Cookies on Invasive Species Compendium

Like most websites we use cookies. This is to ensure that we give you the best experience possible.

Continuing to use www.cabi.org/isc means you agree to our use of cookies. If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use.

Datasheet

Diodia teres

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 15 May 2008
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Diodia teres
  • Preferred Common Name
  • poorjoe
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
D. teres: plant in leaf and flower.
TitleFlowering plant
CaptionD. teres: plant in leaf and flower.
CopyrightKurt G. Kissmann
D. teres: plant in leaf and flower.
Flowering plantD. teres: plant in leaf and flower.Kurt G. Kissmann
Seedling of D. teres.
TitleSeedling
CaptionSeedling of D. teres.
CopyrightKurt G. Kissmann
Seedling of D. teres.
SeedlingSeedling of D. teres.Kurt G. Kissmann
D. teres: fruits and seed; Coccus (a & b) dorsal and ventral sides; Seed (c & d) dorsal and ventral sides.
TitleFruit and seed
CaptionD. teres: fruits and seed; Coccus (a & b) dorsal and ventral sides; Seed (c & d) dorsal and ventral sides.
CopyrightKurt G. Kissmann
D. teres: fruits and seed; Coccus (a & b) dorsal and ventral sides; Seed (c & d) dorsal and ventral sides.
Fruit and seedD. teres: fruits and seed; Coccus (a & b) dorsal and ventral sides; Seed (c & d) dorsal and ventral sides.Kurt G. Kissmann

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Diodia teres Walt. (1788)

Preferred Common Name

  • poorjoe

Other Scientific Names

  • Diodia prostrata Sw.

International Common Names

  • English: rough buttonweed
  • Portuguese: mata-pasto

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: mata pasto; quebra tijela de folha estreita

EPPO code

  • DIQTE (Diodia teres)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of pageD. teres is an annual plant with high reproductive potential. It is reported to be an invasive species in some US states and in Brazil. It is most conspicuous in natural pastures, however its impact is generally low compared with other weedy species.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Gentianales
  •                         Family: Rubiaceae
  •                             Genus: Diodia
  •                                 Species: Diodia teres

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of pageMaguire et al. (1972) concluded that D. prostrata Sw. and D. teres Walt. should not be treated as separate species but as interrelated subspecies. They identified the following subspecies, varieties and forms of D. teres: D. teres subsp. teres (and varieties), D. teres subsp. angustata var. angustata f. angustata, D. teres subsp. angustata var. angustata f. latior, D. teres subsp. prostrata var. prostrata f. leiocarpa, D. teres subsp. prostrata var. prostrata f. prostrata and D. teres subsp. prostrata var. prostrata f. latifolia. The differences between subspecies teres, angustata and prostrata are based on floral characters and stem hairs. Five varieties are listed by USDA-NRCS (2003): vars teres, angustata, hirsutior, hystricina and oblongifolia. For the purpose of this data sheet, no distinctions are drawn between subspecies and varieties.

Description

Top of pageD. teres is an annual, herbaceous forb, presenting variable morphological characteristics. It can be prostrate or erect, 10-40 (-80) cm high. Taproot slender and branching, secondary roots shallow. Stem generally branched with nearly circular spread; circular or slightly angular in cross section, densely hairy, reddish brown. Leaves in pairs, opposite, their bases clasping the stem at its joints, appendage of fused stipules, presenting long bristles. Blades green, linear to narrowly elliptic, tapering to a long point, smooth margins, surfaces roughened by stiff hairs. Flowers in groups of two or three (-six), located at the base of leaves or leaf axils, calyx with four lanceolate sepals 1 mm long, corolla of fused petals forming a tube 4-5 mm long, with four equal lobes, whitish-pink to lavender. Fruits are ovoid schizocarps with two persistent sepals at the apex, at maturity splitting from the apex in two cocci, every coccus with one seed, seeds oboval in outline 2.5-4 mm long, light brown.

