Cookies on Invasive Species Compendium

Like most websites we use cookies. This is to ensure that we give you the best experience possible.

Continuing to use www.cabi.org means you agree to our use of cookies. If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use.

Datasheet

Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 July 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Acacia auriculiformis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • northern black wattle
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • In Florida, USA, A. auriculiformis is a category 1 alien plant (Langeland and Burks, 1998). ...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Bensbach River, Balamuk, Western Provenance, Papua New
Guinea.
TitleForest tree form
CaptionBensbach River, Balamuk, Western Provenance, Papua New Guinea.
CopyrightBrian Gunn/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Bensbach River, Balamuk, Western Provenance, Papua New
Guinea.
Forest tree formBensbach River, Balamuk, Western Provenance, Papua New Guinea. Brian Gunn/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Smith Point, Cobourg Peninsula, Northern Territory,
Australia.
TitleOpen-grown tree form
CaptionSmith Point, Cobourg Peninsula, Northern Territory, Australia.
CopyrightMaurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
Smith Point, Cobourg Peninsula, Northern Territory,
Australia.
Open-grown tree formSmith Point, Cobourg Peninsula, Northern Territory, Australia.Maurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
Bark
TitleBark
Caption
CopyrightCSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Bark
BarkCSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Bole - cross section
TitleBole - cross section
Caption
CopyrightCSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Bole - cross section
Bole - cross sectionCSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Open pod
TitleOpen pod
Caption
CopyrightMaurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
Open pod
Open podMaurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
Line artwork - flowering twig
TitleLine artwork - flowering twig
Caption
CopyrightCSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Line artwork - flowering twig
Line artwork - flowering twigCSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Line artwork - pod
TitleLine artwork - pod
Caption
CopyrightCSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Line artwork - pod
Line artwork - podCSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Line artwork - seed
TitleLine artwork - seed
Caption
CopyrightCSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Line artwork - seed
Line artwork - seedCSIRO Forestry and Forest Products

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Benth.

Preferred Common Name

  • northern black wattle

Other Scientific Names

  • Acacia auriculaeformis A. Cunn. ex Benth., orth. var.
  • Racosperma auriculiforme (A. Cunn. ex Benth.) Pedley

Local Common Names

  • Australia: Darwin black wattle; ear-pod wattle; tan wattle
  • India: akashmoni; Australian babul; kasia; sonajhuri
  • Papua New Guinea: ngarai; unar
  • Philippines: Japanese acacia

EPPO code

  • ACAAF (Acacia auriculaeformis)

Trade name

  • northern black wattle

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

In Florida, USA, A. auriculiformis is a category 1 alien plant (Langeland and Burks, 1998). Space et al. (2000) list A. auriculiformis among species that are invasive elsewhere and are invasive or potentially invasive on the Pacific island of Chuuk. Similarly, PIER (2001) grouped A. auriculiformis among species that are known to be invasive elsewhere, and are common or weedy in Tonga. Further monitoring in the anticipation that this species might spread more rapidly was recommended. A. auriculiformis is presently rare or uncommon in American Samoa but was listed among those naturalized species considered invasive elsewhere and classed as common or weedy. A. auriculiformis is also listed as a category 2 invasive plant species in the Bahamas (BEST Commission, 2003). Islam (2002) reports that following recent introduction of this species to Bangladesh, A. auriculiformis germinates naturally in plantation forests and prevents the germination of native species. It is one of 17 plant species named on a preliminary list of invasive alien species for Singapore (Tan and Tan, 2002). Starr et al. (2003) recommended the eradication of A. auriculiformis in Hawaii, USA, where it is presently sparingly cultivated on Maui, to prevent its invasion.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Mimosoideae
  •                                 Genus: Acacia
  •                                     Species: Acacia auriculiformis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page As currently defined Acacia (family Fabaceae, subfamily Mimosoideae) represents a cosmopolitan genus of 1200-1300 species contained in three subgenera: Acacia, Aculeiferum and Phyllodineae (Maslin, 1995). A. auriculiformis is in subgenus Phyllodineae, a group containing in excess of 900 species (Maslin and McDonald, 1996). Some authors use Heterophyllum instead of Phyllodineae as the name for the last subgenus (Mabberley, 1997). Within subgenus Phyllodineae the species are grouped into seven sections with A. auriculiformis assigned to section Juliflorae (235 species), a group characterized by having flowers in elongated spikes and phyllodes with numerous, often anastomosing, longitudinal veins.

Pedley (1986) proposed a classification in which Acacia was formally subdivided into three genera, namely Acacia, Senegalia and Racosperma. Most botanists concerned with this group have not adopted Pedley's 1986 classification, principally because of insufficient evidence to support these changes which have such far-reaching nomenclatural implications (Chappill and Maslin, 1995). However, the proposed new nomenclature has occasionally been used by authors and there are citations in the references to Racosperma auriculiforme (syn. A. auriculiformis).

The specific name was published in Hooker's London J. Bot. 1: 377 (1842). It is derived from the Latin `auricula', meaning external ear of animals, and `forma', meaning form, figure or shape, in allusion to the shape of the legume.

A. auriculiformis is related to A. polystachya A. Cunn. ex Benth., A. cincinnata F. Muell. and A. spirorbis subsp. solandri (Benth.) Pedley and more distantly to A. aulacocarpa A. Cunn. ex Benth. and A. crassicarpa A. Cunn. ex Benth. (Pedley, 1975). It hybridizes readily with A. leptocarpa A. Cunn. ex Benth. and A. mangium Willd. in nature and in cultivation (Pinyopusarerk, 1993). The hybrids with A. mangium are intermediate between the two parents in morphology and wood properties. They inherit the straighter stem form of A. mangium and the self-pruning ability and the stem circularity of A. auriculiformis (Turnbull and Awang, 1997). Hybrids tend to have more vigorous growth and are more resistant to heart rot. There is much interest in the domestication of this hybrid as a result of this combination of commercially desirable characteristics. Aspects of seed production and vegetative propagation of the hybrids are covered in Carron and Aken (1992).

