Cookies on Invasive Species Compendium

Like most websites we use cookies. This is to ensure that we give you the best experience possible.

Continuing to use www.cabi.org means you agree to our use of cookies. If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use.

Datasheet

Ctenarytaina eucalypti

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Adults of the blue gum psyllid, C. eucalypti.
TitleAdults
CaptionAdults of the blue gum psyllid, C. eucalypti.
CopyrightRaymond J. Gill
Adults of the blue gum psyllid, C. eucalypti.
AdultsAdults of the blue gum psyllid, C. eucalypti.Raymond J. Gill
Close-up of the adult blue gum psyllid, C. eucalypti.
TitleAdult
CaptionClose-up of the adult blue gum psyllid, C. eucalypti.
CopyrightRaymond J. Gill
Close-up of the adult blue gum psyllid, C. eucalypti.
AdultClose-up of the adult blue gum psyllid, C. eucalypti.Raymond J. Gill
Eggs and early instar nymphs of the blue gum psyllid, C. eucalypti on Eucalyptus globulus.
TitleEggs and early instar nymphs
CaptionEggs and early instar nymphs of the blue gum psyllid, C. eucalypti on Eucalyptus globulus.
CopyrightRaymond J. Gill
Eggs and early instar nymphs of the blue gum psyllid, C. eucalypti on Eucalyptus globulus.
Eggs and early instar nymphsEggs and early instar nymphs of the blue gum psyllid, C. eucalypti on Eucalyptus globulus.Raymond J. Gill
Close-up of eggs and early instar nymphs of the blue gum psyllid, C. eucalypti on Eucalyptus globulus.
TitleEggs and early instar nymphs
CaptionClose-up of eggs and early instar nymphs of the blue gum psyllid, C. eucalypti on Eucalyptus globulus.
CopyrightRaymond J. Gill
Close-up of eggs and early instar nymphs of the blue gum psyllid, C. eucalypti on Eucalyptus globulus.
Eggs and early instar nymphsClose-up of eggs and early instar nymphs of the blue gum psyllid, C. eucalypti on Eucalyptus globulus. Raymond J. Gill

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Psylloidea
  •                                 Genus: Ctenarytaina
  •                                     Species: Ctenarytaina eucalypti

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page The Psylloidea, commonly called psyllids or jumping plant lice, are a superfamily in the suborder Sternorrhyncha Hemiptera, which was formerly included in the now invalid order Homoptera (Sorensen et al., 1995). The psyllids encompass approximately 2500 species worldwide. C. eucalypti, commonly called the blue gum psyllid, was described by Maskell (1890) as Rhinocola eucalypti. The species was described from specimens collected from Eucalyptus globulus in New Zealand. As E. globulus is not native to New Zealand, it is assumed that the psyllid is actually native to Australia or Tasmania, where E. globulus occurs naturally (Tuthill and Taylor, 1955; Morgan, 1984; Hodkinson, 1999). The blue gum psyllid belongs to the family Spondyliaspidae, one of approximately seven families within the Psylloidea.

Description

Top of page Eggs

These are laid singly and randomly in crevices along the leaf petioles, usually perpendicular to the plant surface. They are spindle-shaped, yellow or cream, and are slightly less than 1 mm long.

Nymphs

There are four nymphal stages or instars. Size varies up to the end of the final-instar, which is approximately 1.5 mm long. The body is yellowish, but the dorsal derm consists of blue-black sclerites over most of the body. This tends to take on a greyish cast because the white flocculent wax secretions are produced over the body by glands on the dorsal and lateral surfaces of the abdomen.

Adults

These are approximately 2 mm long from the head to the wing tips. The adult is green to tan, but with dark-brown to black head and thorax dorsums. Some of the morphological characteristics that separate the genus Ctenarytaina from other psyllid genera include: metacoxal meracanthi not elongated; mesotibial pectens (a comb-like arrangement of setae) occur at the distal ends of the mesotibiae; and the apical cell of the forewing (medial cell) is short, usually shorter than the cubital vein. Taylor (1997) and Burckhardt et al. (1999) illustrated genital differences, which separate the blue gum psyllid from the similar Ctenarytaina spatulata.

