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Datasheet

Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 08 February 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Convolvulus arvensis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bindweed
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. arvensis, commonly known as bindweed, is a climbing herbaceous perennial native to Eurasia. This species is present in most parts of the world where it has been accidentally introduced as a contaminant of both agricultural and horticultural see...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed); flower (note red spider mites).
TitleFlower
CaptionConvolvulus arvensis (bindweed); flower (note red spider mites).
Copyright©Alvesgaspar - CC BY 2.5
Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed); flower (note red spider mites).
FlowerConvolvulus arvensis (bindweed); flower (note red spider mites).©Alvesgaspar - CC BY 2.5
Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed); flowering mat.
TitleFlowering mat
CaptionConvolvulus arvensis (bindweed); flowering mat.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed); flowering mat.
Flowering matConvolvulus arvensis (bindweed); flowering mat.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed); above ground, the stems trail or climb by twining. Stems slender, to 1.5m long, twining anticlockwise. Leaves alternate, petiolate, variable in shape, lanceolate or ovate to narrow-oblong, 1.2-5.0cm long. (artwork)
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionConvolvulus arvensis (bindweed); above ground, the stems trail or climb by twining. Stems slender, to 1.5m long, twining anticlockwise. Leaves alternate, petiolate, variable in shape, lanceolate or ovate to narrow-oblong, 1.2-5.0cm long. (artwork)
Copyright©NOVARTIS
Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed); above ground, the stems trail or climb by twining. Stems slender, to 1.5m long, twining anticlockwise. Leaves alternate, petiolate, variable in shape, lanceolate or ovate to narrow-oblong, 1.2-5.0cm long. (artwork)
Flowering habitConvolvulus arvensis (bindweed); above ground, the stems trail or climb by twining. Stems slender, to 1.5m long, twining anticlockwise. Leaves alternate, petiolate, variable in shape, lanceolate or ovate to narrow-oblong, 1.2-5.0cm long. (artwork)©NOVARTIS
Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed); close-up of flowers. (artwork)
TitleFlowers
CaptionConvolvulus arvensis (bindweed); close-up of flowers. (artwork)
Copyright©NOVARTIS
Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed); close-up of flowers. (artwork)
FlowersConvolvulus arvensis (bindweed); close-up of flowers. (artwork)©NOVARTIS
Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed); vegetative spread.
TitleVegetative spread
CaptionConvolvulus arvensis (bindweed); vegetative spread.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed); vegetative spread.
Vegetative spreadConvolvulus arvensis (bindweed); vegetative spread.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed); habit in the field. Hays, Kansas, USA.
TitleHabit
CaptionConvolvulus arvensis (bindweed); habit in the field. Hays, Kansas, USA.
Copyright©Bill Parsons
Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed); habit in the field. Hays, Kansas, USA.
HabitConvolvulus arvensis (bindweed); habit in the field. Hays, Kansas, USA.©Bill Parsons
Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed); habit in the field. Hays, Kansas, USA.
TitleHabit
CaptionConvolvulus arvensis (bindweed); habit in the field. Hays, Kansas, USA.
Copyright©Bill Parsons
Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed); habit in the field. Hays, Kansas, USA.
HabitConvolvulus arvensis (bindweed); habit in the field. Hays, Kansas, USA.©Bill Parsons
Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed); habit by roadside.
TitleHabit
CaptionConvolvulus arvensis (bindweed); habit by roadside.
Copyright©Bill Parsons
Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed); habit by roadside.
HabitConvolvulus arvensis (bindweed); habit by roadside.©Bill Parsons
Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed); flowers axillary, corolla funnel-shaped with five radial pubescent bands but not divided into distinct lobes, 10-25mm long, 10-25mm diameter, white or pink.
TitleFlowers
CaptionConvolvulus arvensis (bindweed); flowers axillary, corolla funnel-shaped with five radial pubescent bands but not divided into distinct lobes, 10-25mm long, 10-25mm diameter, white or pink.
CopyrightI.D. Black
Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed); flowers axillary, corolla funnel-shaped with five radial pubescent bands but not divided into distinct lobes, 10-25mm long, 10-25mm diameter, white or pink.
FlowersConvolvulus arvensis (bindweed); flowers axillary, corolla funnel-shaped with five radial pubescent bands but not divided into distinct lobes, 10-25mm long, 10-25mm diameter, white or pink.I.D. Black

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Convolvulus arvensis L.

Preferred Common Name

  • bindweed

Other Scientific Names

  • Calystegia arvensis L.
  • Convolvulus arvensis f. arvensis
  • Convolvulus arvensis var. angustatus Ledeb.
  • Convolvulus arvensis var. crassifolius Choisy
  • Convolvulus arvensis var. hastulatus Meisn.
  • Convolvulus arvensis var. linearifolius Choisy
  • Convolvulus arvensis var. sagittatus Ledeb.
  • Convolvulus arvensis var. sagittifolius Turcz.
  • Convolvulus arvensis var. villosus Choisy
  • Convolvulus chinensis Ker Gawl.
  • Convolvulus minor Gilib.

International Common Names

  • English: chardvel; creeping jenny; European bindweed; field bindweed; lesser bindweed; morning glory; small bindweed; white convolvulus; small-flowered morning glory
  • Spanish: campanilla; correguela
  • French: liseron des champs; petit lizet
  • Portuguese: campainha; corda-de-viola; corriola

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Ackerwinde
  • India: bhoomi chakra poondu; hirankhuri; pohi
  • Iran: pichak
  • Iraq: illake
  • Italy: vilucchio dei campi
  • Japan: seiyo hirugao
  • Mexico: correlunela
  • Myanmar: kauk-yo-nive
  • Netherlands: akkerwinde
  • Sweden: akervinda
  • Thailand: phak-bung-ruam

EPPO code

  • CONAR (Convolvulus arvensis)

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. arvensis, commonly known as bindweed, is a climbing herbaceous perennial native to Eurasia. This species is present in most parts of the world where it has been accidentally introduced as a contaminant of both agricultural and horticultural seed. C. arvensis produces a long lived root system and up to 500 seeds per plant. This species can grow very rapidly where it competes with native vegetation and agricultural and horticultural crops for nutrients, moisture, light and space. As a result, neighbouring plants may become smothered leading to a decrease in biodiversity and a reduction in crop yield. Control of this species is difficult due to the longevity of seeds in the soil bank (up to 20 years) and the ability of small fragments of rhizome to produce new shoots.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Solanales
  •                         Family: Convolvulaceae
  •                             Genus: Convolvulus
  •                                 Species: Convolvulus arvensis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The genus Convolvulus contains around 250 species. According to The Plant List (2013) there are nine synonyms for C. arvensis and no varieties. However, Discover Life (2016) state that there is a large number of varieties, for example, more than sixty have been identified in Europe. The name “convovulus” means to entwine, and “arvensis” means of fields (National Parks Service, 2016).

Description

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C. arvensis is a herbaceous perennial growing from a very deep root system. Shoots develop from adventitious buds on the deep root system at almost any depth down to 1 m. Above ground, the stems trail or climb by twining. