Cookies on Invasive Species Compendium

Like most websites we use cookies. This is to ensure that we give you the best experience possible.

Continuing to use www.cabi.org/isc means you agree to our use of cookies. If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use.

Datasheet

Coptotermes

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 13 September 2012
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Coptotermes
  • Preferred Common Name
  • termites
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Adult
TitleAdult
Caption
CopyrightGeorg Goergen/IITA Insect Museum, Cotonou, Benin
Adult
AdultGeorg Goergen/IITA Insect Museum, Cotonou, Benin
C. formosanus - adult worker.
TitleAdult - line drawing
CaptionC. formosanus - adult worker.
CopyrightIRRI
C. formosanus - adult worker.
Adult - line drawingC. formosanus - adult worker.IRRI

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Coptotermes

Preferred Common Name

  • termites

EPPO code

  • COPTSP (Coptotermes sp.)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Isoptera
  •                         Family: Rhinotermitidae
  •                             Genus: Coptotermes

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of pageThe following species of Coptotermes are found in South-East Asia: C. betongensis (Malaysia), C. boetonensis (Boeton Islands), C. borneensis (Borneo), C. curvignathus (Myanmar, Vietnam, Cambodia, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Sulawesi, Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Thailand), C. ceylonicus (Vietnam), C. elisae (New Guinea), C. havilandi (Borneo, Java, Thailand), C. flavicephalus (Philippines), C. formosanus (China, Hong Kong, Japan), C. gestroi (Malaysia, Sulawesi), C. kalshoveni (Java, Sabah, Thailand, Sumatra), C. menadoensis (Sulawesi), C. minutissimus (Koena Islands, Sulawesi), C. oshimae (Sulawesi), C. peregrinator (Sulawesi), C. premrasmii (Thailand), C. sepangensis (Malaysia, Sabah), C. sinbangensis (Sumatra), C. travians (Malaysia, Sumatra, Java, Borneo), C. vastator (Philippines). Thirty more species have been identified in China (Li, 1994; Li et al., 1994); Xia and He (1986) developed a key for 24 of these species. The taxonomic status of Coptotermes needs revision.

The most important recent work on the taxonomy of South-East Asian species of Coptotermes has been the morphometric studies of Kirton (1995) who investigated the species known to occur in peninsular Malaysia, several of which are widely distributed throughout the region. Kirton made several changes in nomenclature, and it should be noted that the well known South-East Asian species C. curvignathus is considered a synonym of C. elisae. As such, C. elisae has a geographic distribution stretching from Papua New Guinea, through Sulawesi, Philippines, Java, Borneo, and Sumatra, to Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. In addition, Kirton supports Tho's (1992) view that C. betongensis is not a valid species but a synonym of C. sepangensis.

Description

Top of pageThe genus Coptotermes is characterized by the presence of a pear-shaped head, narrow at front with a pointed labrum in the soldier caste (Pearce et al., 1993). Mandibles are slender, sharply pointed and slightly incurved without marginal teeth. Most distinctive in the soldier caste is the large fontanelle (opening) at the front of the head which exudes a white defence secretion when the insect is disturbed. Coptotermes have been shown to possess, as for other members of the Rhinotermitidae, sunken pores on their legs which may produce a defensive secretion against predators (Bacchus, 1979).

The genus Coptotermes, despite its economic importance, has never been revised on a world-wide basis, and species identification in several parts of the world remains problematic. Twenty-two species of Coptotermes are known from the Indo-Malayan region (Tho, 1992), but it is uncertain how many of these species are the same as the 30 species which are reported to occur in China (Li et al., 1994). Roonwal and Chhotani (1962) revised the Indian species, and taxonomic accounts of the genus in Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah have been provided by Tho (1992) and Thapa (1981), respectively. However, recent investigations into the cuticular hydrocarbons of some Australian Coptotermes point to the existence of species complexes among morphologically indistinguishable populations (Brown et al., 1990). This is a relatively new area of taxonomic research, and similar studies on Coptotermes from other regions of the world have been very limited to date (Haverty et al., 1991) but may eventually reveal similar problems.

Six species of Coptotermes are now recognised from peninsular Malaysia, and Kirton (1995) provides an identification key which uses characteristics of the soldier caste to separate species. Coptotermes elisae, C. kalshoveni, C. travians, C. sepangensis and the C. gestroi group can be separated on the basis of the degree of mandible curvature and the width of head at the base of the mandibles. The C. gestroi group comprises two species, C. gestroi (Wasmann) and C. sp. nr gestroi, that can only be distinguished on the basis of differences in the alates. Kirton's (1995) study should be consulted when South-East Asian species are to be identified.

