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Datasheet

Glycaspis brimblecombei (red gum lerp psyllid)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 October 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Glycaspis brimblecombei
  • Preferred Common Name
  • red gum lerp psyllid
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Nymph of the red gum lerp psyllid G. brimblecombei, on a eucalyptus leaf.
TitleNymph
CaptionNymph of the red gum lerp psyllid G. brimblecombei, on a eucalyptus leaf.
CopyrightCalifornia Dept. of Food & Agriculture
Nymph of the red gum lerp psyllid G. brimblecombei, on a eucalyptus leaf.
NymphNymph of the red gum lerp psyllid G. brimblecombei, on a eucalyptus leaf.California Dept. of Food & Agriculture
Close-up of a final-instar nymph of G. brimblecombei.
TitleFinal-instar nymph
CaptionClose-up of a final-instar nymph of G. brimblecombei.
CopyrightCalifornia Dept. of Food & Agriculture
Close-up of a final-instar nymph of G. brimblecombei.
Final-instar nymphClose-up of a final-instar nymph of G. brimblecombei.California Dept. of Food & Agriculture
Lerps of G. brimblecombei, including one turned over to reveal a nymph underneath.
TitleNymph
CaptionLerps of G. brimblecombei, including one turned over to reveal a nymph underneath.
CopyrightCalifornia Dept. of Food & Agriculture
Lerps of G. brimblecombei, including one turned over to reveal a nymph underneath.
NymphLerps of G. brimblecombei, including one turned over to reveal a nymph underneath.California Dept. of Food & Agriculture
Lerps of G. brimblecombei.
TitleLerps
CaptionLerps of G. brimblecombei.
CopyrightCalifornia Dept. of Food & Agriculture
Lerps of G. brimblecombei.
LerpsLerps of G. brimblecombei.California Dept. of Food & Agriculture
Lerps and one adult of G. brimblecombei.
TitleLerps and adult
CaptionLerps and one adult of G. brimblecombei.
CopyrightCalifornia Dept. of Food & Agriculture
Lerps and one adult of G. brimblecombei.
Lerps and adultLerps and one adult of G. brimblecombei. California Dept. of Food & Agriculture
Adult of G. brimblecombei showing elongated genal cones on the front of the head.
TitleAdult
CaptionAdult of G. brimblecombei showing elongated genal cones on the front of the head.
CopyrightCalifornia Dept. of Food & Agriculture
Adult of G. brimblecombei showing elongated genal cones on the front of the head.
AdultAdult of G. brimblecombei showing elongated genal cones on the front of the head.California Dept. of Food & Agriculture

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore

Preferred Common Name

  • red gum lerp psyllid

Local Common Names

  • Mexico: conchuela del eucalipto

EPPO code

  • GLYSBR (Glycaspis brimblecombei)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Psylloidea
  •                                 Family: Psyllidae
  •                                     Genus: Glycaspis
  •                                         Species: Glycaspis brimblecombei

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page The order Psylloidea, commonly called psyllids or jumping plant lice, encompasses approximately 2500 species worldwide. Red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei, was described from specimens collected in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia from "blue gum" eucalyptus in 1925 and 1936 (Moore, 1964). Glycaspis was assigned to the family Spondyliaspidae but this family has more recently been subsumed into the Psyllidae.

The genus Glycaspis contains approximately 140 species divided into three subgenera by Moore (Glycaspis, Boreioglycaspis and Synglycaspis) which are further divided into 20 groups (Moore 1970a, 1983). G. brimblecombei is included in the 20 species taylori group in the subgenus Glycaspis, which contains 88 species. The genus Glycaspis is distributed throughout Australia and as far away as Malaysia and the Philippines.

