves in their absence; larvae often move about between feeding sites on or between adjacent plants. Moulting, particularly of larval stages 2-4, often takes place on the upper surface of a leaf in full sunlight. The number of larval instars varies from five to seven, with six being most common (Hardwick, 1965). The duration of larval development depends on the temperature (to a maximum of 35°C) and on the quality of the host food. Duration varied from 12.8-21.3 days on maize at temperatures of 24-27.2°C; 15.2-23.8 days on tomato at an average of 24.3°C, and averaged 21.1 days (including a prepupal period of 2.7 days) on cotton flower buds at 21.0-27.0°C. Duration of the larval stage was generally shorter on pigeonpea and soyabean than on cotton and tomato, although there is some inconsistency between authors' results (see King, 1994). The heaviest larvae had fed on cotton (Jayaraj, 1982).

On completion of growth the fully fed larva enters the soil to pupate, at a depth which depends upon the hardness of the soil. It is generally formed at a depth of 2.5 to 17.5 cm, but occasionally in surface litter or at the last feeding site on the plant. After a prepupal stage of 1-4 days, during which the larva becomes shorter and more uniform in colour, it moults into a pupa which turns chestnut-brown after about 24 hours.

H. armigera has a facultative pupal diapause which is induced by short daylengths (11-14 hours/day) and low temperatures (15-23°C) experienced as a larva. The duration of the non-diapausing pupal stage varies from 6 days at 35°C to 30 days at 15°C, about 10-14 days in the field in central India. Diapausing pupae may remain in that state for several months, and durations of over 1 year have been recorded in the laboratory. A summer diapause, in which pupae enter a state of arrested development during prolonged hot, dry conditions, has been recorded in the Sudan (Hackett and Gatehouse, 1982).

The duration of the adult stage depends upon the availability of food, as sucrose or nectar; pupal weight (as fat body content); temperature; and activity, with female moths generally living longer than males. In captivity, longevity varied from 1-23 days for male and 5-28 days for female H. armigera in South Africa (Pearson, 1958).

For further information, see Ditman and Cory (1931), Dominguez Garcia-Tejero (1957), Pearson (1958), Hardwick (1965), Cayrol (1972), Delatte (1973), Ibrahim et al. (1974), Roome (1979), Hackett and Gatehouse (1982), Jayaraj (1982) and King (1994).

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Acanthaspis pedestris Predator
Acridotheres tristis Predator
Andrallus spinidens Predator
Apanteles diparopsidis Parasite Larvae
Argiope brunnichii Predator
Bacillus cereus Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae Sudan; Haryana; Shandong; Uttar Pradesh; Tamil Nadu; Delhi
Bacillus thuringiensis aizawai Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis entomocidus Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis galleriae Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis kenyae Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis shandongiensis Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. dendrolimus Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae
Baculovirus heliothis Pathogen Taiwan
Banchopsis ruficornis Parasite Larvae
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen
Brachymeria lasus Parasite
Brachymeria secundaria Parasite
Bracon brevicornis Parasite Larvae Chad; South Africa cotton; field crops
Bracon gelechiae Parasite
Bracon greeni Parasite Larvae
Bracon hebetor Parasite Larvae Israel; USSR
Bracon kirkpatricki Parasite Larvae India cotton
Brinckochrysa scelestes Predator
Bubulcus ibis Predator Larvae
Campoletis chlorideae Parasite Larvae Australia; China; India; India; Andhra Pradesh; Pakistan Amaranthus viridis; Cicer arietinum; cotton; Papaver hybridum; polyphagous
Campoletis clavata
Campoletis flavicincta Parasite
Campoletis grioti
Campoletis prinzi
Campoletis rufegastor
Campoletis sonorensis Parasite
Camponotus sericeus Predator
Campoplex collinus Parasite
Carabidae Predator Pupae
Carcelia cosmophilae Parasite Larvae
Carcelia illota Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Cardiochiles nigriceps Parasite Larvae
Cardiochiles variegatus Parasite Larvae
Cataglyphis bicolor Predator
Charops Parasite Larvae
Charops ater Parasite
Charops bicolor Parasite Pakistan tomatoes
Cheilomenes sexmaculata Predator
Chelonus curvimaculatus Parasite Larvae
Chelonus formosanus Parasite
Chelonus insularis Parasite Larvae South Africa fruit trees
Chelonus pilosulus Parasite Larvae
Chrysopa Predator Eggs/Larvae
Chrysopa congrua Predator
Chrysopa formosa Predator China; Shandong cotton
Chrysopa intima Predator China; Shandong cotton
Chrysopa pallens Predator Shandong
Chrysopa phyllochroma Predator
Chrysoperla Predator
Chrysoperla carnea Predator Andhra Pradesh; China; Portugal; USSR; Tamil Nadu cotton
Chrysoperla sinica Predator Shandong cotton
Coccinella septempunctata Predator China; Shandong cotton
Coccinella transversalis Predator Australia; Queensland Citrus
Coccinella undecimpunctata Predator
Compsilura concinnata Parasite Larvae
Copidosoma Parasite Eggs
Copidosoma obscurum Parasite
Copidosoma truncatellum Parasite Cape Verde beans
Cotesia flavipes Parasite Larvae
Cotesia glomeratus Parasite Larvae
Cotesia kazak Parasite Larvae Australia; Cape Verde; New Zealand; Queensland beans; Cajanus cajan; polyphagous; tomatoes
Cotesia marginiventris Parasite Larvae Australia; Cape Verde; Fiji; India Cajanus cajan; polyphagous; tomatoes
Cotesia ruficrus Parasite Larvae Australia; Cape Verde beans; polyphagous
cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses Pathogen Larvae
Deraeocoris punctulatus Predator
Diadegma fenestrale
Dicyphus tamaninii Predator
Dohrniphora cornuta
Dorylus helvolus Predator
Drino imberbis Parasite Larvae Chad; Mauritius cotton; tobacco; tomatoes; vegetables
Ectomocoris xaverei Predator
Edocla slateri Predator
Eocanthecona furcellata Predator Nebapure and Meena, 2011
Eriborus argenteopilosus Parasite
Erigonidium graminicolum Predator China; Shandong cotton
Euborellia pallipes Predator
Eucelatoria bryani Parasite Larvae India
Eucelatoria rubentis Parasite
Eumenes maxillosus Predator
Euplectrus euplexiae Parasite
Euplectrus laphygmae Parasite
Eurytoma Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Exorista fallax Parasite Larvae
Exorista japonica Parasite Larvae
Exorista larvarum Parasite Larvae Egypt tomatoes
Exorista xanthaspis Parasite Larvae India; Gujarat sunflowers
Geocoris Predator Larvae
Geocoris amabilis Predator
Glabromicroplitis croceipes Parasite Larvae India; New Zealand
Glyptapanteles africanus Parasite
Goniophthalmus halli Parasite Larvae Cape Verde; Chad; Kenya; Zimbabwe Cajanus cajan; Citrus; cotton; tomatoes
Granulosis virus Pathogen
Harmonia axyridis Predator China; Shandong cotton
Helicoverpa armigera nuclear polyhedrosis virus Pathogen Larvae
Heliothis nucleopolyhedrosis virus Pathogen
Hemidactylus flavivirides Predator
Heteronychus arator Parasite
Heteropelma scaposum Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Hippodamia variegata Predator China; Shandong cotton
Hyposoter didymator Parasite Australia; Cape Verde beans; Cajanus cajan; polyphagous; tomatoes
Laius venustus Predator Sudan cotton
Lespesia archippivora Parasite Larvae India
Linnaemya longirostris Parasite Larvae Kenya tomatoes
Mallada boninensis Predator
Mallada desjardinsi Predator
Mepachymerus ensifer
Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogen
Meteorus clytes Parasite Larvae Tanzania groundnuts
Meteorus ictericus Parasite Larvae Israel
Meteorus laphygmarum Parasite Larvae Cameroon; Chad cotton
Meteorus pulchricornis Parasite Larvae
Microchelonus blackburni Parasite Eggs/Larvae Haryana; India; Maharashtra Cajanus cajan; cotton
Microlestes discoidalis Predator Larvae Sudan cotton
Micromus sjostedti Predator
Microplitis Parasite Larvae
Microplitis demolitor Parasite Larvae Queensland
Microplitis rufiventris Parasite Larvae Israel
Misumenops tricuspidatus Predator China; Shandong cotton
Monomorium indicum Predator
Nabis capsiformis Predator Sudan cotton
Nabis capsiformis Predator Larvae
Nabis palifer Predator
Nabis sinoferus Predator
Nemoraea rubellana Parasite Larvae
Nesidiocoris tenuis Predator
Netelia testacea Parasite
Nomuraea rileyi Pathogen Larvae
Nosema furnacalis Pathogen
Nosema liturae Pathogen
Nosema medinalis Pathogen
Nosema pyrausta Pathogen
Nucleopolyhedrosis virus Pathogen
Oncocephalus annulipes Predator
Orius Predator Eggs/Larvae
Orius albidipennis Predator Sudan cotton
Orius minutus Predator China cotton
Orius niger Predator
Orius similis Predator
Orius tantillus Predator
Orius thripoborus Predator
Pales coerulea Parasite Larvae Zimbabwe Citrus
Pales pavida Parasite Larvae
Palexorista laxa Parasite Larvae Botswana sorghum
Palexorista quadrizonula Parasite Larvae
Palexorista solennis Parasite Larvae
Parania prima Parasite
Paratrechina longicornis Predator
Pardosa astrigera Predator
Passer domesticus Predator
Peribaea mitis Parasite Larvae Sudan Trifolium
Peribaea orbata Parasite Larvae
Podalonia tydei Predator
Podisus maculiventris Predator
Praomys natalensis Predator
Propylea japonica Predator Eggs/Larvae China; Shandong cotton
Pseudogonia rufifrons Parasite Larvae
Rhynocoris fuscipes Predator
Rhynocoris kumari Predator
Senometopia excisa Parasite Larvae
Senometopia kockiana Parasite Larvae
Serratia marcescens Pathogen
Sinophorus xanthostomus Parasite New Zealand
Solenopsis geminata Predator
Spallanzania hebes Parasite Larvae
Steinernema carpocapsae Parasite
Steinernema feltiae Parasite
Sterna aurantia Predator
Sturmiopsis inferens Parasite Larvae
Sycanus indagator Predator Mauritius tobacco; tomatoes; vegetables
Tachina praeceps Parasite Larvae
Telenomus Parasite Eggs
Telenomus busseolae Parasite
Telenomus remus Parasite Eggs Cape Verde Cajanus cajan; tomatoes
Telenomus ullyetti Parasite Eggs
Temelucha philippinensis Parasite
Tetrastichus howardi Parasite
Tetrastichus israeli Parasite
Trichogramma Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma achaeae Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma bactriana Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma bourarachae Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma brasiliense Parasite Eggs India; Karnataka
Trichogramma brassicae Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma chilonis Parasite Eggs Cape Verde; China; India; India; Gujarat; South Africa; Shandong beans; cotton; field crops; Medicago sativa; potatoes
Trichogramma chilotraeae Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma closterae Parasite Eggs China cotton
Trichogramma cordubensis Parasite Eggs Spain cotton
Trichogramma dendrolimi Parasite Eggs China; China; Shanxi cotton
Trichogramma evanescens Parasite Eggs Spain; Uzbekistan cotton
Trichogramma exiguum Parasite Eggs India
Trichogramma fasciatum Parasite Eggs South Africa field crops
Trichogramma minutum Parasite Eggs India
Trichogramma nubilale Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma perkinsi Parasite Eggs India; South Africa field crops; polyphagous
Trichogramma pintoi Parasite Eggs Spain cotton
Trichogramma pretiosum Parasite Eggs India; Indonesia; South Africa; Karnataka
Trichogramma rhenanum Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma semblidis Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma semifumatum Parasite Eggs South Africa field crops
Trichogramma sericini Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma urquijoi Parasite Eggs Spain cotton
Trichogrammatoidea Parasite Eggs
Trichogrammatoidea armigera Parasite Eggs Cape Verde Cajanus cajan; tomatoes
Trichogrammatoidea australicum Parasite Eggs
Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Parasite Eggs
Trichogrammatoidea cojuangcoi Parasite
Trichogrammatoidea lutea Parasite Eggs
Trichogrammatoidea nana Parasite Eggs
Trichospilus pupivora Parasite
Vairimorpha necatrix Pathogen
virus-like particles
Winthemia lateralis Parasite Larvae
Xanthopimpla punctata Parasite
Xanthopimpla stemmator Parasite
Xysticus croceus Predator China; Shandong cotton
Xysticus mongolicus Predator
Zelus renardii Predator

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page The important species of natural enemies vary from crop to crop and from country to country. Many more parasitoids have been recorded by workers in a range of countries than it has been possible to include here; those included in the List of Natural Enemies are noted as having been of significant importance, although not necessarily on all crops, in all seasons or locations. Levels of parasitism are in many cases host-related, particularly in the Trichogrammatidae, parasitism generally being higher, and by more species, on sorghum than on other crops. There was a notable lack of transfer of parasitoids from sorghum to pigeonpea where these two crops were intercropped (Manjunath et al., 1989).

The impact of parasitoids on the seasonal abundance of H. armigera is still poorly understood. Few quantitative details from life tables (e.g. Titmarsh, 1985), other than of percentage parasitism, have been published and, except for egg parasitoids, rates are usually low. Intermediate rates of parasitism have been recorded for some of the Tachinidae, but these generally occur too late in the larval stage to reduce host damage. Reviews for Europe and a number of areas in Asia are provided by King and Jackson (1989), for Africa by van den Berg et al. (1988), and for Sri Lanka and Australia by Waterhouse and Norris (1987). In most areas, species of Telenomus and Trichogrammatidae (Trichogramma and Trichogrammatoidea) are important egg parasitoids, and larvae are parasitized by at least one species each of Braconidae, Ichneumonidae and Tachinidae.

The relative importance of parasitoids and predators varies betwen localities and crops. For example in Kenya, van den Berg (1993) found that predators, chiefly Anthocoridae and Formicidae, suppressed H. armigera on sunflower, maize, sorghum and cotton, but parasitism was low. In contrast, in northern Tanzania, parasitism was the major cause of mortality on sorghum, cotton and a weed (Cleome sp.), but the importance of the different species of parasitoid varied with host plant (van den Berg et al., 1990). The predators of H. armigera have generally been inadequately studied (exceptions include Bishop and Blood, 1977, 1980, 1981 and Room, 1979 in Australia; Cock et al., 1989, 1991 in Kenya) and there is little quantitative information on their impact on populations. Predators include Anthocoridae and Chrysopidae feeding on eggs and predatory Hemiptera and Formicidae on eggs and larvae. Those predators included in this summary either have been widely reported to prey on H. armigera or have been noted as of particular local importance. As in the case of native species, the highly mobile and polyphagous habits of this pest militate against the establishment and impact of all natural control agents. Augmentative releases of Chrysopa carnea against H. zea and Heliothis virescens have been attempted in the USA (Ridgeway et al., 1977) but the cost of mass-producing the predator, as with parasitoids bred for mass release programmes, has not hitherto been economically viable for H. armigera.

Records of nematode parasites, usually Mermithidae, are available from all regions where inventories of natural enemies are available, however high rates of parasitism occur only sporadically when conditions are favourable. There is some evidence that, in India, they may be important in suppressing early season populations on wild hosts (e.g. Acanthospermum hispidum) and low-growing crops such as groundnut on alfisols (Bhatnagar et al., 1985).

There has been some success in the use of pathogens, Bacillus thuringiensis and Helicoverpa armigera nuclear polyhedrosis virus (HaNPV) preparations, applied like insecticides to manage larval populations of H. armigera. However the relatively high cost, rapid inactivation by ultraviolet light, often slow or poor field performance and, in the case of HaNPV, difficulty in obtaining consistently high levels of purity and virulence necessary to achieve satisfactory control, have limited their usefulness. The increasing prevalence of resistance to insecticides and awareness of environmental concerns has given a new impetus to the development of suitable microbials to include in IPM strategies for H. armigera (King, 1994).