Distribution

Top of pageCoptotermes has a broad pan-tropical distribution; in China over 30 species of this genus have been described.

Distribution Table

Top of page
CountryDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferencesNotes

ASIA

ChinaPresentLi, 1991; Li et al., 1994
-GuangdongPresentPing, 1985
-Hong KongPresentGao & Lam, 1985
IndonesiaPresentNatawiria, 1974
-JavaPresentNatawiria, 1974
-SulawesiPresentPearce, 1987
-SumatraPresentMarian et al., 1992
JapanPresentTokora et al., 1989
MalaysiaPresentTho et al., 1992
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentTho et al., 1992
-SabahPresentAbe, 1983
-SarawakPresentHamid, 1987
PhilippinesPresentGonzales,1980
TaiwanPresentWu et al., 1991
ThailandPresentWongkobrat, 1988
VietnamPresentLõm-Binh-Loi & Durand, 1971

AFRICA

Africa South of SaharaPresentJones DT- Natural History Museum UK personal commu
ZimbabwePresentCoaton & Sheasby, 1976

NORTH AMERICA

USA
-HawaiiPresentLeong et al., 1983

OCEANIA

Papua New GuineaPresentRokova & Konabe, 1990

Growth Stages

Top of pageFlowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of pageDamage by Coptotermes most frequently occurs in mature trees, although it can occur at earlier stages of growth. Coptotermes usually invade trees via the soil and bore into the tree through the roots. Sometimes the attack is secondary, after the tree has been damaged by fire or fungal infection (Cowie et al., 1989). Once a tree is infested, Coptotermes often hollow out or 'pipe' the heartwood of the trunk; although in most cases this may not be fatal to the tree, it does greatly reduce the value of the timber (Chan, 1983; Harris, 1971; Greaves et al., 1967). The most severely damaged trees can be so weakened that they are prone to be blown over by strong winds (Dhanarajan, 1969).

Attack can be above ground or at ground level. A common place for termite damage to trees is about 23 cm below ground at the fork of the tap root. On contact with a root, termites tunnel through it and eat into cambium and sapwood and then into the stem. In dry conditions they may be attracted by plant sap for moisture. Trees are easily blown down where roots have been destroyed. On oil palm and coconut, termites can feed just under the bark or under leaf bases. Large cavities can be also eaten out of trees.

Symptoms List

Top of page
SignLife StagesType

Roots

internal feeding

Stems

internal feeding

Biology and Ecology

Top of pageCoptotermes occur in all tropical biogeographical regions of the world. At the latitudinal limits of its range, Coptotermes is present in some temperate regions such as southern Japan and New Zealand. Coptotermes colonies can produce functional replacement reproductives (called neotenics) and thus rapidly exploit available food resources by establishing satellite colonies (Gay, 1955; Lenz and Barrett, 1982). This ability also allows fragmented colonies to thrive in the absence of the primary founding queen, and this is seen as possibly the most important factor in the success of Coptotermes in colonization of new areas when introduced by the activities of man (Lenz et al., 1988). Species of Coptotermes have been introduced into many parts of the world, including continental USA, New Zealand and numerous sites in the Pacific Ocean including Fiji, Hawaii, Guam and the Marshall Islands (Gay, 1967). In particular, C. formosanus is now established in many countries and has become a serious pest.

Coptotermes are wood-feeding termites that can attack both living and dead wood. The genus is notorious for its habit of colonizing living trees and hollowing out the heartwood to the extent that the trunk can be 'piped' and replaced with nest material and soil, without the tree showing external signs of their presence. The Oriental species produce subterranean nests but have the ability to construct covered runways and can forage away from their central nesting site (Kirton, 1995). When colonizing dead wood, Coptotermes show a significant preference for tree stumps and logs rather than smaller items of dead wood (Kirton, 1995).

In Peninsular Malaysia, species of Coptotermes are widespread in lowland forests, up to an altitude of approximately 1350 m (Tho, 1992). The studies of Kirton (1995) in Peninsular Malaysia revealed that Coptotermes generally reach their maximum reproductive success and colony growth in coastal regions, rather than inland forests. In particular, Coptotermes thrives in peat swamp forest, and is frequently found attacking Casuarina equisetifolia in beach strand forest, and is closely associated with Rhizophora and Bruguiera in mangroves (Kirton, 1995).