Distribution

Top of page The blue gum psyllid has been introduced into most of the eucalyptus-growing areas of the world. Hodkinson (1999) lists the following countries currently infested: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ireland, France, Germany, Italy, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Portugal including Madeira and Azores Islands, South Africa, Spain including the Canary Islands, Sri Lanka, Britain, and the USA (California). Later establishment records include Chile (Lanfranco and Dungey, 2001; Thomson et al., 2001) and Uruguay (Burckhardt et al., 1999).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

Sri LankaPresentIntroduced Invasive Azevedo and Figo, 1979

Africa

KenyaPresentEPPO, 2014
South AfricaPresentIntroduced1925 Invasive Petty, 1925; Hodkinson, 1999
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Hodkinson, 1999

North America

USAPresentEPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaWidespreadIntroduced1991 Invasive Gill, 1991; Dahlsten et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedFidalgo et al., 2005
BoliviaPresentIntroduced Invasive Hodkinson, 1999
BrazilPresentIntroduced1998 Invasive Burckhardt et al., 1999
ChilePresentIntroduced1999 Invasive Lanfranco and Dungey, 2001
ColombiaPresentIntroduced1994 Invasive Pinzón et al., 2002
UruguayPresentIntroduced1998 Invasive Burckhardt et al., 1999

Europe

FrancePresentIntroduced1925 Invasive Mercier and Poisson, 1926
GermanyPresentIntroduced1998 Invasive Burckhardt, 1998
HungaryPresentRipka and Csóka, 2016
IrelandPresentIntroduced Invasive Hodkinson and White, 1979
ItalyPresentIntroduced1982 Invasive Cavalcaselle, 1982; EPPO, 2014
PortugalPresentIntroduced1971 Invasive Azevedo and Figo, 1979; EPPO, 2014
-AzoresPresentIntroduced Invasive Hodkinson, 1999
-MadeiraPresentIntroduced1998 Invasive Burckhardt, 1998; EPPO, 2014
SpainPresentIntroduced1972 Invasive Cadahia, 1980
UKPresentIntroduced1922 Invasive Laing, 1922; Hodkinson, 1999

Oceania

AustraliaPresentNative Not invasive CSIRO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-South AustraliaPresentNative Not invasive CSIRO, 2004
-TasmaniaPresentNative Not invasive CSIRO, 2004
-VictoriaPresentNative Not invasive CSIRO, 2004
-Western AustraliaPresentNative Not invasive CSIRO, 2004
New ZealandPresentIntroduced Invasive Froggatt, 1903; Tuthill, 1952; EPPO, 2014

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page The blue gum psyllid was introduced into the British Isles as early as the 1920s (Laing, 1922) and then re-introduced there again later (Hodkinson, 1999). It was also introduced into France and South Africa about the same time (Hodkinson, 1999). The approximate dates of new collection records are as follows: Bogota, Colombia in 1994 (Pinzon et al., 2002); Ireland in the early 1990s (Purvis et al., 2002); Chile in 1999 (Lanfranco and Dungey, 2001); Brazil in 1998 (Burckhardt et al., 1999); Uruguay in 1998 (Burckhardt et al., 1999); Germany in 1998 (Burckhardt, 1998); Madeira (Portugal) in 1998 (Burckhardt, 1998); Monterey County, California, USA in 1991 (Gill, 1991); southern France in 1994 (Malausa, 1998); Spain in 1972 (Cadahia, 1980); and Portugal in 1971 (Azevedo and Figo, 1979).

Habitat

Top of page

Several studies have been carried out on niches occupied by the blue gum psyllid in host trees (Brennan et al., 2001; Thomson et al., 2001; Purvis et al., 2002). The blue gum psyllid prefers immature foliage for oviposition and development of the nymphs. Brennan et al. (2001) discussed the blue gum psyllid in relation to heteroblasty, which refers to plants whose juvenile and adult foliage differs morphologically. On Eucalyptus globulus, the blue gum psyllid prefers the young, waxy, simple leaves of juvenile foliage of very young trees and the new growth of older trees, but does not usually attack the older, coarse, sickle-shaped leaves of older trees. Conversely, the related species, Ctenarytaina spatulata prefers the older leaves of E. globulus over younger foliage.