Seedling with light-green hypocotyl. Cotyledon blades with short petiole, slightly thickened. Leaves opposite, with short petiole, not much different from the blade. Basal appendage of bristly branched stipule, developing earlier than the juvenile leaf blades. Hypocotyl, epicotyl and stem bearing short stiff and some longer downwardly directed hairs.

Plant Type

Top of pageAnnual
Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

Top of pageD. teres is native to the Americas and is present in parts of the USA, Mexico, Central America, Caribbean and South America.

Distribution Table

Top of page
CountryDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferencesNotes

ASIA

India
-Indian PunjabPresentMehra et al., 1987

AFRICA

MadagascarPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2003

NORTH AMERICA

MexicoPresentNativeNYBG, 2004
USA
-AlabamaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-ArizonaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-ArkansasPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-CaliforniaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-ConnecticutPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-DelawarePresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-FloridaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-GeorgiaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-IllinoisPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-IndianaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-IowaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-KansasPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-KentuckyPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-LouisianaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-MarylandPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-MassachusettsPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-MichiganPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-MississippiPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-MissouriPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-New JerseyPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-New MexicoPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-New YorkPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-North CarolinaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-OhioPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-OklahomaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-PennsylvaniaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-Rhode IslandPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-South CarolinaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-TennesseePresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-TexasPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-VirginiaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-West VirginiaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-WisconsinPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2003

CENTRAL AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

BelizePresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2003
Costa RicaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2003
CubaPresentNativeNYBG, 2004
Dominican RepublicPresentNativeNYBG, 2004
HondurasPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2003
JamaicaPresentNativeWunderlin & Hansen, 2003
Netherlands AntillesPresentMaguire et al., 1972
NicaraguaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2003
PanamaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2003

SOUTH AMERICA

BoliviaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2003
Brazil
-GoiasWidespreadNativeInvasiveLorenzi, 1982
-Mato Grosso do SulWidespreadNativeInvasiveLorenzi, 1982
-Minas GeraisWidespreadNativeInvasiveLorenzi, 1982
-ParanaWidespreadNativeInvasiveLorenzi, 1982
-PernambucoRestricted distributionIntroducedInvasiveKissmann & Groth, 2000
-Sao PauloWidespreadNativeInvasiveLorenzi, 1982
ColombiaPresentNativeWunderlin & Hansen, 2003
EcuadorPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2003
GuyanaPresentNativeNYBG, 2004
PeruPresentNativeNYBG, 2004
VenezuelaPresentNativeWunderlin & Hansen, 2003

Habitat

Top of pageD. teres tolerates poor, sandy and shallow soils, under which conditions it can outcompete other vegetation. In native pastures, cattle do not favour this plant for grazing which allows it to spread. When fertilizer is applied, however, grasses are benefited more than D. teres.

Habitat List

Top of page
CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural landPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areasPresent, no further details
Managed forests, plantations and orchardsPresent, no further details
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural grasslandsPresent, no further details

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of pageD. teres is an agricultural weed contributing to weed problems in a number of crops and also pastures.

Growth Stages

Top of pageFlowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

Top of pagePhysiology and Phenology

Growth analyses have shown that genetic changes in an agricultural weed population of D. teres resulted in earlier establishment and faster early growth compared with a coastal non-weed population in North Carolina, USA (Jordan, 1989a, b).

Reproductive Biology

Plants reproduce by seeds that are dispersed within cocci. Seeds germinate in the spring or summer. The life cycle lasts 90-110 days.

Environmental Requirements

D. teres is not frost tolerant. Best conditions for growth are during the hot months of the year, provided there is sufficient soil moisture.

Air Temperature

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC)00
Mean annual temperature (ºC)00
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC)00
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC)00

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration00number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall00mm; lower/upper limits

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • shallow

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of pageNatural Dispersal (non-biotic)

Seeds drop to the ground close to or beneath the parent plant.

Vector Transmission (biotic)

Seed dispersal is not assisted by vectors.

Accidental Introduction

Seeds may be introduced as contaminants of crops with small seeds or spread by farm vehicles and machinery.

