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Datasheet

Gonipterus scutellatus (eucalyptus snout beetle)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Gonipterus scutellatus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • eucalyptus snout beetle
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Adult Gonipterus scutellatus, ca. 1 cm in length.
TitleAdult
CaptionAdult Gonipterus scutellatus, ca. 1 cm in length.
CopyrightForestry Tasmania, Australia
Adult Gonipterus scutellatus, ca. 1 cm in length.
AdultAdult Gonipterus scutellatus, ca. 1 cm in length.Forestry Tasmania, Australia
Yellow colour form of legless fourth-instar larvae of Gonipterus scutellatus.
TitleLarva
CaptionYellow colour form of legless fourth-instar larvae of Gonipterus scutellatus.
CopyrightForestry Tasmania, Australia
Yellow colour form of legless fourth-instar larvae of Gonipterus scutellatus.
LarvaYellow colour form of legless fourth-instar larvae of Gonipterus scutellatus.Forestry Tasmania, Australia
Black colour form of legless fourth-instar larvae of Gonipterus scutellatus.
TitleLarva
CaptionBlack colour form of legless fourth-instar larvae of Gonipterus scutellatus.
CopyrightForestry Tasmania, Australia
Black colour form of legless fourth-instar larvae of Gonipterus scutellatus.
LarvaBlack colour form of legless fourth-instar larvae of Gonipterus scutellatus.Forestry Tasmania, Australia
Black colour form of legless fourth-instar larvae of Gonipterus scutellatus.  Note diagnostic faecal string on larva up to 1 cm long.
TitleLarva
CaptionBlack colour form of legless fourth-instar larvae of Gonipterus scutellatus. Note diagnostic faecal string on larva up to 1 cm long.
CopyrightForestry Tasmania, Australia
Black colour form of legless fourth-instar larvae of Gonipterus scutellatus.  Note diagnostic faecal string on larva up to 1 cm long.
LarvaBlack colour form of legless fourth-instar larvae of Gonipterus scutellatus. Note diagnostic faecal string on larva up to 1 cm long. Forestry Tasmania, Australia
Pod on young leaf containing around seven eggs of Gonipterus scutellatus; pod ca. 3 mm in length.
TitleEgg pod
CaptionPod on young leaf containing around seven eggs of Gonipterus scutellatus; pod ca. 3 mm in length.
CopyrightForestry Tasmania, Australia
Pod on young leaf containing around seven eggs of Gonipterus scutellatus; pod ca. 3 mm in length.
Egg podPod on young leaf containing around seven eggs of Gonipterus scutellatus; pod ca. 3 mm in length. Forestry Tasmania, Australia
Feeding damage to Eucalyptus globulus leaves and shoots by larval and adult Gonipterus scutellatus. Note characteristic 'tracks' eaten in leaves by early instars before the leaves expanded.
TitleDamage symptoms
CaptionFeeding damage to Eucalyptus globulus leaves and shoots by larval and adult Gonipterus scutellatus. Note characteristic 'tracks' eaten in leaves by early instars before the leaves expanded.
CopyrightForestry Tasmania, Australia
Feeding damage to Eucalyptus globulus leaves and shoots by larval and adult Gonipterus scutellatus. Note characteristic 'tracks' eaten in leaves by early instars before the leaves expanded.
Damage symptomsFeeding damage to Eucalyptus globulus leaves and shoots by larval and adult Gonipterus scutellatus. Note characteristic 'tracks' eaten in leaves by early instars before the leaves expanded. Forestry Tasmania, Australia

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Gonipterus scutellatus Gyllenhal 1833

Preferred Common Name

  • eucalyptus snout beetle

Other Scientific Names

  • Dacnirotatus platensis Marelli, 1926
  • Goniopterus marellii Uyttenboogaart
  • Gonipterus platensis Marelli, 1928

International Common Names

  • French: charançon
  • English: eucalyptus weevil; gumtree weevil; snout beetle
  • Spanish: gorgojo del eucalipto; picuto
  • Portuguese: gorgulho do eucalipto