Description

Top of page On favourable sites in its natural habitat A. auriculiformis grows 25-35 m tall with a straight bole dominant for a greater part of tree height. More commonly it is 8-20 m tall and rarely a shrub 3-5 m, heavily branched and with a short bole. The bark is grey or brown, sometimes blackened at the base, smooth in young trees, becoming rough and longitudinally fissured with age (Doran and Turnbull, 1997; Turnbull and Awang, 1997). The phyllodes are falcate, 8-20 cm long and 1.0-4.5 cm wide, glabrous, greyish-green and thinly textured. There are three prominent longitudinal veins running together towards the lower margin or in the middle near the base, with many fine, crowded secondary veins, and a distinct gland at the base of the phyllode (Pedley, 1975, 1978; Maslin and McDonald, 1996). The inflorescence is an axillary, somewhat interrupted spike to 8.5 cm long in pairs in the upper axils. Flowers are light-golden in colour, 5-merous, bisexual, tiny, sessile, fragrant; calyx tubular, up to 0.1 cm long, shortly lobed, glabrous; corolla to 0.2 cm long; stamens many, about 0.3 cm long; ovary densely pubescent. The pods are strongly curved to form an open coil, flat, flexible but hard, rather woody, glaucous, transversely veined with undulate margins and are about 6.5 cm long by 1.5 cm wide. They are initially straight or curved, but on maturity become twisted and irregularly coiled. The shiny black seeds, held transversely in the pod, are broadly ovate to elliptical, 0.4-0.6 cm long by 0.3-0.4 cm wide, and each is encircled by a long red, yellow or orange funicle; areole large, almost enclosed.

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

Top of page Natural stands of A. auriculiformis are found in Australia, Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. In Australia it occurs on Cape York Peninsula and in Torres Strait, Queensland, and in the north of the Northern Territory including several off-shore islands (Boland et al., 1990). In Papua New Guinea it occurs in the Central and Western Provinces, and extends into Irian Jaya (Papua Barat) and the Kai Islands of Indonesia.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentIntroduced Invasive Islam , 2002
Brunei DarussalamPresentIntroduced
CambodiaPresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002
ChinaPresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002
-FujianPresentIntroduced
-GuangdongPresentIntroduced
-GuangxiPresentIntroduced
-HainanPresentIntroduced
IndiaPresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002
-Andhra PradeshPresentIntroduced
-AssamPresentIntroduced
-BiharPresentIntroduced
-HaryanaPresentIntroduced
-KarnatakaPresentIntroduced
-KeralaPresentIntroduced
-Madhya PradeshPresentIntroduced
-MaharashtraPresentIntroduced
-OdishaPresentIntroduced
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroduced
-TripuraPresentIntroduced
-Uttar PradeshPresentIntroduced
-West BengalPresentIntroduced
IndonesiaPresent, few occurrencesNativeWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002
-Irian JayaPresentNative
-JavaPresentIntroduced
-KalimantanPresentIntroduced
-MoluccasPresentIntroduced
-SulawesiPresentIntroduced
-SumatraPresentIntroduced
JapanPresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002
LaosPresentIntroduced
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentIntroducedYap , 1987
-SabahPresentIntroduced Invasive
-SarawakPresentIntroduced
MyanmarPresentIntroduced
NepalPresentIntroduced
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002
SingaporePresentIntroduced Invasive Tan and Tan , 2002
Sri LankaPresentIntroduced
TaiwanPresentIntroduced
ThailandPresentIntroduced1935Marcar et al., 1991a; Booth and Turnbull, 1994; World Agroforestry Centre, 2002
VietnamPresentIntroduced

Africa

BeninPresentIntroduced
BurundiPresentIntroduced
CameroonPresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroduced
GhanaPresentIntroduced
KenyaPresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002
LiberiaPresentIntroduced
MadagascarPresentIntroduced
MalawiPresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002
NigeriaPresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002
RwandaPresentIntroduced
SenegalPresentIntroduced
Sierra LeonePresentIntroduced
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002
-ZanzibarPresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002
UgandaPresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedMitchell and et al. , 1987; World Agroforestry Centre, 2002

North America

USA
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Invasive SE-EPPC, 2002
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedStarr and et al. , 2003

Central America and Caribbean

BahamasPresentIntroduced Invasive BEST Commission, 2003
Costa RicaPresentIntroduced
CubaPresentIntroduced
HaitiPresentIntroduced
JamaicaPresentIntroduced
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroduced
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced

South America

BrazilPresentIntroduced
ColombiaPresentIntroduced
EcuadorPresentIntroduced

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroduced,
AustraliaPresentNativeWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentNativeBoland et al., 1990
-QueenslandPresentNativeBoland et al., 1990
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2003
FijiPresentIntroducedPIER, 2003
GuamPresentIntroducedPIER, 2003
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2003
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2003
Papua New GuineaPresentNative
SamoaPresent
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroduced
TongaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2003
VanuatuPresentIntroduced

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page The domestication of A. auriculiformis began when it was introduced to Thailand in 1935 (Booth and Turnbull, 1994). It is planted widely in tropical Asia, with extensive plantings in China and India. A. auriculiformis is amongst the best performing acacias on slightly to moderately saline, seasonally waterlogged soils in north-eastern Thailand (Marcar et al., 1991a). It has become naturalized in western Malesia and A. auriculiformis is planted to a lesser extent in Africa and South America.

Risk of Introduction

Top of page The tree has been extensively introduced across the tropics, although until recently, the risk of invasion was not widely documented. Several countries state that it is being monitored in anticipation that it may become invasive following news of its invasiveness in Florida, USA.

Habitat

Top of page A. auriculiformis occurs in the lowland tropics growing naturally in narrow belts along river banks, where it may be dominant or one of the principal species. It also occurs in small pockets in depressions and in open-forest dominated by various eucalypts and acacias. It is also found in littoral rain forest behind either mangroves or coastal dunes. On the Oriomo Plateau of Papua New Guinea this species is common on the floodplains and levees of Bensbach and Morehead Rivers. Elsewhere it occurs as scattered trees in the riparian habitats, tall savannah woodland and in tall open-forest (monsoon forest). It is a component of swamp forest dominated by Melaleuca species, usually on the better drained sites. It is also common in littoral forest. Regular associates in these forests include Acacia mangium, A. aulacocarpa and Melaleuca cajuputi (Paijmans et al., 1971; Skelton, 1987; Boland et al., 1990).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

A. auriculiformis is predominantly outcrossing (Moran et al., 1989; Ibrahim, 1991; Khasa et al., 1993) and exhibits marked genetic variation. Isoenzyme studies revealed three distinct clusters of populations corresponding to the geographic distribution of the species in the Northern Territory, Queensland and Papua New Guinea; Queensland populations are more closely related to populations from Papua New Guinea than populations from the Northern Territory. These studies showed about 73% of the isoenzyme variation was among progenies within populations and indicated that weight should be given to both intra- and inter-population genetic variability in initial selections in domestication programmes of this species (Wickneswari and Norwati, 1991, 1993). These regional groupings were also apparent in differences in seedling morphology (Pinyopusarerk et al., 1991).

