Cookies on Invasive Species Compendium

Like most websites we use cookies. This is to ensure that we give you the best experience possible.

Continuing to use www.cabi.org means you agree to our use of cookies. If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use.

Datasheet

Acacia mearnsii (black wattle)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 13 July 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Acacia mearnsii
  • Preferred Common Name
  • black wattle
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. mearnsii is a vigorous, nitrogen fixing species that has precocious and prolific seed production, with a high density and accumulation of long-lived seeds in the soil, and a variety of potential dispersal me...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Victoria, Australia.
TitleNatural stand
CaptionVictoria, Australia.
CopyrightSuzette Searle/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Victoria, Australia.
Natural standVictoria, Australia.Suzette Searle/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Typical bark.
TitleBark
CaptionTypical bark.
CopyrightSuzette Searle/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Typical bark.
BarkTypical bark.Suzette Searle/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Inflorescence and foliage
TitleInflorescence
CaptionInflorescence and foliage
CopyrightMaurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
Inflorescence and foliage
InflorescenceInflorescence and foliageMaurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
Pollarded for shade on tea estates in India.
TitleShade tree on tea estate
CaptionPollarded for shade on tea estates in India.
CopyrightDoug Boland/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Pollarded for shade on tea estates in India.
Shade tree on tea estatePollarded for shade on tea estates in India.Doug Boland/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
A. mearnsii bark stripping.
TitleBark stripping
CaptionA. mearnsii bark stripping.
CopyrightSuzette Searle/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
A. mearnsii bark stripping.
Bark strippingA. mearnsii bark stripping.Suzette Searle/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Acacia mearnsii De Wild.

Preferred Common Name

  • black wattle

Other Scientific Names

  • Acacia decurrens var. mollis (Wendl.) Willd.
  • Acacia decurrens var. mollis Lindl. (Wendl.) Willd.
  • Acacia mollissima auct.
  • Racosperma mearnsii (De Wild.) Pedley

International Common Names

  • Spanish: acácia negra; aromo negro
  • French: acacia noir; mimosa vert; mosa
  • English: Australian acacia; green wattle; tan wattle
  • Chinese: hei jing

Local Common Names

  • Argentina: acacia centenario
  • Australia: late black wattle
  • Brazil: acacia negra; acacia-negro
  • Cook Islands: akasia
  • East Africa: blue passionflower
  • Germany: Australische akazie; Gerber- Akazie
  • Indonesia: akasia
  • South Africa: swartwattel; uwatela

EPPO code

  • ACAMR (Acacia mearnsii)

Trade name

  • black wattle

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

A. mearnsii is a vigorous, nitrogen fixing species that has precocious and prolific seed production, with a high density and accumulation of long-lived seeds in the soil, and a variety of potential dispersal mechanisms including water, mammals and possibly birds. It causes a number of mainly environmental problems and is hard to control because of its ability to form root suckers. A. mearnsii is a highly invasive species, and listed as one of the World’s 100 Worst Invaders (ISSG, 2007). It has been listed as a category 2 invader in South Africa, a noxious environmental weed in the Global Compendium of Weeds, and a noxious weed in USA (Randall, 2012). It is also known to be invasive in California, USA, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Jamaica, Brazil, New Zealand and Réunion, has shown a tendency to invade and cause concerns in other countries, e.g. in India, and is widely naturalized elsewhere where it may become invasive in the future.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Mimosoideae
  •                                 Genus: Acacia
  •                                     Species: Acacia mearnsii

Description

Top of page

A. mearnsii is a large shrub or small tree, 5-15 (20) m tall, with a trunk reaching 45 cm of Dbh but normally in the range of 10-35 cm. Open-grown specimens are freely-branched from near ground level with a crooked main stem. In forest stands, the stem is usually straighter and may be dominant for up to three-quarters of the tree height. The bark on old trees is brownish-black, hard and fissured but on younger stems and the upper parts of old trees it is grey-brown and smooth. This species is described and illustrated in many publications, among the most recent texts being Wiersum (1991), Tame (1992), Doran and Turnbull (1997) and Brown and Ho (1997). The branchlets are hairy and only slightly ribbed. Leaves 8-12 cm long, bipinnate dark-green with  8-21 pairs of pinnae, each with 15-70 pairs of leaflets, 1.5-4 ×0.5-0.8 mm, olive green; glands  irregularly spaced along the upper surface of the rachis and on the petiole. Inflorescence of globular heads with 20-30 small, pale creamy-yellow flowers in axillary or terminal racemes or panicles. Peduncles golden pubescent, 5-8 mm long. Pods more or less straight but often constricted between the seeds, dark brown to blackish when ripe, finely hairy, 5-15 ×0.4-0.8 cm. Seeds 7 (1-14) per legume,  black, smooth, ovoid, 3-5 ×2-3.5 mm with a short, creamy, aril at base.

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Tree
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

Top of page

A. mearnsii is a native to southeastern Australia, from southern New South Wales and southern Victoria to southeastern South Australia and Tasmania. The northern limit is west of Sydney (33º43'S), and a detailed description of the occurrence of A. mearnsii in Australia is found in Searle (1997). The record of nativity to Queensland by Cronk and Fuller (1995) is thus likely to be erroneous. The tree has been deliberately introduced for forestry to North America, South America, Asia, Europe, the Pacific and Indian Ocean Islands, Africa and New Zealand. In countries such as South Africa it is both an important forestry species and a highly invasive plant outside cultivation.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
BangladeshPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
ChinaPresentIntroducedBooth and Yan, 1991; Ho and Fang, 1997; ILDIS, 2007
-AnhuiPresentIntroducedCABI, 2005
-FujianPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2007
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2007
-GuangxiPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2007
-GuizhouPresentIntroducedCABI, 2005
-HainanPresentIntroducedCABI, 2005
-HubeiPresentIntroducedCABI, 2005
-HunanPresentIntroducedCABI, 2005
-JiangxiPresentIntroducedCABI, 2005
-SichuanPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2007
-YunnanPresentIntroduced Invasive ILDIS, 2007; Liu et al., 2016Kunming
-ZhejiangPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2007
IndiaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2002
-Andhra PradeshPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI, 2005; Chandra, 2012
-Arunachal PradeshPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012cultivated and naturalized
-AssamPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI, 2005; Chandra, 2012
-Himachal PradeshPresentIntroduced Invasive ILDIS, 2007; Chandra, 2012
-Jammu and KashmirPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012cultivated and naturalized
-KarnatakaPresentIntroducedCABI, 2005
-KeralaPresentIntroducedCABI, 2005
-MaharashtraPresentIntroducedCABI, 2005
-ManipurPresentIntroduced Invasive ILDIS, 2007; Chandra, 2012
-MeghalayaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI, 2005; Chandra, 2012
-MizoramPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012cultivated and naturalized
-NagalandPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012cultivated and naturalized
-SikkimPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012cultivated and naturalized
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2007
-TripuraPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012cultivated and naturalized
-UttarakhandPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012cultivated and naturalized
-West BengalPresentIntroduced Invasive ILDIS, 2007; Chandra, 2012
IndonesiaPresentIntroduced, ; Wiersum, 1991
-JavaPresentIntroducedBerenschot et al., 1988
-KalimantanPresentIntroducedCABI, 2005
-Nusa TenggaraPresentIntroducedCABI, 2005
-SulawesiPresentIntroducedCABI, 2005
-SumatraPresentIntroducedCABI, 2005
JapanPresentIntroducedWaki, 1984
-HonshuPresentIntroducedCABI, 2005
-KyushuPresentIntroducedCABI, 2005
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2007
-ShikokuPresentIntroducedCABI, 2005
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
MyanmarPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
PakistanPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2002
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015cultivated
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2002
TaiwanPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2007
ThailandPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
TurkeyPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2015Cultivated
VietnamPresentIntroducedCABI, 2005