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
True seeds (inc. grain)seedsNoYesPest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs, Tubers, Corms, Rhizomes
Flowers, Inflorescences, Cones, Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings, Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground), Shoots, Trunks, Branches
Wood

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collectionsNone
Animal/plant productsNone
Biodiversity (generally)None
Crop productionNegative
Environment (generally)None
Fisheries / aquacultureNone
Forestry productionNone
Human healthNone
Livestock productionNegative
Native faunaNone
Native floraNegative
Rare/protected speciesNone
TourismNone
Trade/international relationsNone
Transport/travelNone

Impact

Top of pageD. teres may contribute towards economic losses due to weeds in agricultural crops.

Environmental Impact

Top of pageIf unchecked, D. teres can form dense infestations. However, because this is an annual plant, these are only present for limited periods.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page

Impact mechanisms

  • Competition - monopolizing resources

Impact outcomes

  • Negatively impacts agriculture

Invasiveness

  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range

Likelihood of entry/control

  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of pageSeveral species in the Rubiaceae family resemble D. teres. The genus Diodia is characterized by having bilocular ovaries, fruits being schizocarps splitting from the apex in two indehiscent cocci. D. teres is an annual plant and is distinguished by the following: ventral side of mature cocci with two excavated areas; dorsal side with one main median obtusely angled ridge; calyx lobes nearly equal; corolla 4-5 mm long, opening in four lobes, colour whitish-pink to lavender.

Prevention and Control

Top of pageCultural Control

Good crop management reduces D. teres and other weed problems.

Mechanical Control

Tillage of the soil helps to control D. teres.

Chemical Control

Sulfometuron (Miller, 1990) and napropamide + netribuzin (Reynolds and Crowley, 1981) have been reported to be effective against D. teres in the USA. However, it is more usual that herbicides are selected for the control of more important weeds that are also present with D. teres.

References

Top of page

Jordan N, 1989. Path analysis of growth differences between weed and nonweed populations of poorjoe (Diodia teres) in competition with soybean (Glycine max). Weed Science, 37(1):129-136

Jordan N, 1989. Predicted evolutionary response to selection for tolerance of soybean (Glycine max) and intraspecific competition on nonweed population of poorjoe (Diodia teres). Weed Science, 37(3):451-457

Kissmann KG, Groth D, 2000. Plantas Infestantes e Nocivas, Tomo III, edition 2. Brazil: BASF, 400-403.

Lorenzi H, 1982. Plantas Daninhas do Brasil. Author's edition. Nova Odessa, San Paulo, Brazil: H. Lorenzi, 400 pp.

Maguire B, et al., 1972. The botany of the Guayana Highland - part IX. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 23: 798-801.

Mehra SP, Sidhu PS, Gill HS, 1987. Studies on weed control in irrigated groundnut. Journal of Research, Punjab Agricultural University, 24(1):8-14

Miller JH, 1990. Herbaceous weed control trials with a planting machine and a crawler-tractor sprayer - fourth year pine response. Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Southern Weed Science Society, 233-244

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003. VAScular Tropicos database. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html.

NYBG, 2004. The Virtual Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden, USA. http://scisun.nybg.org:8890/searchdb/owa/wwwspecimen.searchform.

Reynolds DB, Crowley RH, 1981. Crabgrass and poorjoe control in commercial tomato production. Proceedings 34th Annual Meeting Southern Weed Science Society., 122

USDA-NRCS, 2003. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, USA. http://plants.usda.gov.