More comprehensive lists of parasitoids and predators by country or region are given by the authors who contributed papers to the Workshop on the Biological Control of Heliothis held in New Delhi in 1985 (King and Jackson, 1989). The role of natural enemies in the control of H. armigera, mainly in cotton, has been reviewed by King (1994). The worldwide distribution, abundance and potential for biocontrol of the natural enemies of economically important Heliothis and Helicoverpa spp. have been reviewed by King et al. (1982), King and Coleman (1989) and King and Jackson (1989).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page The importance and success of H. armigera is in large measure due to its well-developed survival strategies, diapause and dispersal, which enable it to exploit food sources separated both by unfavourable times and by distance, and thereby also to escape its natural enemies. H. armigera is effectively a facultative migrant, not displaying typical migratory behaviour, but responding largely to local environmental cues and undertaking either short or longer distance flight in directions largely governed by prevailing weather systems (Fitt, 1989). Innately, the disposition to disperse is governed by reproductive maturity, so that in more transient habitats where dispersal has greater survival value, the length of the pre-reproduction period is greater than in less extreme habitats (Colvin, 1990); in these habitats, such as in India, the tendency to fly was moderated chiefly by feeding which reduced the pre-maturation period.

Adults can migrate over long distances, borne by wind, for example from southern Europe to the UK (Pedgley, 1985). Movement in international trade is mainly on ornamental plants and on cut flowers; also in cotton bolls and in tomato fruits.

For references and further information refer to Pedgley (1985), Farrow and Daly (1987), Pedgley et al. (1987), Fitt (1989), Colvin (1990), Riley et al. (1992), King (1994).

Impact

Top of page Introduction

H. armigera, like its close relatives H. zea and Heliothis virescens in the New World, is a pest of major importance in most areas where it occurs, damaging a wide variety of food, fibre, oilseed, fodder and horticultural crops. Its considerable pest significance is based on the peculiarities of its biology - its mobility, polyphagy, rapid and high reproductive rate and diapause make it particularly well adapted to exploit transient habitats such as man-made ecosystems. Its predilection for the harvestable flowering parts of high-value crops including cotton, tomato, sweetcorn and the pulses confers a high economic cost, and socio-economic cost in subsistence agriculture, due to its depredations. However, regional and even relatively local differences in host preference can give rise to differences in pest status on particular crops; this was shown by populations in northern and southern India where severe infestations of cotton are only a relatively recent event.

Crop Losses

H. armigera has been reported causing serious losses throughout its range, in particular to cotton, tomatoes and maize. For example, on cotton, two to three larvae on a plant can destroy all the bolls within 15 days; on maize, they consume grains; and on tomatoes, they invade fruits, preventing development and causing falling.

Monetary losses result from the direct reduction of yields and from the cost of monitoring and control, particularly the cost of insecticides. In Australia, Wilson (1982) estimated total Australian losses at $A 23.5 million; with increases in the prices of insecticides and the replacement of the cheaper pyrethroids with more expensive alternatives to counter pyrethroid resistance, Twine (1989) has estimated that costs in Queensland alone would have increased to about $A 25 million annually.

In India, where H. armigera commonly destroys over half the yield of pulse crops, pigeon pea and chickpea, losses were estimated at over $US 300 million per annum (Reed and Pawar, 1982), while in the late 1980s losses of both pulses and cotton were estimated to exceed $US 500 million, with an additional $US 127 million spent on insecticides on these two crops annually (KN Mehrotra, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, unpublished data, 1987/88). Following the rapid upsurge of pyrethroid resistance, and reduced effectiveness of other insecticide groups in H. armigera (Dhingra et al., 1988; McCaffery et al., 1989) these figures will certainly need to be revised upwards.

Cotton

Oerke et al. (1994) reported that H. armigera is an economically important pest or a key pest in Africa, Asia, Europe and the former USSR, and Oceania. Previously, Ridgway et al. (1984) had reported also that H. armigera was partly responsible for a major portion of cotton crop losses.

In Africa, H. armigera can reduce yields substantially. In the Côte d'Ivoire, between 1978 and 1983, cotton crop loses in the south of the country were primarily due to H. armigera and were ca 60% (Moyal, 1988). In Zimbabwe, potential crop losses due to H. armigera were 1175 kg/ha (Gledhill, 1976). While H. armigera has now been contained as a pest on cotton in Zimbabwe, it is important in Tanzania where the economic loss of cotton was estimated at over $US 20 million (Reed and Pawar, 1982).

In Andhra Pradesh, India, problems in controlling H. armigera were first encountered in 1987. More than 30 insecticide treatments were applied, yet the average yield fell from 436 kg/ha in 1986/87 to 186 kg/ha in 1987/88. This was a reduction of 61% (Armes et al., 1992). In Thailand, H. armigera has been the principal cotton pest since the mid-1960s. Losses due to H. armigera were at least 31% in 1975-79 (Mabbett et al., 1980). In China, losses due to H. armigera larvae increased with plant age. Crop losses were substantial regardless of soil fertility (Sheng, 1988). The damage threshold, 7.5 kg/ha, was reached at 35 egg clusters/100 plants. Integrated pest management reduced H. armigera infestations from 1.6 to 0.1% in Jiangsu between 1976 and 1982 (Jin, 1986).

In the EPPO region, H. armigera is of great economic importance in Israel, Morocco, Portugal, former USSR and Spain, and of lesser importance in the other countries where it is established. Despite extensive spread in Greece, H. armigera only causes periodic damage to cotton.

Chickpeas and Other Crops

In India, chickpea is the most important pulse crop and is grown on 7.3 million hectares in various agro-climatic conditions. Although its yield potential is 2.5-3 t/ha, the average yield is only ca 0.8 t/ha. The extent of losses caused by H. armigera varies from region to region and depends upon climate and crop intensity. However, a monetary loss of 203 crore rupees annually is estimated.

Changes in sowing date have had a considerable influence on pod damage and seed yield of chickpea. Pod damage due to H. armigera increased as sowing dates grew later. At five different sowing dates, % pod damage was 5.8, 8.1, 14.9, 18.2 and 26.2% while corresponding seed yields of 2452, 2409, 1859, 1439 and 1010 kg/ha, respectively, were recorded. The co-efficients of correlation between sowing date and pod damage and between pod damage and seed yield were significant (Saxena et al., 1998). The larval population of H. armigera on chickpea was ca four times higher at dense spacing (33 plants/m²) than at wide spacing (3 plants/m²) (Yadava et al., 1998).

Chickpea yields have been shown to increase following control treatments. The application of nuclear polyhedrosis virus reduced larval populations by 26.8% and pod damage by 36.6% and increased yields by 72% compared with untreated plots (Bhagwat and Wightman, 1998).

Damage has been reported in India on potatoes, sunflowers, Guizotia abyssinica, pigeon peas and cotton. Crop losses of 10-100% have been estimated for potatoes in India. In studies over three seasons, between 1982 and 1985, on four varieties average losses of 0.34% were recorded. Based on the average potato yield for India of 15.8 t/ha, the loss rate was 2.1% (Parihar and Singh, 1988).

An outbreak of this noctuid occurred on young Pinus radiata in New Zealand in 1969 and 1970, when the larvae consumed more than 50% foliage of about 60% of trees.

Detection and Inspection

Top of page The feeding larvae can be seen on the surface of plants but they are often hidden within plant organs (flowers, fruits etc.). Bore holes and heaps of frass (excreta) may be visible, but otherwise it is necessary to cut open the plant organs to detect the pest.


Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page In Asia, H. armigera may sometimes be confused with H. assulta (a smaller, yellower species) on pulses, although the latter is seldom seen on pigeonpea and never on chickpea in India. In Sudan, H. armigera may be confused with H. fletcheri (which has a row of pale flecks in the forewing postmedial) on sorghum and some other crops. On rearing to adult, the species may be clearly distinguished.

