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Datasheet

Fragaria vesca (wild strawberry)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 23 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Fragaria vesca
  • Preferred Common Name
  • wild strawberry
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • F. vesca is a perennial herb, typically known as the common wild woodland strawberry of Europe and Asia. It has a large geographical range and a wide environmental tolerance. Although little literature exists c...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Fragaria vesca (Woodland Strawberry, Wild Strawberry); foliage and fruits. Karlsruhe, Germany. April 2009
TitleFoliage and fruits
CaptionFragaria vesca (Woodland Strawberry, Wild Strawberry); foliage and fruits. Karlsruhe, Germany. April 2009
Copyright©H. Zell - CC BY-SA 3.0
Fragaria vesca (Woodland Strawberry, Wild Strawberry); foliage and fruits. Karlsruhe, Germany. April 2009
Foliage and fruitsFragaria vesca (Woodland Strawberry, Wild Strawberry); foliage and fruits. Karlsruhe, Germany. April 2009©H. Zell - CC BY-SA 3.0
Fragaria vesca (Woodland Strawberry, Wild Strawberry); foliage and flowers. Karlsruhe, Germany. April 2009
TitleFoliage and flowers
CaptionFragaria vesca (Woodland Strawberry, Wild Strawberry); foliage and flowers. Karlsruhe, Germany. April 2009
Copyright©H. Zell - CC BY-SA 3.0
Fragaria vesca (Woodland Strawberry, Wild Strawberry); foliage and flowers. Karlsruhe, Germany. April 2009
Foliage and flowersFragaria vesca (Woodland Strawberry, Wild Strawberry); foliage and flowers. Karlsruhe, Germany. April 2009©H. Zell - CC BY-SA 3.0
Fragaria vesca, Woodland Strawberry, Wild Strawberry; foliage and flowers. Karlsruhe, Germany. April 2009
TitleFoliage and flowers
CaptionFragaria vesca, Woodland Strawberry, Wild Strawberry; foliage and flowers. Karlsruhe, Germany. April 2009
Copyright©H. Zell - CC BY-SA 3.0
Fragaria vesca, Woodland Strawberry, Wild Strawberry; foliage and flowers. Karlsruhe, Germany. April 2009
Foliage and flowersFragaria vesca, Woodland Strawberry, Wild Strawberry; foliage and flowers. Karlsruhe, Germany. April 2009©H. Zell - CC BY-SA 3.0
Close-up of wild strawberry fruits. Stora Hultrum, Sweden. July 2005.
TitleFruits
CaptionClose-up of wild strawberry fruits. Stora Hultrum, Sweden. July 2005.
CopyrightReleased into the Public Domain by Philip Jägenstedt
Close-up of wild strawberry fruits. Stora Hultrum, Sweden. July 2005.
FruitsClose-up of wild strawberry fruits. Stora Hultrum, Sweden. July 2005.Released into the Public Domain by Philip Jägenstedt

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Fragaria vesca L.

Preferred Common Name

  • wild strawberry

Other Scientific Names

  • Fragaria chinensis Losinsk
  • Fragaria concolor Kitag
  • Potentilla vesca (L.) Scop

International Common Names

  • English: alpine strawberry; European strawberry; sow-teat strawberry; wild strawberry; woodland strawberry; wood-strawberry
  • Spanish: fresa; fresa silvestre; fresal común
  • French: fraisier; fraisier commun; fraisier des bois
  • Chinese: ye cao mei

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Wald- Erdbeere
  • Italy: fragola selvatica
  • Netherlands: wilde Aardbei
  • Sweden: smultron

EPPO code

  • FRAVE (Fragaria vesca)