Variation was examined at 12 months for 28 provenances of A. auriculiformis in a trial in Malaysia. All provenances had a survival rate of greater than 92%, but differed significantly in their growth performance (Nor Aini et al., 1994a, b). At 5 years from planting in Sabah, eight provenances including three from Papua New Guinea and five from Queensland were identified as superior for height and diameter growth (Bernard, 1996). Provenance trials on four low fertility test sites in the Democratric Republic of Congo (Khasa et al., 1995) showed variation in growth and morphological characters when assessed at ages 3, 9, 15 and 21 months. The provenances with the greatest volume production were from Papua New Guinea.

International provenance trials were established in 1989 to examine the extent of genotype/environment interactions. Results from Australia and Thailand showed that provenances from Queensland have a higher proportion of straight stems (Awang et al., 1994; Puangchit et al., 1996; Turnbull and Awang, 1997). In a trial on an Imperata grassland site in South Kalimantan, variation in growth and form at 69 months after planting showed that the most highly productive A. auriculiformis provenances in this environment were from Papua New Guinea (MAI up to 35.6 m³/ha), Queensland (MAI up to 30.3 m³/ha) and Northern Territory (MAI up to 30.2 m³/ha) (Otsamo et al., 1996). There were also differences in tree quality with Queensland sources generally having the lowest occurrence of multi-stemmed trees. Similar results were obtained 8 months after the planting of a seedling seed orchard of A. auriculiformis in south Sumatra, where the best height and diameter growth, and lowest occurrence of multi-stemmed trees were shown by the Wenlock River provenance from the far north of Queensland (Susanto, 1996). The relative performance of provenances of A. auriculiformis in provenance trials on several sites in Vietnam has been reported by Nguyen Hoang Nghia and Le Dinh Kha (1996). Provenance variation in tolerance to salt and waterlogging has been noted in pot trials (Marcar et al., 1991b).

Several countries have genetic improvement programmes that aim to produce better quality seed for future planting programmes. Seed orchards established on Melville Island in the Northern Territory of Australia (Harwood et al., 1994) have failed to produce worthwhile amounts of seed (Harwood, 1996). The best clones are being relocated to environments where better seed production can be obtained.

The use of A. auriculiformis as a parent of hybrids, particularly in combination with A. mangium, is of great potential. Many hybrids show desirable commercial characteristics such as fast growth, fine branching and straight boles. Sedgley et al. (1992) found that the A. auriculiformis x A. mangium hybrid was more successful than the reciprocal, but fertile seeds were produced following interspecific pollination in both directions. Vacuum drying of pollen and storage in a deep freeze is recommended for the medium length storage (3 years) of pollen used in crossing programmes of these species (Harbard et al., 1994). Experimental A. mangium x A. auriculiformis hybrid seed orchards have been established in Indonesia to build up a base for a clonal forestry programme (Arisman et al., 1994). Outstanding hybrid clones have been selected and mass propagated for clonal forestry in Vietnam (Le Dinh Kha, 1996).

The Australian Tree Seed Centre of CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products, Canberra, Australia maintains seed stocks of representative provenances from throughout the native range of the species.

Physiology and Phenology

Seedlings grow quickly and reach a height of 25-30 cm in 3-4 months, 6 m in 2 years, and 6-12 m in 3 years under favourable conditions (Turnbull and Awang, 1997). Young seedlings produce 2-3 bipinnate leaves, soon followed by phyllodes. Phyllodes are retained during the dry season; their average life is about 1 year in west Java, Indonesia.

Reproductive Biology

Pollination is by insects. Flowering usually starts within 2 years after sowing (Pinyopusarerk, 1990). The yellow flower spikes can be found on individual trees throughout the year but there is usually a distinct peak flowering season that may vary considerably with location. In the Northern Territory of Australia, flowering occurs from April to July with ripe seed available some 4-5 months later in August to October (Brock, 1988). Sedgley et al. (1992) found that peak flowering occurred in February to May at Atherton in Queensland, near Kuala Lumpur in Peninsular Malaysia, and Tawau in Sabah, with ripe seed pods available between October and April. In Java, peak flowering occurs in March to June (Turnbull and Awang, 1997). Mature seed can be collected between August and February in Thailand (Pukittayacamee et al., 1993).

A. auriculiformis produces large quantities of seed at an early age. Germination is rapid after suitable treatment and typically exceeds 70%. There is an average of 71,600 viable seeds/kg (Doran and Turnbull, 1997). Although A. auriculiformis has the ability to coppice, it is not a vigorous or prolific sprouter and careful management is required to obtain good results from coppicing. Profuse natural regeneration may appear after fire or on disturbed sites in the absence of severe weed competition.

Environmental Requirements

A. auriculiformis occurs naturally in hot humid and hot subhumid climatic zones. The data in the climate table pertain to the native range, whereas Nguyen Hoang Nghia (1996) provides a climatic profile of the species combining information from both native and planted ranges. For the natural distribution of this species, the mean maximum temperature of the hottest month (November-December) is within the range 32-34°C, and the mean minimum temperature of the coolest month (May-September) is 17-22°C. Outside the natural distribution, a wider range of temperatures is tolerated, indicating the adaptability of A. auriculiformis. Frost does not occur in its natural range, but elsewhere, light frosts are tolerated. Mean annual rainfall ranges from 760 mm in the Northern Territory of Australia to 3400 mm in Papua New Guinea (Doran and Turnbull, 1997). However, for most of the planted and natural distribution, rainfall is generally much lower (up to 2500 mm), with a summer monsoonal pattern and most rain falling from December to March.