Local Common Names

  • Germany: ostafrikanischer eucalyptus; ruessler

EPPO code

  • GONPSC (Gonipterus scutellatus)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Curculionidae
  •                             Genus: Gonipterus
  •                                 Species: Gonipterus scutellatus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Some authors consider that G. scutellatus is the same species as Gonipterus gibberus. However, several differences in the morphology of the larvae, pupae and adult stages, as well as in the biology between these species have been observed (Marelli, 1926, 1927, 1928; Blanchard et al., 1927; Freitas, 1991; Rosado Neto, 1993; May, 1993; Rosado Neto and Marquês, 1996; Sanches, 1999).

It was confirmed that Dacnirotatus platensis, Gonipterus platensis and Goniopteros marellii are synonyms of G. scutellatus (Marelli, 1926, 1928; Marshall, 1928; Rosado Neto, 1993; Rosado Neto and Marquês, 1996).

Description

Top of page Eggs

The eggs are laid in a pod or capsule containing three to 16 eggs. The pods can be found attached to both surfaces of newly expanded, mature leaves. The dark brown, box-like pods contain pale yellow eggs arranged in vertical layers. The egg is cylindrical; smooth and bright; rounded at the extremities; and 1.25 mm in diameter (Bain, 1977; Freitas, 1991).

Larvae

The final-instar larvae are 10 mm long and have robust bodies. They are sub-circular in cross section, curved when not attached to the substrate and devoid of asperites. The larvae are pale yellow-green with black spots and a black stripe running along each side of the body. They have small, retracted heads. The larvae often have a long thread or filament of faecal material coiled up behind them (Bain, 1977; Rosado Neto and Marquês, 1996).

Pupae

The pupae are yellow-cream, with pale to red-brown eyes. They have elongated bodies, which are 7-11.3 mm long (Rosado Neto and Freitas, 1982; Sanches, 1999).

Adults

The adult is about 8 mm long (the female is 7.5-9.4 mm and the male is 5.7-8.9 mm). It is grey-brown, with a light transverse band on the elytra. The rostrum is 15 mm long; the prothorax is 2.2 mm long; and the elytra are 6.2 mm long and 4.6 mm wide (Rosado Neto 1993; Rosado Neto and Marquês, 1996).

Distribution

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G. scutellatus is native to Australia and it was introduced into South Africa in 1916 (Mally, 1924; Tooke, 1955). It was introduced into New Zealand in 1890 (Miller, 1927; Clark, 1938). G. scutellatus dispersed from South Africa to Mozambique and Malawi (1938). In the 1940s it reached Zimbabwe (1940), Kenya (1944), Uganda (1944), Mauritius Island (1940), Madagascar (1948) and Saint Helena Island (1948). In South America, it was introduced in 1925 (Argentina) (Marelli, 1926, 1928; Fiorentino and Diodato de Medina, 1991), and then it spread to Uruguay (1943) (Bosq, 1943; Kober, 1955), Brazil (1955) (Barbiellini, 1955; Silva et al., 1968; Freitas and Rosado Neto, 1980; Rosado Neto and Freitas, 1982; Fenilli, 1982; Rosado Neto, 1993) and Chile (1998) (Beeche Cisternas et al., 1999). It was first recorded in Europe (Italy) in 1976, and then in France (1978) and Spain (1991). G. scutellatus was recorded in 1994 in California, USA.