Wunderlin RP, Hansen BF, 2003. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. Institute for Systematic Biology, University of South Florida, Tampa, USA. http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
Distribution map Netherlands Antilles: Present
Maguire et al., 1972Bolivia: Present, native
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Brazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBelize: Present, native
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Belize: Present, native
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Colombia: Present, native
Wunderlin & Hansen, 2003Colombia: Present, native
Wunderlin & Hansen, 2003Costa Rica: Present, native
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Costa Rica: Present, native
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Cuba: Present, native
NYBG, 2004Cuba: Present, native
NYBG, 2004Dominican Republic: Present, native
NYBG, 2004Dominican Republic: Present, native
NYBG, 2004Ecuador: Present, native
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Guyana: Present, native
NYBG, 2004Guyana: Present, native
NYBG, 2004Honduras: Present, native
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Honduras: Present, native
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003India
See regional map for distribution within the countryJamaica: Present, native
Wunderlin & Hansen, 2003Jamaica: Present, native
Wunderlin & Hansen, 2003Madagascar: Present
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Mexico: Present, native
NYBG, 2004Mexico: Present, native
NYBG, 2004Nicaragua: Present, native
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Nicaragua: Present, native
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Nicaragua: Present, native
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Panama: Present, native
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Panama: Present, native
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Peru: Present, native
NYBG, 2004USA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryVenezuela: Present, native
Wunderlin & Hansen, 2003Venezuela: Present, native
Wunderlin & Hansen, 2003
  • = Present, no further details
  • = Evidence of pathogen
  • = Widespread
  • = Last reported
  • = Localised
  • = Presence unconfirmed
  • = Confined and subject to quarantine
  • = See regional map for distribution within the country
  • = Occasional or few reports
Download KML file Download CSV file
Creative Commons Licence
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Please click OK to ACCEPT or Cancel to REJECT

Creative Commons Licence
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Please click OK to ACCEPT or Cancel to REJECT

Distribution map (asia) Indian Punjab: Present
Mehra et al., 1987
Distribution map (europe)
Distribution map (africa) Madagascar: Present
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003
Distribution map (north america) Belize: Present, native
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Cuba: Present, native
NYBG, 2004Dominican Republic: Present, native
NYBG, 2004Honduras: Present, native
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Jamaica: Present, native
Wunderlin & Hansen, 2003Mexico: Present, native
NYBG, 2004Nicaragua: Present, native
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Alabama: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2003Arkansas: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2003Arizona: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2003California: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2003Connecticut: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2003Delaware: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2003Florida: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2003Georgia: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2003Iowa: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2003Illinois: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2003Indiana: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2003Kansas: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2003Kentucky: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2003Louisiana: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2003Massachusetts: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2003Maryland: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2003Michigan: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2003Missouri: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2003Mississippi: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2003North Carolina: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2003New Jersey: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2003New Mexico: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2003New York: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2003Ohio: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2003Oklahoma: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2003Pennsylvania: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2003Rhode Island: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2003South Carolina: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2003Tennessee: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2003Texas: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2003Virginia: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2003Wisconsin: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2003West Virginia: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2003
Distribution map (central america) Netherlands Antilles: Present
Maguire et al., 1972Belize: Present, native
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Colombia: Present, native
Wunderlin & Hansen, 2003Costa Rica: Present, native
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Cuba: Present, native
NYBG, 2004Dominican Republic: Present, native
NYBG, 2004Guyana: Present, native
NYBG, 2004Honduras: Present, native
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Jamaica: Present, native
Wunderlin & Hansen, 2003Mexico: Present, native
NYBG, 2004Nicaragua: Present, native
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Panama: Present, native
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Florida: Present, native
USDA-NRCS, 2003Venezuela: Present, native
Wunderlin & Hansen, 2003
Distribution map (south america) Bolivia: Present, native
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Goias: Widespread, native, invasive
Lorenzi, 1982Minas Gerais: Widespread, native, invasive
Lorenzi, 1982Mato Grosso do Sul: Widespread, native, invasive
Lorenzi, 1982Pernambuco: Restricted distribution, introduced, invasive
Kissmann & Groth, 2000Parana: Widespread, native, invasive
Lorenzi, 1982Sao Paulo: Widespread, native, invasive
Lorenzi, 1982Colombia: Present, native
Wunderlin & Hansen, 2003Costa Rica: Present, native
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Ecuador: Present, native
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Guyana: Present, native
NYBG, 2004Nicaragua: Present, native
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Panama: Present, native
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003Peru: Present, native
NYBG, 2004Venezuela: Present, native
Wunderlin & Hansen, 2003
Distribution map (pacific)