In Australia, A. auriculiformis grows on dissected lateritic lowlands and alluvial coastal plains. Occurrences in the Northern Territory are along drainage channels just above the tidal range, on the edges of sand dunes, behind mangrove swamps, and along river levees. In Queensland it is mainly restricted to river banks and drainage lines. The soils are frequently yellow earths, but vary from dune sands and sandy loams to alluvial soils with a high clay and humus content. The pH usually ranges from 4.5-6.5, but in the Northern Territory it grows on alkaline beach sands with a pH of 8-9. In West Timor it is one of the best species for cultivation on highly alkaline soils (McKinnell and Harisetijono, 1991). A. auriculiformis is also highly tolerant of acidic conditions. In Australia, Malaysia and the Philippines it has grown on acid mine spoils of pH 3 (NAS, 1983), while A. auriculiformis is one of the few tree species to become widely planted on the acid sulphate soils (pH 3) of the Mekong Delta of Vietnam (Nguyen Hoang Nghia, 1996). It can also tolerate saline soils. In an experiment in Thailand, it continued growing under saline conditions ranging from 0.15 to 7.25 dS/m, in both wet and dry soils (Turnbull and Awang, 1997). A. auriculiformis was also amongst the best performing Acacia spp. on slightly to moderately saline seasonally waterlogged soils in south-eastern Queensland (Marcar et al., 1991a).

The natural occurrences in western Papua New Guinea and Irian Jaya are mainly on the relict alluvial plain known as the Oriomo Plateau. They are on shallow well-drained sandy loam overlying heavy clay or imperfectly drained soils subject to temporary or prolonged flooding in the wet season. These soils are strongly acid and of poor fertility with low values for nitrogen, exchangeable potassium and available phosphorus (Bleeker, 1983). It is generally a lowland species though has been found up to 1000 m altitude.

Associations

A. auriculiformis can fix nitrogen after nodulating with a range of Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium strains in many tropical soils. In the Philippines, 52-66% of nitrogen uptake was shown to be derived from nitrogen fixation (Dart et al., 1991). This nitrogen-fixing potential may only be realized in many soils if adequate fertilizer, especially phosphorus, is applied. A. auriculiformis has associations with both ecto- and endo-mycorrhizal fungi. The ecto-mycorrhizal fungus, Thelephora spp., forms a beneficial association, and several species of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizas, including Glomus etunicatum and Gigaspora margarita, are effective (Dart et al., 1991; dela Cruz and Umali-Garcia, 1992).

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Top of page
Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
-5 -17 0 1000

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 0 6
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 20 30
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 25 37
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 6 22

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration07number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall8002500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Summer

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral
  • very acid

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • saline
  • shallow

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page There are several diseases and insect pests of A. auriculiformis, but none are limiting to establishment on appropriate sites at present (Day et al., 1994). During a recent workshop on diseases of tropical acacias (Old et al., 1997), a number of diseases were identified as potential threats to the future productivity of industrial plantations. These included stem cankers caused by a range of pathogens (Botryodiplodia theobromae, Botryosphaeria spp. and Hendersonula sp.) and most often associated with stem borer damage, pink disease (Corticium salmonicolor) which is most prevalent in high rainfall areas, and phyllode rust (Atelocauda digitata) which has impaired the growth of A. auriculiformis in Australia and Indonesia. It is not susceptible to the heart rot which affects A. mangium (Ito and Nanis, 1997). A root rot fungus, Ganoderma sp., was observed to cause crown dieback and defoliation in A. auriculiformis plantations in parts of West Bengal, India (Barari, 1993). Ganoderma lucidum causes root rot in India (World Agroforestry Centre, 2002) and a species of Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae) has also been recorded as a parasite of A. auriculiformis in West Bengal (Banerjee et al., 1993). Seedlings in the nursery can be infected by powdery mildew (Oidium) especially where there is heavy shading (Harsh et al., 1992).

Stressed trees are particularly susceptible to attacks by insect pests. A beetle, Sinoxylon sp., can girdle small stems or branches. In Australia, the wood is attacked by borers and termites, and scale insects are prevalent on young trees (Hearne, 1975). Experimental results suggest that A. auriculiformis shows some resistance to termites (Turnbull and Awang, 1997). A. auriculiformis was recorded as host to Xystrocera festiva at two locations in south Sumatra, Indonesia (Suharti et al., 1994).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page In Florida, USA, the seed of A. auriculiformis is dispersed by birds including the introduced European starling (Langeland and Burks, 1998). Reports of this species becoming invasive relate to locations where A. auriculiformis was first introduced deliberately, after which the tree escaped cultivation.

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Crop production None
Environment (generally) None
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health None
Livestock production None
Native fauna None
Native flora Negative
Rare/protected species Negative
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Impact

Top of page

The economic impact of A. auriculiformis is predominantly positive, as a valuable fast-growing plantation tree species for fuel, timber and agrorestry benefits. It is only recently, however, that its invasive potential has been noted, mainly in Florida, USA.

Environmental Impact

Top of page

Invasion of A. auriculiformis is associated with changes in biodiversity (see Impact on biodiversity), and has invaded disturbed areas, pinelands, scrub and hammocks in south Florida, USA and altered plant communities by displacing native plants.

Impact: Biodiversity

Top of page

A. auriculiformis shades out native plants and is noted as a particular threat to certain rare species and habitats in Florida, USA, and is posing a threat to plants such as scrub pinweed Lechea cernua (Langeland and Burks, 1998).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page

Impact outcomes

  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Reduced native biodiversity

Invasiveness

  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc

Likelihood of entry/control

  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

Top of page

Though not widely used in agroforestry systems because of its spreading and competitive surface rooting habit, intercropping A. auriculiformis with peanut, rice, mung beans and kenaf has proved to be successful (Turnbull and Awang, 1997). Pruning of A. auriculiformis is recommended to improve light availability to crop plants (Miah et al., 1995). It has been used satisfactorily as a nurse tree in tea plantations. A. auriculiformis is sometimes planted in mixture with eucalypts and other trees which do not fix nitrogen to maintain or improve soil fertility. Its leaves (phyllodes) are good for soil mulching. This species is planted to provide shelter along shorelines and for revegetating mining spoil heaps. The spreading, densely-matted root system can stabilize eroding land. It has been used widely in revegetating degraded land and rehabilitating grasslands in India, Indonesia and Vietnam. A. auriculiformis is used for shade and ornamental purposes in cities where its hardiness, dense foliage and bright-yellow flowers are desirable attributes. A. auriculiformis can be used as a host tree in the nursery propagation of sandalwood (Santalum album) (Nasi and Ehrhart, 1996) and is also used as a secondary or tertiary host when sandalwood is established in the field (Fox and Barrett, 1995).

