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Datasheet

Hemiberlesia lataniae (latania scale)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Hemiberlesia lataniae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • latania scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Hemiberlesia lataniae (latania scale); adult on avocado (Persea americana). Intercepted on avocado from Argentina, in Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
TitleAdult
CaptionHemiberlesia lataniae (latania scale); adult on avocado (Persea americana). Intercepted on avocado from Argentina, in Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
Copyright©Charles Olsen/USDA APHIS PPQ/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Hemiberlesia lataniae (latania scale); adult on avocado (Persea americana). Intercepted on avocado from Argentina, in Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
AdultHemiberlesia lataniae (latania scale); adult on avocado (Persea americana). Intercepted on avocado from Argentina, in Atlanta, Georgia, USA.©Charles Olsen/USDA APHIS PPQ/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Hemiberlesia lataniae (latania scale); adult on Heliconia. Intercepted, from Costa Rica, on Heliconia by Customs &  Border Protection at Atlanta International Airport, Georgia, USA.
TitleAdult
CaptionHemiberlesia lataniae (latania scale); adult on Heliconia. Intercepted, from Costa Rica, on Heliconia by Customs & Border Protection at Atlanta International Airport, Georgia, USA.
Copyright©Charles Olsen/USDA APHIS PPQ/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Hemiberlesia lataniae (latania scale); adult on Heliconia. Intercepted, from Costa Rica, on Heliconia by Customs &  Border Protection at Atlanta International Airport, Georgia, USA.
AdultHemiberlesia lataniae (latania scale); adult on Heliconia. Intercepted, from Costa Rica, on Heliconia by Customs & Border Protection at Atlanta International Airport, Georgia, USA.©Charles Olsen/USDA APHIS PPQ/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Hemiberlesia lataniae (latania scale); adults on winter's bark (Drimys winteri), Chile.
TitleAdults
CaptionHemiberlesia lataniae (latania scale); adults on winter's bark (Drimys winteri), Chile.
Copyright©Dennis Navea/ControlBest/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Hemiberlesia lataniae (latania scale); adults on winter's bark (Drimys winteri), Chile.
AdultsHemiberlesia lataniae (latania scale); adults on winter's bark (Drimys winteri), Chile.©Dennis Navea/ControlBest/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Hemiberlesia lataniae (Signoret)

Preferred Common Name

  • latania scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Aspidiotus askleniae Sasaki
  • Aspidiotus aspleniae Ferris
  • Aspidiotus crawii Cockerell
  • Aspidiotus cydoniae Cockerell
  • Aspidiotus greenii Cockerll
  • Aspidiotus lataniae Signoret
  • Aspidiotus punicae Cockerell
  • Aspidiotus tectus Ferris
  • Diaspidiotus lataniae
  • Euaspidiotus lataniae
  • Hemiberlesia cydoniae
  • Hemiberlesia greenii

International Common Names

  • English: grape vine Aspidiotus; palm scale; scale, latania; scale, palm

Local Common Names

  • Czechoslovakia (former): quince scale
  • South Africa: palm dopluis (South Africa)

EPPO code

  • HEBELA (Hemiberlesia lataniae)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Diaspididae
  •                                     Genus: Hemiberlesia
  •                                         Species: Hemiberlesia lataniae

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page H. lataniae is a member of the subfamily Diaspidinae tribe Aspidiotini.

Description

Top of page Eggs

The eggs are yellow in colour, elongate and 0.15 mm long.

Larvae

The first instar, or crawler, is yellowish in colour and is 0.15 mm long. It moults after approximately 14 days. The second instar exhibits the same colour as the adult female.

Adults

Adult females are variable in colour and shape, measuring 1-2 mm in diameter. On leaves they are grey to white in colour, circular and convex; on stems, they are brown and slightly convex. Exuviae are subcentral and yellow-brown (Davidson and Miller, 1990).

Male scale covers are oval-shaped and elongate, similar in colour to those of the females, but are not always present. Exuviae are subterminal and yellow (Davidson and Miller, 1990). The adult male is a tiny insect with one pair of wings and no mouthparts, and which lives for 24 to 48 hours.

Distribution

Top of page H. lataniae was originally described from a palm, Latania borbonica, in 1869 (Quayle, 1938). This palm was a very popular ornamental plant which was distributed worldwide, carrying the pest with it. It is considered to be a serious pest in many areas of the world, including Israel, Palearctic Regions, the former USSR and USA (Florida and Hawaii) (Miller and Davidson, 1990).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresent,
British Indian Ocean TerritoryPresent,
Brunei DarussalamPresent,
ChinaPresentCIE, 1976
-Hong KongPresentCIE, 1976
IndiaPresentCIE, 1976; Nagarkatti and Sankaran, 1990
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresent,
-Andhra PradeshPresentDhileepan, 1991
-Himachal PradeshPresentVerma and Dinabandhoo, 2005
-KarnatakaPresentDhileepan, 1991
-KeralaPresentDhileepan, 1991
-MaharashtraPresentDhileepan, 1991
-Tamil NaduPresent,
IndonesiaPresentCIE, 1976
-Irian JayaPresentWilliams and Watson, 1988
IranPresentDanzig and Pellizari, 1998
IraqPresentDanzig and Pellizari, 1998
IsraelPresentAvidov and Harpaz, 1969; CIE, 1976; Wysoki, 1977; Argyriou, 1990
JapanPresentNagarkatti and Sankaran, 1990
MalaysiaPresentChu and Wood, 1990
MaldivesPresent,
OmanPresent,
PakistanIntroduced, not established,
PhilippinesPresent,
Saudi ArabiaIntroduced, not establishedDanzig and Pellizari, 1998
Sri LankaPresent, ; Chu and Wood, 1990; Nagarkatti and Sankaran, 1990
TaiwanPresentSu and Wang, 1988; Wang and Su, 1989
ThailandPresent,
TurkeyPresentArgyriou, 1990; Danzig and Pellizari, 1998

Africa

AlgeriaPresentCIE, 1976
AngolaPresentCIE, 1976
BeninPresentCIE, 1976
CameroonPresentCIE, 1976
Cape VerdePresentCIE, 1976
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentCIE, 1976
Côte d'IvoirePresentCIE, 1976
EgyptPresentCIE, 1976; Williams and Greathead, 1990
EritreaPresentCIE, 1976
EthiopiaPresentCIE, 1976
GhanaPresentCIE, 1976
GuineaPresentCIE, 1976
KenyaPresentCIE, 1976; Nagarkatti and Sankaran, 1990
LibyaPresent, ; CIE, 1976
MadagascarPresentCIE, 1976
MalawiPresentCIE, 1976
MaliPresentCIE, 1976
MauritiusPresentCIE, 1976
MoroccoPresentCIE, 1976
MozambiquePresentCIE, 1976
NigeriaPresentCIE, 1976
RéunionPresentCIE, 1976
Saint HelenaPresentCIE, 1976
-AscensionPresent,
Sao Tome and PrincipePresent, ; CIE, 1976
SeychellesPresentCIE, 1976
Sierra LeonePresentCIE, 1976
SomaliaPresentCIE, 1976
South AfricaWidespreadCIE, 1976; Mitchell and Ironside, 1982; Daneel et al., 1994; Daneel, 1998
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresent, ; CIE, 1976; Chu and Wood, 1990
SudanPresentCIE, 1976
TanzaniaPresentCIE, 1976; Mitchell and Ironside, 1982
-ZanzibarPresentQuayle, 1938
TunisiaPresentCIE, 1976
UgandaPresentCIE, 1976
ZambiaPresent,
ZimbabwePresentCIE, 1976

North America

BermudaPresentCIE, 1976
MexicoPresentQuayle, 1938; CIE, 1976
USA
-CaliforniaPresentMcKenzie, 1935; CIE, 1976; Argyriou, 1990; Chu and Wood, 1990; Gill, 1997
-FloridaWidespread, ; CIE, 1976; Dekle and, 1976; Miller and Davidson, 1990; Gill, 1997
-GeorgiaPresentHodges et al., 2001
-HawaiiPresentCIE, 1976; Mitchell and Ironside, 1982; Williams and Greathead, 1990
-KansasIntroduced, not established,
-LouisianaPresentCIE, 1976; Howard and Oliver, 1985
-MarylandPresentStoetzel and Davidson, 1974
-MissouriPresentMitchell and Ironside, 1982
-New MexicoPresent,
-OhioIntroduced, not establishedKosztarab, 1963
-VirginiaPresentCIE, 1976