Swarming of alates (reproductives) is often at dusk when temperatures are lower and humidity is high. Flights often occur after rains; however, there may be up to six of these flights per year. After flying, the alates pair off and burrow into holes/cracks in wood. Eggs are produced within 5-10 days (Huang and Chen, 1984). C. formosanus can, once a colony is established, produce 1000 eggs per day (King and Spink, 1974). If conditions are ideal (e.g. optimum temperature for hatching is 30°C; Huang and Jung, 1980) eggs hatch after a month, the first brood being composed of one to two dozen individuals.

C. curvignathus has six larval stages. Workers and pre-soldiers are differentiated at the fourth instar. First and second instars are reared by adults and immature workers. A colony can survive for 50 years. Coptotermes can form supplementary reproductives (neotenics) so that isolation of a colony can give rise to a new colony. Lenz et al. (1986) in Australia found that three out of five colonies which had lost their reproductives could re-establish from neotenics in 1 year. Reproductives may also migrate with a colony if the colony moves (Miller, 1994).

C. formosanus can forage to a distance of 50 m from the main nest, and produce satellite nests at 30 m. During hot periods the termites move deeper into the soil or wood. In Java, C. curvignathus favours damper areas than C. havilandi.

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of pageFungal pathogens have been examined as a means of control. Sajap and Kaur (1990) looked at the histopathology of Metarhizium anisopliae on C. curvignathus in Malaysia. Metarhizium treatment has received much interest for the contol of termites (and white grubs) in Australia. An isolate of Beauveria bassiana from Isoptera was shown to be effective against C. formosanus (Wells et al., 1995). Pearce (1987) suggested that a fungal pathogen, Antennopsis gayi, tended to keep Coptotermes numbers down in Dumoga Bone National Park, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Nematodes also have been put forward as a possibility for biological control (Wu et al., 1991).

Impact

Top of pageThe greatest losses to the value of timber usually occur in plantation forestry systems where fast-growing exotic tree species are planted. It is these exotic species which prove to be most vulnerable to severe termite attack. Generally, indigenous trees in natural forests are rarely badly damaged by termite attack, presumably because they have evolved defence mechanisms against indigenous termite species (Harris, 1955; Lee and Wood, 1971). There are some exceptions to this rule, the most relevant being the attack by Coptotermes acinaciformis and C. frenchi on Eucalyptus trees in Australia, which are responsible for up to 92% of the pre-harvest damage to trees in virgin forest, and 64% in younger managed forests (Greaves et al., 1967). In both natural and managed forests, it is usually those trees which are stressed (for example by water deficit, fire damage, or attack by other pests) that are most susceptible to attack from termites.

An overview of the impact of termites on the forestry industry, and methods of control in the Indo-Malaysian and African regions, is provided by Cowie et al. (1989). The most serious damage to mature forestry trees is from Coptotermes, especially in South-East Asia and Australia. The economic importance of Coptotermes in Peninsular Malaysia has been reviewed by Tho and Kirton (1990). In some exotic plantations of Araucaria and Pinus in Malaysia, up to 100% of trees can be attacked by Coptotermes species (especially C. elisae) and can become a major limitation to re-afforestation schemes (Dhanarajan, 1969; Tho, 1974). In urban areas and rural settlements, Coptotermes are the main cause of damage to wood-based building materials in Malaysia (Kirton, 1995).

Under natural conditions in the Malaysian rain forest Coptotermes may be rare. On clearing trees, other species of termite are killed and waste vegetation becomes an ideal food for Coptotermes. Newly planted crop or tree seedlings are not attacked until this food supply runs out. Termite attack can often reduce the value of timber not only by the direct effect of the termites themselves, but also by allowing the entry of other pests and pathogens.

Although Coptotermes mainly attack trees, they sometimes damage crops as well. For example, C. formosanus has been reported as damaging groundnuts and other food crops in China and Japan (Sands, 1973). Seasonal changes in foraging groups can affect the amount of damage that occurs. Attacks on healthy young rubber trees in Malaysia by C. curvignathus can occur within 3-4 weeks.

On some trees (e.g. oil palm) termites can feed just under the bark or under leaf bases, as in coconut. Large cavities can be also eaten out of trees. In Indonesia, C. curvignathus enters wounds and damage tends to be greater in older plantations. In Malaysia, Coptotermes spp. are more abundant in outlying habitats, paticularly Avicinia mangrove swamps. These places act as reservoirs for re-infestation (Salik and Tho, 1984).