In Europe, identification of all stages will be difficult should very similar American (H. zea) or Australian (H. punctigera) species be introduced and become established. Separation of the adult from similar species is most reliably done by reference to the male genitalia (Hardwick, 1965): the middle spine on the most basal coil of the everted aedeagus vesica is larger than all other spines.

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Introduction

H. armigera is a pest of major importance in most areas where it occurs, damaging a wide variety of food, fibre, oilseed, fodder, commodity and horticultural crops. Its major pest status is rooted in its mobility, polyphagy, high reproductive rate and diapause, all of which make it particularly well adapted to exploit transient habitats such as man-made agro-ecosystems. Its predilection for harvestable parts of essential food and high-value crops like cotton, tomato, pulses and tobacco confers a high economic cost to its depredations. The high level of control required under these circumstances, and the absence, in most situations, of adequate natural control means that chemical, or at best integrated control methods usually need to be adopted.

IPM Programmes

In view of the need to make use of and exploit the existing spectra of natural enemies and to reduce excessive dependence on chemical control, particularly where there is resistance to insecticides, various IPM programmes have been developed in which different control tactics are combined to suppress pest numbers below a threshold. These vary from the judicious use of insecticides, based on economic thresholds and regular scouting to ascertain pest population levels, to sophisticated systems, almost exclusively for cotton, using computerized crop and population models to assess the need, optimum timing and product for pesticide application. The SIRATAC system, developed in Australia during the 1980s, and its subsequent derivatives fall into this category (Room, 1979, 1983; Hearn et al., 1981). A major constraint to the development of IPM for H. armigera, particularly on cotton, has been the need to deal with a complex of pests where control needs may be irreconcilable, as for example in the characteristics of the cotton plant which can either be unfavourable to H. armigera or to jassid pests in terms of leaf hairiness, and in the withholding of early season applications to encourage the build-up of natural enemies against the need to control sucking pests which can be severe on young plants.

Regulatory Control

Owing to its strongly dispersive habit, efforts to regulate the influx of H. armigera into crops is generally not a viable option. Some cultural methods, such as an enforced 'close' season, may be regarded as regulatory, but to be effective these will depend on strict compliance, geographical isolation and the absence of a significant alternative wild host population in the area.

Another aspect of regulatory control is in the use of insecticides against which H. armigera has severe incipient resistance, and of 'hard' insecticides which are particularly damaging to natural enemies. An example of this is the resistance management strategy developed in Australia, where the use of pyrethroids was confined to particular phases in the cotton-growing season, principally to minimize selection for resistance.

Cultural Control and Sanitary Methods

Cultural manipulations of the crop or cropping system and land management have been tried as tactics to manage H. armigera populations. Trap cropping and planting diversionary hosts have been widely applied and recommended in the past, although with limited success. In the case of cotton, the diversionary hosts maize and sorghum had too short an attractive period to sustain populations; the tendency of these and earlier-planted crops to augment or create infestations were major disadvantages. The importance of ploughing cotton stubble to reduce overwintering populations of pyrethroid-resistant H. armigera was stressed by Fitt and Forrester (1987), and post-harvest cultivation to destroy pupae of bollworms has received considerable attention in the USA. However, all in situ cultural control tactics (including area-wide management of early season populations on wild hosts, as advocated by several workers in the USA for American species; Stadelbacher, 1982), and the concept of a close season during which food plants are denied for over one generation, would seem to be largely invalid where the immigration of adults into the protected habitats is the key consideration.

One indirect cultural method which could be included under this heading is the regulation of crop agronomy, variety (such as the okra-leaved varieties of cotton), spacing and fertilizer regimes to render the crop, and thus target larvae, more accessible to insecticides or microbial formulations applied by conventional means.

Host-Plant Resistance

The planting of crop varieties that are resistant or tolerant to H. armigera has received major attention, particularly for cotton, pigeonpea and chickpea. This is a tactic of considerable importance within IPM systems. Many crop species possess some genetic potential which can be exploited by breeders to produce varieties less subject to pest damage; this can take the form of antibiosis (unpalatability), antixenosis (non-preference) and tolerance. However, where there is a pest complex, interactions may not always be favourable. For example, fewer eggs were laid on plants having the glabrous leaf character in cotton, however both larval survival and susceptibility to jassid attack were higher. Varieties of chickpea, groundnut and pigeonpea showing varying degrees of resistance have been developed at ICRISAT in India, some of which have been successfully used by farmers.

In recent years, genetic engineering techniques have enabled genes carrying the toxic element of Bacillus thuringiensis to be introduced into crops such as cotton and tomato. Although the technique is still very much in its early stages, transgenic crop varieties offer considerable promise for use in IPM systems against H. armigera. As with the use of all resistant crop varieties, however, care still needs to be taken to avoid excessive selection pressure against the resistance factor, so that in such systems a mixture of both resistant and susceptible varieties is often recommended to lessen this.

Biological Control

While IPM strategies are generally geared to provide a regime in which maximum feasible advantage is taken of local biological control agents, their unassisted suppression of H. armigera populations to below an economic threshold without the use of insecticides would be a major advantage, both in ecological and economic terms, particularly if this was sustainable. To this end, substantial efforts have been made either to introduce exotic natural enemies or to augment existing populations of parasitoids and predators to achieve satisfactory levels of control. Because of the need to produce very large numbers of parasitoids or predators simultaneously and economically, emphasis has been placed on Trichogramma spp. which are most amenable to mass rearing. Although these and a number of other parasitic species have been field evaluated against H. armigera, results have not so far been encouraging, especially in agrosystems where insecticide applications against H. armigera or other pests are consistently necessary.

There have been attempts to enhance mortality due to natural enemies by the introduction of species that might complement existing natural enemies or be superior to them (reviewed by Waterhouse and Norris, 1987). Attempted introductions have included parasitoids of Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa zea from the Americas as well as species from other parts of the range of H. armigera. Few of these have been successful. Trichogramma pretiosum and T. perkinsi from the USA are reported to have become established in Indonesia and South Africa, respectively. Other successful establishments are: India (Chelonus blackburni, Eucelatoria bryani, both from the USA, and Bracon kirkpatricki from Kenya); Fiji (Cotesia marginiventris, also from the USA); New Zealand (Glabrobracon croceipes from the USA); Western Australia (Cotesia kazak and Hyposoter didymator, both from Europe). None of these introductions appears to have had a significant beneficial impact. However, the introduction of Cotesia kazak from Greece into New Zealand, where there were no native parasitoids of this pest, resulted in substantial parasitism but because of the low tolerance for insect damage in tomato crops, insecticides are still needed.

The relative specificity, potential activity, environmental safety and immunity to insecticides have made microbial pesticides a favoured component of IPM strategies, and considerable efforts have been made to develop the most promising agents, Bacillus thuringiensis and Helicoverpa armigera nuclear polyhedrosis virus (HaNPV) into commercially viable products. Present and active under natural conditions, both these agents, but particularly HaNPV, have some impact on H. armigera populations, although seldom reaching the epizootic proportions necessary to achieve effective control. Field tests with artificially produced Bt and HaNPV have so far had only limited success, mainly because of rapid degradation by UV light, insufficient titres ingested by larvae, and lack of virulence. However work is continuing to overcome these constraints stimulated by increasing resistance to insecticides and awareness of the environmental threats they pose.

The whole subject of biological control of H. armigera is treated in considerable detail in King and Jackson (1989).

Chemical Control

In most cases where H. armigera attacks high-value or staple crops, its control with insecticides, alone or within the context of an IPM programme, will be necessary. While it is clear that economic thresholds need to be carefully applied for best results, in many countries where resources are limiting or the advantages of IPM are poorly understood, insecticides are applied on an ad hoc basis with ensuing poor results and often entry onto the 'insecticide treadmill', where increasing numbers of applications achieve diminishing returns on their investment.

Most insecticide applications are targeted at the larval stages, but as these are only really effective when larvae are small, the need to scout for eggs and spray soon afterward is paramount. Young larvae are difficult to find, and older larvae soon burrow into the floral organs where they become less accessible to contact insecticides, require higher doses to kill and cause direct economic loss. Moreover, resistant larvae were still susceptible while less than 4 days old, so that targeting of neonates is essential in areas where resistant populations are present (Daly, 1988).