The common name red gum lerp psyllid refers to the favoured hosts of the psyllid, Eucalyptus species in the river red gum group including E. camaldulensis, and to the lerp, an Aboriginal term for the cone-shaped nymphal covering composed of excreted sugary honeydew and probably other chemical components produced by the Malpighian tubules. Not all Glycaspis species produce lerps, although numerous other species in other genera in Australia and elsewhere do produce lerps. The shapes and general appearance of the lerps can be species specific, but the cone-shaped lerp of G. brimblecombei is not distinctive enough for species identification.

Description

Top of page Eggs

These are laid randomly on the leaves or in clusters of 50-75 eggs, usually at an angle or perpendicular to the plant surface. They are spindle-shaped, yellow or cream coloured, and are slightly less than 1 mm in length.

Nymphs

There are four nymphal stages or instars. Size varies up to the end of the last instar, approximately 1.5-2.0 mm in length. The body colour is yellowish orange, with dark-brown coloration on the wing pads, legs, antennae, last abdominal segments, and in blotches on the dorsal areas of the head and thorax. The wing pads and other parts of the body have bright white spots associated with setal positions. The nymphs do not produce white flocculent wax secretions as in some other eucalyptus feeding species, but instead use the lerp covering as a source of shelter and protection from the elements. The lerps are 1-4 mm in diameter depending on the stage of the nymph, and are usually whitish in appearance, but may take on a grey or black coloration with age or if sooty mould begins to grow on the lerp. Lerps still occupied by nymphs often have curled tendrils of wax protruding from the upper surface.

Adults

These are approximately 4-5 mm in length from the head to the wing tips. The colour of the adult is yellow or light green with contrasting dark eyes, and with occasional dark-brown markings. The genal cones, a common morphological feature of most psyllids, consist of a pair of cone-shaped extensions of the frons and may extend anteriorly or downward depending on the head orientation of a given species. In G. brimblecombei, the genal cones are extremely long and well developed, being as long or longer than the head itself.

Distribution

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Prior to 1998, G. brimblecombei had been restricted to Australia. Within Australia, it is restricted to the far eastern side of the continent, with collections known from near Adelaide in South Australia, numerous locations to the south and east of the Murray-Darling River in New South Wales, and as far north as Queensland at Brisbane, North Clermont and East Callide (Moore, 1970c).

In June of 1998, red gum lerp psyllid was discovered heavily infesting eucalyptus trees at El Monte, Los Angeles County, California, USA (Gill 1998; Brennan et al., 1999). A few weeks later it was discovered infesting and defoliating numerous trees in a specimen eucalyptus grove in Alameda County near San Francisco, a distance of nearly 310 km (500 miles). Within the year, the psyllid was found in nearly every locality in California where Eucalyptus camaldulensis and its relatives were being grown. Populations were discovered in Arizona in 2000 (D Mills, Arizona Department of Agriculture, USA, personal communication, 2004). In 2001 it was discovered in Florida and in 2001 in Hawaii on the islands of Maui and Oahu. It also spread (probably naturally) from southern California into Baja California, Mexico, and has expanded from there to 21 Mexican states (EPPO, 2004b). Various websites suggest that the psyllid is also in Cuba, but no published records are available.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

IsraelPresentSpodek et al., 2015
TurkeyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2015; Karaca et al., 2015

Africa

AlgeriaPresentReguia and Peris-Felipo, 2013; CABI/EPPO, 2015
MadagascarPresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
MauritiusPresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
MoroccoRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014; Messoudi et al., 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
South AfricaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2015
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentMalumphy, 2010; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
TunisiaPresentAttia and Rapisarda, 2014; Dhahri et al., 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015

North America

MexicoWidespreadIntroduced2000 Invasive Gobierno del Distrito Federal Mexico, 2004; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
USARestricted distributionEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-ArizonaPresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced1998 Invasive Gill, 1998; Brennan et al., 1999; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-FloridaPresentIntroduced2001 Invasive Halbert, 2001; Halbert et al., 2001; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced2001 Invasive Nagamine and Heu, 2001; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015