A record of G. scutellatus in China (Zhejiang) (EPPO, 2006) published in previous versions of the Compendium has been removed as it was based on an invalid record.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaAbsent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014
-ZhejiangAbsent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014

Africa

KenyaPresentKevan, 1946; Griffith, 1958; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
LesothoPresentRichardson and Meakins, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
MadagascarPresentFrappa, 1950; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
MalawiPresentCadahia, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
MauritiusPresentMoutia and Vinson, 1945; Williams et al., 1951; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
MozambiquePresentCadahia, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
Saint HelenaPresentCadahia, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
South AfricaWidespreadMally, 1924; Tooke, 1955; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
Spain
-Canary IslandsRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
SwazilandPresent, ; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
UgandaPresentCadahia, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
ZimbabwePresentBarret and Carter, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014

North America

USARestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaPresent1994Cowles and Downer, 1995; Hanks et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroduced1925, ; Marelli, 1926; Marelli, 1928; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
BrazilRestricted distribution, ; , ; , ; Silva et al., 1968; Fenilli, 1982; Rosado Neto, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-Espirito SantoPresentWilcken et al., 2008; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-ParanaPresent, ; , ; Fenilli, 1982; Rosado Neto, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-Rio Grande do SulPresent, ; Silva et al., 1968; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-Santa CatarinaPresentFenilli, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedRosado Neto, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
ChileRestricted distribution, ; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
UruguayWidespreadBosq, 1943; Kober, 1955; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014

Europe

CroatiaAbsent, confirmed by surveyEPPO, 2014
FranceRestricted distributionIntroduced1977Rabasse and Perrin, 1979; Cadahia, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-CorsicaPresentNeid-Jacques, 2003; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
GreeceAbsent, confirmed by surveyEPPO, 2014
ItalyRestricted distributionIntroduced1975Arzone and Meotto, 1978; Cadahia, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2010; Mazza et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014
-SicilyPresentMazza et al., 2015
PortugalPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
SpainRestricted distributionIntroduced1991, ; Sánchez et al., 2009; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014

Oceania

AustraliaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-New South WalesPresentNative===, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-QueenslandPresentNative===, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-South AustraliaPresentNative===, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-TasmaniaPresentNative===, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-VictoriaPresent, few occurrencesNative===, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-Western AustraliaPresentLoch, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
New ZealandWidespreadMiller, 1927; Clark, 1938; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014

Risk of Introduction

Top of page G. scutellatus is an A2 quarantine organism for EPPO, and is also of quarantine significance for CPPC, JUNAC and NAPPO (OEPP/EPPO, 1980).

EPPO recommends that countries importing propagating material and parts of Eucalyptus trees, offer the exporting country the choice of either ensuring that the consignment is free of soil or that it comes from an area where G. scutellatus does not occur (OEPP/EPPO, 1990). Countries may require a phytosanitary certificate for cut branches of Eucalyptus.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page Eucalyptus species are commonly susceptible to snout beetle damage (Marelli, 1928; Bain, 1977). The most susceptible species are Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus viminalis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus robusta, Eucalyptus amygdalina, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus saligna (Marelli, 1928) and Eucalyptus tereticornis (Silva et al., 1968). Narrow-leaved species such as Eucalyptus pulchella are not normally attacked.

Pinus patula is an alternative host for some adults during the winter, but they usually hibernate under loose bark on Eucalyptus trunks (Iede et al., 1990).

Growth Stages

Top of page Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page The adults and larvae of G. scutellatus weaken trees by defoliating them and successive defoliations give the trees a stunted and stag-headed appearance (Kliejunas et al., 2001).

The damaged trees have characteristically scalloped leaf edges, with a resultant die-back of shoot tips and the development of tufts of epicormics (OEPP/EPPO, 1980). The adults prefer to feed on the leaf margins and the soft bark of young shoots. The larvae eat the young shoots and feed over the whole leaf surface leaving only the hard fibres (Fenilli, 1982; Rosado Neto and Freitas, 1982; Freitas, 1991; Rosado Neto, 1993).

List of Symptoms/Signs

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Growing point

  • dieback
  • discoloration
  • external feeding

Leaves

  • abnormal colours
  • external feeding
  • yellowed or dead

Stems

  • witches broom

Whole plant

  • discoloration
  • external feeding

Biology and Ecology

Top of page In Mauritius, the eggs are attached to the leaves in greyish capsules containing about eight to ten eggs. The females mate several times and continue to lay eggs throughout a lifetime of about 91 days. A female lays from 21 to 33 capsules. The larvae feed on leaves and twigs, and pupation occurs in cells that are about 5 cm deep in the soil. In the laboratory, the adults mated 4-9 days after emergence, and began to lay eggs after a further 13-21 days (Moutia and Vinson, 1945).