Africa

AlgeriaPresentIntroduced Invasive Boudiaf et al., 2014
AngolaPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2015cultivated and naturalized
BotswanaPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2015cultivated and naturalized
BurundiPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2007
Cape VerdePresentIntroducedWeber , 2003
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2007
EritreaPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2015
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2007
KenyaPresentIntroduced Invasive Cheboiwo and Ongugo, 1989; ILDIS, 2007
LesothoPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2015cultivated and naturalized
MadagascarPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2007
MalawiPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2007
MoroccoPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2007
MozambiquePresentIntroducedPROTA, 2015cultivated and naturalized
NamibiaPresentIntroduced Invasive PROTA, 2015cultivated and naturalized
RéunionPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2007; PIER, 2015
RwandaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2007
SeychellesPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015
South AfricaPresentIntroduced1850s Invasive Cronk and Fuller , 1995; ILDIS, 2007
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2015
SudanPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2007
SwazilandPresentIntroduced Invasive ILDIS, 2002; PROTA, 2015
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced Invasive Kessy, 1987; ILDIS, 2002
UgandaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2002
ZambiaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2002
ZimbabwePresentIntroduced Invasive Luyt et al., 1987; Nyoka , 2002; ILDIS, 2007

North America

USAPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2002
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced Invasive Luken and Thieret , 1997; USDA-NRCS, 2004; ILDIS, 2007
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced1911 Invasive Cronk and Fuller , 1995; Luken and Thieret , 1997; Weber , 2003; ILDIS, 2007

Central America and Caribbean

JamaicaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2007

South America

ArgentinaPresentILDIS, 2007; IABIN, 2015
BoliviaPresentILDIS, 2007
BrazilPresentIntroducedHiga and Resende, 1994; Stein and Tonietto, 1997; ILDIS, 2002
-ParaibaPresentIntroduced Invasive I3N-Brasil, 2015
-ParanaPresentIntroduced Invasive I3N-Brasil, 2015
-Rio de JaneiroPresentILDIS, 2007
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2007; I3N-Brasil, 2015
-Santa CatarinaPresentILDIS, 2007; I3N-Brasil, 2015
-Sao PauloPresentILDIS, 2007; I3N-Brasil, 2015
ChilePresentIntroducedCABI, 2005
EcuadorPresentILDIS, 2007

Europe

FrancePresentIntroducedCABI, 2005
-CorsicaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2007
ItalyPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2007
-SardiniaPresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2015
PortugalPresentIntroduced Invasive Floc'h E le, 1991; ILDIS, 2007
-MadeiraPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2007
SpainPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2007; DAISIE, 2015

Oceania

AustraliaPresentNativeILDIS, 2002; Weber , 2003
-New South WalesPresentNativeSearle, 1997
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedSearle, 1997
-South AustraliaPresentNativeSearle, 1997
-TasmaniaPresentNativeSearle, 1997
-VictoriaPresentNativeSearle, 1997
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedCABI, 2005
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2008Raratonga
New ZealandPresentIntroduced Invasive Cronk and Fuller , 1995; Weber , 2003; ILDIS, 2007
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2007

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

A. mearnsii is widely cultivated as an exotic species in a number of countries throughout the world. Large plantations can be found in Southern and East Africa, Brazil and India. In Indonesia the first trials with this species started late in the 18th century. In 1933 it was planted on commercial scale in mountainous areas of Java and by 1941 an area of around 12,000 ha had been planted. Additional plantations were established in the 1960’s in southern Sulawesi, Sumatra, Bali, Peninsular Malaysia, and in the Philippines (Wiersum, 1991). In Hawaii it was introduced in 1911 from California (Motooka et al., 2003). It has been grown commercially in South Africa since 1886 (Deacon, 1986) and is now one of the most widespread alien species (Henderson and Wells, 1986). It was introduced to Zimbabwe for tanbark (Maroyi, 2015). In Rwanda it was probably introduced between 1903 and 1918, with the earliest formal record dating back to 1941 (Seburanga, 2015). It was introduced into El Kala National Park in northeast Algeria in 1970, and now threatens native cork oak forests (Boudiaf et al., 2014). New geographic records are still being registered in some parts of the world, with Liu Min et al. (2016) listing a new distribution at the Kunming Changshui Airport in Yunnan, China.

Principal historic growing areas include over 200,000 ha of plantations in Brazil (Higa and Resende, 1994) and 160,000 ha in South Africa (Boucher, 1980) down from 325,000 during peak tannin production in the 1960s (Wiersum, 1991). More recently, Chan et al. (2015) list the planted area as 110,000 ha in South Africa and around 170,000 ha in Brazil, where it is cultivated in the State of Rio Grande do Sul after being introduced in 1928 with seed imported from South Africa. Records also show 30,000 ha of plantations in South and East Africa (Zimbabwe, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi), 20,000 ha in India, 15,000 ha in Indonesia (Wiersum, 1991) and 10,433 ha in China for vegetable tannin production (Ho and Fang, 1997). Chan et al. (2015), however, report that plantations have decreased in eastern Africa.

In addition to the planted areas listed above, there are extensive, largely unrecorded plantings in agroforestry systems in many countries. The tree is regarded as naturalized in Portugal (Le Floc'h, 1991). Binggeli (1999) considered A. mearnsii as highly invasive and in South Africa it is designated a category 2 invader under the Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act (1983) (Henderson, 2001). BioNET-EAFRINET (2015) reports it as invasive in parts of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda.

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

A. mearnsii behaves invasively in a number of countries, and in South Africa is one of the most serious invasive species. It should not be introduced into countries with similar environments. However, A. mearnsii is already widely distributed globally and so it would be prudent to monitor existing plantings for signs of invasiveness as it may be behaving as a ‘sleeper weed’ in some areas.

Feng et al. (2010) used A.mearnsii as a case study for a risk assessment in Wenzhou, China. The species was given a medium risk assessment score, meaning that monitoring and management should be conducted.

Habitat

Top of page

In its native range, A. mearnsii forms part of the understorey in eucalypt woodland (Weber, 2003). In this context, Geldenhuys et al. (1986) describe the tree as an important pioneer in rainforest succession. Outside its native range, A. mearnsii is, according to Weber (2003), an invader along river corridors and in coastal scrub, forest and grassland. It is one of the most important plant invaders of the fynbos, South Africa (Wells, 1991) and also invades pine plantations (Geldenhuys, 1986). A. mearnsii is often found in closed forest as a result of having previously established in gaps when the forest was more open, as it is not able to establish in closed forests (Geldenhuys et al., 1986). It is widespread in indigenous South African forests occurring both along forest edges, in gaps of various sizes and inside closed forest (Geldenhuys et al., 1986) and it can invade pasture land (PIER, 20007).

In Rwanda, self-established stands of A. mearnsii are common above 1600 m altitude, with the species mainly found in the Congo Nile Crest, Non-volcanic Highlands and Central Plateau agro-ecological zones (Seburanga, 2016). The most significant invasion is in montane rainforest (Seburanga, 2015). In Algeria, it has invaded natural cork oak (Quercus suber) forests (Boudiaf et al., 2014).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
semi-natural/Scrub / shrublands Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
semi-natural/Scrub / shrublands Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContext
Pinus (pines)PinaceaeMain

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

The chromosome number reported for A. mearnsii is 2n = 26 (Wiersum, 1991).

A. mearnsii exists has diploid and tetraploid forms, the latter also having significantly higher levels of chlorophyll (Mathura et al., 2006); however, it appears that the tetraploid forms may not occur naturally, those studies having been produced artificially (Beck et al., 2003). Patterns of morphological variation in seedlings of A. mearnsii were studied by Bleakley and Matheson (1992). Tasmanian and mainland provenances diverged and, in turn, were subdivided into low elevation and higher elevation groups based on morphological features of young seedlings. It is still to be determined if these groupings extend to such economic traits as bark thickness and tannin yield.

Trials in southern China have shown significant within and between provenance variation in growth performance, form and tannin production and significant provenance X site interaction. At 2 to 4.5 years after planting, Australian mainland provenances, especially those from New South Wales and Victoria, were superior to Tasmanian sources and the best of the Australian material was far better than the local landraces (Gao and Li, 1991; Gao et al., 1991). In Brazil, provenances from coastal New South Wales are performing best among a limited number of natural provenances under trial (Higa and Resende, 1994). Searle et al. (1994) reported on provenance variation in frost tolerance of A. mearnsii in laboratory trials. High altitude New South Wales provenances (Bungendore, Bombala-Dalgety and Cooma) and two low elevation provenances, Apsley (Tasmania) and Minhamite (Victoria) were the most tolerant. These results are largely in accordance with field data from South Africa where high altitude New South Wales provenances were significantly more frost-tolerant than low altitude New South Wales and Victoria provenances.