South America

ArgentinaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
BrazilPresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-BahiaRestricted distributionMasson et al., 2009; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-Espirito SantoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2015
-GoiasPresentIntroducedLutinski et al., 2006; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-Mato GrossoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2015
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentIntroducedLutinski et al., 2006; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedLutinski et al., 2006; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-ParanaPresentIntroducedLutinski et al., 2006; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-PernambucoPresentBreda et al., 2010; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroducedOliveira et al., 2006; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedLutinski et al., 2006; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedFerreira et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
ChilePresentIntroduced2002Marín and Parra, 2003; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
ColombiaPresentRodas et al., 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
EcuadorPresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
PeruPresentBurckhardt et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
VenezuelaPresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015

Europe

FranceRestricted distributionCocquempot et al., 2012; EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-CorsicaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
GreecePresentBella and Rapisarda, 2013; Reguia and Peris-Felipo, 2013; Bella, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-Greece (mainland)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2015
ItalyRestricted distributionLaudonia and Garonna, 2010; Germinara et al., 2011; Frasconi et al., 2013; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-Italy (mainland)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2015
-SardiniaPresentEPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-SicilyWidespreadEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
MontenegroPresentMalumphy et al., 2013; CABI/EPPO, 2015
PortugalPresentBella, 2013; Dhahri et al., 2014; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
SpainRestricted distributionBorrajo et al., 2009; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-Balearic IslandsPresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-Spain (mainland)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2015

Oceania

AustraliaWidespreadNativeEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-New South WalesPresentNativeMoore, 1970c; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-QueenslandPresentNativeMoore, 1970c; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-South AustraliaPresentNativeMoore, 1970c; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-Western AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2015
New ZealandAbsent, invalid recordCABI/EPPO, 2015

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page G. brimblecombei is native to eastern Australia. The first record of this psyllid outside Australia was in California, USA, in June 1998 (Gill, 1998; Brennan et al., 1999), although it was obviously present for some time prior to that date as evidenced by the wide distribution and heavy populations found at the time. Its method of entry is unknown. The psyllid moved into Arizona, where it was found in multiple locations near Phoenix, and later at other locations (D Mills, Arizona Department of Agriculture, USA, personal communication, 2004). Sources of infestations in Arizona are probably due to the movement of nursery stock, or adults in vehicles. The psyllid was found in the State of Florida in April 2001 at Lake Buena Vista (Halbert 2001; Halbert et al., 2001) and later in 2001 it was detected in Hawaii on the islands of Maui and Oahu (Nagamine and Heu, 2001). Various websites suggest that it occurs in at least 21 states in Mexico (EPPO, 2004b). Undoubtedly it moved from initial infestations in southern California into the neighbouring state of Baja California Norte, and then on into mainland Mexico. It was detected in Sao Paulo, Brazil in 2003 (Lutinski et al., 2006; Santana and Burckhardt, 2007).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Deserts Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page The common hosts of G. brimblecombei in Australia are Eucalyptus blakelyi, E. camaldulensis, E. dealbata, E. tereticornis and possibly E. nitens (Moore 1970a, b). Red gum lerp psyllid also occurs on E. brassiana, E. bridgesiana, E. camphora and E. mannifera subsp. maculosa. The primary host of the red gum lerp psyllid outside Australia (in California, USA) is E. camaldulensis.

Additional hosts include E. diversicolor, E. globulus and E. sideroxylon (Brennan et al., 1999). Brennan et al. (2001) later conducted a study to determine the degree of resistance of California-grown eucalypt species. Numerous species proved to have greater or lesser resistance to psyllid attack, but three species, E. rudis, E. camaldulensis and E. tereticornis, showed severe susceptibility.