Annually there are about four generations in Mauritius. In South Africa, there are only two to two and a half generations and overwintering occurs in the adult stage. In Italy and Brazil, only two generations per year have been recorded.

In Mauritius, the egg stage develops in 6-7 days from February to March; 7-9 days from April to June; and 9-10 days from July to August. The first instar develops in 3-4 days from February to March; 4-5 days from April to June; and 5-6 days from July to August. The second instar develops in 3-4 days from February to March; 4-6 days from April to June; and 6-7 days from July to August. The third instar develops in 3-4 days from February to March; 4-6 days from April to June; and 5-8 days from July to August. The fourth instar develops in 5-6 days from February to March; 6-8 days from April to June; and 7-10 days from July to August. The pupa develops in 29-31 days from February to March; 31-35 days from April to June; and 32-38 days from July to August. The whole life cycle takes 49-56 days from February to March; 56-69 days from April to June and 64-79 days from July to August.

These development times are based on mean, maximum and minimum temperatures of 27, 31.6 and 24.4°C, respectively, from February to March; 23.6, 28.9 and 20.0°C, respectively, from April to June; and 21.3, 25.5 and 17.8°C, respectively, from July to August.

For further information on the biology of G. scutellatus see Mally (1924); Moutia and Vinson (1945); Tooke (1955); Leyva (1969, 1970); Arzone and Meotto (1978); and Sanches (1998).

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anagonia scutellata Parasite
Anaphes inexpectatus Parasite Eggs
Anaphes nitens Parasite Eggs
Anaphes tasmaniae Parasite Eggs
Apanteles Parasite Larvae
Euderus viridis Parasite South Africa Eucalyptus
Proctotrupes turneri Parasite Larvae

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page The biological control of G. scutellatus was initiated in South Africa when Anaphes nitens was imported from Australia. It was successfully established and provided effective control in the warmer, lower lying areas but not in the cooler highlands where control was erratic. However, control was improved by planting less susceptible species. Refer to Tooke (1955) for a detailed account of the work.

The erratic control in the highland areas was exacerbated by a return to susceptible eucalyptus species with better growth characteristics. The situation was re-evaluated and it was found that a lack of water in the winter, with a consequent lack of fresh foliage, contributed to the poor control at altitude. Unsuccessful introductions of additional parasitoids from Australia have been made (Tribe, 2003).

A. nitens was subsequently successfully introduced into eastern Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius and St Helena with generally satisfactory results. Natural spread has resulted in its appearance in Zimbabwe and Malawi following the arrival of its host (reviewed by Greathead, 1971).

More recently, A. nitens was successfully established in France and Italy during the 1970s (OPIE, 1986) and in Spain in 1993 (Santolamazza and Cordero, 1997).

A biological control programme in Argentina began in 1928, when A. nitens was introduced (Marielli, 1930). This parasite has probably naturally spread to Uruguay and Brazil (Rosado Neto and Freitas, 1982).

In the absence of the parasite and other natural enemies, G. scutellatus can be a serious problem (Kliejunas, et al. 2001). A. nitens has successfully controlled G. scutellatus where the parasite has been introduced.

The presence of Beauveria bassiana was reported in the adults of G. scutellatus in Brazil (Berti Filho et al., 1992).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page The adults of G. scutellatus can fly and natural dispersal occurs by this means. The main pathway for the introduction of G. scutellatus is in the adult stage because the longevity is high (3-6 months) and due to its behaviour as a hitchhiker on or under the bark of wood logs or vessels of transport (Kliejunas et al., 2001).

The adults, larvae and eggs may be carried on plant parts used for vegetative propagation, and seedlings. The larvae and pupae could be present in the accompanying soil (OEPP/EPPO, 1980). The adults may be spread as hitchhikers in various commodities.