Central America and Caribbean

BahamasPresentCIE, 1976
BarbadosPresentCIE, 1976
CaribbeanPresentCIE, 1976
Costa RicaPresent,
CubaPresentCIE, 1976
DominicaPresentCIE, 1976
GuatemalaPresentCIE, 1976
HaitiPresentCIE, 1976
HondurasPresentCIE, 1976
JamaicaPresentCIE, 1976
NicaraguaPresent,
PanamaPresentCIE, 1976
Trinidad and TobagoPresentCIE, 1976
United States Virgin IslandsPresentCIE, 1976

South America

ArgentinaPresentCIE, 1976
BrazilPresentQuayle, 1938; CIE, 1976
-Espirito SantoPresentCIE, 1976
-Minas GeraisPresentCIE, 1976
-ParaPresentCIE, 1976
-Rio Grande do SulPresentCIE, 1976
-Sao PauloPresentCIE, 1976
ChilePresent, ; CIE, 1976; Argyriou, 1990
EcuadorPresent,
GuyanaPresentCIE, 1976
PeruPresentCIE, 1976
VenezuelaPresentCIE, 1976

Europe

AustriaIntroduced, establishment uncertain,
BelgiumIntroduced, not establishedDanzig and Pellizari, 1998
CyprusPresentDanzig and Pellizari, 1998
Czech RepublicIntroduced, not establishedDanzig and Pellizari, 1998
FranceIntroduced, not establishedDanzig and Pellizari, 1998
GermanyIntroduced, not establishedDanzig and Pellizari, 1998
GreecePresentCIE, 1976
-CretePresentCIE, 1976
ItalyPresentCIE, 1976
-SicilyPresentCIE, 1976
MaltaPresentCIE, 1976
PortugalPresentCIE, 1976
-MadeiraPresentCIE, 1976
RomaniaIntroduced, not establishedDanzig and Pellizari, 1998
Russian FederationPresentMiller and Davidson, 1990
SpainPresentCIE, 1976
UKIntroduced, not established,
-Channel IslandsIntroduced, not established,
Yugoslavia (former)PresentCIE, 1976

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCIE, 1976
-QueenslandPresent, ; CIE, 1976; Mitchell and Ironside, 1982
Cook IslandsPresentWilliams and Watson, 1988
FijiPresent, ; CIE, 1976; Chu and Wood, 1990
French PolynesiaPresentWilliams and Watson, 1988
KiribatiPresentWilliams and Watson, 1988
New CaledoniaPresent, ; CIE, 1976
New ZealandPresentCharles et al., 1995a; Hill et al., 1993; New Zealand MAF Biosecurity, 2011
NiuePresentWilliams and Watson, 1988
Papua New GuineaPresentChu and Wood, 1990
SamoaPresentCIE, 1976; Williams and Watson, 1988
Solomon IslandsPresentCIE, 1976; Williams and Watson, 1988
TokelauPresentWilliams and Watson, 1988
TongaPresentCIE, 1976; Williams and Watson, 1988
TuvaluPresentWilliams and Watson, 1988
VanuatuPresentWilliams and Watson, 1988