A. auriculiformis wood has a high basic density and a calorific value of 4700-4900 kcal/kg, which make it ideal for firewood and charcoal. The charcoal is not very heavy, burns well and does not smoke or spark (Wiersum and Ramlan, 1982) with physical properties, calorific value and burning properties described by Yantasath et al. (1993). In Asia and Africa it is planted for fuelwood, and is an outstanding fuelwood species for acid soils (Ryan et al., 1994). The annual fall of leaves, twigs, and branches can amount to 4-6 t/ha which is useful as household fuel (NAS, 1983). The sapwood is yellow and the heartwood light brown to dark red; the timber is fine-grained, often attractively figured and finishes well (Keating and Bolza, 1982). The wood of A. auriculiformis makes attractive furniture. It is also suitable for construction work (e.g. framing, flooring), wood turning and carving. Boards may sometimes split when sawn. The crooked and multiple stems which are a common feature of the species largely restrict its use as poles or other forms of timber that require reasonable length. The heartwood is typically hard and durable, but the sapwood is highly susceptible to termite and borer attack and requires preservative treatment when in contact with the soil.

Plantation-grown trees are very promising for the production of unbleached kraft pulp (for bags, wrapping paper, linerboard) and high quality neutral sulphite semichemical pulp (for corrugating, medium and higher-grade packaging-type products) (Logan, 1987). It is less suitable for high-yield mechanical type pulps (Phillips et al., 1979) although there is significant variation in pulp-making properties between provenances (Logan, 1987). Large-scale plantations have already been established in Karnataka, India for the production of paper pulp.

Although A. auriculiformis is not recognized as a fodder species, trees may be browsed by cattle in India and Fiji (Banerjee, 1973; L Thomson, CSIRO, Canberra, Australia, personal communication, 1997). A preliminary study of fodder values has shown that A. auriculiformis meets the minimum requirements for certain nutrients and warrants further investigation (Vercoe, 1989). The bark has sufficient tannins (about 13%) for possible commercial exploitation (Abdul Razak et al., 1981). A natural dye, used in the batik textile industry in Indonesia is also extracted from the bark. Lac insect culture using the species as a host plant is possible. Edible mushrooms occur in plantations in Thailand and Vietnam. A. auriculiformis flowers are a source of bee forage and contribute to honey production (Moncur et al., 1991).

Uses List

Top of page

Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Invertebrate food for lac/wax insects

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Revegetation
  • Shade and shelter
  • Soil improvement

Fuels

  • Charcoal
  • Fuelwood

General

  • Ornamental

Human food and beverage

  • Honey/honey flora

Materials

  • Carved material
  • Dye/tanning
  • Fibre
  • Miscellaneous materials
  • Wood/timber

Wood Products

Top of page

Charcoal

Furniture

Roundwood

  • Building poles
  • Posts
  • Roundwood structures
  • Stakes

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Flooring
  • For light construction

Wood-based materials

  • Composite boards
  • Wood cement

Woodware

  • Industrial and domestic woodware
  • Turnery
  • Wood carvings

Prevention and Control

Top of page Starr et al. (2003) advised that plantings should be discontinued in Hawaii, USA due to its invasive characteristics. The Institute of PIER (2001) state that control of seedlings is possible manually by hand pulling and girdling may also be used to kill trees, also citing publications detailing the use of triclopyr herbicide mixed with oil. No known biological control has been attempted.

References

Top of page

Abdul Razak MA; Low CK; Abu Said A, 1981. Determination of relative tannin contents of the barks of some Malaysian plants. Malaysian Forester, 44(1):87-92; 10 ref.

Arisman H; Havmoller P, 1994. Seed supply strategy for a pulpwood plantation project in southern Sumatra. In: Drysdale RM, John SET, Yapa AC, eds. Proceedings: International Symposium on Genetic Conservation and Production of Tropical Forest Tree Seed, 14-16 June 1993, Chiang Mai, Thailand, pp 225-228.

Awang K; Venkateswarlu P; Nor Aini AS; Adjers G; Bhumibhamon S; Kietvuttinon B; Pan FJ; Pitpreecha K; Simsiri A; Awang K, 1994. Three year performance of international provenance trials of Acacia auriculiformis. Forest Ecology and Management, 70(1-3):147-158; 31 ref.

Banerjee AK, 1973. Plantations of Acacia auriculaeformis (Benth.) A. Cunn. in West Bengal. Indian Forester, 99(9):533-540 + 1 pl.

Banerjee K; Khatua DC; Mukherjee N, 1993. Some new hosts of Cuscuta sp. Indian Forester, 119(9):760-761

Barari S, 1993. Attack of Ganoderma on Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia mangium. Indian Forester, 119(9):765

BEST Commission, 2003. Invasive plant species. Bahamas Environment, Science and Technology (BEST) Commission. http://www.best.bs/Invasive_plant_species.htm.

Binggeli P, 1999. Invasive woody plants. http://members.lycos.co.uk/WoodyPlantEcology/invasive/index.html.

Bleeker P, 1983. Soils of Papua New Guinea. Canberra, Australia: CSIRO and Australian National University Press.

Boland DJ, 1989. Trees for the tropics. Growing Australian multipurpose trees and shrubs in Developing Countries. ACIAR Monograph, No. 10, ii + 247 pp.; 11 pp. of ref.

Boland DJ; Pinyopusarerk K; McDonald MW; Jovanovic T; Booth TH, 1990. The habitat of Acacia auriculiformis and probable factors associated with its distribution. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 3(2):159-180; 32 ref.

Booth TH; Turnbull JW, 1994. Domestication of lesser-known tropical tree species: The Australian experience. In: Leakey RRB, Newton AC, eds. Tropical trees: The Potential for Domestication and Rebuilding of Forest Resources. ITE Symposium No. 29, ECTF Symposium No. 1. London, UK: HMSO, 189-194.

Brock J, 1988. Top end native plants. Winnellie, Darwin: John Brock.

Carron LT; Aken KM eds, 1992. Breeding technologies for tropical acacias. Proceedings of an International Workshop held in Tawau, Sabah, Malaysia, 1-4 July 1991. ACIAR Proceedings Series, No. 37

Chappill JA; Maslin BR, 1995. A phylogenetic assessment of Tribe Acacieae. In: Crisp M, Doyle JJ, eds, Advances in Legume Systematics 7: Phylogeny. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, 77-99.