Detection and Inspection

Top of pageThe presence of termites may be indicated by earth-covered runways or tubes found on the external surfaces of trees. In young plants, chlorosis or wilting on hot days may indicate damage. Young plants should be uprooted and the roots examined for damage. Examining the bark and trunk of trees for damage is also important. A knife can be pressed against the trunk to see if tunnelling has occurred. Coptotermes runways are often soil-lined and flattened in appearance, running with the grain of the wood.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of pageDescriptions to distinguish between two of the major pest species, C. curvignathus and C. formosanus, are given by Coaton and Sheasby (1976). Thapa (1981) has separated soldiers of four species, C. curvignathus, C. sepangensis, C. borneensis and C. kalshoveni, by using head measurements.

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Control
Introduction


A good, up-to-date summary of insecticides used for termite control is given by Wiseman and Eggleton (1994), while Logan et al. (1990) provide a thorough review of non-chemical methods of control.

It has been suggested by Cowie et al. (1989) that there are only two effective and economically viable methods of controlling Coptotermes in the forestry industry. The first is by insecticide injection into nests within affected trunks (for details see Greaves et al., 1967; Hadlington, 1987). However, this method requires a skilled labour force to ensure proper insecticide application. The second method has been tested in Papua New Guinea, where most Coptotermes nests are located in stumps or logs. This technique involves a combination of nest destruction with explosives prior to the establishment of the plantation, followed by the destruction of queens in subsequently located nests in order to reduce reinfestation (Gray and Butcher, 1969).

Chemical Control

Current termite control methods rely largely on the use of persistent organochlorine (cyclodine) insecticides. These are increasingly less readily available, and severe restrictions are being placed on their use, so the requirement for alternative strategies is becoming acute. At present, control of Coptotermes in mature trees is rarely economical or practical, but control in the nursery (which can also protect for the first few years after planting out) can be effective and affordable (Cowie et al., 1989).

The use of wood ash heaped around the base of tree trunks, or mixed into seedling bedding soil, is reputed to reduce termite attack. It is a common practice in some parts of the world and deserves scientific evaluation (Logan et al., 1990).

Grace and Yamamoto (1994) showed that sodium borate was effective in the laboratory but had poor penetration in the field for Douglas fir. It can also be phytotoxic to some plants.

Baiting with a chitin inhibitor, hexaflumuron, (Su, 1994) is used for treatment of houses against Coptotermes in Florida. Some success has also been found using this bait in citrus plantations. Grace et al. (1992) showed that another insect growth inhibitor, silafluofen, was effective against C. formosanus. Fenitrothion in baits or sprays of microcapsules (Iwata et al., 1989) is also a recent candidate for C. formosanus control; the insecticide is circulated throughout the colony by the characteristic grooming behaviour of the termites.

Where termites are well-established, insecticide treatment may be only a temporary measure (Mariau et al., 1992). Organochlorine emulsions less than 0.1% strong could prevent infection for a short period (Jayarathnam, 1968). Granules of chlorpyrifos and isofenfos are also commonly used (Tshuma, 1988). In China chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin and cypermethrin have gained popularity. Chlorpyrifos and phoxim showed very high contact toxicity (Tsunoda, 1991; Akhtar and Saleem, 1993). Also permethrin, fenvalerate and carbaryl performed well inside wood at low concentrations. Copper chrome arsenic is still used in some countries (Said et al., 1982); arsenic trioxide is used as a dust applied at the gallery exits (Li et al., 1994).

A recent but more costly method is to use slow-release insecticides. This is especially useful for seedlings. Chlorpyrifos in a thermoplastic matrix has been shown to be useful for tree protection (O'Hanlon, 1986). Mitchell (1989) examined the use of non-persistent slow-release granules in the forests of Zimbabwe.

Grace and Yates (1992) tested a formulation of neem which showed that C. formosanus fed less and avoided long-term contact with treated timber.

Cultural Control

Alternative non-chemical methods of control have been shown significantly to reduce termite damage, although they can never eliminate termite attack completely. Most of these recommended silvicultural practices (reviewed by Wardell, 1987) concern the use of tree species appropriate to the local climatic and environmental conditions; the use of healthy and vigorous planting stock; adequate watering of nursery stock immediately prior to planting out; and the scheduling of planting out to avoid subjecting newly transplanted seedlings to drought (see Harris, 1971; Sen-Sarma, 1986; Cowie et al., 1989).

Biological Control

A review of non-chemical methods of control is given by Logan et al. (1990). The fungal pathogens Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana and Antennopsis gayi, and a number of nematode species, have been examined as means of biological control (see Natural Enemies). Logan et al. (1989) suggest that methods of biological control of termites show little promise of success because of the termites' social structure and behaviour. Although predators of termites can remove large numbers of individuals, these losses are unlikely to reduce the overall termite pest population to economically acceptable levels. Similarly, pathogens or parasites are not likely to be effective due to the termites' behaviour of isolating dead or infected colony members in walled-off blind chambers in the nest (Wood and Sands, 1978).