Risk of Introduction

Top of page According to Burger and Ulenberg (1990), H. lataniae is a quarantine pest in certain countries. Introduction to new countries is often via importation of infested plant material, especially ornamental plants.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page The latania scale, H. lataniae, is polyphagous and occurs on hundreds of host plants, including ornamental plants from at least 78 families (Boechsenius, 1966; Davidson and Miller, 1990) and the coniferous families Cupressaceae (Cupressus, Juniperus, Thuja) and Pinaceae (Cedrus) (Zahradník, 1990). Members of the families Rosaceae, Palmae and Euphorbiaceae are preferred hosts.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Acacia (wattles)FabaceaeWild host
Acacia saligna (Port Jackson wattle)FabaceaeWild host
ActinidiaActinidiaceaeMain
Actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit)ActinidiaceaeMain
Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit)MoraceaeOther
CamelliaTheaceaeOther
Carya (hickories)JuglandaceaeOther
Carya illinoinensis (pecan)JuglandaceaeOther
Casimiroa edulis (white sapote)RutaceaeOther
CitrusRutaceaeMain
Cocos nucifera (coconut)ArecaceaeMain
Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm)ArecaceaeOther
Elymus repens (quackgrass)PoaceaeWild host
FeijoaMyrtaceaeOther
Ficus benjamina (weeping fig)MoraceaeOther
Ficus carica (fig)MoraceaeOther
KorthalsellaViscaceaeUnknown
MacadamiaProteaceaeOther
Malus (ornamental species apple)RosaceaeOther
Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeOther
Manilkara zapota (sapodilla)SapotaceaeOther
Melia azedarach (Chinaberry)MeliaceaeMain
Morus alba (mora)MoraceaeOther
Musa (banana)MusaceaeOther
Olea europaea subsp. europaea (European olive)OleaceaeOther
Passiflora (passionflower)PassifloraceaeOther
Persea americana (avocado)LauraceaeMain
Polyphagous (polyphagous)Main
Populus nigra (black poplar)SalicaceaeHabitat/association
Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeMain
Pyrus communis (European pear)RosaceaeOther
Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeOther
Solanum torvum (turkey berry)SolanaceaeOther
Vitis labrusca (fox grape)VitaceaeOther
Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeMain

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page The presence of latania scale can be detected on leaves, twigs, fruit and as pitting on the bark of stems. Infested mango fruit turn pale green or yellow where the scales feed. The discoloration remains on the mango skin even if the scales are removed by natural enemies or when the fruit is cleaned before packing. If there are more than ten of these spots per fruit on 10% or more of the fruit, it cannot be exported (Daneel, 1998).

According to Ebeling (1959), the rostralis of H. lataniae irritates the flesh of avocado cultivar Fuerte and possibly other thin-skinned cultivars. This is indicated by nodules adhering to the inside of the peel with corresponding depressions in the flesh of ripe fruit.

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page

Fruit

  • abnormal patterns
  • discoloration
  • external feeding

Leaves

  • abnormal forms
  • abnormal patterns
  • external feeding

Stems

  • discoloration
  • external feeding

Biology and Ecology

Top of page The eggs of H. lataniae are laid under the female cover and hatch shortly afterwards, usually within a few hours. The first instar, or crawler, usually settles near the parent female and moults after 14 days. The female second instar lasts 2 to 3 weeks before moulting to the adult stage.

H. lataniae is bisexual in Maryland, USA (Stoetzel and Davidson, 1974), and unisexual in Israel (Gerson and Zor, 1973) and southern California, USA (McKenzie, 1935).

Annually, H. lataniae completes two generations in Maryland, USA (Stoetzel and Davidson, 1974), three generations in Egypt (El-Minshway et al., 1971) and four generations in Israel (Gerson and Zor, 1973). From the egg to egg-laying female takes 56 to 65 days in southern California, USA (McKenzie, 1935).

Dispersal is by the active crawling of the first instar, and passive transport by wind and animal agents, including man. Dry weather favours dispersal and establishment; heavy rain causes high mortality of crawlers.

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Amblyseius citrifolius Predator Adults/Nymphs
Anabrolepis bifasciata Parasite
Aphytis Predator/parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphytis aonidiae Parasite
Aphytis chilensis Predator/parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphytis coheni Parasite
Aphytis diaspidis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphytis lingnanensis Parasite
Aphytis melinus Predator/parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphytis mytilaspidis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphytis paramaculicornis Parasite
Aphytis philippinensis Parasite Adults/Nymphs India; Karnataka Albizia chinensis; Solanum torvum
Cheilomenes sexmaculata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Cheletogenes ornatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Cheletomimus berlesei Predator/parasite Adults/Nymphs
Chilocorus nigrita Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chilocorus orbus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chilocorus quadrimaculatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccobius comperei Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Comperiella bifasciata Parasite
Comperiella lemniscata Predator/parasite Adults/Nymphs
Cosmospora aurantiicola Pathogen Tyson et al., 2005
Encarsia aurantii Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Encarsia citrina Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Encarsia lounsburyi Parasite
Habrolepis aspidioti Parasite Egypt figs; olives
Hemisarcoptes coccophagus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Marietta leopardina Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Nectria flammea Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Pharoscymnus flexibilis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Pharoscymnus horni Predator Adults/Nymphs
Plagiomerus bangaloriensis Parasite
Pteroptrix chinensis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Saniosulus nudus
Signiphora fax Predator/parasite Adults/Nymphs
Signiphora flavella Predator/parasite Adults/Nymphs
Signiphora perpauca Predator/parasite Adults/Nymphs
Thomsonisca amathus Parasite

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page In most areas where H. lataniae is present, natural enemies are usually able to control populations in field conditions. However, this will only occur where ants do not disturb the balance of natural enemies and pesticides are not applied indiscriminately.