The highly significant between-family variation for frost tolerance within provenances indicates the potential for selection and breeding to increase the cold-hardiness of the species (Searle et al., 1991). A comparison of tannin contents of bark samples from 18 uneven-aged natural populations of black wattle in Australia showed Tasmanian and Victorian provenances (46.9% and 46.6%) had more tannin in their bark than South Australian and New South Wales provenances (39.4% and 38.8%) (Guangcheng et al., 1991; Li et al., 1994). Similar results were reported for polyflavanoid contents and yields of bark extractives (Yazaki et al., 1990; Li et al., 1994).

A. mearnsii shows variation in growth rate, adaptation to drought and low temperatures, and in wood and bark characteristics. It has been an important plantation species outside Australia for more than 100 years and selection and breeding programmes based on local landraces have been established in South Africa (Li, 1997) and Brazil (Higa and Resende, 1994). In South Africa, several traits of major economic importance - tannin content, incidence of gummosis, stem form and survival rates - were significantly improved in two generations of breeding, but vigour or bark thickness were not (Li, 1997). It is only in recent years that systematic range-wide seed collections from the natural distribution area have been made to exploit provenance variation for such commercial characteristics as volume and tannin yield. A breeding strategy to make optimum use of this material and produce seed for plantations is described by Raymond (1987; 1997).

Physiology and Phenology

A. mearnsii is a light-demanding species with rapid early stem growth. Growth rates of up to 3 m per year are possible after 3-5 years (Wiersum, 1991). It is a relatively short-lived species with a life-span of 10-20 years. After fire, seeds germinate and vegetative reproduction occurs from basal sprouting (Weber, 2003). An established grass sward is able to outcompete A. mearnsii seedlings so disturbance such as ploughing promotes seedling recruitment (Kruger et al., 1986). A large proportion of the seed may become dormant in the soil and seed may remain viable for more than 50 years (Dean et al., 1986).

Reproductive Biology

A. mearnsii has a hermaphroditic breeding system (Cronk and Fuller, 1995) and is regarded as an outcrossing species with partial self-compatibility. Estimates of out-crossing rates in this species are variable and range from 48 to 100% (Raymond, 1997). The flowers are mainly insect pollinated, with bees considered the most important pollinators due to their methodical foraging (Moncur et al., 1991; Grant et al., 1994). The pollen is in polyads each of which contain 16 pollen grains (Sherry, 1971; Kenrick and Knox, 1982). Some florets, usually near the base of the flower head, may be wholly male and trees bearing only male flowers have been observed (Sherry, 1971). In a study of a population in New South Wales, Australia, Grant et al. (1994) reported that 90% of flowers were wholly male. A detailed review of the flowering biology of A. mearnsii is provided by Raymond (1997). Trees start to flower when about 2 years old, but appreciable quantities of seed are seldom produced in plantations before the fifth or sixth year (Sherry, 1971). Flowering takes place from October to December in Australia (Searle, 1997), during September to October in Brazil (Stein and Tonietto, 1997) and from late August to early October in South Africa (Sherry, 1971). Mature seed is available for collection some 12-14 months after flowering. It is not retained on the tree for longer than two to three weeks, making timing of seed collection critical (Searle, 1997). Large quantities of seed are produced and these may accumulate to high densities (e.g. up to 20,000 seeds/m²) in the seedbank (Cronk and Fuller, 1995; Weber, 2003). Seeds are also very long-lived, as is common with hard-coated legume seeds, and it may be assumed that seeds could remain viable for 50-100 years.

Environmental Requirements

A. mearnsii is able to tolerate a wide range of sites in various climates from temperate and subtropical lowlands to tropical highlands. The natural occurrence of A. mearnsii falls mostly in the warm sub-humid zone, extending in places to the warm humid zone. At the highest altitudes it occurs in the cool sub-humid and humid zones. The following data are from Doran and Turnbull (1997) refers to the native range, with mean maximum temperature of the hottest month mainly 21-27°C, minimum temperature of the coolest month -3-7°C. The average number of days over 32°C is 1-15 and this species is rarely found in areas where the temperature exceeds 38°C. Coastal localities have no heavy frosts, inland there are from 1-20 per annum and at some higher altitudes up to 80 are recorded, with a record low of -12°C. In China, Yan et al. (1996) report that absolute minimum should be above -5°C to avoid frost damage. The 50 percentile rainfall is mainly in the range 440-1600 mm, and 360-450 mm the lowest recorded. Seasonal incidence varies from a well-defined winter maximum in the south becoming more uniform and tending to a weak summer maximum in the most northern parts of the range.

Optimal areas for commercial plantations of A. mearnsii in subtropical parts of South Africa are above 400 m altitude where the rainfall is in the range 850-1200 mm and the mean annual temperature above 16ºC (Schonau and Schulze 1984). In more tropical areas, A. mearnsii is best grown in the highlands at 1500-2500 m with a mean annual rainfall of 900-1600 mm and mean annual temperature 12-18°C (Webb et al., 1980). There are several papers providing climatic profiles for the species combining information from both natural and planted occurrences; the most recent of these being Booth and Yan (1991), Booth (1992; 1997) and Yan et al. (1996).

A. mearnsii occurs across a broad spectrum of sites, but reaches its best development on easterly and southerly aspects of low hills in coastal lowlands and adjacent lower slopes of the tablelands and ranges. It has been recorded on basalt, dolerite, granite and sandstone but is common on soils derived from metamorphic shales and slates. The soils are mainly loams, sandy loams, and deep forest podzols of moderate to low fertility. The best soils for A. mearnsii are moist, relatively deep, light-textured, and well-drained, although it is often found on moderately heavy soils and occasionally on shallow soils. The soils are usually acidic, pH 5-6.5. It is not common on poorly-drained or very infertile sites. A. mearnsii occurs across an altitudinal range of approximately 1050 m in its native Australia, from coastal locations just above sea level to 1070 m on Mt Gladstone, west of Cooma, New South Wales.

Crous et al. (2012) report that A. mearnsii in riparian ecotones in South Africa is more drought tolerant than native woody tree species, suggesting that it will persist in future drier conditions.

Associations

A. mearnsii occurs in the understorey of tall open-forest or open-forest dominated by eucalypts in its native range. It may occur on the fringes of closed-forest and rarely in woodland and coastal scrub. It can form dense, pure, even-aged thickets especially where it has recolonized cleared land. In low altitude coastal areas it grows with Eucalyptus saligna, E. bosistoana, E. muellerana, E. ovata, E. globulus, E. tereticornis and E. viminalis. Higher altitude associates include E. cypellocarpa, E. radiata, E. smithii and E. viminalis (Boland et al., 1984). A. mearnsii fixes atmospheric nitrogen and this allows it to survive on relatively infertile sites.

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Preferred < 430mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Top of page
Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
40 45

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -5 10
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 14 28
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 21 35
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -1 17

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration04number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall6602400mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Summer
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • shallow

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anoplophora chinensis Herbivore
Armillaria heimii Pathogen
Armillaria luteobubalina Pathogen not specific
Ceratocystis fimbriata Pathogen
Cylindrobasidium laeve Pathogen South Africa Acacia mearnsii
Dasineura rubiformis Herbivore South Africa Acacia mearnsii
Eurema hecabe Herbivore
Gibberella zeae Pathogen not specific
Lepidiota mashona Herbivore
Loranthus
Lygidolon laevigatum Herbivore
Melanterius maculatus Herbivore South Africa Acacia mearnsii
Meloidogyne ethiopica
Pyrgoides orphana Herbivore
Thyrinteina arnobia Herbivore
Zulubius acaciaphagus Herbivore not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

In tropical countries, this species is attacked by various insects including herbivores (Acanthopsyche junode), stem-borers (Platypus solidus) and caterpillars (Achaea lienardi). In regions with more than 3000 mm of annual precipitation (i.e., Indonesia) most damage occurs from fungal attacks of Armillaria, Corticium, Fomes and Phytophtora spp. (Wiersum, 1991; Orwa et al., 2009).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

Water, birds and mammals may disperse seeds (Weber, 2003), but there seems to be some discrepancy about the exact identity of biotic dispersal agents. Smith (1998) states that mammals and granivorous birds cannot be discounted, Cronk and Fuller (1995) cite mammals but Dean et al. (1986) list water alone and other sources exclude birds. Intentional introduction has been common in long-distant dispersal, A. mearnsii having been actively introduced to many countries and continents outside its native Australia, widely planted for agroforestry and as a plantation species, particularly for the tannin industry.