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark adults No Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx adults; larvae No Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Growing medium accompanying plants larvae; pupae No Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves adults; eggs; larvae No Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants eggs; larvae; pupae No Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; larvae No Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Fruits (inc. pods)
Roots
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

Impact

Top of page In its native region of Australia, the beetle is not economically important. It has become an important defoliator of the Eucalyptus trees in other parts of the world, where environmental resistance is absent. Pest attack causes the stunting of trees, which may split and sometimes die. Normally, after the first detection, the beetle causes serious damage to the Eucalyptus. The damage reduces growth rate, tree vigour and causes the loss of apical dominance. Thus the trees become more susceptible to attack by other organisms (Freitas, 1991; Fiorentino and Diodato de Medina, 1991; Kliejunas et al., 2001). Anaphes nitens was introduced for control of the snout beetle in different countries, and has reduced attacks and dispersal so that they have become sporadic and localized.

Environmental Impact

Top of page When the pest is detected in a new environment, it is normally necessary to use chemical control. This could cause an environmental impact, especially among the native insect populations. However, this problem would probably be confined to the foliage industry or in ornamental planting. In California, it was observed that defoliation by G. scutellatus can be severe in Eucalyptus windbreaks and urban plantings (Hanks et al., 2000).

G. scutellatus shows a strong preference for Eucalyptus spp.. Therefore it is unlikely that it will have a negative impact on the native plant species in new habitats, or on other exotic species (Kliejunas et al., 2001).

Detection and Inspection

Top of page The adults, larvae and eggs may be carried on plant material. The larvae and pupae may also be present in the accompanying soil, whereas the adults may be transported as hitchhikers on or under the bark in wood logs or vessels of transport (Kliejunas et al., 2001). The countries importing propagating material and cut branches of Eucalyptus from regions where the beetle is present, should ensure that the consignment is free of soil or that it comes from an area where G. scutellatus does not occur. These materials must be inspected for all life cycle stages of G. scutellatus.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page The biology and ecology of G. scutellatus are similar to Gonipterus gibberus. They are considered by some authors to be the same species (OEPP/EPPO, 1980), although morphologically they are dissimilar. However, some authors have highlighted differences in the biology, as well as in the morphology, of both species (Marelli, 1926, 1927, 1928; Blanchard et al., 1927; Freitas, 1991; Rosado Neto, 1993; May, 1993; Rosado Neto and Marquês, 1996; Sanches, 1998).

Prevention and Control

Top of page It is necessary to establish quarantine measures to avoid the fast spread of the pest. Although there has been successful control with Anaphes nitens in different continents, it is necessary to reinforce the environmental resistance mechanisms to maintain forest health. Forest management programmes should include host-plant resistance and good silvicultural practices. Chemical treatment is not recommended because of the disruption it causes to the environment, and also its could affect many honey bees, which are attracted by the long flowering period of Eucalyptus (OEPP/EPPO, 1980).

References

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===, 1980. Data sheets on quarantine organisms. Set 3. EPPO Bulletin, 10(1). unnumbered.

Arzone A; Meotto F, 1978. Biological findings on Gonipterus scutellatus Gyll. (Col. Curculionidae) infesting eucalyptus trees on the Ligurian Riviera. Redia, 41:205-222

Bain J, 1977. Gonipterus scutellatus Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) - Gum-tree Weevil. Forest and Timber Insects in New Zealand. Forest Research Institute - New Zealand Forest Service, 8:1-4.

Barbiellini AA, 1955. Combate a Praga do Eucalipto no Sul. Chßcaras e Quintaes, 91:191-192.

Barret RL; Carter DT, 1976. Eucalyptus camaldulensis provenance trials in Rhodesia (later results). Rhodesia Bulletin of Forestry Research, 2:39.