Nematodes have been advocated as a possible means of preventing subterranean termite damage to buildings (Weidner, 1983) and marketed as such in the USA. However, it has also been argued strongly that rigorous field trials have failed to demonstrate convincingly the efficacy of nematodes in termite control (Mix, 1985, 1986).

Pheromones

Tokoro et al. (1989, 1992) identified a trail pheromone and precursors for C.formosanus. Zhong and Kuang (1979) have synthesized 4-phenyl-cis-3-buten-1-ol from Coptotermes trail pheromone which showed good field activity against C. formosanus in China.

Physical Control

In New Guinea the turning off of electric lights at swarming times to discourage alate attraction has been used. Coptotermes is known to be attracted to a wavelength of 400-420 nm.

Physical barriers (e.g. basalt particles, sand, coral, etc.) have been used with some success in buildings but have only limited use in forestry and agriculture (Tamashiro et al., 1987). The particle size has to be too large and heavy for the termites to carry away, yet small enough to stop them making continuous passages in them.

Gray and Buchter (1969) found the most effective means of nest destruction without harmful environmental effects was by using explosives and killing the queens.

Host-Plant Resistance

C. curvignathus: heavy hardwoods resistant to C. curvignathus include Neobalanocarpus heimii and Vatica sp. (Said et al., 1982), Intsia palembanica, Itomalium foetidum, Dracontemelon dao (Rokova and Konabe, 1990), Eusideroxylon zwageri, Intsia bijuga, Castaopsis argentea, Dalbergia latifolia, Hopea ferruginea, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Tectona grandis (Supriana, 1988) and Albizia procera (Supriana and Howse, 1982). Resistant compounds have been isolated from kayawood (Torreya nucifera) (Ikeda et al., 1978).

C. formosanus: resistant trees include Chinamadhuca hainanensis, Litchi chinensis, Vatica astrotricha, Tectona grandis, Robinia pseudacaria, Alseodaphne hamanensis, Homalium hainanense, Hopea hainanensis (Dai et al., 1985), Melia azedarach and Adina racemosa (Yaga, 1978).
 

References

Top of page

1982. A preliminary study on the biology of the colonising flight of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Zoological Research, 3(2):185-192

Abe KI, 1983. Plantation forest pests in Sabah. FRC Publication, No. 8:iii + 119 pp.; 11 ref.

Akhtar MS, Mahmood MI, 1994. Caste polymorphism in a field colony of Coptotermes heimi (Wasmann). Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 26(2):13-17

Akhtar MS, Saleem M, 1993. Toxicity of insecticides against Coptotermes heimi (Wasmann) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 25(2):139-142

Bacchus S, 1979. New exocrine gland on the legs of some Rhinotermitidae (Isoptera). International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology, 8(2):135-142

Benedict WV, 1971. Pilot plantations of quick growing industrial species. Protecting plantations of long fibre tree species from loss by insects and diseases. PO/SF/MAL 12 Technical Report No. 4. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: UNDP/FAO.

Chew TK, 1975. Preliminary notes on the performance of experimental plantations in Bahau Forest Reserve. Malaysian-Forester, 38(2):140-148.

Coaton WGH, Sheasby JL, 1976. National survey of the Isoptera of southern Africa. 11. The genus Coptotermes Wasmann (Rhinotermitidae: Coptotermitinae). Cimbebasia, A, 3(11):140-172

Collins NM, 1979. In Wallace's Footsteps. Entomologists in the Mulu Park. Antenna, 3:57-61

Cowie RH, Logan JWM, Wood TG, 1989. Termite (Isoptera) damage and control in tropical forestry with special reference to Africa and Indo-Malaysia: a review. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 79(2):173-184

Dai Z, Li G, 1990. Termite damage and control in China. In: Veeresh GK, Mallick B, Viraktamath CA, eds. Social Insects and the Environment, 597-599.

Dai ZR, Xie XY, Huang ZY, 1985. Natural resistance of 22 timber species to Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki in a laboratory test. Acta Entomologica Sinica, 28(2):238-240

Delaplane KS, La Fage JP, 1989. Preference for moist wood by the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 82(1):95-100

Dhanarajan G, 1969. The termite fauna of Malaya and its economic significance. The Malayan Forester, 32(3):274-278

Gao DR, 1987. Use of attractants in bait toxicants for the control of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki in China. Research Extension Series, Hawaii Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, No. 083:53-57

Gao DR, Lam P, 1985. A list of the species of Isoptera from Hong Kong, China. Entomotaxonomia, 7(2):118

Gay B, Buchter JB, 1969. Termite radication in Araucaria plantations in New Guinea. Commonwealth Forestry Institute, 48:201-207.