Its invasion of airports may facilitate accidental introduction (Liu et al., 2016).

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionAs a shade tree and a tree fallow Yes Yes Wiersum, 1991
Forestry Yes Yes
Habitat restoration and improvementSoil and water conservation Yes Yes Ho and Fang, 1997; Waki, 1984
Hedges and windbreaks Yes Yes Wiersum, 1991
Industrial purposesImportant source of high quality tannin Yes Yes Wiersum, 1991
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes Wiersum, 1991
People foraging Yes Sankaran, 2002

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
LivestockAlso wild animals Yes Milton et al., 2003
MailSeed packets from suppliers Yes
Soil, sand and gravel Yes Milton et al., 2003
WaterSeeds easily spread down rivers Yes ISSG, 2007

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Crop production None
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production Negative
Human health None
Livestock production Negative
Native fauna None
Native flora Negative
Rare/protected species Negative
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel Negative

Economic Impact

Top of page

Information cited in PIER (2007) notes that A. mearnsii can invade and disrupt pasture land thus reducing carrying capacity and profitability of livestock ranching, and as with other invasive species, control incurs an economic cost. In South Africa, major economic losses have been calculated due to reduction in water runoff, with ISSG (2007) quoting an estimated annual economic loss of $US 2.8 million from both commercial plantations and invasive stands of A. mearnsii due to reduced surface runoff and decrease water ability. A cost-benefit analysis in South Africa by de Wit et al. (2001) concludes that allowing the species to spread out of the plantations incurs around twice as much cost as the benefit it delivers to the country as whole. Different mitigation scenarios were ranked according to their cost-benefit ratio.

Liu et al. (2016) describe the rapid spread of A. mearnsii across Kunming Changshui Airport in China. They report that it is changing the structure of local vegetation, increasing the probability of birds strikes at the airport.

Environmental Impact

Top of page

Impact on Habitats

The large quantities of litter deposited by this tree and its nitrogen fixation lead to increases in soil nitrogen and changes in nutrient cycling patterns (Weber, 2003). A. mearnsii is one of a number of invasive species in South Africa that is considered to have increased river bank erosion because it is less well adapted to flash floods than native plants (Macdonald and Richardson, 1986). Also in South Africa, encroachment of A. mearnsii into natural grasslands is decreasing soil carbon stocks at some sites (Oelofse et al., 2016).

Henderson and Wells (1986) report changed patterns of water cycling in the subtropical grasslands of South Africa, where less water enters the soil in systems dominated by A. mearnsii thickets due to greater rainfall interception and runoff. This can lead to serious desiccation of the soil (Versfeld and van Wilgen, 1986). Across the whole of South Africa, the estimated annual consumption of water by A. mearnsii is estimated to be in the order of 300 million m³ (Anon., 2000). Due to the ability of A. mearnsii to form shady thickets and drop large quantities of litter, other plant species are frequently out-competed and floral diversity is consequently reduced where this tree becomes invasive (Weber, 2003). A. mearnsii infestations increase rainfall interception and transpiration, which causes a decrease in streamflow.

Impact on Biodiversity

A. mearnsii is recorded as being highly competitive and eventually reducing the presence of native and/or indigenous vegetation, especially in South Africa (De Wit, 2001; ISSG, 2007). The invasiveness of this species is partly due to its ability to produce large amounts of long-lived seeds. Its leaves and branches have allelopathic properties, and Zhou et al. (2011) suggest that invasiveness of the tree may be related to allelopathic inhibition of seed germination of native species. In Réunion Island invasion patches of A. mearnsii are poor colonizing sites for native plant species, with allelopathy suspected as one of the strongest factors preventing colonization (Tassin et al., 2009).

A. mearnsii competes with and replaces native vegetation and it may also replace grass communities, reducing the carrying capacity of the land. In northeastern Algeria, invasion by A. mearnsii is threatening cork oak (Quercus suber) forests (Boudiaf et al., 2014).

Social Impact

Top of page

Preventing the introduction of invasive species is one of the justifications for managers of national parks and other protected areas in developing countries limiting movement of people and livestock through the park. Mukwada et al. (2016) examine park-community conflicts in South Africa arising from initiatives to limit community access to park resources due to the need to prevent invasion of the park by A. mearnsii.
 

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page

Impact mechanisms

  • Allelopathic
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Rapid growth

Impact outcomes

  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Infrastructure damage
  • Modification of hydrology
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts forestry
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species

Invasiveness

  • Abundant in its native range
  • Fast growing
  • Has high genetic variability
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Long lived
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc

Likelihood of entry/control

  • Difficult/costly to control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

Top of page
A fast-growing, nitrogen-fixing tree adapted to a wide range of sites from the temperate and subtropical lowlands to tropical highlands. It yields bark extractives high in quality tannin, paper pulp, cellulose for rayon, charcoal, and fuelwood. The use of A. mearnsii tannin for production of waterproof wood adhesives for the reconstituted-wood industries is expanding. A useful species for erosion control, soil improvement, shade and shelter, and ornament. A. mearnsii is the only temperate Acacia species growth commercially on a significant international scale, with the main purpose being for tannin production and woodchip exports (Chan et al., 2015).
 
Intercropping is sometimes practised in Kenya (Boland, 1997) and, in Brazil, a crop of maize (Zea mays) or cassava (Manihot esculenta) is often grown between tree rows in the first year. A. mearnsii has also been used in Java, Indonesia as a fallow crop in a rotational system with agricultural crops such as tobacco, maize, cassava and various vegetables. The species has been effective in controlling soil erosion on steep slopes and improving soil fertility (NAS, 1980; Waki, 1984). It is regarded as a superior species in appropriate areas of China for environmental plantations, especially for soil and water conservation (Ho and Fang, 1997). A. mearnsii has been used for shelterbelts, green firebreaks, as a shade tree in tea plantations and for ornamental purposes (Wiersum, 1991).
 
The moderately dense wood splits easily, burns well and makes excellent fuelwood and charcoal. In Australia the wood was once sought after to fire baker’s ovens and is still a preferred wood for ceramic kilns (Searle, 1996). The charcoal is extensively used for cooking in Kenya and southern Brazil. A Brazilian company, Tanac, has developed special kilns for the production of activated carbon (for use in pollution control) from A. mearnsii (Boland, 1987). The wood is used in Indonesia for domestic fuel, village industries and curing tobacco leaves (Berenschot et al., 1988; Wiersum, 1991). Physical and mechanical properties of plantation-grown wood are described by Gupta and Kukreti (1983). The timber must be seasoned slowly to avoid checking. The wood is hard but is moderately easy to work and takes a good polish. Pre-drilling is necessary before nailing. It is susceptible to termite and Lyctus sp. attack. The sapwood absorbs preservatives readily but the heartwood is moderately resistant. The wood is used for house poles, mine timbers, tool handles, cabinet work, joinery, flooring, construction timber, matchwood and hardboard. Poles with bark intact are used to support oyster racks in New South Wales (Searle, 1996).
 
Logan (1987), Nicholson (1991) and Guigan et al. (1991) investigated the pulping properties of A. mearnsii woodchips and found their mechanical, pulping and bleaching properties to be suitable for a wide range of paper and paperboard products. Plantation-grown A. mearnsii is currently being used commercially in South Africa as a component for kraft and soda-AQ pulp production and A. mearnsii woodchips are exported from that country to Japan for use in manufacture of kraft pulps (Logan, 1987). In both South Africa (Sherry, 1971) and India (Nilgiris area), A. mearnsii is used in the production of rayon. Hillis (1997a) provides a review of properties and uses of wood of black wattle.
 
A. mearnsii produces the world's most important vegetable tannin, especially suited for use in the manufacture of heavy leather goods. The bark of the species is very rich in condensed tannin (35-51%, dry weight). Hillis (1997b, 1997c) provides detailed accounts of bark properties and tannin chemistry, while Sun et al. (1997) describes production methods and Xiao (1997) describes the use of wattle extract in tanning leather. Tannin yields are influenced by several factors including genetic variability, age and environment. Tannin industries based on this species have been developed in Brazil, China, Kenya, India, South Africa, Tanzania and Zimbabwe (Brown and Ho, 1997). The main exporting countries are South Africa, Kenya and Tanzania and the main importers are the UK, Australia and the USA (Wiersum, 1991). In addition to its use for leather tanning, the powdered bark extract is used to prepare tannin formaldehyde adhesives for exterior grade plywood, particleboard and laminated timber (Coppens et al., 1980; Yazaki and Collins, 1997). It also has a use as an anticorrosion agent of mild steel and cast iron (Moresby, 1997). Other uses of wattle extract are as a fluidizing agent for drilling mud, a calcite depressant in ore flotation, a flocculant in water treatment, in a ion-exchange resin and as a polyurethane-type coating for wood (Wu, 1997).
 