Habitat List

Top of page
CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Deserts Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page Common hosts of the blue gum psyllid in Australia include the blue gum eucalyptus, Eucalyptus globulus, and Eucalyptus leucoxylon (Morgan, 1984). The primary hosts of the blue gum psyllid outside Australia are E. globulus, and the silver-leaved mountain gum (baby blue gum), Eucalyptus pulverulenta. These two species of eucalypts are commonly grown on commercial plantations for either the cut floral market or for pulpwood, as is the less-planted Eucalyptus cinerea. Hodkinson (1999) lists 21 susceptible species of eucalypts in the British Isles. Of these, four species of eucalypts can harbour large populations, including E. globulus, Eucalyptus neglecta, Eucalyptus perriniana and E. pulverulenta (Hodkinson, 1999).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContext
Eucalyptus angulosaMyrtaceaeOther
Eucalyptus cinereaMyrtaceaeOther
Eucalyptus globulus (Tasmanian blue gum)MyrtaceaeMain
Eucalyptus leucoxylonMyrtaceaeOther
Eucalyptus neglectaMyrtaceaeOther
Eucalyptus perrinianaMyrtaceaeOther
Eucalyptus pulverulentaMyrtaceaeMain

Growth Stages

Top of page Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page Blue gum psyllid injury includes leaf discoloration, rolling of leaves and twig distortion, and in heavy infestations, severe twig dieback results (Hodkinson, 1999). Damage is probably most severe in the plantations where the trees are grown for the floral trade. Both Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus pulverulenta are the primary trees used in the floral trade. Since plantation trees are continuously cropped both to harvest the foliage and to force the trees to produce more of the coveted juvenile foliage, the trees are therefore much more susceptible to attack by the blue gum psyllid. In addition, the nymphs produce a large amount of honeydew, which interferes with the harvesting, preparation and packaging of the product. Also, the honeydew is a substrate for sooty mould that further detracts from the appearance of the final floral product.

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page

Growing point

  • discoloration
  • discoloration
  • distortion
  • distortion
  • dwarfing; stunting
  • dwarfing; stunting
  • honeydew or sooty mould
  • honeydew or sooty mould
  • wilt
  • wilt

Leaves

  • abnormal colours
  • abnormal colours
  • abnormal forms
  • abnormal forms
  • honeydew or sooty mould
  • honeydew or sooty mould
  • leaves rolled or folded
  • leaves rolled or folded
  • necrotic areas
  • necrotic areas
  • wilting
  • wilting
  • yellowed or dead
  • yellowed or dead

Stems

  • dieback
  • dieback
  • discoloration
  • discoloration
  • distortion
  • distortion
  • honeydew or sooty mould
  • honeydew or sooty mould
  • stunting or rosetting
  • stunting or rosetting

Whole plant

  • discoloration
  • discoloration
  • distortion; rosetting
  • distortion; rosetting
  • early senescence
  • early senescence
  • wilt
  • wilt

Biology and Ecology

Top of page The current status of the blue gum psyllid has been thoroughly reviewed by Hodkinson (1999), especially regarding biocontrol efforts. In Australia, the blue gum psyllid is usually found in alpine, montane or otherwise cool to cold temperature areas (Morgan, 1984). Due to this acclimatization, the psyllid has been able to survive in some rather cold places outside Australia, notably in the British Isles (Hodkinson, 1999). Fortunately the major parasite for this species is also able to survive cold conditions (Hodkinson, 1999; Chauzat et al., 2002). However, the psyllid is also flourishing in warmer areas, particularly in the temperate areas around the Mediterranean Sea and in California, USA.