The considerable selection pressure which H. armigera has experienced, particularly to the synthetic pyrethroids which were used predominantly in the early 1980s, has resulted in the development of resistance to the major classes of insecticides in many of the areas where these have been used. Field failures resulting from pyrethroid resistance have been reported from Australia, Thailand, Turkey, India, Indonesia and Pakistan. Insecticide resistance management strategies have been aimed either at preventing the development of resistance, or containing it. All rely on a strict temporal restriction in the use of pyrethroids and their alternation with other insecticide groups to minimize selection for resistance. And while the strong propensity of H. armigera to disperse confers the advantage of diluting resistant populations through the influx of susceptible insects from unsprayed hosts, the same tendency ensures that the genes for resistance are spread more widely than their area of origin (Forrester et al., 1993).

Pyrethroid resistance in H. armigera may be conferred through three separate mechanisms: detoxification by mixed-function oxidases (metabolic resistance), nerve insensitivity, and delayed penetration. Metabolic resistance may be inhibited by piperonyl butoxide and other synergists, providing a (costly) means whereby the use of pyrethroids might be prolonged in populations where this is the principal mechanism.

Early Warning Systems

The importance of dispersive and migratory behaviour in the biology of H. armigera suggests that monitoring of these movements could provide an early warning of its invasion of an area or crop. Although work on long-distance movement using radar, backtracking and other techniques indicated that moths were able to (and often did) cover large distances, their occurrence in significant numbers at a particular location could seldom be predicted with any certainty. Changes in catch numbers in light and pheromone traps showed characteristic patterns of abundance for different locations in India (Srivastava et al., 1992), but the relationship between trap catch and subsequent egg or larval populations in a susceptible crop was usually variable to poor, with numbers captured differing markedly between traps separated by only a few tens of metres, although it was closest when moth densities were low and at the beginning of the seasonal cycle. Trapping H. armigera is thus only useful as a qualitative measure indicating the start of an infestation or a migratory 'wave front', indicating the need to begin scouting for immature stages in the crop.

Modelling

Models are conceptual or mathematical devices which aim to simulate natural processes. As pest management tools they are used to predict or establish the optimal tactics required to achieve economic control of that pest, within the constraints of the model. Models for the management of H. armigera have been mostly restricted to cotton in Australia (and in the USA against related bollworms in cotton). They include the SIRATAC system (see IPM Programmes), and later, more sophisticated models such as HEAPS, which gives greater attention to biological parameters of H. armigera including adult movement, and take account of the presence of non-crop hosts in a region. The model informs of the optimum timing and type of insecticide to be applied (Zalucki et al., 1986; Dillon and Fitt, 1990). Because of their specificity to particular, uniform cropping environments, sophisticated models have been built for H armigera only as a pest of cotton, where the extensive scale and high value of the crop means that farmers are most willing and economically able to abide by their strictures and gain most advantage from their use.

Field Monitoring and Economic Threshold Levels

The ascertaining and utilization of economic thresholds is implicit in the evolution of an IPM programme. Field monitoring of pest populations is necessary to determine whether the threshold has been exceeded and control measures should be taken. The economic threshold of pest density, where the value of expected benefit derived from it exceeds the cost of implementation, depends on a knowledge of the relationship between population density and economic loss. However, it is often difficult to obtain precise data on this relationship because it is rarely simple, and many extraneous factors, both socio-economic and environmental, may influence it.

Action thresholds based on egg numbers have been used successfully as the basis for control decisions in cotton since 1961 in Malawi and Zimbabwe, where spraying was recommended at an average of one egg per two plants in twice-weekly counts (Matthews and Tunstall, 1968), while in the Sudan Gezira over two eggs or larvae per 18 plants (Haggis, 1982) and in Australia two eggs per metre row (Wilson, 1981) were used as thresholds. These thresholds are low and it has been argued by Kabissa (1989) that some damage may actually increase yields.

Trapping of adult moths has sometimes been used to assess the need to subsequent spraying, although for H. armigera this has been at best supplementary to scouting for eggs or larvae, as the relationship between catch and later larval populations is often poor (e.g. Rothschild et al., 1982).

References

Top of page

===, 1981. Data sheets on quarantine organisms. EPPO list A2. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Armes NJ; Jadhav DR; King ABS, 1992. Pyrethroid resistance in the pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera, in southern India. Proceedings, Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases, 1992 Brighton, November 23-26, 1992 Farnham, UK; British Crop Protection Council, 239-244

Bar D; Gerling D; Rossler Y, 1979. Bionomics of the principal natural enemies attacking Heliothis armigera in cotton fields in Israel. Environmental Entomology, 8(3):468-474

Berg H van den; Cock MJW; Oduor GI; Onsongo EK, 1993. Incidence of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its natural enemies on smallholder crops in Kenya. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 83(3):321-328

Berg H van den; Nyambo BT; Waage JK, 1990. Parasitism of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Tanzania: analysis of parasitoid-crop associations. Environmental Entomology, 19(4):1141-1145

Bhagwat VR; Wightman JA, 1998. NPV based management for Helicoverpa armigera in chickpea. In: National symposium on management of biotic and abiotic stresses in pulse crops, organised by Indian Institute of Pulses Research (Indian Council of Agricultural Research), held at Kanpur - 208 024 (UP), India from June 26th-28th, 1998.

Bhatnagar VC; Pawar CS; Jadhav DR; Davies JC, 1985. Mermithid nematodes as parasites of Heliothis spp. and other crop pests in Andhra Pradesh, India. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Animal Science, 94(5):509-515

Bishop AL; Blood PR, 1977. A record of beneficial arthropods and insect diseases in southeast Queensland cotton. PANS (Pest Articles and News Summaries), 23:384-386.

Bishop AL; Blood PRB, 1980. Arthropod ground strata composition of the cotton ecosystem in south-eastern Queensland, and the effect of some control strategies. Australian Journal of Zoology, 28(5/6):693-697

Bishop AL; Blood PRB, 1981. Interactions between natural populations of spiders and pests in cotton and their importance to cotton production in southeastern Queensland. General and Applied Entomology, 13:98-104

Bozsik A, 2007. The damage of cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera Hübner) on Brugmansia × candida in Hungary. (A gyapottok-bagolylepke (Helicoverpa armigera Hübner) károsítása angyaltrombitán.) In: 12. Tiszántúli Növényvédelmi Fórum, 17-18 October 2007, Debrecen, Hungary [ed. by Kövics, G. J.\Dávid, I.]. Debrecen, Hungary: Debreceni Egyetem, Agrártudományi Centrum, Mezögazdaságtudományi Kar, 150-159.

Bueno RCOde F; Yamamoto PT; Carvalho MM; Bueno NM, 2014. Occurrence of <i>Helicoverpa armigera</i> (Hübner, 1808) on citrus in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 36(2):520-523. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_issues&pid=0100-2945&lng=pt&nrm=iso

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

Castiglioni E; Clérison RP; Chiaravalle W; Jonas AA; Ugalde G; Jerson VCG, 2016. First record of occurrence of <i>Helicoverpa armigera</i> (Hübner, 1808) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in soybean in Uruguay. (Primer registro de ocurrencia de Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner, 1808) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) en soja, en Uruguay.) Agrociencia (Montevideo), 20(1):31-35. http://www.fagro.edu.uy/~agrociencia/index.php/directorio

Cayrol RA, 1972. Famille des Noctuidae. Sous-famille des Melicleptriinae. Helicoverpa armigera Hb. In: Balachowsky AS, ed. Entomologie appliquée à l'agriculture, Vol. 2, Paris, France: Masson et Cie, 1431-1444.

CIE; 1952, 1968. Distribution Maps of Pests, Series A. No. 15 (revised). Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cock MJW; van den Berg H; Odour GI; Osongo EK, 1989. The population ecology of Helicoverpa armigera in smallholder crops in Kenya with emphasis on its natural enemies. Annual Report 1988-89. Nairobi, Kenya: IIBC.