The leaves of A. mearnsii have a high protein content (15%). However, palatability trials with sheep showed milled leaves to be unpalatable on their own, only acceptable when mixed with other feeds, and digestibility was considered to be affected by the high tannin content in the leaves and twigs (5.7% dry weight) (Goodriche, 1978). A. mearnsii foliage is considered to be inferior stock feed in Japan but has been fed to cattle in Hawaii during drought periods. A. mearnsii sawdust has been found to an excellent medium for growing edible mushrooms in China (Ho, 1997). In central Java and Kenya, foliage of A. mearnsii is used as a green manure to improve agricultural yield and plantations can produce more than 20 t/ha of fresh foliage annually (Cheboiwo and Ongugo, 1989).

Uses List

Top of page

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Landscape improvement
  • Revegetation
  • Shade and shelter
  • Soil conservation
  • Windbreak

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

Materials

  • Bark products
  • Dye/tanning
  • Green manure
  • Mulches
  • Wood/timber

Wood Products

Top of page

Charcoal

Roundwood

  • Building poles
  • Pit props
  • Posts
  • Stakes

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Carpentry/joinery (exterior/interior)
  • Flooring
  • For light construction

Textiles

Wood-based materials

  • Fibreboard
  • Hardboard
  • Particleboard

Woodware

  • Industrial and domestic woodware
  • Tool handles
  • Turnery

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Control

Cultural control

Seedlings and saplings younger than three years old are sensitive to fire. However, Pieterse and Boucher (1997) investigated burning standing A. mearnsii trees as a viable management technique but found that a high proportion of mature trees survived to resprout, a large number of seeds in the seedbank were stimulated to grow and the overall size of the thicket increased significantly. In localized areas there are interactions with existing herbivores that limit the spread of this plant. An example cited in Kruger et al. (1986) occurs in the Umfolozi Game Reserve, South Africa where black rhinoceros removes A. mearnsii from river bank habitats. Attempts have also been made in South Africa to produce a sterile triploid variety by controlled crossing of the natural diploid form with an artificially created tetraploid form (Beck et al., 2003). However, this approach, while appealing, may yet create more problems in the future, as naturally occurring hexaploids in most plant species are thought to have originated from a natural doubling of chromosomes in triploids. Thus, plantations of sterile triploids could produce even more invasive hexaploids.
 
Mechanical control


Since A. mearnsii resprouts from the roots, these should be removed (Weber, 2003), and girdling of the stem is also effective (PIER, 2007).

At Kunming Changshui Airport, mechanical control is recommended (Liu et al., 2016).

Chemical control

Glyphosate may be used to spray seedlings and juvenile trees but for adult trees it is more appropriate to fell mechanically, and follow up with an application of herbicide to the cut stump (Weber, 2003). A variety of chemical treatment agents and techniques are described by PIER (2007), including dicamba, glyphosate and picloram used as cut surface treatments and triclopyr, 2,4-D, triclopyr ester in oil and triclopyr amine as basal bark treatments, where it is noted that A. mearnsii appears particularly sensitive to basal bark treatments, and application of diesel alone is also effective.

Biological control

Henderson (2001) reports that both seed feeders and a mycoherbicide are used to control A. mearnsii. ARC (2000) names two agents that it supplies for the purpose of biological control in South Africa; the seed weevil Melenterius maculatus and a native South African fungus Cylindrobasidium laeve that attacks stumps and is applied after felling to prevent resprouting. More recently a cecidomyiid midge, Dasineura rubiformis, which forms galls in the flowers and prevents pod development was released (Impson et al., 2008). As A. mearnsii is an important commercial plant as well as being extremely invasive, it is important that any control methods limit spread without affecting growth of cultivated trees. Impson et al. (2013) report that while this flower-galling midge reduces seed set to very low levels, it does not negatively affect growth of the tree and so will have no detrimental effect on the wattle forestry industry in South Africa.

References

Top of page

Anon, 2000. How much water do alien invasive plants use in South Africa? http://fred.csir.co.za/plants/global/continen/africa/safrica/bigpic/howmuchw.

ARC, 2000. Biocontrol agents against alien invasive plants in fynbos. Agricultural Research Council, Plant Protection Research Institute (ARC-PPRI), South Africa. http://www.arc.agric.za/institutes/ppri/main/divisions/weedsdiv/fynboselectronic/acamea.htm.

Beck SL; Dunlop RW; Fossey A, 2003. Evaluation of induced polyploidy in Acacia mearnsii through stomatal counts and guard cell measurements. South African Journal of Botany, 69(4):563-567.

Berenschot LM; Filius BM; Hardjosoediro S, 1988. Factors determining the occurrence of the agroforestry system with Acacia mearnsii in central Java. Agroforestry Systems, 6(2):119-135; 14 ref.

Binggeli P, 1999. Invasive woody plants. http://members.lycos.co.uk/WoodyPlantEcology/invasive/index.html.

BioNET-EAFRINET, 2015. East African Network for Taxonomy. Online Key and Fact Sheets for Invasive plants. http://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/eafrinet/weeds/key/weeds/Media/Html/index.htm

Bleakley S; Matheson C, 1992. Patterns of morphological variation in seedlings of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 71(2):101-109; 23 ref.

Boden DI, 1984. Early responses to different methods of site preparation for three commercial tree species. In: Vol. 2 Proceedings of IUFRO symposium on site and productivity of fast-growing plantations, 30 April-11 May 1984, Pretoria and Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, 29-37.

Boland DJ, 1987. Genetic resources and utilisation of Australian bipinnate acacias (Botrycephalae). In: Turnbull JW, ed. Australian Acacias in Developing Countries. Proceedings of an International Workshop, Gympie, Qld., Australia, 4-7 August 1986. ACIAR Proceedings No. 16, 57-63.

Boland DJ, 1997. Plantation practices in Zimbabwe, Kenya and Tanzania. In: Brown AG, Ho CK, eds. Black Wattle and its Utilisation. Canberra: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, 65-77.

Boland DJ; Brooker MIH; Chippendale GM; Hall N; Hyland BPM; Johnston RD; Kleinig DA; Turner JD, 1984. Forest trees of Australia. 4th ed. Melbourne, Australia:Thomas Nelson and CSIRO. xvi + 687 pp.; 77 ref.

Booth TH, 1992. Computerized climate mapping for planting site selection. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports, 10: 3-6; 10 ref.

Booth TH, 1997. Climatic factors. In: Brown AG, Ho CK, eds. Black wattle and its utilisation. Canberra: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, 13-17.

Booth TH; Yan Hong, 1991. Identifying climatic areas in China suitable for Acacia mearnsii and A. mangium. In: Turnbull JW ed. Advances in Tropical Acacia Research. Proceedings of an International Workshop held in Bangkok, Thailand, 11-15 February 1991. ACIAR Proceedings No. 35: 52-56

Bootle KR, 1983. Wood in Australia: types, properties and uses. Sydney, Australia: McGraw-Hill Book Company, viii + 443pp.; many ref.

Boucher C, 1980. Black wattle. In: Stirton CH, ed. Plant Invaders, Beautiful but Dangerous. 2nd edn. Cape Town, South Africa: Department of Nature and Environmental Conservation, 48-51.

Boudiaf I; Baudoin E; Sanguin H; Beddiar A; Thioulouse J; Galiana A; Prin Y; Roux Cle; Lebrun M; Duponnois R, 2013. The exotic legume tree species, <i>Acacia mearnsii</i>, alters microbial soil functionalities and the early development of a native tree species, <i>Quercus suber</i>, in North Africa. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 65:172-179. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00380717

Boudiaf I; Beddiar A; Roux Cle; Prin Y; Duponnois R, 2014. Invasion of a natural <i>Quercus suber</i> stand in Algeria by <i>Acacia mearnsii</i> originating from Australia. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin [Proceedings of the IOBC/WPRS Working Group "Integrated Protection in Oak Forests", Avignon, France, 7-11 October 2013.], 101:11-14. http://www.iobc-wprs.org/pub/bulletins/bulletin_2014_101_table_of_contents_abstracts.pdf

Brown AG; Ho CK, 1997. Black Wattle and its Utilisation. Canberra: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation.