The blue gum psyllid has six life stages: an egg stage, four nymphal (larval) stages and an adult stage. The number of generations per year varies with temperature. Several overlapping generations are listed in Ireland (Eire) by Hodkinson (1999); two to three generations are mentioned by Pinzon et al. (2002) for Colombia, South America; four generations occur in California (Hodkinson, 1999) and Morgan (1984) lists five generations in Australia. Azevido and Figo (1979), Cadahia and Rupérez (1979), Cavalcaselle (1982), Martinez (1983), and Alma and Arzone (1988) cite Mediterranean-area biological notes. In all cases, the generations are continuous and usually overlapping, with apparently no winter diapause.

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Allograpta exotica Predator Nymphs
Camponotus distinguendus Predator
Eriopis connexa Predator Adults/Nymphs
Psyllaephagus pilosus Parasite Nymphs
Vespula germanica Predator

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page In California and elsewhere, the introduction of the natural enemy Psyllaephagus pilosus, an Encyrtid wasp, has resulted in the effective classical biological control of the blue gum psyllid (Dahlsten et al., 1998a, b; Costanzi et al., 2003; Schnee et al., 2006). Biological control has been carried out more extensively in Europe. This was reviewed by Hodkinson (1999), who also reported the introduction of P. pilosus into Wales and its subsequent spread into England. P. pilosus is present in Australia and New Zealand, and was introduced in California, USA in 1993, Great Britain in 1994, France in 1997, Eire in 1998 and it is present in Italy to where it is thought to have naturally spread from France. Other predators have been recorded as feeding on the blue gum psyllid, including: Eriopis connexa, Vespula germanica, and Camponotus distinguendus in Chile (Saiz et al., 2003); brown lacewings and syrphid flies in Colombia, South America (Pinzon et al., 2002); and Allograpta exotica in Chile (Olivares et al., 2002).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page The blue gum psyllid has moved across the globe with apparent ease. This has become especially true since about 1994, as new eucalypt plantations have been planted. Hodkinson (1999) suggested that a second major introduction of blue gum psyllid into the British Isles occurred when eucalypts were recently brought into Britain directly from Australia for the Liverpool Festival. The Monterey County Farm Advisor who first collected blue gum psyllid in California in a nursery suggested that some of the affected plants may have come directly from Australia, and that possibly they were in violation of Federal and State quarantine laws. Morgan (1984) suggested that eucalypts grown in commercial nurseries in South Australia had been transferred to many exotic places.

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Leaves adults; eggs; larvae; nymphs; pupae No Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; nymphs No Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Wood Packaging

Top of page
Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products Negative
Animal/plant products Negative
Biodiversity (generally) None
Biodiversity (generally) None
Crop production Negative
Crop production Negative
Environment (generally) None
Environment (generally) None
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production Negative
Forestry production Negative
Human health None
Human health None
Livestock production None
Livestock production None
Native fauna None
Native fauna None
Native flora None
Native flora None
Rare/protected species None
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None
Transport/travel None

Impact

Top of page The blue gum psyllid has primarily been a pest in eucalypt plantations outside Australia, where it has been introduced in the absence of natural controls. Numerous authors allude to its occasional devastating effects. In particular, Hodkinson (1999) has thoroughly commented on the status of this species as it existed as a pest over the last few years or so prior to 1999. However, Dahlsten et al. (1998a, b) have carefully delimited many of the actual cost figures that were incurred by plantation owners to control this pest when it first became established in California, USA. In this study, interviews with plantation owners suggested that the size of the plantings of Eucalyptus pulverulenta ranged from 12.5 to 500 hectares (5 to 200 acres). Very little upkeep was needed and few pest problems occurred before the blue gum psyllid was introduced. Most eucalypt species were planted in California from seed in the early years (Doughty, 2000; Paine and Millar, 2002), and so few pests had been introduced into the state. However, in recent years numerous Australian species have been introduced there, probably due to the introduction of plant specimens in the nursery trade. When the blue gum psyllid was introduced, heavy populations and heavy damage resulted. Insecticidal sprays were ineffective and costly. Dahlsten et al. (1998a, b) suggested that prices of US$ 45/acre for ground spray and US$ 100/acre for treatment by helicopter were common. Some plantations were actually destroyed by the growers because of the cost of treatments and losses due to ruined products.