Summary of Invasiveness

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F. vesca is a perennial herb, typically known as the common wild woodland strawberry of Europe and Asia. It has a large geographical range and a wide environmental tolerance. Although little literature exists citing F. vesca as invasive, it was introduced to Hawaii as a crop plant in 1829, where it is now listed as an alien invasive species (Stone et al., 1992), but no further details are available. It is also listed as invasive in New Zealand, and on Reunion where the species is spreading in relatively high densities in natural or semi-natural environments, though it does not dominate or co-dominate vegetation (ISSG, 2013). F. vesca is able to reproduce both sexually (seeds) and asexually (runners); and these characteristics mean that escape from cultivation is relatively easy (Hollender et al., 2012). No major environmental impacts from invasion have been recorded, and the species is not listed as threatened in its native range.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Rosales
  •                         Family: Rosaceae
  •                             Genus: Fragaria
  •                                 Species: Fragaria vesca

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Fragaria vesca has four subspecies: the European F. vescavesca, and three American subspecies F. vescaamericana, F. vescabracteata, and F. vescacalifornica. The genus Potentilla is a close relative. The genus Fragaria was first summarised in pre-Linnaean literature in 1623. The present Fragaria taxonomy includes 20 named wild species, three described naturally-occurring hybrid species, and two cultivated hybrid species of economic importance (Hummer et al., 2011). Whiteaker (1985) also lists another subspecies, F. vesca semiflorans, which is native to Europe and is an everbearing mutant of F. vesca.

 As well as a number of subspecies existing for F. vesca, there are also many varieties of the species, such asFragaria vesca var. sativa and Fragaria vesca var. chiloensis.

Description

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F. vesca is a perennial herb. Plants are erect, in rosette form, and 15-30 cm tall. Leaves are thin and light green, lighter coloured and slightly hairy underneath, with large sharp serrations. Flowers are white, 1.3 cm in diameter and are bisexual. The fruit is well-known: yellow or red, hemispherical with soft, pulpy flesh and highly aromatic. Seeds are small, raised and prominent on the outside of the flesh (Darrow, 1966; Hummer et al., 2011; Hancock, 1999). Flower parts are in whorls and the outer two whorls of the F. vesca flower consist of a whorl of five narrow bracts, alternating in alignment with an inner whorl of five wider sepals. Interior to the sepals is a whorl of five white petals. Flowers have 20 stamens (Hollender et al., 2012).

Plant Type

Top of page Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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The wild woodland strawberry is native to Europe and Asia, and is the most widely distributed species of the genus Fragaria occurring throughout Europe, Northern Asia, North America and Northern Africa (Darrow, 1966; PIER, 2013; USDA NRCS, 2012). Darrow (1966) also indicated its distribution in Central and South America. However, it is unclear as to whether the subspecies of F. vesca were included in this study, as no independent country records were provided.

The species has been introduced to New Zealand, Reunion Island and Hawaii (Stone et al., 1992; PIER, 2013; USDA NRCS, 2012).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentDarrow, 1966
ArmeniaPresentDarrow, 1966
AzerbaijanPresentDarrow, 1966
BhutanPresentGrierson and Long, 1987
ChinaPresentDarrow, 1966
-GansuPresentPIER, 2013
-GuizhouPresentPIER, 2013
-JilinPresentPIER, 2013
-ShaanxiPresentPIER, 2013
-SichuanPresentPIER, 2013
-XinjiangPresentPIER, 2013
-YunnanPresentPIER, 2013
Georgia (Republic of)PresentDarrow, 1966
IndiaPresentDarrow, 1966
-SikkimPresentGrierson and Long, 1987
IranPresentDarrow, 1966
IsraelPresentDarrow, 1966
JapanPresentDarrow, 1966; Hummer et al., 2011
KazakhstanPresentDarrow, 1966
Korea, DPRPresentDarrow, 1966
Korea, Republic ofPresentDarrow, 1966
KyrgyzstanPresent
PakistanPresentDarrow, 1966
TajikistanPresentDarrow, 1966
TurkeyPresentDarrow, 1966
TurkmenistanPresentDarrow, 1966
UzbekistanPresentDarrow, 1966