The parasitoids of H. lataniae belong to the Aphelinidae (Aphytis spp.) the Encyrtidae (Habrolepis obscura and Comperiella lemniscata) and the Signiphoridae (Signiphora spp.).

The predatory mites, Cheletomimus berlesei (Cheyletidae) and the Hemisarcoptes spp. (Hemisarcoptidae) feed on diaspidid crawlers, such as those of H. lataniae (Gerson et al., 1990). Coccinellids, such as Rhyzobius lophanthae and Chilocorus sp., are considered to be high-density feeders of scale insects, although their principal importance is as hosts for the dispersal of predatory mites. Dentifibula obtusilobae is a cecidomyiid predator of the latania scale.

Evans and Prior (1990) note that armoured scale insects, particularly in the humid tropics, are subject to periodic and often devastating attacks by highly adapted fungal pathogens. The pathogen Nectria flammea has been isolated from H. lataniae.

Impact

Top of page H. lataniae attacks the branches, leaves and fruit of avocado, and infested fruit are downgraded to a lower quality class and may not be accepted for export. In South Africa, heavy infestations have been observed on fruit of avocado cultivar Hass, but smooth-skinned cultivars are also susceptible. Heavier scale infestations on cultivar Hass were observed on fruit hanging near the ground, compared to higher up in the tree (Steyn, 1995).

Latania scale is considered to be a serious pest of avocado in Israel (Gill, 1997).

In the USA, H. lataniae is a serious pest of palms in Florida and on ornamentals in California, where it has recently also begun to cause problems on kiwifruit (Gill, 1997).

On macadamia (Macadamia spp.) trees, the insect attacks the nuts, leaves and branches.

H. lataniae attacks the twigs and bark of mango trees, moving to the fruit during severe infestations. The peel of infested fruit turns pale green or yellow where the scales feed, but no internal damage was observed by Daneel (1998).

On grapevine, the insect attacks the main stem, branches and shoots of the vines, causing dieback of bearing stems, as well as older wood and occasionally whole vines (Swart and De Klerk, 1986).

Detection and Inspection

Top of page Inspect the stem, branches, leaves and fruit for the presence of greyish-colored scale insects up to 2 mm in length. A magnifying glass or hand lens, and good lighting are important to ensure detection.

Prevention and Control

Top of page Biological Control

In New Zealand, species of Hemisarcoptes have been introduced into kiwifruit orchards (Charles et al., 1995b), but only H. coccophagus has become established. Chilocorus spp. were also introduced to enable the predatory Hemisarcoptes mites to be dispersed by phoresy. Following introduction of H. coccophagus, there was a long term decline in H. lataniae numbers in orchards and Lombardy poplar shelter belts (Charles et al., 1995a).

In Australia, a complex of natural enemies was able to suppress H. lataniae infestations in sprayed avocado orchards (Waite, 1988).

Chemical Control

Although there are systemic and contact insecticides that can control H. lataniae, it is mostly not necessary to apply chemical control.

Where natural enemies have been suppressed by misuse of insecticides, scale-infested avocado fruit need to be cleaned before marketing (Swaine et al., 1985). Ebeling (1959) describes washing of fruit in a special solution and vigorous brushing to remove the scales.

The misuse of broad-spectrum insecticides for the control of stink bugs on macadamia can also cause a population build up of H. lataniae (De Villiers and Du Toit, 1984).


IPM

Where orchards become infested with H. lataniae, the history of the orchards and the chemicals used on them during the previous two seasons should be determined. Broad spectrum pesticides with long residual action should be replaced with narrow spectrum pesticides with short residual action. Other useful practices are to reduce dust depositing on the trees from nearby dusty roads, and to prevent ants from gaining access to trees.