CABI, 2005. Forestry Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI.

Chan JM; Day P; Feely J; Thompson R; Little KM; Norris CH, 2015. <i>Acacia mearnsii</i> industry overview: current status, key research and development issues. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science [Sustaining the future of Acacia plantation forestry. IUFRO Acacia 2014 Conference, Hue, Vietnam, 18-21 March 2014.], 77(1):19-30. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tsfs20

Chandra SK, 2012. Invasive Alien Plants of Indian Himalayan Region- Diversity and Implication. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 3:177-184.

Cheboiwo JK; Ongugo PO, 1989. Growing and managing Acacia mearnsii (black wattle) in Kenya. Research Note Kenya Forestry Research Institute, No. 2, i + 19 pp.; 4 ref.

Coppens HA; Santana MAE; Pastore FJ, 1980. Tannin formaldehyde adhesive for exterior-grade plywood and particleboard manufacture. Forest Products Journal, 30(4):38-42; 22 ref.

Cronk QCB; Fuller JL, 1995. Plant invaders: the threat to natural ecosystems. London, UK; Chapman & Hall Ltd, xiv + 241 pp.

Crous CJ; Jacobs SM; Esler KJ, 2012. Drought-tolerance of an invasive alien tree, <i>Acacia mearnsii</i> and two native competitors in fynbos riparian ecotones. Biological Invasions, 14(3):619-631. http://www.springerlink.com/content/w15r1371xv958p21/

DAISIE, 2015. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

De Wit MP; Crookes DJ; Van Wilgen BW, 2001. Conflicts of interest in environmental management: estimating the costs and benefits of a tree invasion. Biological Invasions, 3:167-178.

Deacon J, 1986. Human settlement in South Africa and archaelogical evidence for alien plants and animals. In: Macdonald IAW, Kruger FJ, Ferrar AA, eds. The Ecology and Management of Biological Invasions in Southern Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: Oxford University Press, 3-19.

Dean SJ; Holmes PM; Weiss PW, 1986. Seed biology of invasive alien plants in South Africa and South West Africa / Namibia. In: Macdonald IAW, Kruger FJ, Ferrar AA (eds.), The Ecology and Management of Biological Invasions in Southern Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: Oxford University Press, 157-170.

Doran JC; Gunn BV, 1987. Treatments to promote seed germination in Australian acacias. In: Turnbull JW, ed. Australian Acacias in Developing Countries. Proceedings of an International Workshop, Gympie, Qld., Australia, 4-7 August 1986. ACIAR Proceedings No 16:57-63

Doran JC; Turnbull JW, 1997. Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics. Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics., viii + 384 pp.; [refs].

du Toit B, 1995. Guidelines for the fertilization of pine, eucalypt and wattle plantations in the summer rainfall areas of Southern Africa. ICFR Bulletin Series, No. 10-95, 13 pp.; 9 ref.

Elliott HJ; de Little DW, 1984. Insect Pests of Trees and Timber in Tasmania. Hobart: Forestry Commission, Tasmania.

Fang GuiGan; Balodis V; Wang JingXia; Clark NB, 1991. Kraft pulping properties of Acacia mearnsii and A. silvestris. In: Turnbull JW ed. Advances in Tropical Acacia Research. Proceedings of an International Workshop held in Bangkok, Thailand, 11-15 February 1991. ACIAR Proceedings, No. 35, 145-150; 12 ref.

Feng YouYi; Dong XiaoHui; Hu RenYong; Ke QianQian; Ding BingYang, 2010. Study on risk evaluation system for alien invasive plants in Wenzhou: taking <i>Acacia mearnsii</i> for an example. Journal of Plant Resources and Environment, 19(3):79-84.

Floc'h E le, 1991. Invasive plants of the Mediterranean basin. In: Groves RH, Castri F di, eds. Biogeography of Mediterranean invasions. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 67-80.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Gao C, 1997. Black wattle plantations in South Africa: Introduction, silviculture and management. In: Brown AG, Ho CK, eds. Black Wattle and its Utilisation. Canberra: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, 28-38.

Gao CB; Li JY, 1991. Acacia mearnsii provenance trials in southern China. In: Turnbull JW ed. Advances in Tropical Acacia Research. Proceedings of an International Workshop held in Bangkok, Thailand, 11-15 February 1991. ACIAR Proceedings, No. 35, 209-214; 3 ref.

Gao CB; Li JY; Williams ER, 1991. Performance of Acacia mearnsii provenance/progeny in southern China. In: Turnbull JW, ed. Advances in Tropical Acacia Research. Proceedings of an International Workshop held in Bangkok, Thailand, 11-15 February 1991. ACIAR Proceedings, No. 35: 215-218.

Geldenhuys CJ, 1986. Costs and benefits of the Australian blackwood Acacia melanoxylon in South African forestry. The ecology and management of biological invasions in Southern Africa. Proceedings of the National Synthesis Symposium on the ecology of biological invasions [edited by Macdonald, I.A.W.; Kruger, F.J.; Ferrar, A.A.] Cape Town, South Africa; Oxford University Press, 275-283

Geldenhuys CJ; Roux PJ le; Cooper KH, 1986. Alien invasions in indigenous evergreen forest. The ecology and management of biological invasions in Southern Africa. Proceedings of the National Synthesis Symposium on the ecology of biological invasions [edited by Macdonald, I.A.W; Kruger, F.J; Ferrar, A.A.] Cape Town, South Africa; Oxford University Press, 119-131

Goodriche TG, 1978. Investigations of the possible use of the foliage of black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.) as feed for livestock. Wattle Research Institute Report 1977-78. Pietermaritzburg, South Africa: University of Natal.

Grant JE; Moran GF; Moncur MW, 1994. Pollination studies and breeding system in Acacia mearnsii. In: Brown A, ed. Australian Tree Species Research in China. ACIAR Proceedings No. 48, 165-170.

Gupta VK; Kukreti MC, 1983. A note on physical and mechanical properties of Acacia mearnsii (syn. Acacia mollissima) from Tamil Nadu. Indian Forester, 109(6):395-400; 8 ref.

Henderson L, 2001. Alien Weeds and Invasive Plants. Plant Protection Research Institute Handbook No. 12. Cape Town, South Africa: Paarl Printers.

Henderson L; Wells MJ, 1986. Alien plant invasions in grassland and savanna biomes. In: Macdonald IAW, Kruger FJ, Ferrar AA, eds. The ecology and management of biological invasions in southern Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: Oxford University Press, 109-117.

Herbert MA, 1984. Variation in the growth of and responses to fertilizing black wattle with nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and lime over three rotations. In: Vol. 2 Proceedings of IUFRO Symposium on Site and Productivity of Fast-Growing Plantations, 30 April-11 May 1984, Pretoria and Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, 907-920.

Higa AR; Resende MDV, 1994. Breeding Acacia mearnsii in Southern Brazil [Rio Grande do Sul]. In: Brown AG ed. Australian Tree Species Research in China. Proceedings of an International Workshop held at Zhangzhou, Fujian Province, China, 2-5 November 1992. 158-160; 3 ref.

Hillis WE, 1997a. Wood properties and uses. In: Brown AG, Ho CK, eds. Black Wattle and its Utilisation. Canberra, Australia: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, 89-93.

Hillis WE, 1997b. Bark properties. In: Brown AG, Ho CK, eds. Black Wattle and its Utilisation. Canberra, Australia: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, 94-101.

Hillis WE, 1997c. Tannin chemistry. In: Brown AG, Ho CK, eds. Black Wattle and its Utilisation. Canberra, Australia: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, 102-117.

Ho CK, 1997. Research on and prospects of black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.) in China. In: Brown AG, Ho CK, eds. Black Wattle and its Utilisation. Canberra, Australia: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, 160-165.

Ho CK; Fang YL, 1997. Development of black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.) plantations in China. In: Brown AG, Ho CK, eds. Black Wattle and its Utilisation. Canberra, Australia: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, 83-88.