Gonzales JC Jr, 1980. Urban pest control in the Philippines. Philippine Entomologist, 4(6):543-547

Grace JK, Yamamoto RT, 1994. Simulation of remedial borate treatments intended to reduce attack on Douglas-fir lumber by the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 87(6):1547-1554

Grace JK, Yamamoto RT, Ebesu RH, 1992. Laboratory evaluation of the novel soil insecticide silafluofen against Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isopt., Rhinotermitidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 113(5):466-471

Grace JK, Yates JR, 1992. Behavioural effects of a neem insecticide on Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Tropical Pest Management, 38(2):176-180

Gray B, 1968. Forest tree and timber insect pests of Papua and New Guinea. Pacific Insects, 10:301-323.

Gurmit Singh, 1992. Management of oil palm pests and diseases in Malaysia in 2000. Pest management and the environment in 2000 [edited by Kadir, A. A. S. A.; Barlow, H. S.] Wallingford, UK; CAB International, 195-212

Hamid AA, 1987. Insect pests of Acacia mangium Willd. in Sarawak. Forest Research Report - Forest Entomology Unit, Forest Department, Sarawak, No. FE 1:10 pp.

Harris WV, 1969. Termites as Pests of Crops and Trees. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Harris WV, 1971. Termites-their Recognition and Control 2nd edition. London, UK: Longmans Green.

Hicken NE, 1971. Termites a World Problem. London, UK: The Rentokil Library/Hutchinson.

Huang LW, Chen LL, 1984. Biology and colony development of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Acta Entomologica Sinica, 27(1):64-69

Huang LW, Jung HW, 1980. The influence of temperature and humidity on the initial colonies of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Acta Entomologica Sinica, 23(1):32-36

Huang WL, Yiao CZ, Huang LD, Lu LM, 1984. Observations on the initiation of colony formation and behaviour of termites. Acta Entomologica Sinica, 27(3):355-358

Ikeda T, Takahashi M, Nishimoto K, 1978. Antitermitic compounds of kaya wood, Torreya nucifera Sieb. et Zucc. Mokuzai Gokkaishi Journal of the Japan Wood Research Society, 24(4):262-266.

Iwata R, Ito T, Shinjo G, 1989. Efficacy of the fenitrothion microcapsule against termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). II. Transmissibility of fenitrothion through grooming. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 24(2):213-221

Jayarathnam K, 1968. Termite control in rubber plantation. Rubber Bd Bull, 9:33-40.

Kalshoven LGE, 1963. Coptotermes curvignathus causing the death of trees in Indonesia and Malaya. Entomologische Berichten, 23:30-31.

Kalshoven LJE, 1963. Coptotermes curvignathus causing the death of trees in Indonesia and Malaya. Entomol Berichte Amst, 23:90-100.

Kemner NA, 1934. Studien Fber die termiten Javas und Celebes Kungl svet akaemiens handlingar 13.

King EG Jr, Spink WT, 1974. Laboratory studies on the biology of the Formosan subterranean termite with primary emphasis on young colony development. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 67(6):953-958

Le Pelley RH, 1968. Pests of Coffee. London and Harlow, UK: Longmans, Green and Co Ltd.

Lenz M, Barrett RA, Miller LR, 1986. The capacity of colonies of Coptotermes acinaciformis acinaciformis from Australia to produce neotenics (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Sociobiology, 11(3):237-242

Leong KLH, Tamashiro M, Yates J, Su NY, 1983. Microenvironmental factors regulating the flight of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki in Hawaii (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, 24(2/3):287-291

Li Gui-Xiang, dai Zi-Rong, Yang Biao, 1994. Introduction to termite research in China. Journal of Applied Entomology, 117:360-369.

Li GX, 1991. Some termite problems in China. Annals of Entomology, 9(2):25-30

Li GX, Dai ZR, Yang B, 1994. Introduction to termite research in China. Journal of Applied Entomology, 117(4):360-369

Lin SQ, 1987. Present status of Coptotermes formosanus and its control in China. Research Extension Series, Hawaii Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, No. 083:31-36

Lin TS, Wang CL, 1988. The anti-termite properties of extracts from Melia azedarach Linn. Bulletin of the Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, 3(4):255-261

Logan JWM, Cowie RH, Wood TG, 1990. Termite (Isoptera) control in agriculture and forestry by non-chemical methods: a review. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 80(3):309-330

LSm-Binh-Loi, Durand PY, 1971. The termites of Vietnam-systematics and biology Studies of resistance of woods in situ and in the laboratory Service des reserches Forestierés ministeré de la reforme. Agraire et de Developpement en Agriculture et Pecherie.