Economic Impact

Top of page The blue gum psyllid has primarily been a pest in eucalypt plantations outside Australia, where it has been introduced in the absence of natural controls. Numerous authors allude to its occasional devastating effects. In particular, Hodkinson (1999) has thoroughly commented on the status of this species as it existed as a pest over the last few years or so prior to 1999. However, Dahlsten et al. (1998a, b) have carefully delimited many of the actual cost figures that were incurred by plantation owners to control this pest when it first became established in California, USA. In this study, interviews with plantation owners suggested that the size of the plantings of Eucalyptus pulverulenta ranged from 12.5 to 500 hectares (5 to 200 acres). Very little upkeep was needed and few pest problems occurred before the blue gum psyllid was introduced. Most eucalypt species were planted in California from seed in the early years (Doughty, 2000; Paine and Millar, 2002), and so few pests had been introduced into the state. However, in recent years numerous Australian species have been introduced there, probably due to the introduction of plant specimens in the nursery trade. When the blue gum psyllid was introduced, heavy populations and heavy damage resulted. Insecticidal sprays were ineffective and costly. Dahlsten et al. (1998a, b) suggested that prices of US$ 45/acre for ground spray and US$ 100/acre for treatment by helicopter were common. Some plantations were actually destroyed by the growers because of the cost of treatments and losses due to ruined products.

Detection and Inspection

Top of page Good detection methods suggest checking the young juvenile shoots on the preferred hosts for honeydew and sooty mould, along with the readily visible nymphs and their white, cottony secretions.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page There are approximately ten species in the genus Ctenarytaina, about equally divided in species between Australia, New Zealand and some Pacific Islands. Ferris and Klyver (1932) published keys to the New Zealand species, but no keys are available for the Australian species to date (2004). There are probably still others in the genus Rhinocola and there are further undescribed species in Australia. Taylor (1987) states that there are 20 new species in the genus awaiting description in Australia. Most of the other species are of similar size and appearance. However, the blue gum psyllid is generally dark-brown to black, especially on the head and thorax. Outside Australia it generally should not be confused with any other species on eucalyptus. A closely related species, Ctenarytaina spatulata, commonly occurs on the same trees, at least in California, USA and Brazil. In general, it is yellowish, not black, and the nymphs would not be found on the juvenile foliage. Also outside Australia, other species of Ctenarytaina are found, such as Ctenarytaina longicauda, on Lophostemon confertus trees in California. Other eucalypt-feeding psyllids have also been introduced into other countries, such as Blastopsylla occidentalis, Cryptoneossa triangula, and the two lerp-forming psyllids, Glycaspis brimblecombei and Eucalyptolyma maideni.

Prevention and Control

Top of page See Natural Enemies for information on biological control.

References

Top of page

Alma A; Arzone A, 1988. Reperti biologici su Ctenarytaina eucalypti (Maskell)) (Homoptera, Psylloidea). Atti XV Congresso Nationale Italiana Entomologica L’Aquila, 505-512.

Azevedo F; Figo ML, 1979. Ctenarytaina eucalypti Mask. (Homoptera, Psyllidae). Boletin del Servicio de Defensa contra Plagas e Inspeccion Fitopatologica, 5:41-46

Brennan EB; Weinbaum SA; Rosenheim JA; Karban R, 2001. Heteroblasty in Eucalyptus globulus (Myricales: Myricaceae) affects ovipositonal and settling preferences of Ctenarytaina eucalypti and C. spatulata (Homoptera: Psyllidae). Environmental Entomology, 30(6):1144-1149; 34 ref.

Burckhardt D, 1998. Ctenarytaina eucalypti (Maskell) (Hemiptera, Psylloidea) new for central Europe and observations on the psyllid fauna of Eucalyptus. Mitteilungen der Entomologischen Gesellschaft Basel, 48(2):59-67; 17 ref.