I3N-Brasil, 2015. Base de dados nacional de espécies exóticas invasora (National database of exotic invasive species). Florianópolis - SC, Brazil: I3N Brasil, Instituto Hórus de Desenvolvimento e Conservação Ambiental. http://i3n.institutohorus.org.br

IABIN, 2015. Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network (IABIN). Red de Informacion sobre especies invasoras ([English title not available]). http://www.oas.org/en/sedi/dsd/iabin/

ILDIS, 2002. International Legume Database and Information Service. University of Southampton, UK. http://www.ildis.org/database/.

ILDIS, 2007. International Legume Database and Information Service. Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, Unversity of Reading. http://www.ildis.org/

ILDIS, 2015. International Legume Database and Information Service. Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, University of Reading. http://www.ildis.org/

Impson FAC; Kleinjan CA; Hoffmann JH; Post JA, 2008. Dasineura rubiformis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a new biological control agent for Acacia mearnsii in South Africa. South African Journal of Science, 104(7/8):247-248. http://www.sajs.co.za

Impson FAC; Post JA; Hoffmann JH, 2013. Impact of the flower-galling midge, <i>Dasineura rubiformis</i> Kolesik, on the growth of its host plant, <i>Acacia mearnsii</i> De Wild, in South Africa. South African Journal of Botany, 87:118-121. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0254629913002470

ISSG, 2007. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database

Jøker D, 2000. Acacia mearnsii De Wild. Acacia mearnsii De Wild. Humlebaek, Denmark: Danida Forest Seed Centre. [Seed leaflet No. 4.]

Kenrick J; Knox RB, 1982. Function of the polyad in reproduction of Acacia. Annals of Botany, 50(5):721-727; 31 ref.

Kessy BS, 1987. Growth of Australian acacias in Tanzania. ACIAR Proceedings, Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, No. 16:123-125

Kruger FJ; Richardson DM; van Wilgen BW, 1986. Processes of invasion by alien plants. In: Macdonald IAW, Kruger FJ, Ferrar AA (eds.), The Ecology and Management of Biological Invasions in Southern Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: Oxford University Press, 145-155.

Kull CA; Rangan H, 2012. Science, sentiment and territorial chauvinism in the acacia name change debate. In: Peopled Landscapes: Archaeological and Biogeographic Approaches to Landscapes [ed. by Haberle, S. P. \David, B.]. [Terra Australis 34.]

Lee SS, 1993. Diseases of acacias: an overview. In: Awang K, Taylor DA, eds. Acacias for Rural, Industrial and Environmental Development. Proceedings of the Second Meeting of Consultative Group for Research and Development of Acacias (COGREDA). Udorn Thani, Thailand: Bangkok: Winrock International and FAO, 225-239.

Lemmens RHMJ; Soerianegara I; Wong WC, eds. 1995. Plant resources of South-East Asia No. 5 (2). Timber trees: minor commercial timbers. 655 pp.; Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers.

Lemmens RHMJ; Wulijarni-Soetjipto N (Editors), 1991. Plant resources of South-East Asia. No. 3. Dye and tannin-producing plants. pp.195.

LennT JM, 1992. Diseases of multipurpose woody legumes in the tropics: a review. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports, 10:13-29; 5 pp. of ref.

Li JiYuan; Gao ChuanBi; Zheng FangJi; Ren HuaDong, 1994. Bark quality of Acacia mearnsii provenances from different geographic origins growing in South China. In: Brown AG, ed. Australian Tree Species Research in China. Proceedings of an International Workshop held at Zhangzhou, Fujian Province, China, 2-5 November 1992. ACIAR Proceedings No. 48, 203-211.

Li JY, 1997. Black wattle plantations in South Africa: Genetics and breeding. In: Brown AG, Ho CK, eds. Black Wattle and its Utilisation. Canberra, Australia: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, 53-64.

Liu Min; Yang MingYu; Song Ding; Zhang ZhiMing; Ou XiaoKun, 2016. Invasive <i>Acacia mearnsii</i> De Wilde in Kunming, Yunnan Province, China: a new biogeographic distribution that threatens airport safety. NeoBiota, No.29:53-62. http://neobiota.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=7230

Logan AF, 1987. Australian acacias for pulpwood. In: Turnbull JW, ed. Australian Acacias in Developing Countries. Proceedings of an International Workshop, Gympie, Qld., Australia, 4-7 August 1986. ACIAR Proceedings No. 16:89-94

Luken JO; Thieret JW, 1997. Assessment and Management of Plant Invasions. New York, USA: Springer-Verlag, 324 pp.

Luyt IE; Mullin LJ; Gwaze DP, 1987. Black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) in Zimbabwe. In: Turnbull JW, ed. Australian Acacias in Developing Countries. Proceedings of an International Workshop, Gympie, Qld., Australia, 4-7 August 1986. ACIAR Proceedings, No. 16: 128-131.

Macdonald IAW; Richardson DM, 1986. Alien species in terrestrial ecosystems of the fynbos biome. In: Macdonald IAW, Kruger FJ, Ferrar AA, eds. The ecology and management of biological invasions in southern Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: Oxford University Press, 77-91.

Maroyi A, 2015. Exotic <i>Acacia</i> species in Zimbabwe: a historical and ecological perspective. Studies on Ethno-Medicine, 9(3):391-399. http://krepublishers.com/02-Journals/S-EM/EM-09-0-000-15-Web/S-EM-09-3-15-Abst-PDF/S-EM-09-3-391-15-384-Maroyi-A-S/S-EM-09-3-391-15-384-Maroyi-A-S-Tx[13].pdf

Maslin BR, 1995. Systematics and phytogeography of Australian species of Acacia: an overview. IFA Newsletter, 36(2):2-5.

Maslin BR; McDonald MW, 1996. A key to useful Australian acacias for the seasonally dry tropics. 80 pp. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO Publishing.

Mathura S; Fossey A; Beck SL, 2006. Comparative study of chlorophyll content in diploid and tetraploid black wattle (Acacia mearnsii). Forestry (Oxford), 79(4):381-388. http://forestry.oxfordjournals.org/

Milton SJ; Dean WRJ; Richardson DM, 2003. Economic incentives for restoring natural capital in southern African rangelands. Front. Ecol. Environ. +C26, 1(5):247-254.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2008. Flora of China Checklist. USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/foc.html

Moffett AA, 1965. Genetical studies in Acacias. III. Chlorosis studies in interspecific hybrids. Heredity, 20(4):609-620; 9 refs.

Moncur MW; Moran GF; Grant JE, 1991. Factors limiting seed production in Acacia mearnsii. In: Turnbull JW, ed. Advances in Tropical Acacia Research. Proceedings of an International Workshop held in Bangkok, Thailand, 11-15 February 1991. ACIAR Proceedings, No. 35, 20-25; 10 ref.

Moresby JF, 1997. Uses of wattle extracts: Anticorrosion of metals. In: Brown AG, Ho CK, eds. Black Wattle and its Utilisation. Canberra: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, 151-156.

Motooka P; Castro L; Nelson D; Nagai G; Ching L, 2003. Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas; an identification and management guide. Manoa, Hawaii, USA: College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii.

Moyo HPM; Fatunbi AO, 2010. Utilitarian perspective of the invasion of some South African biomes by Acacia mearnsii. Global Journal of Environmental Research, 4(1):6-17. http://idosi.org/gjer/gjer4(1)10/2.pdf

Mukwada G; Chingombe W; Taru P, 2016. Strifes of the frontier: an assessment of <i>Acacia mearnsii</i> related park-community conflicts in the Golden Gate Highlands National Park, South Africa. Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences, 13(1):37-54. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/nens20

National Academy of Sciences, 1980. Firewood Crops: Shrub and Tree Species for Energy Production. Washington DC, USA; National Academy of Sciences.

Nicholson CRL, 1991. The pulping and mechanical properties of black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) timber. Annual Research Report Institute for Commercial Forestry Research, 247-255; 1 ref.

Nyoka BI, 2002. The status of invasive alien forest trees species in Southern Africa. Forest Resources Division, FAO, Rome. http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/005/Y4341E/Y4341EO4.htm.

Oelofse M; Birch-Thomsen T; Magid J; Neergaard Ade; Deventer Rvan; Bruun S; Hill T, 2016. The impact of black wattle encroachment of indigenous grasslands on soil carbon, Eastern Cape, South Africa. Biological Invasions, 18(2):445-456. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10530-015-1017-x

Orwa C; Mutua A; Kindt R; Jamnadass R; Simons A, 2009. Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. World Agroforestry Centre. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/af/treedb/

PIER, 2002. Plant threats to Pacific ecosystems. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER). http://www.hear.org/pier/threats.htm.