Africa

RéunionPresent Invasive ISSG, 2013; PIER, 2013

North America

CanadaPresentDarrow, 1966; PIER, 2013; USDA-NRCS, 2013
-AlbertaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-British ColumbiaPresentPIER, 2013; USDA-NRCS, 2013
-ManitobaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-New BrunswickPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-Northwest TerritoriesPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-Nova ScotiaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-OntarioPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-QuebecPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-SaskatchewanPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
MexicoPresentDarrow, 1966
USAPresentDarrow, 1966
-ArizonaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-CaliforniaPresentPIER, 2013; USDA-NRCS, 2013
-ColoradoPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-ConnecticutPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-DelawarePresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-HawaiiPresentDarrow, 1966; Stone et al., 1992; PIER, 2013; USDA-NRCS, 2013
-IdahoPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-IllinoisPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-IndianaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-IowaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-KentuckyPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-MainePresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-MarylandPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-MassachusettsPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-MichiganPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-MinnesotaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-MissouriPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-MontanaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-NebraskaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-New HampshirePresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-New JerseyPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-New MexicoPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-New YorkPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-North CarolinaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-North DakotaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-OhioPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-OregonPresentPIER, 2013; USDA-NRCS, 2013
-PennsylvaniaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-Rhode IslandPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-South DakotaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-TennesseePresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-TexasPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-UtahPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-VermontPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-VirginiaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-WashingtonPresentPIER, 2013
-West VirginiaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-WisconsinPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-WyomingPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013

Central America and Caribbean

BelizePresentDarrow, 1966
El SalvadorPresentDarrow, 1966
GuatemalaPresentDarrow, 1966
HondurasPresentDarrow, 1966
PanamaPresentDarrow, 1966

South America

BrazilPresentDarrow, 1966
ChilePresentDarrow, 1966
EcuadorPresent only in captivity/cultivationDarrow, 1966; PIER, 2013Galapagos Islands: San Cristobal Island
PeruPresentDarrow, 1966

Europe

AlbaniaPresentDarrow, 1966
AndorraPresentDarrow, 1966
AustriaPresentDarrow, 1966
BelarusPresentDarrow, 1966
BelgiumPresentDarrow, 1966
Bosnia-HercegovinaPresentDarrow, 1966
BulgariaPresentDarrow, 1966
CroatiaPresentDarrow, 1966
CyprusPresentDarrow, 1966
Czech RepublicPresentDarrow, 1966
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentDarrow, 1966
DenmarkPresentDarrow, 1966
EstoniaPresentDarrow, 1966
FinlandPresentDarrow, 1966
FrancePresentDarrow, 1966
-CorsicaPresentDarrow, 1966
GermanyPresentDarrow, 1966
GibraltarPresentDarrow, 1966
GreecePresentDarrow, 1966
HungaryPresentDarrow, 1966
IrelandPresentDarrow, 1966
ItalyPresentDarrow, 1966
LatviaPresentDarrow, 1966
LiechtensteinPresentDarrow, 1966
LithuaniaPresentDarrow, 1966
LuxembourgPresentDarrow, 1966
MacedoniaPresentDarrow, 1966
MaltaPresentDarrow, 1966
MoldovaPresentDarrow, 1966
MonacoPresentDarrow, 1966
MontenegroPresentDarrow, 1966
NetherlandsPresentDarrow, 1966
NorwayPresentDarrow, 1966
PolandPresentDarrow, 1966
Portugal
-MadeiraPresentDarrow, 1966
RomaniaPresentDarrow, 1966
Russian FederationPresentDarrow, 1966
San MarinoPresentDarrow, 1966
SerbiaPresentDarrow, 1966
SlovakiaPresentDarrow, 1966
SloveniaPresentDarrow, 1966
SpainPresentDarrow, 1966
SwedenPresentDarrow, 1966
SwitzerlandPresentDarrow, 1966
UKPresentDarrow, 1966
-Channel IslandsPresentDarrow, 1966
UkrainePresentDarrow, 1966
Yugoslavia (former)PresentDarrow, 1966
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentDarrow, 1966

Oceania

New CaledoniaPresent only in captivity/cultivationDarrow, 1966; PIER, 2013Ile Grande Terre
New ZealandPresentPIER, 2013

History of Introduction and Spread

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There is little literature detailing the spread of F. vesca outside of its native range. However, given its importance in the development of hybrid strawberries of commercial value, it can be assumed that it has been introduced for cultivation since around the 1800s; it was first recorded in Hawaii in 1829 having been transported there for cultivation (Stone et al., 1992). It was also introduced to Reunion in the mid-1800s where it has naturalized on mountains and plateaus (ISSG, 2013).