Burckhardt D; Santana DLQ; Terra AL; Andrade FMde; Penteado SRC; Iede ET; Morey CS, 1999. Psyllid pests (Hemiptera, Psylloidea) in South American eucalypt plantations. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 72(1/2):1-10; 13 ref.

Cadahia D, 1980. Proximity of two new enemies of Eucalyptus in Spain. Boletin del Servicio de Defensa Contra Plagas e Inspeccion Fitopatologica, 6(2):165-192

Cadahia D; Ruperez A, 1979. Distribution of Ctenarytaina eucalypti Mask. in Spain. Boletin del Servicio de Defensa contra Plagas e Inspeccion Fitopatologica, 5:55-58

Cavalcaselle B, 1982. On the presence in Italy of a psyllid harmful to eucalypts: Ctenarytaina eucalypti. Cellulosa e Carta, 33(6):3-8

Chauzat MP; Purvis G; Dunne R, 2002. Release and establishment of a biological control agent, Psyllaephagus pilosus for eucalyptus psyllid (Ctenarytaina eucalypti) in Ireland. Annals of Applied Biology, 141(3):293-304; 20 ref.

Costanzi M; Frassetti F; Malausa JC, 2003. Biological control of the psyllid Ctenarytaina eucalypti Maskell in eucalyptus plantations of Ligurian Riviera. Informatore Fitopathologico, 53(6):52-56.

CSIRO, 2004. 3. Systematic Names: Ctenarytaia eucalypti (Maskell). Australia: Australian Government, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, and CSIRO. http://www.ento.csiro.au/aicn/system/c_1773.htm.

Dahlsten DL; Hansen EP; Zuparko RL; Norgaard RB, 1998. Biological control of the blue gum psyllid proves economically beneficial. California Agriculture, 52(1):35-38, 40.

Dahlsten DL; Rowney DL; Copper WA; Tassan RL; Chaney WE; Robb KL; Tjosvold S; Bianchi M; Lane P, 1998. Parasitoid wasp controls blue gum psyllid. California Agriculture, 52(1):31-34; 10 ref.

Dahlsten DL; Tassan RL; Rowney DL; Copper WA; Herr JC, 1993. Biological control of the blue gum psyllid, Ctenarytaina eucalypti, in California. Proceedings of the 41st Meeting of the California Forest Pest Council, 61-62.

Doughty RW, 2000. The eucalyptus: a natural and commercial history of the gum tree. Baltimore, Maryland, USA: The John Hopkins University Press.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Ferris GF; Klyver FD, 1932. Report upon a collection of Chermidae (Homoptera) from New Zealand. Transactions of the New Zealand Institute, 63:34-61.

Fidalgo P; Olivares TS; Haro AMde; Barañao JJ, 2005. Biological control of Ctenarytaina eucalypti (Hem.: Psyllidae), pest of eucalyptus in Argentina. (Control biológico de Ctenarytaina eucalypti (Hem.: Psyllidae), plaga del eucalipto en Argentina.) Bosque, 26(2):91-93. http://www.biblioteca.uach.cl

Froggatt WW, 1903. Australian Psyllidae. Part III. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 28:315-337.

Gill R, 1991. California plant pest and disease report. California Department of Food and Agriculture, 10:51.

Hodkinson ID, 1999. Biocontrol of eucalyptus psyllid Ctenarytaina eucalypti by the Australian parasitoid Psyllaephagus pilosus: a review of current programmes and their success. Biocontrol News and Information, 20(4):129-134.

Hodkinson ID; White IM, 1979. Homoptera Psylloidea. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects, 2(5 (a)):iv + 98 pp.

Laing F, 1922. Rhinocola eucalypti Mask. in England. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine, 58:141.

Lanfranco D; Dungey HS, 2001. Insect damage in Eucalyptus: a review of plantations in Chile. Austral Ecology, 26(5):477-481; 14 ref.

Malausa JC, 1998. Insects to the aid of eucalypts. Biofutur, No. 176:34-37; 4 ref.