Growth Stages

Top of page Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page G. brimblecombei injury includes leaf discoloration and, in heavy infestations, severe leaf drop and twig dieback. In California, USA, tree death is often the result, arising both from the affects of severe and multiple defoliations, but also from attacks by introduced cerambycid beetles (Phoracantha spp.). In addition, the nymphs produce a large amount of honeydew, which falls to the ground where it will adhere to the feet of pedestrians and animals, or drop onto vehicles, outdoor furniture, appliances and swimming pools. The defoliated leaves are also a serious problem, since they fall into swimming pools and are tracked into buildings. Also, the honeydew is a substrate for sooty mould growth that further detracts from the appearance of the trees and whatever the honeydew falls on.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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Growing point

  • honeydew or sooty mould
  • honeydew or sooty mould
  • wilt
  • wilt

Leaves

  • abnormal leaf fall
  • abnormal leaf fall
  • honeydew or sooty mould
  • honeydew or sooty mould
  • yellowed or dead
  • yellowed or dead

Stems

  • dieback
  • dieback
  • honeydew or sooty mould
  • honeydew or sooty mould
  • necrosis
  • necrosis

Whole plant

  • early senescence
  • early senescence
  • plant dead; dieback
  • plant dead; dieback

Biology and Ecology

Top of page The native habitat of G. brimblecombei is in eastern Australia, a rather humid location. However, the psyllid is doing very well in the warmer, dryer areas of California, USA, where summer rain is generally non-existent. It does have more annual generations in the coastal areas of southern California, where the summer temperatures are cooler and the humidity is higher, but winter temperatures are warmer than in the rest of the state.

Red gum lerp psyllid has five life stages: an egg stage, four nymphal (larval) stages and the adult. The number of generations per year varies with temperature. In southern California, generations are continuous and usually overlapping, with apparently no winter diapause. In northern California, there appears to be only one annual generation and a partial second in the interior valleys. In Australia, it is multivoltine, with two to four annual generations (Morgan, 1984). Morgan also states that egg incubation times may last a week to 5 months depending on temperature and other environmental conditions.

Few studies have been conducted on the niches occupied by red gum lerp psyllid in the host trees, but Brennan et al. (1999) observed that G. brimblecombei does not prefer the immature foliage for oviposition and development of the nymphs as do other Australian psyllid species that have been introduced into California, USA. They observed that this psyllid oviposits and completes its life cycle on both sides of expanding, expanded and fully mature leaves. For this reason, damage to the trees has been extremely severe as a result of defoliation of all leaves on the tree, and new leaves are attacked almost immediately as they expand.

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anthocoris nemoralis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccinella californica Predator Adults/Nymphs
Harmonia axyridis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia convergens Predator Adults/Nymphs
Psyllaephagus bliteus Parasite
Zelus renardii Predator Adults/Nymphs

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Morgan (1984) lists a number of predators that feed on eucalyptus psyllids in general, including various bird species, syrphid flies, spiders, mites, lizards and in some cases ants. Species of parasitic wasps in the genus Psyllaephagus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from south-eastern Australia have been investigated for biological control of G. brimblecombei in California, USA, and some success has been achieved with P. bliteus (Dahlsten et al., 2001, 2005). In addition, in California, Brennan et al. (1999) list brown and green lacewings (Neuroptera) and Heteroptera (Anthocoris nemoralis and Zelus renardii) and coccinellid beetles (Harmonia axyridis, Chilocorus bipustulatus, Hippodamia convergens and Coccinella californica). Dragonflies (Odonata) are observed in California hawking adults on the downwind sides of infested trees as the on-shore breezes dislodge adults from the trees (RJ Gill, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Sacramento, USA, personal observation). Birds have also been observed feeding on the psyllids in California (University of California Agricultural Extension, USA, unpublished data). However, predators are not necessarily effective natural enemies and their presence in California has had little effect in controlling high populations.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

The adults are strong fliers. In California, USA, local spread has been rapid because the host trees are widely and commonly planted.

Movement in Trade and Transport

The method of introduction into California is not known and movement pathways across California are unclear, although it undoubtedly moved on commercial nursery plants, and as adults in vehicles, as evidenced by its establishment on trees planted in rather isolated rest areas provided along the major north-south highways. Its establishment in Arizona, Florida and the Hawaiian Islands is likely to be due to movement of nursery plants from California to those locations, or by movement of adults in conveyances such as trucks and aircraft.