Cock MJW; van den Berg H; Odour GI; Osongo EK, 1991. The population ecology of Helicoverpa armigera in smallholder crops in Kenya with emphasis on its natural enemies. Final Report, Phase II: April 1988-March 1991. Nairobi, Kenya: IIBC.

Colvin JT, 1990. Laboratory studies on the regulation of migration of the cotton bollworm, Heliothis armigera (Hb.) (Lepidoptera: Noctiodae). PhD Thesis, University College of North Wales, Bangor.

Costa VHDda; Soares MA; Rodríguez FAD; Zanuncio JC; Silva IMda; Valicente FH, 2015. <i>Nomuraea rileyi</i> (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) in <i>Helicoverpa armigera</i> (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae in Brazil. Florida Entomologist, 98(2):796-798. http://www.bioone.org/loi/flen

Czepak C; Albernaz KC; Vivan LM; Guimarães HO; Carvalhais T, 2013. First reported occurrence of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazil. Pesquisa Agropecuária Tropical, 43(1):110-113. http://www.revistas.ufg.br/index.php/pat/article/view/23691/13928

Daly JC, 1988. Insecticide resistance in Heliothis armigera in Australia. Pesticide Science, 23(2):165-176

Delattre R, 1973. Pests and diseases in cotton growing. Phytosanitary handbook. Parasites et maladies en culture cotonniere. Manuel phytosanitaire. Paris, Institut de Recherches du Coton et des Textiles Exotiques. France, 146 pp.

Demirumlaut~er O, 2012. First record of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), on the oil-bearing rose, Rosa damascena Miller, in Turkey. Hellenic Plant Protection Journal, 5(1):27-29. http://en.bpi.gr/files/journal/2012/january/Volume%205%20-%20Issue%201%20%28January%202012%29.pdf

Devi NS; Singh OH; Devjani P; Singh TK, 2002. Natural enemies of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner on chickpea. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 10(2):179-183.

Dhingra S; Phokela A; Mehrotra KN, 1988. Cypermethrin resistance in the populations of Heliothis armigera Hubner. National Academy Science Letters, India, 11(4):123-125

Dillon ML; Fitt GP, 1990. HEAPS: a regional model of Heliothis population dynamics. In: Proceedings of the Fifth Australian Cotton Conference, 8-9 August 1990. Broadbeach, Queensland. Australian Cotton Growers' Research Association, Brisbane, 337-344.

Ditman LP; Cory EN, 1931. The corn earworm: biology and control. Bulletin of Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station, 328:443-482.

Dominguez Garcia-Tejero F, 1957. Bollworm of tomato, Heliothis armigera Hb. (= absoleta F). In: Dossat SA, ed. Plagas y Enfermedades de las Plantas Cultivadas, 403-407. Madrid, Spain.

EPPO, 1990. Specific quarantine requirements. EPPO Technical Documents, No. 1008. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

EPPO, 1992. Quarantine pests for Europe. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 210-212.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Fitt GP, 1989. The ecology of Heliothis species in relation to agroecosystems. Annual Review of Entomology, 34:17-52.

Fitt GP, 1991. Host selection in the Heliothinae. In: Bailey WJ, Ridsdill-Smith TJ, eds. Reproductive Behaviour in Insects - Individuals and Populations. London, UK: Chapman & Hall, 172-201.

Fitt GP, 1991. Host selection in the Heliothinae. In: Bailey WJ, Ridsdill-Smith TJ, eds. Reproductive Behaviour in Insects - Individuals and Populations. London, UK: Chapman & Hall, 172-201.

Fitt GP; Forrester NW, 1987. Overwintering populations of Heliothis in the Namoi Valley and the importance of cultivation of cotton stubble. Australian Cotton Grower, 8(4):7-8.

Formentini AC; Sosa-Gómez DR; Paula-Moraes SVde; Barros NMde; Specht A, 2015. Lepidoptera (Insecta) associated with soybean in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay. Ciência Rural, 45(12):2113-2120. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782015001202113&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Forrester NW; Cahill M; Bird LJ; Layland JK, 1993. Management of pyrethroid and endosulfan resistance in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Australia. Bulletin of Entomological Research: Supplement Series, Supplement No. 1:132 pp.

Gireesh Nadda; Tewary DK; Adarsh Shanker; Virendra Singh, 2012. Salvia sclarea L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) - a new host record for Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Munis Entomology & Zoology, 7(1):642-645. http://www.munisentzool.org

Gledhill JA, 1976. Crop losses in cotton caused by Heliothis and Diparopsis bollworms. Rhodesia-Agricultural-Journal, 73:135-138.

Greathead DJ; Girling DJ, 1982. Possibilities for natural enemies in Heliothis management and the contribution of the Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control. In: Reed W, Kumble V, ed. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Heliothis Management. ICRISAT Center, Patancheru, India, 15-20 November 1981 International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh India, 147-158

Greathead DJ; Girling DJ, 1989. Distribution and economic importance of Heliothis and of their natural enemies and host plants in Southern and Eastern Africa. In: King EG, Jackson RD (eds) Proceedings of the Workshop on Biological Control of Heliothis: Increasing the Effectiveness of Natural Enemies November 1985, New Delhi. New Delhi, India: Far Eastern Regional Research Office, US Department of Agriculture, 330-345.

Hackett DS; Gatehouse AG, 1982. Diapause in Heliothis armigera (Hubner) and H. fletcheri (Hardwick) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the Sudan Gezira. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 72(3):409-422

Haggis MJ, 1982. Distribution of Heliothis armigera eggs on cotton in the Sudan Gezira: spatial and temporal changes and their possible relation to weather. In: Reed W, Kumble V, ed. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Heliothis Management. ICRISAT Center, Patancheru, India, 15-20 November 1981 International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh India, 87-99

Hardwick DF, 1965. The corn earworm complex. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada, 40:1-247.

Hardwick DF, 1970. A generic revision of the North American Heliothidinae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada, 73:1-59.

Hearn AB; Ives PM; Room PM; Thomson NJ; Wilson LT, 1981. Computer-based cotton pest management in Australia. Field Crops Research, 4(4):321-332

Heath J; Emmet AM, ed. , 1983. The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland. Volume 10. Noctuidae (Cuculliinp to Hypeninp) and Agaristidae. The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland. Volume 10. Noctuidae (Cuculliinp to Hypeninp) and Agaristidae. Harley Books Colchester UK, 459 pp.

Holloway JD, 1977. The Lepidoptera of Norfolk Island, their biogeography and ecology. The Lepidoptera of Norfolk Island, their biogeography and ecology. Dr. W. Junk b.v. The Hague, The Netherlands, vi + 291 pp.

Ibrahim MM; Metwally AG; Nazmy NH; Ibrahim FEZ, 1974. Studies on the American bollworm on cotton in Egypt Heliothis zea (Boddie) = Heliothis armigera Hb (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Agricultural Research Review, 52(1):1-8

IIE, 1993. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 15. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Imosanen; Singh HKB, 2005. Incidence of Helicoverpa armigera (Hub.) and Maruca vitrata (Geyer) on pigeonpea under Medzephema conditions of Nagaland. Journal of Applied Zoological Researches, 16(1):85-86.

IPPC, 2007. Finding of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner on Phaseolus vulgaris (outdoors). IPPC Official Pest Report, No. NL-6/1. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/IPP/En/default.jsp

Jayaraj S, 1982. Biological and ecological studies of Heliothis. In: Reed W, Kumble V, ed. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Heliothis Management. ICRISAT Center, Patancheru, India, 15-20 November 1981 International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh India, 17-28

Jiang RZ; Shao ZR; Piao YF, et al. , 1994. New Technology of Integrated Pest Management on Cotton. China: China Agricultural Press.

Jin ZS, 1986. Integrated control of insect pests on cotton for years. Natural Enemies of Insects, 8(1):25-28

Kabissa JCB, 1989. Evaluation of damage thresholds for insecticidal control of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on cotton in eastern Tanzania. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 79(1):95-98

King EG; Coleman RJ, 1989. Potential for biological control of Heliothis species. Annual Review of Entomology, 34:53-75

King EG; Jackson RD; eds, 1989. Proceedings of the Workshop on Biological Control of Heliothis: Increasing the Effectiveness of Natural Enemies November 1985, New Delhi. New Delhi, India: Far Eastern Regional Research Office, US Department of Agriculture.