Dart P; Umali-Garcia M; Almendras A, 1991. Role of symbiotic associations in nutrition of tropical acacias. ACIAR Proceedings Series Canberra, Australia; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, No. 35:13-19

Day RK; Rudgard SA; Nair KSS, 1994. Asian tree pests: An overview. FORSPA Publication 12. Bangkok, Thailand: FAO.

dela Cruz RE; Umali-Garcia M, 1992. Nitrogen fixation and mycorrhizae in acacias on degraded grasslands. In: Awang K, Taylor DA, eds. Tropical Acacias in East Asia and the Pacific. Proceedings of a First meeting of COGREDA held in Phuket, Thailand. Bangkok, Thailand: Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Research, 59-71.

Doran JC; Gunn BV, 1987. Treatments to promote seed germination in Australian acacias. In: Turnbull JW, ed. Australian Acacias in Developing Countries. Proceedings of an International Workshop, Gympie, Qld., Australia, 4-7 August 1986. ACIAR Proceedings No 16:57-63

Doran JC; Turnbull JW, 1997. Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics. Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics., viii + 384 pp.; [refs].

Faridah Hanum I; Maesen LJG van der, eds. , 1997. Plant resources of southeast Asia. No. 11. Auxillary plants. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys.

Fox JED; Barrett DR, 1995. Silvicultural characteristics associated with the ecology and parasitic habit of sandalwood. In: Gjerum L, Fox JED, Erhardt Y, eds. Sandal Wood Seed, Nursery and Plantation Technology. Proceedings of a regional workshop for Pacific Island countries, 1-11 August 1994, Noumea, New Caledonia. RAS/92/361 Field Document No. 8, 119-140.

Gupta RK, 1993. Multipurpose trees for agroforestry and wasteland utilisation. Multipurpose trees for agroforestry and wasteland utilisation., xv + 562 pp.; [18 pp. of ref + refs in text].

Haines MW; McKinnell FH; Marcar NE; Turnbull JW, 1991. Advances in tropical acacia research. Proceedings of an international workshop held in Bangkok, Thailand, 11-15 February 1991. ACIAR Proceedings Series, No. 35, 234 pp.; refs at ends of papers.

Harbard J; Sedgley M, 1994. Storage of Acacia mangium and A. auriculiformis pollen. In Drysdale RM, John SET, Yapa AC, eds. Proceedings: International Symposium on Genetic Conservation and Production of Tropical Forest Tree Seed, 14-16 June 1993, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 199-204; 10 ref.

Harsh NSK; Tiwari CK; Nath V, 1992. Some powdery mildews from Madhya Pradesh. Journal of Tropical Forestry, 8(2):173-178

Harwood CE, 1996. Recent developments in improvement strategy for tropical tree species. In: Rimbawanto A, Widyatmoko AYPBC, Suhaendi H, Furukoshi T, eds Tropical Plantation Establishment: Improving Productivity Through Genetic Practices. Proceedings international seminar, 19-21 December 1996, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Yogyakarta: Forest Tree Improvement Research and Development Institute, II 1-21.

Harwood CE; Applegate GB; Robson KJ; Haines MW, 1994. Establishment and management of seed production areas of tropical tree species in northern Australia. In: Drysdale RM, John SET, Yapa AC, eds. Proceedings: International symposium on genetic conservation and production of tropical forest tree seed, 14 16 June 1993, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 233-239; 22 ref.

Hearne DA, 1975. Trees for Darwin and northern Australia. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Huang S; Zheng H, 1993. Coppicing of Acacia auriculiformis. ACIAR Forestry Newsletter No. 16, 3.

Ibrahim Z, 1991. Reproductive biology of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis. PhD Thesis, Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia.

Islam M, 2002. Prevention and management of invasive alien species: forging cooperation throughout south and southeast Asia. In: The Prevention and Management of Invasive Alien Species: Forging Cooperation throughout South and Southeast Asia Proceedings of a conference held in Bangkok, Thailand 14-16 August, 2002. GISP Global Invasive Species Programme, OEPP Ministry of Science Technology and Environment, Thailand Biodiversity Center, United States Government.

Ito S; Nanis LH, 1997. Survey of heart on Acacia mangium in Sabah, Malaysia. Japanese Agricultural Research Quarterly, 31:65-71.

Keating WG; Bolza E, 1982. Characteristics, properties and uses of timbers. Volume 1. South-east Asia, Northern Australia and the Pacific. xxi + 362 pp.; 24 pl. (col.); 146 ref. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press.

Keenan R; Lamb D; Sexton G, 1995. Experience with mixed species rainforest plantations in North Queensland. Papers from the IUFRO Tropical Silviculture Subject Group, S1 07 00, IUFRO 20th World Congress, Tampere, Finland, August 1995. Commonwealth-Forestry-Review, 74(4):315-321, 386, 388; 27 ref.

Khasa PD, 1993. Acid scarification and hot water soaking of Racosperma auriculiforme seeds. Forestry Chronicle, 69(3):331-334; 18 ref.

Khasa PD; Cheliak WM; Bousquet J, 1993. Mating system of Racosperma auriculiforme in a seed production area in Zaire. Canadian Journal of Botany, 71(6):779-785; 42 ref.

Khasa PD; Li P; Vallée G; Magnussen S; Bousquet J, 1995. Early evaluation of Racosperma auriculiforme and R. mangium provenance trials on four sites in Zaire. Forest Ecology and Management, 78(1-3):99-113; 37 ref.

Langeland KA; Burks KC, 1998. Identification and Biology of Non-native Plants in Florida’s Natural Areas. Gainesville, Florida, USA: University of Florida, 165 pp.

Le Dinh Kha, 1996. Studies on natural hybrids of Acacia mangium and A. auriculiformis in Vietnam. In: Dieters MJ, Matheson AC, Nikles DG, Harwood CE, Walker SM, eds. Tree Improvement for Sustainable Tropical Forestry. Proceedings QFRI-IUFRO conference, Caloundra, Queensland, Australia, 27 October-1 November 1996. Gympie, Australia: Queensland Forestry Research Institute, 328-332.