References

Top of page

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Argyriou LC, 1990. Olive. In: Rosen D, ed. Armoured Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Vol. 4B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 579-583.

Avidov Z; Harpaz I, 1969. Plant pests of Israel. Jerusalem, Israel: Israel Universities Press.

Borchsenius NS, 1966. A Catalogue of the Armoured Scale Insects (Diaspidoidea) of the World. (In Russian). Leningrad, Russia: Akademii Nauk SSR Zoologicheskogo Instituta, 449 pp.

Burger HC; Ulenberg SA, 1990. Quarantine problems and procedures. In: Rosen D, ed. Armoured Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Vol. 4B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 313-327.

Charles JG; Hill MG; Allan DJ, 1995. Persistence of the predatory mite, Hemisarcoptes coccophagus Meyer (Hemisarcoptidae), on low populations of Hemiberlesia lataniae (Signoret) (Diaspididae) in New Zealand. In: Ascher KRS; Ben-Dov Y, eds. Proceedings of the VII International Symposium of Scale Insect Studies, Bet Dagan, Israel. Israel Journal of Entomology 29:297-300.

Charles JG; Hill MG; Allan DJ, 1995. Releases and recoveries of Chilocorus spp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Hemisarcoptes spp. (Acari: Hemisarcoptidae) in kiwifruit orchards: 1987-93. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 22(3):319-324.

Chu TH; Wood BJ, 1990. Other Tropical Fruit Trees and Shrubs. In: Rosen D, ed. Armoured Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Vol. 4B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 543-552.

CIE, 1976. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Series A (Agricultural), No. 360. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Daneel M; Merwe Svan der; Jager Kde, 1994. Sporadic scales affecting mango. Yearbook - South African Mango Growers' Association, 14:72-74; 7 ref.

Daneel MS, 1998. Palm scale. In: De Villiers EA, ed. The Cultivation of Mangoes. South Africa, Nelspruit: Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops, 154-155.

Danzig E; Pellizari G, 1998. In: Kozar, ed. Catalogue of Palearctiv Coccoidea. Budapest, Hungary: Plant Protection Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 272-273.

Davidson JA; Miller DR, 1990. Ornamental plants. In: Rosen D, ed. Armoured Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Vol. 4B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 603-632.

de Villiers EA; du Toit WJ, 1984. Uitwerking van piretroid-middels op die groenstinkbesie, Nezara viridula, by makadamianeute. Subtropica, 5(10):17-20.

Dekle GW; Merrill GB, 1976. Florida armored scale insects. Arthropods of Florida and Neighbouring Land Areas No. 3. Gainesville, USA: Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 32, 345 pp.

Dhileepan K, 1991. Insects associated with oil palm in India. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 39(2-3):94-99.

Ebeling W, 1959. Subtropical Fruit Pests. Los Angeles, USA: University of California.

El-Minshawy AM; El-Sawaf SK; Hammad SM; Donia A, 1971. The biology of Hemiberlesia lataniae (Sign.) in Alexandria District. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Egypt, 55:461-467.

Evans HC; Prior C, 1990. Entomopathogenic Fungi. In: Rosen D, ed. Armoured Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Vol. 4B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 3-17.

Gerson U; O'Connor BM; Houck MA, 1990. Acari. In: Rosen D, ed. Armoured Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Vol. B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 77-97.

Gerson U; Zor Y, 1973. The armoured scale insects (Homoptera: Diaspididae) of avocado trees in Israel. Journal of Natural History, 7(5):513-533.

Gill RJ, 1997. The scale insects of California. Part 3. The armoured scales (Homoptera: Diaspididae). Technical Series in Agricultural Biosystematics and Plant Pathology, No 3. Sacramento, USA: Department of Food and Agriculture.

Harris KM, 1990. Cecidomyiidae and Other Diptera. In: Rosen D, ed. Armoured Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Vol. B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 61-66.

Henderson RC; Sultan A; Robertson AW, 2010. Scale insect fauna (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) of New Zealand's pygmy mistletoes (Korthalsella: Viscaceae) with description of three new species: Leucaspis albotecta, L. trilobata (Diaspididae) and Eriococcus korthalsellae (Eriococcidae). Zootaxa, 2644:1-24. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2010/f/z02644p024f.pdf

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