F. vesca has a large native range, and there seems to be some confusion over the extent of its alien range given the number of varieties and subspecies that exist.

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Hawaii Europe 1829 Yes Stone et al., 1992 Deliberate introduction and then probably escaped from cultivation
Réunion mid 1800s Yes GISD, 2005; ISSG, 2005; ISSG, 2013 Probably deliberate introduction and escape from cultivation

Risk of Introduction

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F. vesca has a low risk of introduction to new areas as it is no longer transported for cultivation in gardens. The economically important cultivated species, Fragaria x ananassa,is much more likely to be introduced to new areas (Hummer et al., 2011).

Habitat

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The plant is predominantly a woodland species which grows well at forest edges and along hedgerows. Although there is little information available for its invasive effects on habitats, it is probable that, where the plant may be invasive, its impacts will be seen in forest or forest edge habitats (Schulze et al., 2012; Hancock, 1999).

In Hawaii, F. vesca is naturalised in mesic areas and moist forests between 700-1700 m. On Reunion Island, it is reported to be naturalized on mountains and plateaus, and is spreading in natural or semi-natural environments (ISSG, 2013).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus

Hosts/Species Affected

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Where it is naturalized on Reunion and Hawaii, it does not dominate or co-dominate vegetation, but it does spread in relatively high densities (ISSG, 2013).

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

F. vesca is diploid (2n=2x=14) (Shulaev et al., 2011). Triploids, pentaploids, hexaploids, heptaploids, octoploids, and decaploids have been produced by breeding F. vesca with other Fragaria species (Darrow, 1966). Natural hybridisation occurs where its range overlaps with F. viridis in Russia, Germany, France, Finland and Italy resulting in the production of F. x bifera, which has intermediate features (Hummer et al., 2011).

Reproductive Biology

Floral induction is controlled by temperature and photoperiod, with a period of 4 weeks at 15°C optimal for induction (Heide and Sonsteby, 2007). F. vesca has a self-compatible breeding system, but occasionally female plants are found in European populations (Hancock, 1999).

Flowers are insect-pollinated, and about 160 seeds are produced per fruit, which are dispersed by animals and slugs. Persistence of seeds in the seed bank has not been quantified, but ranges from 1-5 years. F. vesca has a short seed to fruit cycle of around 3.5 months (Schulze et al., 2012).

Clonal reproduction is through the formation of nodes that grow on runners. Clonal reproduction usually takes place after flowering and runners are produced from summer to autumn. Connected clones can receive resources from the parent plant, and the connection via runners can remain in-tact for weeks or months allowing persistence in heterogeneous environments (Schulze et al., 2012).

Physiology and Phenology

F. vesca has an extensive geographic distribution, which is evidence for the species being able to respond to a range of environmental cues for flowering and dormancy (Heide and Sonsteby, 2007). The ability to reproduce clonally and retain connectivity via runners allows the species to persist in heterogeneous environments (Schulze et al., 2012).

Environmental Requirements

A period of vernalisation has been reported as required for very northerly populations of F. vesca before flower induction can occur; it is unknown whether this period of cold is required by other populations (Heide and Sonsteby, 2007).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Tolerated Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
B - Dry (arid and semi-arid) Tolerated < 860mm precipitation annually
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
D - Continental/Microthermal climate Preferred Continental/Microthermal climate (Average temp. of coldest month < 0°C, mean warmest month > 10°C)
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Preferred Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Preferred Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 16 18
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 6 10

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall6801450mm; lower/upper limits

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Phytophthora fragariae Pathogen Whole plant to genus
Strawberry latent ringspot virus Pathogen not specific
Strawberry mild yellow edge virus Pathogen to genus