Lemmens RHMJ; Soerianegara I; Wong WC, eds. 1995. Plant resources of South-East Asia No. 5 (2). Timber trees: minor commercial timbers. 655 pp.; Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers.

Logan AF, 1987. Australian acacias for pulpwood. In: Turnbull JW, ed. Australian Acacias in Developing Countries. Proceedings of an International Workshop, Gympie, Qld., Australia, 4-7 August 1986. ACIAR Proceedings No. 16:89-94

Luna RK, 1996. Plantation trees. Delhi, India: International Book Distributors.

Mabberley DJ, 1997. The plant-book: a portable dictionary of the vascular plants. Ed. 2: xvi + 858 pp. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press

Marcar NE; Ganesan SK; Field J; Turnbull JW, 1991. Genetic variation for salt and waterlogging tolerance of Acacia auriculiformis. Advances in tropical acacia research. Proceedings of an international workshop held in Bangkok, Thailand, 11-15 February 1991. ACIAR-Proceedings-Series, No. 35, 82-86; 6 ref.

Marcar NE; Hussain RW; Arunin S; Beetson T, 1991. Trials with Australian and other Acacia species on salt-affected land in Pakistan, Thailand and Australia. In: Turnbull JW, ed. Advances in tropical acacia research. Proceedings of an international workshop held in Bangkok, Thailand, 11-15 February 1991. ACIAR-Proceedings-Series, No. 35:229-232; 3 ref.

Maslin BR, 1995. Systematics and phytogeography of Australian species of Acacia: an overview. IFA Newsletter, 36(2):2-5.

Maslin BR; McDonald MW, 1996. A key to useful Australian acacias for the seasonally dry tropics. 80 pp. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO Publishing.

McKinnell FH; Harisetijono, 1991. Testing Acacia species on alkaline soils in West Timor. Advances in tropical acacia research. Proceedings of an international workshop held in Bangkok, Thailand, 11-15 February 1991 [edited by Turnbull JW]. ACIAR-Proceedings-Series, No. 35, 183-188; 7 ref.

Miah MG; Garrity DP; Aragon ML, Sinoquet H (ed. ), Cruz P, 1995. Light availability to the understorey annual crops in an agroforestry system. Ecophysiology of tropical intercropping. Proceedings of an international meeting held in Guadeloupe on 6-10 Dec. 1994, 99-107; 12 ref.

Mitchell MR; Gwaze DP; Stewart HTL, 1987. Survival and early growth of Australian tree species planted at a termite-infested site in Zimbabwe. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal, 52(4):251-259; 8 ref.

Moncur MW; Kleinschmidt G; Somerville D, 1991. The role of acacia and eucalypt plantations for honey production. ACIAR Proceedings Series, No. 35:123-127; 18 ref.

Moran GF; Muona O; Bell JC, 1989. Breeding systems and genetic diversity in Acacia auriculiformis and A. crassicarpa. Biotropica, 21(3):250-256; 41 ref.

Nasi R; Ehrhart Y, 1996. Sandalwood, a perfume of prosperity. Part 2 - plantations. [Le santal, un parfum de prosperite. 2e partie - les plantations.] Bois et Forets des Tropiques, No. 248, 5-16; With extended English summary; 39 ref.

National Academy of Sciences, 1983. Mangium and other acacias of the humid tropics. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences.

NFTA, 1996. Acacia auriculiformis - a multipurpose tropical wattle. Waimanalo, Hawaii, USA: Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association. [NFTA 96-05.]

Nguyen Hoang Nghia, 1996. Climatic requirements of some main plantation tree species in Vietnam. In: Booth TH, ed, Matching Trees and Sites. ACIAR Proceedings No. 63, 43-49.

Nguyen Hoang Nghia; Le Dinh Kha, 1996. Acacia species and provenance selection for large-scale planting in Vietnam. In: Dieters MJ, Matheson AC, Nikles DG, Harwood CE, Walker SM, eds. Tree Improvement for Sustainable Tropical Forestry. Proceedings QFRI-IUFRO conference, Caloundra, Queensland, Australia, 27 October-1 November 1996. Gympie: Queensland Forestry Research Institute, 443-448.

Nor Aini AS, 1993. Recovery of Acacia auriculiformis from fire damage. Forest Ecology and Management, 62(1-4):99-105; 9 ref.

Nor Aini AS; Kamis Awang; Mansor Mohd Rashid; Abd Latib Senin; Awang K, 1994. Provenance trial of Acacia auriculiformis in Peninsular Malaysia: 12-month performance. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 6(3):249-256; 25 ref.

Nor Aini AS; Kamis Awang; Venkateswarlu P; Abd Latib Senin; Awang K, 1994. Three-year performance of Acacia auriculiformis provenances at Serdang, Malaysia. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science, 17(2):95-102; 27 ref.

Old KM; Lee SS; Sharma JK; eds, 1997. Diseases of tropical acacias. Proceedings of an International Workshop , Subanjeriji (South Sumatra), 28 April - 3 May 1996. Jakarta: Center for International Forestry Research.

Otsamo AO; Nikles DG; Vuokko RHO, 1996. Species and provenance variation of candidate acacias for afforestation of Imperata cylindrica grasslands in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. In: Dieters MJ, Matheson AC, Nikles DG, Harwood CE, Walker SM, eds. Tree Improvement for Sustainable Tropical Forestry. Proceedings QFRI-IUFRO conference, Caloundra, Queensland, Australia, 27 October-1 November 1996. Gympie, Australia: Queensland Forestry Research Institute, 46-50.

Padma V; Reddy BM; Satyanarayana G, 1993. Breaking dormancy in certain Acacia spp. by pre-sowing seed treatments. Seed Research, publ. 1995, 21(1):26-30; 4 ref.

Paijmans K; Blake DJ; Bleeker P; McAlpine JR, 1971. Land resources of the Morehead-Kiunga area, Territory of Papua and New Guinea. CSIRO Land Research Series No. 29, 19-45.

Pedley L, 1975. Revision of extra-Australian species of Acacia - subg. Heterophyllum. Contrib. Qd. Herb. No. 18:1-24.

Pedley L, 1978. A revision of Acacia Mill. in Queensland. Austrobaileya, 1(2):75-234.

Pedley L, 1986. Derivation and dispersal of Acacia (Leguminosae), with particular reference to Australia, and the recognition of Senegalia and Racosperma. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 92(3):219-254; 143 ref.