King EG; Powell JE; Smith JW, 1982. Prospects for utilization of parasites and predators for management of Heliothis spp. In: Reed W, Kumble V, ed. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Heliothis Management. ICRISAT Center, Patancheru, India, 15-20 November 1981 International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh India, 103-122

Krinski D; Godoy AF, 2015. First record of <i>Helicoverpa armigera</i> (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) feeding on <i>Plectranthus neochilus</i> (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) in Brazil. Florida Entomologist, 98(4):1238-1240. http://www.bioone.org/loi/flen

Kriticos DJ; Ota N; Hutchison WD; Beddow J; Walsh T; Tay WeeTek; Borchert DM; Paula-Moreas SV; Czepak C; Zalucki MP, 2015. The potential distribution of invading <i>Helicoverpa armigera</i> in North America: is it just a matter of time? PLoS ONE, 10(3):e0119618. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0119618

Kuldeep Saxena; Ram Ujagir, 2007. Effect of temperature and relative humidity on pod borer in pigeonpea. Journal of Food Legumes, 20(1):121-123.

Levin L; Ranjith AM; Mathew MP, 2004. Record of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) on amaranthus in Kerala. Insect Environment, 10(3):108-109.

Ma Shijun; Ding Yanquin, 1989. Distribution and economic importance of Heliothis armigera and its natural enemies in China. In: King EG, Jackson RD (eds) Proceedings of the Workshop on Biological Control of Heliothis: Increasing the Effectiveness of Natural Enemies, November 1985, New Delhi. New Delhi, India: Far Eastern Regional Research Office, US Department of Agriculture, 185-195.

Mabbett TH; Dareepat P; Nachapong M, 1980. Behaviour studies on Heliothis armigera and their application to scouting techniques for cotton in Thailand. Tropical Pest Management, 26(3):268-273

Manjanuth TM; Bhatnagar VS; PawaR CS; Sitanatham S, 1989. Economic importance of Heliothis spp. in India and an assessment of their natural enemies and host plants. In: King EG, Jackson RD (eds) Proceedings of the Workshop on Biological Control of Heliothis: Increasing the Effectiveness of Natural Enemies November 1985, New Delhi. New Delhi, India: Far Eastern Regional Research Office, US Department of Agriculture, 196-228.

Manjula KN; Kotikal YK; Patil HB; Biradar IB, 2015. Studies on insect fauna, their natural enemies and pollinators in fenugreek. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 28(2):279-281. http://14.139.155.167/test5/index.php/kjas/article/viewFile/7538/7789

Mastrangelo T; Paulo DF; Bergamo LW; Morais EGF; Silva M; Bezerra-Silva G; Azeredo-Espin AML, 2014. Detection and genetic diversity of a heliothine invader (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from north and northeast of Brazil. Journal of Economic Entomology, 107(3):970-980. http://esa.publisher.ingentaconnect.com/content/esa/jee/2014/00000107/00000003/art00012

Matthews GA; Tunstall JP, 1968. Scouting for pests and the timing of spray applications. Cotton Growers' Review, 45:115-127

Matthews M, 1991. Classification of the Heliothinae. NRI Bulletin No. 44. Chatham, Kent: Natural Resources Institute.

McCaffery AR; King ABS; Walker AJ; El-Nayir H, 1989. Resistance to synthetic pyrethroids in the bollworm, Heliothis armigera from Andhra Pradesh, India. Pesticide Science, 27(1):65-76

Meierrose C; Araujo J; Perkins D; Mercadier G; Poitout S; Bues R; Vargas Piqueras P; Cabello T, 1989. Distribution and economic imporatnce of Heliothis spp. (Lep.: Noctuidae) and their natural enemies and host plants in Western Europe. In: King EG, Jackson RD (eds) Proceedings of the Workshop on Biological Control of Heliothis: Increasing the Effectiveness of Natural Enemies November 1985, New Delhi. New Delhi, India: Far Eastern Regional Research Office, US Department of Agriculture, 311-327.

Michael PJ, 1989. Importation and establishment of new natural enemies of Heliothis spp. (Lep.: Noctuidae) in Australia. In: King EG, Jackson RD (eds) Proceedings of the Workshop on Biological Control of Heliothis: Increasing the Effectiveness of Natural Enemies November 1985, New Delhi. New Delhi, India: Far Eastern Regional Research Office, US Department of Agriculture, 364-373.

Mohyuddin AI, 1989. Distribution and economic importance of Heliothis spp. in Pakistan and their natural enemies and host plants. In: King EG, Jackson RD (eds) Proceedings of the Workshop on Biological Control of Heliothis: Increasing the Effectiveness of Natural Enemies November 1985, New Delhi. New Delhi, India: Far Eastern Regional Research Office, US Department of Agriculture, 229-240.

Moyal P, 1988. The borers of maize in the savannah area of Ivory Coast. Morphological, biological and ecological data. Control trials and plant-insect relations. Les foreurs du mais en zone des savanes en Cote-D'Ivoire. Données morphologiques, biologiques, écologiques. Essais de lutte et relation plante-insecte., 367 pp.; 9 pp. of ref.

Murúa MG; Scalora FS; Navarro FR; Cazado LE; Casmuz A; Villagrán ME; Lobos E; Gastaminza G, 2014. First record of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Argentina. Florida Entomologist, 97(2):854-856. http://www.fcla.edu/FlaEnt/

Napompeth B, 1989. Distribution and economic importance of Heliothis spp. and their natural enemies and host plants in Southeast Asia. In: King EG, Jackson RD (eds) Proceedings of the Workshop on Biological Control of Heliothis: Increasing the Effectiveness of Natural Enemies November 1985, New Delhi. New Delhi, India: Far Eastern Regional Research Office, US Department of Agriculture, 299-309.

NAPPO, 2014. Phytosanitary Alert System: Old world bollworm, Heicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), detected in Puerto Rico. NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=600&keyword=helicoverpa%20armigera

NAPPO, 2015. Helicoverpa armigera (Old World Bollworm) - Detection in Florida. NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=629

NAPPO, 2016. Phytosanitary Alert System: Helicoverpa armigera (Old World Bollworm) in Florida Deemed an Isolated Regulatory Incident. NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=666

Nebapure SM; Meena Agnihotri, 2011. Canthecona furcellata: a predator of Maruca vitrata. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 19(2):477-478. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

Netam PK; Ganguli RN; Dubey AK, 2007. Insect pest succession in okra. Environment and Ecology, 25(1):177-180.

OEPP/EPPO, 1984. Quarantine procedures No. 16. Combined methyl bromide fumigation and cold storage treatment for chrysanthemum cuttings. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 14:596.

Oerke EC; Dehne HW; Schönbeck F; Weber A, 1994. Crop production and crop protection: estimated losses in major food and cash crops. Crop production and crop protection: estimated losses in major food and cash crops., xxii + 808 pp.; [ref. at ends of chapters, available from publishers at PO Box 1991, Amsterdam, Netherlands or PO Box 945, Madison Square Station, NY 10160-0757, USA].

Oerke EC; Dehne HW; Schönbeck F; Weber A, 1994. Crop production and crop protection: estimated losses in major food and cash crops. Crop production and crop protection: estimated losses in major food and cash crops., xxii + 808 pp.; [ref. at ends of chapters, available from publishers at PO Box 1991, Amsterdam, Netherlands or PO Box 945, Madison Square Station, NY 10160-0757, USA].

Ostrauskas H; Ivinskis P; Taluntyte L, 2002. Search for American bollworm (Heliothis armigera HB.) (Noctuidae, Lepidoptera) with pheromone and light traps and analysis of pheromone catches in Lithuania. Acta Zoologica Lituanica , 12(2):180-190.

Palmqvist G, 2015. Remarkable records of Macrolepidoptera in Sweden 2014. (Intressanta fynd av storfjärilar (Macrolepidoptera) i Sverige 2014.) Entomologisk Tidskrift, 136(1/2):41-48. http://www.sef.nu/

Parihar SBS; Singh OP, 1988. Screening of certain potato varieties against lepidopterous pests. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 16(1):83-85

Pearson EO, 1958. The Insect Pests of Cotton in Tropical Africa. London, UK: CAB International.