Notes on Natural Enemies

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There are a number of natural enemies to species of Fragaria but many of these seem to only relate to cultivated varieties and not the wild Fragaria vesca. However, the fungus Phytophthora fragariae is a pest to all species of Fragaria, infecting the root system of the plant and causing it to be greatly reduced. The tips of roots decay and the core of the roots become red in colour. The decay spreads up the plant and eventually affects the crown, causing the whole plant to collapse (Department of Agriculture for Scotland, 1949; EPPO, 2000a). Infected plants can be identified by blue-green or yellow-red leaves, with those that manage to fruit producing a small number of stunted fruits. The disease can spread between plants, especially through water, and large populations can become infected. P. fragariae occurs throughout Europe, Cyprus, Japan, Lebanon, USA, Canada, Ecuador, Australia and New Zealand (EPPO, 2000a).

F. vesca has been observed to show signs of infection by viruses which cause strawberry mild yellow edge disease. It is one of the most widespread and common virus diseases in strawberries, occurring throughout Europe, China, Israel, Japan, Kazakhstan, Canada, USA, Chile, Paraguay, Australia and New Zealand. Under natural conditions the viruses are dispersed by the strawberry aphid Chaetosiphon fragaefolii, but movement can also occur via runners (EPPO, 2000b). Symptoms include a yellowish margin on younger leaves in the centre of the plant, and a shortening of the petioles. As the disease progresses, leaves become lighter green with a markedly yellow edge (Department of Agriculture for Scotland, 1949).

Strawberry crinkle virus also infects F. vesca via the strawberry aphid C. fragaefolii, causing distortion and crinkling of the leaves, unequally-sized leaflets and small irregularly shaped chlorotic spots. Infection reduces plant vigour and productivity. The virus occurs wherever the strawberry aphid occurs, including throughout Europe, Asia, South Africa, North America, Chile, Australia and New Zealand (EPPO, 2000c).

A nepovirus, the strawberry latent ringspot virus, infects species of Fragaria and is transmitted by the nematode Xiphinema diversicaudatum. Symptoms are not usually apparent, but some strawberry cultivars show varying degrees of leaf mottling and decline (EPPO, 2000d). It is not stated whether F. vesca shows symptoms of infection, but other members of the genus have shown signs. It is possible that F. vesca could be used as an alternate host to viruses or other diseases affecting the cultivated strawberry.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

F. vesca is not dispersed by wind or water.

Vector Transmission

F. vesca seeds are transported by animals consuming fruits and depositing seeds post-digestion; mammals, birds and slugs have all been described as dispersers for species of Fragaria (Willson, 1993; Schulze et al., 2012). Specific examples of dispersal agents in the USA include the Portola woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes annectens) and the valley quail (Callipepla californica) (Anderson, 2013).

Intentional Introduction

Where F. vesca has been introduced to areas outside of its native range it has been deliberate, for the cultivation of fruits, with no known record of accidental introduction. In both Hawaii and Reunion, intentional introduction occurred in the 1800s (ISSG, 2013).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionPrimary cause of introduction outside of the native range e.g. to Hawaii, Reunion and New Zealand Yes Yes ISSG, 2013; PIER, 2013
HitchhikerSeeds dispersed by animals Yes Schulze et al., 2012; Willson, 1993

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) None
Human health Positive

Environmental Impact

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There is a serious lack of information documenting the impact of F. vesca invasion. Although it is reported as invasive in Hawaii, Reunion and New Zealand, and grows in high densities, it does not dominate or co-dominate native vegetation (ISSG, 2013; PIER, 2013).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Impact mechanisms

  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting

Invasiveness

  • Fast growing
  • Gregarious
  • Has a broad native range
  • Has high genetic variability
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Reproduces asexually
  • Tolerant of shade

Uses

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Social Benefit

F. vesca berries are a source of vitamin C, ascorbic acid, and ellagic acid (antioxidant) which promote human health; however, proteins within strawberries can cause allergic reactions (Hummer et al., 2011). F. vesca has been used in traditional medicine because of benefits to the liver and its diuretic properties (Kishore et al., 2012).