PIER, 2007. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PIER, 2008. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PIER, 2015. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Pieterse PJ; Boucher C, 1997. Is burning a standing population of invasive legumes a viable control method? Effects of a wildfire on an Acacia mearnsii population. Southern African Forestry Journal, No. 180:15-21; 32 ref.

Poggenpoel PV, 1978. Collection and pretreatment of seed from black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) seed orchards. Report, Wattle Research Institute, South Africa, 1977-1978, 85-90.

PROTA, 2015. PROTA4U web database. Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.info

Raymond CA, 1987. Acacia mearnsii: a breeding plan for China. ACIAR Project 8458 Report. Canberra: CSIRO Division of Forest Research.

Raymond CA, 1997. Flowering biology, genetics and breeding. In: Brown AG, Ho CK, eds. Black Wattle and its Utilisation. Canberra, Australia: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, 18-27.

Roux J; Kemp GHJ; Wingfield MJ, 1995. Diseases of black wattle in South Africa - a review. South African Forestry Journal, No. 174:35-40; 50 ref.

Sankaran KV, 2002. Black wattle problem emerges in Indian forests. CABI Biocontrol News, 23(1).

Schönau APG, 1983. Fertilisation in South African forestry. South African Forestry Journal, No. 125: 1-19; 58 ref.

Schonau APG; Schulze RE, 1984. Climatic and altitudinal criteria for commercial afforestation with special reference to Natal. South African Forestry Journal, No. 130, 10-18; 13 ref.

Searle S, 1996. Wood and non-wood uses of temperate Australian acacias. Paper to 1996 Australian forest growers conference, 9-12 September, Mount Gambier, South Australia.

Searle SD, 1991. The rise and demise of the black wattle bark industry in Australia. Technical Paper Division of Forestry, CSIRO, No. 1, 38 pp.; many ref.

Searle SD, 1997. Acacia mearnsii De Wild. (black wattle) in Australia. In: Brown AG, Ho CK, eds. Black Wattle and its Utilisation. Canberra, Australia: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, 1-12.

Searle SD; Owen JV; Snowdon P, 1994. Frost tolerance variation amongst 25 provenances of Acacia mearnsii. In: Brown AG, ed. Australian Tree Species Research in China. Proceedings of an International Workshop held at Zhangzhou, Fujian Province, China, 2-5 November 1992, 140-148; 21 ref.

Searle SD; Owen JV; Williams ER; Raymond CA, 1991. Genetic variation in frost tolerance of Acacia mearnsii. In: Turnbull JW, ed. Advances in Tropical Acacia Research. Proceedings of an International Workshop held in Bangkok, Thailand, 11-15 February 1991. ACIAR Proceedings, No. 35, 93-94.

Seburanga JL, 2015. Black wattle (<i>Acacia mearnsii</i> De Wild.) in Rwanda's forestry: implications for nature conservation. Journal of Sustainable Forestry, 34(3):276-299. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/wjsf20

Seburanga JL, 2016. Self-established black wattle populations in Rwanda: implications for nature conservation. Small-scale Forestry, 15(1):127-134. http://rd.springer.com/journal/11842

Selincourt Kde, 1992. South Africa's other bush war. New Scientist, 133(1808):46-49

Sherry SP, 1971. The Black Wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.). 1971. pp. xix + 402 + 24 plates. [12 pp. of ref.]. University of Natal Press, Pietermaritzburg.

Smith CW, 1998. Acacia mearnsii. Willd. http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/cw_smith.

Stein PP; Tonietto L, 1997. Black wattle silviculture in Brazil. In: Brown AG, Ho CK, eds. Black Wattle and its Utilisation. Canberra, Australia: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, 78-82.

Stubbings JA; Schonau APG, 1982. Silviculture of black wattle. In: Forestry Handbook. South African Institute of Foresters, 81-90.

Sun D; Zhang Z; Xiao Z, 1997. Production of black wattle extract. In: Brown AG, Ho CK, eds. Black Wattle and its Utilisation. Canberra, Australia: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, 118-131.

Tame T, 1992. Acacias of south eastern Australia. Kenthurst, Sydney, Australia: Kangaroo Press.

Tassin J; Médoc JM; Kull CA; Rivière JN; Balent G, 2009. Can invasion patches of <i>Acacia mearnsii</i> serve as colonizing sites for native plant species on Réunion (Mascarene archipelago)? African Journal of Ecology, 47(3):422-432. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/aje

USDA-ARS, 2015. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov.

Versfeld DB; van Wilgen BW, 1986. Impact of woody aliens on ecosystem properties. In: Macdonald IAW, Kruger FJ, Ferrar AA (eds.), The Ecology and Management of Biological Invasions in Southern Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: Oxford University Press, 239-246.

Vulcano MA; Pereira FS, 1978. The genus Oncideres Serville 1835 (Coleoptera, Lamiidae) in southern Brazil and adjacent countries, a serious pest of orchards and silviculture. Studia Entomologica, 20(1/4):177-220

Waki K, 1984. The growth and the nutrient status of Acacia species in Japan. In: Grey DC et al., eds. Proceedings IUFRO Symposium on Site and Productivity of Fast Growing Plantations, held 30 April-11 May 1984, Pretoria and Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. Volume 2: 831-838

Wang H, 1997. Black wattle plantations in South Africa: protection. In: Brown AG, Ho CK, eds. Black Wattle and its Utilisation. Canberra, Australia: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, 39-52.

Webb DB; Wood PJ; Smith J, 1980. A guide to species selection for tropical and sub-tropical plantations. Tropical Forestry Papers, Commonwealth Forestry Institute, University of Oxford, No. 15, 342 pp.; 82 ref.

Weber E, 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: A reference guide to environmental weeds. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 548 pp.

Wells MJ, 1991. Introduced plants of the fynbos biome of South Africa. Biogeography of mediterranean invasions [edited by Groves, R. H.; Castri, F. di] Cambridge, UK; Cambridge University Press, 115-129

Wiersum KF, 1991. Acacia mearnsii De Wild. In: Lemmens RHMJ, Wulijarni-Soetjipto N, eds. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 3. Dye and Tannin-producing plants. Wageningen, the Netherlands: Pudoc, 41-45.

Wu Z, 1997. Other uses of wattle extract. In: Brown AG, Ho CK, eds. Black Wattle and its Utilisation. Canberra, Australia: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, 157-159.

Xiao Z, 1997. Uses of wattle extract: Tanning agent in leather manufacture. In: Brown AG, Ho CK, eds. Black Wattle and its Utilisation. Canberra, Australia: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, 132-135.

Yan H; Booth TH; Zuo H, 1996. GREEN - A climatic mapping program for China and its use in forestry. In: Booth TH, ed. Matching Trees and Sites. Proceedings of an International Workshop held in Bangkok, Thailand, 27-30 March 1995. ACIAR Proceedings No. 63:24-29.

Yazaki Y; Collins PJ, 1997. Uses of wattle extract: Tannin based adhesives. In: Brown AG, Ho CK, eds. Black Wattle and its Utilisation. Canberra, Australia: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, 136-150.

Yazaki Y; Zheng GC; Searle SD, 1990. Extractives yields and polyflavanoid contents of Acacia mearnsii barks in Australia. Australian Forestry, 53(3):148-153; 7 ref.

Zheng GuangCheng; Lin YunLu; Yazaki Y, 1991. Tannin analysis of Acacia mearnsii bark - a comparison of the hide-powder and Stiasny methods. In: Turnbull JW ed. Advances in Tropical Acacia Research. Proceedings of an International Workshop held in Bangkok, Thailand, 11-15 February 1991. ACIAR Proceedings, No. 35, 128-131; 2 ref.

Zhou WeiJia; Wu YingYin; Zheng SiSi; Zheng QianQian; Li Qiong; Ding BingYing, 2011. Allelopathic effect of <i>Acacia mearnsii</i> on the seed germination of several plants. Bulletin of Botanical Research, 31(2):235-240. http://bbr.nefu.edu.cn

Contributors

Top of page

05/06/15 Updated by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

16/10/2007 Updated by:

Nick Pasiecznik, Consultant, France

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map