Pedgley DE, 1985. Windborne migration of Heliothis armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to the British Isles. Entomologist's Gazette, 36(1):15-20

Pedgley DE; Tucker MR; Pawar CS, 1987. Windborne migration of Heliothis armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in India. Insect Science and its Application, 8(4-6):599-604

Piao YF, et al. , 1995. Ecological effects of cotton cropping system on the populations of natural enemies. Journal of Shandong Agricultural University, 26:101-104.

Piao YF; Yang PY; Jiang RZ, 1995. Research on New Approaches of Integrated Pest Management in Cotton - Benchmark Survey and Applied On-Farm Research. China: Science Press.

Pratissoli D; Lima VLS; Pirovani VD; Lima WL, 2015. Occurrence of <i>Helicoverpa armigera</i> (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on tomato in the Espírito Santo state. Horticultura Brasileira, 33(1):101-105. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php/script_sci_serial/pid_0102-0536/lng_en/nrm_iso

Rabindra Prasad; Devendera Prasad, 2007. Occurrence and succession of insect pests of linseed under agro-climatic condition of Ranchi (Jharkhand). Indian Journal of Entomology, 69(1):7-10.

Radonjic S; Hrncic S, 2011. An overview of invasive species on vegetables in greenhouses in southern part of Montenegro. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin [Proceedings of the IOBC/WPRS Working Group "Integrated Control in Protected crops, Temperate Climate", Sutton Scotney, UK, 18-22 September 2011.], 68:153-157. http://www.iobc-wprs.org/pub/bulletins/bulletin_2011_68_table_of_contents_abstracts.pdf

Ramaswamy SB, 1988. Host finding by moths: sensory modalities and behaviours. Journal of Insect Physiology, 34(3):235-249; [4 fig., In Symposium on Host Finding and Feeding in Adult Phytophagous Insects, held at the Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America, Reno, Nevada, 7-11 December 1986]; 3 pp. of ref.

Reed W; Pawar CS, 1982. Heliothis: a global problem. In: Reed W, Kumble V, ed. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Heliothis Management. ICRISAT Center, Patancheru, India, 15-20 November 1981 International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh India, 9-14

Ren BZ, et al. , 1995. Effects of different kinds of insecticides on the population dynamics of natural enemies of cotton bollworm. Journal of Shandong Agricultural University, 26:105-108.

Ren BZ, et al. , 1995. Helicoverpa armigera control scheme based on the protection and application of natural enemies and its implementation. Journal of Shandong Agricultural University, 26:86-89.

Ren BZ, et al. , 1995. Identifications on the predominant natural enemies of cotton bollworm and studies on its population dynamics. Journal of Shandong Agricultural University, 26:95-100.

Ridgway RL; Bell AA; Veech JA; Chandler JM, 1984. Cotton practices in the USA and world. In Kohel RJ, Lewis CF, eds. Cotton Agronomy Monograph, 24. Madison, USA: American Society of Agronomy.

Ridgway RL; King EG; Carrillo JL, 1977. Augmentation of natural enemies for control of plant pests in the Western Hemisphere. In: Ridgway RL, Vinson SB, ed. Biological control by augmentation of natural enemies. Insect and mite control with parasites and predators. Plenum Press. New York USA, 379-416

Riley JR; Armes NJ; Reynolds DR; Smith AD, 1992. Nocturnal observations on the emergence and flight behaviour of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the post-rainy season in central India. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 82(2):243-256

Room PM, 1979. A prototype 'on-line' system for management of cotton pests in the Namoi Valley, New South Wales. Protection Ecology, 1(4):245-264

Room PM, 1979. Parasites and predators of Heliothis spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in cotton in the Namoi Valley, New South Wales. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 18(3):223-228

Room PM, 1983. Calculations of temperature-driven development by Heliothis spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the Namoi Valley, New South Wales. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 22(3):211-215

Roome RE, 1979. Pupal diapause in Heliothis armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Botswana: its regulation by environmental factors. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 69(1):149-160

Rothschild GHL; Wilson AGL; Malafant KW, 1982. Preliminary studies on the female sex pheromones of Heliothis species and their possible use in control programs in Australia. In: Reed W, Kumble V, ed. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Heliothis Management. ICRISAT Center, Patancheru, India, 15-20 November 1981 International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh India, 319-327

Sawicki RM; Denholm I, 1989. Insecticide resistance management revisited. Monograph - British Crop Protection Council, No. 43:193-203

Saxena H; Mall SB; Sachan JN, 1998. Quantitative estimates of Helicoverpa armigera incidence and yield of chickpea due to variation in sowing dates. In: National symposium on management of biotic and Abitic stresses in pulse crops, organised by Indian Institute of pulses Research (Indian council of Agricultural Research), held at Kanpur - 208 024 (UP), India from June 26th-28th, 1998.

Sheng CF, 1988. Economic threshold of the third generation of Heliothis armigera in north China. Acta Entomologica Sinica, 31(1):37-41

Srivastava CP; Pimbert MP; Reed W, 1992. Monitoring of Helicoverpa (= Heliothis) armigera (Hubner) moths with light and pheromone traps in India. Insect Science and its Application, 13(2):205-210

Stadelbacher EA, 1982. An overview and simulation of tactics for management of Heliothis spp.on early season host plants. In: Beltwide Cotton Producers Research Conference, Memphis, Tennessee, 209-212.

Timus A; Croitoru N, 2006. Biological method of struggle against the basic wreckers of the sweet corn in R. of Moldova. Buletinul Universitatii de Stiinte Agricole si Medicina Veterinara Cluj-Napoca. Seria Agricultura, 62:21-24.

Titmarsh IJ, 1985. Population dynamics of Heliothis spp. on tobacco in far north Queensland. MSc thesis, James Cook University of North Queensland, Australia.

Twine PH, 1989. Distribution and economic importance of Heliothis (Lep.: Noctuidae) and of their natural enemies and host plants in Australia. In: King EG, Jackson RD (eds) Proceedings of the Workshop on Biological Control of Heliothis: Increasing the Effectiveness of Natural Enemies November 1985, New Delhi. New Delhi, India: Far Eastern Regional Research Office, US Department of Agriculture, 177-184.

van den Berg H, 1993. Natural control of Helicoverpa armigera in smallholder crops in East Africa. PhD thesis, Waginingen Agricultural University, Netherlands.

Van den Berg H; Waage JK; Cock MJW, 1988. Natural enemies of Helicoverpa armigera in Africa <dash> a review. Ascot, Berks., UK; CAB International Institute of Biological Control, 81 pp.

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

Wee Tek Tay; Soria MF; Walsh T; Thomazoni D; Silvie P; Behere GT; Anderson C; Downes S, 2013. A brave new world for an old world pest: Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazil. PLoS ONE, 8(11):e80134. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0080134

Wilson AGL, 1982. Past and future Heliothis management in Australia. In: Reed W, Kumble V, ed. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Heliothis Management. ICRISAT Center, Patancheru, India, 15-20 November 1981 International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh India, 343-354

Xu XH, 1998. Question-and-Answer on Integrated Pest Management on Cotton. China: China Agricultural Press.

Xu XH, et al. , 1995. Effects of different monocrotophos treatments on the population of natural enemies of cotton bollworm. Journal of Shandong Agricultural University, 26:109-111.

Xu XH, et al. , 1995. Studies on predatory ability of Propylaea japonica on H. armigera. Journal of Shandong Agricultural University, 26:90-94.

Zalucki MP; Daglish G; Firempong S; Twine P, 1986. The biology and ecology of Heliothis armigera (Hubner) and H. punctigera Wallengren (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Australia: what do we know? Australian Journal of Zoology, 34(6):779-814

Zhang DengFeng; Liu HaiLin; Wang AiLing; Han DeQiang, 2001. Survey on occurrence and damage of cotton bollworm in Qianghai Province. Plant Protection, 27(5):22-25.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map