Mariau D, Renoux J, Chenon RDde, 1992. Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren Rhinotermitidae, the main pest of coconut planted on peat in Sumatra. Oleagineux (Paris), 47(10):561-568

Mercer CWL, 1990. Prospects for integrated pest management in forestry in Papua New Guinea. Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases - 1990. Vol. 1 Thornton Heath, UK; British Crop Protection Council, 385-390

Miller LR, 1994. Nests and queen migration in Schedorhinotermes actuosus (Hill), Schedorhinotermes breinli (Hill) and Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 33(4):317-318

Mitchell MR, 1989. Comparison of non-persistent insecticides in controlled release granules with a persistent organochlorine insecticide for the control of termites in young Eucalyptus plantations in Zimbabwe. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 68(4):281-294

Mori H, 1987. The Formosan subterranean termite in Japan: its distribution, damage, and current and potential control measures. Research Extension Series Hawaii Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, 83:23-26.

Natawiria D, 1974. The incidence of attack by Coptotermes travians and C.curvignathus on forest trees in Indonesia. Kehutanan Indonesia, 1:268-274.

O'Hanlon GJ, 1986. Evaluation of controlled release formulations of agrochemicals in the tropics. Second International Conference on Plant Protection Kuala Lumpur Malaysia March 17-20 1986.

Pearce MJ, 1987. Antennopsis gayi Buchli. parasitises a termite pest species in Dumoga-Bone National Park, Sulawesi. Antenna, 11(3):89

Pearce MJ, Bacchus S, Logan JWM, 1993. What termite? - a guide to identification of termite pest genera in Africa. Technical leaflet No 4. Chatham, UK: Natural Resources Institute.

Ping ZM, 1985. Eight new species of the genera Coptotermes and Reticulitermes from Guangdong Province, China (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Entomotaxonomia, 7(4):317-328

Roberts H, 1987. Forest insect pests of Papua New Guinea. 3. White ants (termites) attacks on plantation trees. Harvest, 12(3):97-102

Rokova M, Konabe C, 1990. Assessment of untreated Papua New Guinea timbers for resistance to subterranean termites. Klinkii, 4(2):19-27; 8 ref.

Said A, Rosli M, Rahim AS, 1982. The effectiveness of three preservatives and the relative resistance of ten Malaysian hardwoods against the subterranean termite, Coptotermes curvignathus (Holm.). Pertanika, 5(2):219-223

Sajap AS, Kaur K, 1990. Histopathology of Metarhizium anisopliae, an entomopathogenic fungus, infection on the termite, Coptotermes curvignathus. Pertanika, 13(3):331-334

Salik J, Tho YP, 1984. An analysis of termite fauna in Malayan rain forests. Journal of Applied Ecology, 547-561.

Sponsler RC, Appel AG, 1991. Temperature tolerances of the Formosan and Eastern subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Journal of Thermal Biology, 16(1):41-44

Su NY, 1994. Field evaluation of a hexaflumuron bait for population suppression of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 87(2):389-397

Supriana N, 1988. Feeding preference behaviour of Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light and Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren on twenty eight tropical timbers. Jurnal Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kehutanan, 4(2):1-5; 15 ref.

Supriana N, 1988. Studies on the natural durability of tropical timbers to termite attack. International Biodeterioration, 24(4-5):337-341; 11 ref.

Supriana N, Howse PE, 1982. Termite resistance of twenty-eight Indonesian timbers. International Research Group on Wood Preservation Working Group I. Biological Problems, No. IRG/WP/1150.

Tamashiro M, Yates JR, Ebesu RH, Yamamoto RT, 1987. The formosan subterranean termite Hawaii's most damaging insect. Hawaii Architect, 16(12)12-14.

Thapa RS, 1982. Termites of Sabah. Sabah Forest Record, No. 12:iv + 374pp.

Tho Yow Pong, 1974. The termite problem in plantation forestry in Peninsular Malaysia. Malaysian Forester, 37(4):278-283

Tho YP, Kirton LG, 1992. The economic significance of Coptotermes termites in Malaysian forestry. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Plant Protection in the Tropics (edited by Ooi, P. A. C.; Lim, G. S.; Teng, P. S.) Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Malaysian Plant Protection Society, No. 4:193-199. (Imprint year 1990.)