Uses List

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General

  • Research model

Genetic importance

  • Gene source

Human food and beverage

  • Beverage base
  • Fruits

Materials

  • Dye/tanning

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Prevention and Control

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Monitoring escapes from cultivation could help prevent further spread of this plant to areas where it has been introduced. However new escapes are unlikely given that F. vesca is not grown commercially since the development of garden strawberry varieties.

No details on control methods are currently available.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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There is little information on F. vesca as an invasive species. Where it is mentioned as being invasive, it has been present for many years (e.g. since the 1800s) and has naturalized but does not dominate or co-dominate vegetation. The impacts of such naturalization have not been quantified or described in detail, ecologically, socially or economically.

References

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Anderson MK; Roderick W, 2013. Plant Guide: Wood Strawberry Fragaria vesca L. Plant Guide: Wood Strawberry Fragaria vesca L., USA: USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/cs_frve.pdf

Darrow GM, 1966. The strawberry. History, breeding and physiology. Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, xvi + 447 pp.

Department of Agriculture for Scotland, 1949. Strawberry Diseases. Leaflet no 9. Edinburgh, UK: J. &. J. Gray.

EPPO, 2000a. Data sheets on Quarantine Pests: Phytophthora fragariae. Prepared by CABI and EPPO for the EU under Contract 90/399003. Paris, France: EPPO.

EPPO, 2000b. Data sheets on Quarantine Pests: Strawberry mild yellow edge disease. Prepared by CABI and EPPO for the EU under contract 90/399003. Paris, France: EPPO.

EPPO, 2000c. Data sheets on Quarantine Pests: Strawberry crinkle cytorhabdovirus. Prepared by CABI and EPPO for the EU under contract 90/399003. Paris, France: EPPO.

EPPO, 2000d. Data sheets on Quarantine Pests: Strawberry latent ringspot 'nepovirus'. Prepared by CABI and EPPO for the EU under contract 90/399003. Paris, France: EPPO.

Folta KM, 2011. The genome of woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca). Nature genetics, 43(2):109-16.

Grierson AJC; Long DG, 1987. Flora of Bhutan including a Record of Plants from Sikkim, Vol. 1, Part 3. Edinburgh, UK: Royal Botanic Garden.

Hancock JF, 1999. Strawberries. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, ix + 237 pp.

Heide O; Sonsteby A, 2007. Interaction of temperature and photoperiod in the control of flowering of latitudinal and altitudinal populations of wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca). Physiologia Plantarum, 130(2):280-289.

Hollender CA; Geretz AC; Slovin JP; Liu ZC, 2012. Flower and early fruit development in a diploid strawberry, Fragaria vesca. Planta, 235(6):1123-1139. http://www.springerlink.com/content/e7285p0h63047502/

Hummer K; Bassil N; Njuguna W, 2011. Fragaria. In: Wild Crop Relatives: Genomic and Breeding Resources, Temperate Fruits [ed. by Kole, C.]. Berlin, Germany: Springer.

ISSG, 2013. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/

Kishore RN; Anjaneyulu N; Ganesh MN; Pruthviraj K; Sravya N, 2012. Diuretic and nephroprotective activity of fruits of Frageria vesca Linn. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 3(7):2201-2204.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013. Tropicos database. St Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

PIER, 2013. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Schulze J; Rufener R; Erhardt A; Stoll P, 2012. The relative importance of sexual and clonal reproduction for population growth in the perennial herb Fragaria vesca. Population Ecology, 54(3):369-380. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=103139

Stone CP; Smith CW; Tunison JT (eds), 1992. Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawai'i: Management and Research. Manoa, Hawaii, USA: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawai'i, 887 pp. http://www.hear.org/books/apineh1992/

USDA-NRCS, 2013. Plants Database. USA: United States Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Office. http://plants.usda.gov/java/

Whiteaker S, 1985. The complete strawberry. London, UK: Century Publishing, 128 pp.

Willson MF, 1993. Mammals as seed-dispersal mutualists in North America. Oikos, 67(1):159-176.

Contributors

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31/01/13 Original text by:

Isabel Jones, Consultant, UK

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