Martinez M, 1983. Introduction into France of two insect pests of Eucalyptus: Phoracantha semipunctata (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and Ctenarytaina eucalypti (Homoptera: Psyllidae). Entomologiste (Paris), 39:53-57.

Maskell WM, 1890. On some species of Psyllidae in New Zealand. Transactions of the New Zealand Institute, 22:157-168.

Mercier L; Poisson R, 1926. Un hémiptère homoptère de la famille des psyllines, parasite d’eucalyptus cultivés à Cherbourg. Bulletin de la Société Linnéan de Normandie, Series 7, 9:34-37.

Morgan FD, 1984. Psylloidea of South Australia. Adelaide, South Australia; Handbooks Committee, 136 pp.

Olivares T; Angulo A; Cerda L; Durßn A, 2002. The blue gum psyllid. Chilean Forestry News, No.218:6-7; 6 ref.

Paine TD; Millar JG, 2002. Insect pests of eucalypts in California: implications of managing invasive species. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 92(2):147-151; 38 ref.

Petty FW, 1925. New South African psyllids. South African Journal of Natural History, 5:125-142.

Pinz=n FOP; Guzmßn CM; Navas NF, 2002. Contribution to the knowledge of biology, natural enemies and damage of Ctenarytaina eucalypti (Homoptera: Psyllidae). Revista Colombiana de Entomologi^acute~a, 28(2):123-128; 21 ref.

Purvis G; Chauzat MP; Segonds-Pichon A; Dunne R, 2002. Life history and phenology of the eucalyptus psyllid, Ctenarytaina eucalypti in Ireland. Annals of Applied Biology, 141(3):283-292; 21 ref.

Ripka G; Csóka GY, 2016. New records of jumping plant-lice from Hungary (Hemiptera: Psylloidea). Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 51(2):219-227. http://www.akademiai.com/doi/pdf/10.1556/038.51.2016.2.6

Saiz F; Giambruno A; Jelves P, 2003. Ecology of Ctenarytaina eucalypti (Maskell, 1890) (Hemiptera, Psyllidae), pest of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. in central Chile. Revista Chilena de Entomologia, 29:19-28.

Schnee H; Voigt D; Kaufer B, 2006. Biological control of the blue gum psyllid Ctenarytaina eucalypti (Maskell) (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) by the encyrtid Psyllaephagus pilosus Noyes (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) a success not only in California and Western Europe but also in Saxony. (Die biologische Bekämpfung des Eukalyptusblattsaugers Ctenarytaina eucalypti (Maskell) (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) durch die Erzwespe Psyllaephagus pilosus Noyes (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) - eine Erfolgsgeschichte in Kalifornien und Westeuropa, aber auch in Sachsen.) Gesunde Pflanzen, 58(2):99-106. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=110370

Sorensen JT; Campbell BC; Gill RJ; Steffen-Campbell JD, 1995. Non-monophyly of Auchenorrhyncha ('Homoptera'), based upon 18S rDNA phylogeny: eco-evolutionary and cladistic implications within pre-Heteropterodea Hemiptera (s. l.) and a proposal for new monophyletic suborders. Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 71(1):31-60

Taylor KL, 1987. Ctenarytaina longicauda sp. n. (Homoptera: Psylloidea) from Lophostemon confertus (R. Brown) in Australia and California. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 26(3):229-233

Taylor KL, 1997. A new Australian species of Ctenarytaina Ferris and Klyver (Hemiptera: Psyllidae: Spondyliaspidinae) established in three other countries. Australian Journal of Entomology, 36(2):113-115; 4 ref.

Thomson VP; Nicotra AB; Steinbauer MJ, 2001. Influence of previous frost damage on tree growth and insect herbivory of Eucalyptus globulus globulus. Austral Ecology, 26(5):489-499; many ref.

Tuthill LD, 1952. On the Psyllidae of New Zealand (Homoptera). Pacific Science, 6:83-125.

Tuthill LD; Taylor KL, 1955. Australian genera of the family Psyllidae (Hemiptera: Homoptera). Australian Journal of Zoology, 3:227-257.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map