Tokoro M, Takahashi M, Tsunoda K, Yamaoka R, 1989. Isolation and primary structure of trail pheromone of the termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Wood Research Japan; Wood Research Institute, Kyoto University, No. 76:29-38

Tokoro M, Takahashi M, Yamaoka R, 1992. Identification of trail pheromone precursors from subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 18(3):517-526

Tshuma J, Logan JWM, Pearce MJ, 1988. Termites attacking field crops, pasture and forest trees in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Journal of Agricultural Research, 26(2):87-95

Tsunoda K, 1991. Termite bioassays for evaluation of wood preservatives. Sociobiology, 19:245-255

Wells JD, Fuxa JR, Henderson G, 1995. Virulence of four fungal pathogens to Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Journal of Entomological Science, 30(2):208-215

Wiseman S, Eggleton P, 1994. The Termiticide Market (DS 88) UK. PJB Publications.

Wongkobrat A, 1988. Insect pests of cassava in Thailand. Cassava Newsletter, 12(1):5-7

Wu HJ, Wang ZN, Ou CF, Tsai RS, Chow YS, 1991. Susceptibility of two Formosan termites to the entomogenous nematode, Steinernema feltiae Filipjev. Bull. Inst. Zool. Academia Sinica, 30(1):31-39

Xia KL, He XS, 1986. Study on the genus Coptotermes from China (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Contributions from Shanghai Institute of Entomology, 6:157-182

Yamano K, 1987. Physical control of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Research Extension Series, Hawaii Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, No. 083:43-47

Zhong CM, Kuang DZ, 1979. The first report of the synthesis and evaluation of a trail-following pheromone for termites. Scientia Silvp Sinicp, 15(1):15-20

Zhu JL, Li GX, Ma XG, 1984. A new species of Coptotermes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica, 9(1):90-94

Distribution Maps

Top of page
Distribution map Africa South of Sahara: PresentChina: Present
Li, 1991; Li et al., 1994China: Present
Li, 1991; Li et al., 1994China
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryIndonesia: Present
Natawiria, 1974Indonesia: Present
Natawiria, 1974Indonesia
See regional map for distribution within the countryIndonesia
See regional map for distribution within the countryIndonesia
See regional map for distribution within the countryIndonesia
See regional map for distribution within the countryJapan: PresentMalaysia: PresentMalaysia
See regional map for distribution within the countryMalaysia
See regional map for distribution within the countryMalaysia
See regional map for distribution within the countryPapua New Guinea: Present
Rokova & Konabe, 1990Papua New Guinea: Present
Rokova & Konabe, 1990Philippines: PresentPhilippines: PresentThailand: Present
Wongkobrat, 1988Taiwan: Present
Wu et al., 1991Taiwan: Present
Wu et al., 1991USA
See regional map for distribution within the countryVietnam: PresentZimbabwe: Present
Coaton & Sheasby, 1976
  • = Present, no further details
  • = Evidence of pathogen
  • = Widespread
  • = Last reported
  • = Localised
  • = Presence unconfirmed
  • = Confined and subject to quarantine
  • = See regional map for distribution within the country
  • = Occasional or few reports
Download KML file Download CSV file
Creative Commons Licence
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Please click OK to ACCEPT or Cancel to REJECT

Creative Commons Licence
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Please click OK to ACCEPT or Cancel to REJECT

Distribution map (asia) China: Present
Li, 1991; Li et al., 1994Guangdong: Present
Ping, 1985Hong Kong: Present
Gao & Lam, 1985Indonesia: Present
Natawiria, 1974Java: Present
Natawiria, 1974Sulawesi: Present
Pearce, 1987Sumatra: PresentJapan: PresentMalaysia: PresentPeninsular Malaysia: PresentSabah: Present
Abe, 1983Sarawak: Present
Hamid, 1987Papua New Guinea: Present
Rokova & Konabe, 1990Philippines: PresentThailand: Present
Wongkobrat, 1988Taiwan: Present
Wu et al., 1991Vietnam: Present
Distribution map (europe)
Distribution map (africa) Africa South of Sahara: PresentZimbabwe: Present
Coaton & Sheasby, 1976
Distribution map (north america) Hawaii: Present
Leong et al., 1983
Distribution map (central america)
Distribution map (south america)
Distribution map (pacific) China: Present
Li, 1991; Li et al., 1994Indonesia: Present
Natawiria, 1974Sulawesi: Present
Pearce, 1987Papua New Guinea: Present
Rokova & Konabe, 1990Philippines: PresentTaiwan: Present
Wu et al., 1991