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Land vehiclesTrucks and cars. Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Leaves adults; eggs; larvae; nymphs; pupae No Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults No Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections Negative
Animal/plant collections Negative
Animal/plant products Negative
Animal/plant products Negative
Biodiversity (generally) None
Biodiversity (generally) None
Crop production None
Crop production None
Environment (generally) None
Environment (generally) None
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production Negative
Forestry production Negative
Human health None
Human health None
Livestock production None
Livestock production None
Native fauna None
Native fauna None
Native flora None
Native flora None
Rare/protected species None
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None
Transport/travel None

Impact

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Little had been published on the status of the red gum lerp psyllid until it was established in the state of California in the USA, where it has become a very serious pest of certain Eucalyptus species especially the river red gum E. camaldulensis. In Australia, occasional outbreaks of G. brimblecombei have been known to occur, usually after a drought year followed by heavy rainfall (Morgan, 1984). Red gum lerp psyllid has been a very serious pest outside Australia in ornamental plantings and in some eucalypt plantations in California, USA, where it has been introduced without benefit of effective natural controls. Numerous authors allude to its occasional devastating effects in local newspapers, pest control newsletters and university extension publications. Most eucalypt species were planted in California from seed in the early 1800s (Doughty, 2000; Paine and Millar, 2002), and so few pests had been introduced into the State. However, in recent years, numerous Australian species have been introduced there due probably to the introduction of plant specimens in the nursery trade. When red gum lerp psyllid was introduced, heavy populations and severe damage resulted. Insecticidal sprays and systemics are ineffective and costly. In California, USA, some Eucalyptus plantations are used for firewood and paper pulp production. These agricultural uses have been affected by red gum lerp psyllid, but occur in the northern part of the State where the number of generations per year is less than in southern California. However, very serious damage has been done to trees used in ornamental plantings and in commercial operations such as golf courses. Severe, repeated defoliations by the psyllid and subsequent activity of eucalyptus longhorned borers (Cerambycidae: Phoracantha spp.) caused many of these highly susceptible trees to die, requiring removal which is extremely expensive.

In Brazil, G. brimblecombei caused significant damage to eucalypt plantations in the first years of its introduction (Santana and Burckhardt, 2007).

Economic Impact

Top of page Little had been published on the status of the red gum lerp psyllid until it was established in the state of California in the USA, where it has become a very serious pest of certain Eucalyptus species especially the river red gum E. camaldulensis. In Australia, occasional outbreaks of G. brimblecombei have been known to occur, usually after a drought year followed by heavy rainfall (Morgan, 1984).

Red gum lerp psyllid has been a very serious pest outside Australia in ornamental plantings and in some eucalypt plantations in California, USA, where it has been introduced without benefit of effective natural controls. Numerous authors allude to its occasional devastating effects in local newspapers, pest control newsletters and university extension publications. Most eucalypt species were planted in California from seed in the early 1800s (Doughty, 2000; Paine and Millar, 2002), and so few pests had been introduced into the State. However, in recent years, numerous Australian species have been introduced there due probably to the introduction of plant specimens in the nursery trade. When red gum lerp psyllid was introduced, heavy populations and severe damage resulted. Insecticidal sprays and systemics are ineffective and costly.

In California, USA, some Eucalyptus plantations are used for firewood and paper pulp production. These agricultural uses have been affected by red gum lerp psyllid, but occur in the northern part of the State where the number of generations per year is less than in southern California. However, very serious damage has been done to trees used in ornamental plantings and in commercial operations such as golf courses. Severe, repeated defoliations by the psyllid and subsequent activity of eucalyptus longhorned borers (Cerambycidae: Phoracantha spp.) caused many of these highly susceptible trees to die, requiring removal which is extremely expensive.