Beeche Cisternas MA; Sandoval Claverfa A; Rothmann Toro S; Ravanales Villalobos J; Cereceda Leinz C; Mu±oz Godoy R; Olivera Alvarez G; Corvalßn Latapia L; Galarce Marambio G; San Martfn L=pez A, 1999. Deteccion y Control del Gorgojo del Eucalipto Gonipterus scutellatus Gyllenhal - En Chile (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Departamento de Protecci=n Agrfcola, Servfcio Agrfcola y Ganadero del Chile, Chile. Divulgaci=n TTcnica, 1-43.

Berti Filho E; Alves SB; Cerignoni JA; Stape JL, 1992. Occurrence of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. in adults of Gonipterus scutellatus (Gyllenhal) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Revista de Agricultura (Piracicaba), 67(3):251-252.

Blanchard EE; Lizer Y; Trelles CA, 1927. La opini=n de los especialistas acerca del rinc=foro del eucalipto, Gonipterus gibberus Boisd. Phycis, 31:580-584.

Bosq JM, 1943. Segunda lista de coleopteros de la Republica Argentina, da±inos a la agricultura. Buenos Aires, Ministerio de Agricultura de la Naci=n.

CABI/EPPO, 2010. Gonipterus scutellatus. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No.June. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 344 (2nd revision).

Cadahia D, 1986. The importance of insect pests of eucalyptus in the Mediterranean Region. Bulletin OEPP, 16(2):265-283

Clark AF, 1938. A survey of the insect pests of Eucalyptus in New Zealand. NZ J. Sci. Technol., 19:750-761.

Cordero Rivera A; Santolamazza Carbone S, 2000. The effect of three species of Eucalyptus on growth and fecundity of the Eucalyptus snout beetle (Gonipterus scutellatus). Forestry (Oxford), 73(1):21-29; 25 ref.

Cowles RS; Downer JA, 1995. Eucalyptus snout beetle detected in California. California Agriculture, 49(1):38, 40

EPPO, 1990. Specific quarantine requirements. EPPO Technical Documents, No. 1008. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Fenilli R, 1982. First record of Gonipterus platensis Marelli, 1926 and Gonipterus gibberus (Boisduval, 1835) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Gonipterinp) in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil, 11(2):293-294

Fiorentino DC; Diodato de Medina L, 1991. Brief survey of the forest insect pests of Argentina. Investigacion Agraria, Sistemas y Recursos Forestales Madrid, Spain; Instituto Nacional de Investigacion y Tecnologia Agraria y Alimentaria, No. 16:181-190

Frappa C, 1950. Sur las presence de Gonipterus scutellatus Gyll. dan lOs peupelments d'Eucalytpys de Madagascar et l'accilmatement d'Annophoidea nitens Gir. insecte auxiliaire parasite. Revue Pathologique Vegetale, 29:183-189.

Freitas S; Rosado Neto GH, 1980. Notas preliminares cobre a ocorrOncia de Gonipterus gibberus (Boisd., 1935) e G. platensis (Mar., 1926) atacando eucaliptos cidade de Curitiba. In: SEB, ed. Anais do VI Congresso Brasileiro de Entomologia, Campinas, Brasil, Seb, 71.

Freitas Sde, 1991b. Observations on the food consumption by Gonipterus gibberus (Boisduval, 1835) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) on Eucalyptus. Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil, 20(2):333-338

Geertsema H; Berg MA van den, 1978. A review of the more important forest pests of South Africa. International Union of Forestry Research Organisations (IUFRO): Meeting of IUFRO Working Parties S 2.06.12 and S 2.07.07, Pests and Diseases of Pines in the Tropics. 'Piedras Blancas', Medellin - Colombia, September 3-14, 1978.: Reunion de los grupos de trabajo de la IUFRO S 2.06.12 y S 2.07.07, Pla Instituto Nacional de los Recursos Naturales Renovables y del Ambiente. Bogota Colombia, [1+]12pp.

Greathead DJ, 1971. A review of biological control in the Ethiopian Region. CIBC Technical Communication No. 5. Farnham Royal, UK: CAB International.

Griffith AL, 1958. A list of Eucalyptus species known to be attacked by the snout beetle Gonipterus scutellatus. Empire Forestry Review, 38:200-201.

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