Phillips FH; Logan A; Balodis V, 1979. Suitability of tropical forests for pulpwood: mixed hardwoods, residues and reforestation species. Tappi, 62:77-81.

PIER, 2001. Report on invasive plant species in Tonga. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER). Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. http://www.hear.org/pier_v3.3/tongareport.htm.

PIER, 2003. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER). Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html.

Pinyopusarerk K, 1990. Acacia auriculiformis: an annotated bibliography. Winrock International and Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.

Pinyopusarerk K, 1993. Genetic resources of fifteen tropical acacias. In: Awang K, Taylor DA, eds. Acacias for rural, industrial and environmental development. Proceedings of the second meeting of consultative Group for Research and Development of Acacias (COGREDA). Udorn Thani, Thailand: Winrock International and FAO:94-112.

Pinyopusarerk K; Williams ER; Boland DJ; Turnbull JW, 1991. Variation in seedling morphology of Acacia auriculiformis. Advances in tropical acacia research. Proceedings of an international workshop held in Bangkok, Thailand, 11-15 February 1991. ACIAR-Proceedings-Series, No. 35, 67-72; 5 ref.

Puangchit L; Woo KC; Montagu K, 1996. Physiology of Acacia auriculiformis: Implications for genetic improvement. In: Dieters MJ, Matheson AC, Nikles DG, Harwood CE, Walker SM, eds. Tree Improvement for Sustainable Tropical Forestry. Proceedings QFRI-IUFRO conference, Caloundra, Queensland, Australia, 27 October-1 November 1996. Gympie: Queensland Forestry Research Institute, 384-385.

Pukittayacamee P; Saelim S; Bhodthipuks J, 1993. Seed collection period for selected tree species in Thailand. Leaflet. Muak-Lek: ASEAN-Canada Forest Tree Seed Centre Project, 2 pp.

Ryan PA, 1994. The use of tree legumes for fuelwood production. Forage tree legumes in tropical agriculture., 257-266; 28 ref.

Sedgley M; Harbard J; Smith RMM; Wickneswari R; Griffin AR, 1992. Reproductive biology and interspecific hybridisation of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Benth. (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae). Australian Journal of Botany, 40(1):37-48; 32 ref.

SE-EPPC, 2002. Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council, Nashville, USA. http://www.se-eppc.org/.

Skelton DJ, 1987. Distribution and ecology of Papua New Guinea acacias. In: Turnbull JW, ed. Australian Acacias in Developing Countries. Proceedings of an International Workshop, Gympie, Qld., Australia, 4-7 August 1986. ACIAR Proceedings No. 16: 38-44

Space JC; Flynn T, 2000. Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu, 51.

Space JC; Waterhouse B; Denslow JS; Nelson D; Mazawa TR, 2000. Invasive plant species in Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia. USDA Forest Service, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, Honolulu, Hawai'i, USA.

Starr F; Starr K; Loope L, 2003. Acacia auriculiformis. Plants of Hawaii Reports. http://www.hear.org/starr/hiplants/reports/html/acacia_auriculiformis.htm.

Suharti M; Irianto RSB; Santosa S, 1994. Behaviour of the stem borer Xystrocera festiva Pascoe on Paraserianthes falcataria and integrated control. Buletin Penelitian Hutan, No. 558:39-53; [With English tables and figures]; 5 ref.

Susanto M, 1996. Early evaluation of seedling seed orchard of Acacia auriculiformis at 8 months after planting at South Sumatra Province in Indonesia. In: Rimbawanto A, Widyatmoko AYPBC, Suhaendi H, Furukoshi T, eds Tropical Plantation Establishment: Improving Productivity Through Genetic Practices. Proceedings international seminar, 19-21 December 1996, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Yogyakarta: Forest Tree Improvement Research and Development Institute, 9-15.

Tan BC; Tan KS, 2002. Invasive alien species in Singapore: a review. In: The Prevention and Management of Invasive Alien Species: Forging Cooperation throughout South and Southeast Asia Proceedings of a conference held in Bangkok, Thailand 14-16 August, 2002. GISP Global Invasive Species Programme, OEPP Ministry of Science Technology and Environment, Thailand Biodiversity Center, United States Government.

Toda T; Tajima M; Brini PB, 1995. Tissue culture of Acacia mangium, Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia hybrid. Bulletin of the National Forest Tree Breeding Center, No. 13, 81-94; 10 ref.

Turnbull JW; Awang K, 1997. Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Benth. In: Faridah Hanum I, van der Maesen LJG, eds. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 11. Auxiliary plants. Leiden, the Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers, 52-56.

Vercoe TK, 1989. Fodder value of selected Australian tree and shrub species. ACIAR Monograph, No. 10:187-192; [refs. at end of book].

Wickneswari R; Norwati M, 1993. Genetic diversity of natural populations of Acacia auriculiformis. Australian Journal of Botany, 41(1):65-77; 53 ref.

Wickneswari R; Norwati M; Turnbull JW, 1991. Genetic structure of natural populations of Acacia auriculiformis in Australia and Papua New Guinea. Advances in tropical acacia research. Proceedings of an international workshop held in Bangkok, Thailand, 11-15 February 1991. ACIAR-Proceedings-Series, No. 35, 94-95; 1 ref.

Wiersum KF; Ramlan A, 1982. Cultivation of Acacia auriculiformis on Java, Indonesia. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 61(2):135-144; 36 ref.

World Agroforestry Centre, 2002. Agroforestree Database. Nairobi, Kenya: ICRAF. http://www.worldagroforestrycentre.org/Sites/TreeDBS/AFT/AFT.htm.

Yantasath K; Anusontpornperm S; Utistham T; Soontornrangson W; Watanatham S, 1993. Acacias for fuelwood and charcoal In: Awang K, Taylor DA, eds. Acacias for Rural, Industrial and Environmental Development. Proceedings of the Second meeting of Consultative Group for Research and Development of Acacias (COGREDA). Udorn Thani, Thailand: Winrock International and FAO, 144-152.

Yap SK, 1987. Introduction of Acacia species to Peninsular Malaysia. ACIAR Proceedings, Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, No. 16, 151-153; In Australian acacias in developing countries. Proceedings of an international workshop, Gympie, Qld., Australia, 4-7 August 1986 [edited by Turnbull, J.W.]; 8 ref.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map