Detection and Inspection

Top of page Good detection protocols recommend examination of all the leaves of the preferred hosts for the presence of the whitish conical lerps and for honeydew and sooty mould.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page There are approximately 140 species in the genus Glycaspis, mostly in Australia, along with four species in the subgenus Boreioglycaspis occurring in Malaysia (including Sabah) and the Philippines (Hodkinson 1983). Keys to the subgenera of Glycaspis are provided by Moore (1970a). Keys to species are not available. Taxonomically, separation of species relies almost entirely on the shape and setation of the male claspers (parameres). Minor diagnostic characteristics can involve wing venation, the form of any lerps produced by the nymphs, and host restrictions (Moore 1970a, b, 1983). The identification of G. brimblecombei requires the use of Moore (1970a, b) in order to compare the paramere shapes with that of other species in the genus.

Prevention and Control

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Cultural Control and Sanitary Methods

General advice includes non-fertilization and limited watering, which makes the trees less attractive to the psyllids and may save the trees until parasitoids can reduce pest numbers.

Chemical Control

Chemical control is under investigation in California, USA, although little has been published in scientific journals. Most information is distributed to interested clientele through various newsletters and extension bulletins, such as Dreistadt et al. (1999). Spraying of small trees may be useful to reduce high populations, but the effects are usually not long lasting. Controlling the psyllids with sprays in large trees is difficult and costly, requiring very thorough coverage of all leaf surfaces. It is also difficult to contain the sprays on the properties where they are being applied. Few chemicals are registered for use on Eucalyptus, although some mention has been made of spray oils and insecticidal soaps. Some measure of lasting control has been observed using systemic insecticides such as imidacloprid and abamectin, and this is sometimes recommended if valuable or specimens trees are to be saved. These chemicals should be applied as a soil drench rather than injection, because the injection method is costly and may harm the trees further.

Biological Control

In California, introduction of the natural enemy Psyllaephagus bliteus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) has resulted in some biological control of red gum lerp psyllid. According to Paine et al. (2000), there had been trouble rearing enough of the parasites to allow adequate numbers to be released to ensure establishment. Releases began in June 2000 and the parasite had established in at least one location in 2001 (Dahlsten et al., 2001). Preliminary data (unpublished) produced by the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) in conjunction with D Dahlsten (University of California) suggests a 22% overall parasitism for all sites monitored, with up to 80% parasitism at certain locations.

References

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Attia SB; Rapisarda C, 2014. First record of the red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera Psyllidae), in Tunisia. Phytoparasitica, 42(4):535-539. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12600-014-0391-8

Bella S, 2013. New alien insect pests to Portugal on urban ornamental plants and additional data on recently introduced species. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 49(4):374-382. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tase20

Bella S, 2014. Invasive insect pests and their associated parasitoids on ornamental urban plants on Corfu island - Phytoliriomyza jacarandae Steyskal and Spencer 1978 (Diptera, Agromyzidae) a new record in Greece. Hellenic Plant Protection Journal, 7(2):53-59. http://en.bpi.gr/files/journal/2014/July/VOLUME%207%20-%20ISSUE%202%20(July%202014).pdf

Bella S; Rapisarda C, 2013. First record from Greece of the invasive red gum lerp psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera Psyllidae) and its associated parasitoid Psyllaephagus bliteus Riek (Hymenoptera Encyrtidae). Redia, 96:33-35. http://www.redia.it

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Breda MO; Oliveira JVde; Moreira AN; Queiroz DLde, 2010. Record of Glycaspis brimblecombei on Eucalyptus spp., in Petrolina, Pernambuco State, Brazil. (Registro de Glycaspis brimblecombei em Eucalyptus spp., em Petrolina, Pernambuco.) Pesquisa Florestal Brasileira, 30(63):253-255. http://www.cnpf.embrapa.br/pfb/index.php/pfb/article/view/160/134

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Brennan EB; Hrusa GF; Weinbaum SA; Levison WJr, 2001. Resistance of Eucalyptus species to Glycaspis brimblecombei (Homoptera: Psyllidae) in the San Francisco Bay area. Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 77(4):249-253; 19 ref.

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Dhahri S; Ben Jamaa ML; Garcia A; Boavida C; Branco M, 2014. Presence of Glycaspis brimblecombei and its parasitoid Psyllaephagus bliteus in Tunisia and Portugal. Silva Lusitana, 22(1):99-115. http://www.scielo.gpeari.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0870-6352&lng=en&nrm=iso

Doughty RW, 2000. The eucalyptus: a natural and commercial history of the gum tree. Baltimore, Maryland, USA: The John Hopkins University Press.

Dreistadt SH; Garrison RW; Gill R, 1999. Eucalyptus redgum lerp psyllid. University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication, Pest Notes #7460.

EPPO, 2004. Glycaspis brimblecombei (Homoptera, Psyllidae) red gum lerp psyllid. European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.org/QUARANTINE/Alert_list/Insects/glybrim.html.

EPPO, 2011. EPPO Reporting Service. EPPO Reporting Service. Paris, France: EPPO. http://archives.eppo.org/EPPOReporting/Reporting_Archives.htm

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Faundez Garrido M; Hidalgo Reyes F; Estay Cabrera S, 2004. How to control Glycaspis brimblecombei? (<inverted ?> Cómo controlar al Glycaspis brimblecombei?) Chile Forestal, No.304:49-51.

Ferreira Filho PJ; Wilcken CF; Oliveira NCde; Pogetto MHFdo Adal; Lima ACV, 2008. Spatial distribution of red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and its parasitoid, Psyllaephagus bliteus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) population in Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantation. (Caracterização da estrutura espacial do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) e de seu parasitóide Psyllaephagus bliteus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) em floresta de Eucalyptus camaldulensis.) Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 34(1):11-20.

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Hodkinson ID, 1983. The psyllids (Homoptera: Psylloidea) of the Austro-Oriental, Pacific and Hawaiian zoogeographical realms: an annotated check list. Journal of Natural History, 17(3):341-377

Karaca I; Kayahan A; Simsek B; Çelikpençe Y, 2015. First record of Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae), in Turkey. Phytoparasitica, 43(2):171-175. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12600-015-0457-2

Laudonia S; Garonna AP, 2010. The red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei, a new exotic pest of Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Italy. Bulletin of Insectology, 63(2):233-236. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/

Lutinski JA; Lutinski CJ; Garcia FRM, 2006. First record of Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore 1964, (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in eucalyptus in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. (Primeiro registro de Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore 1964, (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) em eucalipto no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil.) Ciência Rural, 36(2):653-655. http://www.ufsm.br/ccr/revista

Malumphy C, 2010. First record of the red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), in the Canary Islands. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 146(1754-59):148. http://www.pemberleybooks.com

Malumphy C; Perovic T; Hrncic S; Radonjic S; Raicevic M, 2013. First records of Acizzia jamatonica (Kuwayama) and Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, (Hemiptera: Psyllidae, Aphalaridae) in Montenegro. Acta Entomologica Serbica, 18(1/2):11-15. http://www.eds.org.rs/AES/Vol18/AES%2018%20-%20Malumphy%20et%20al.pdf

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Messoudi L; Rohi L; Ouguas Y, 2014. Preliminary results on the Eucalyptus psyllid <i>Glycaspis brimblecombei</i> Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) in the region of Marrakech (Morocco). (Résultats préliminaires sur le psylle de l'Eucalyptus<i>Glycaspis brimblecombei</i> Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) dans la région de Marrakech (Maroc).) Bulletin de l'Institut Scientifique: Section Sciences de la Vie, 36:49-56. http://www.israbat.ac.ma/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/7-%20Messoudi%20et%20al.%20(49-56).pdf

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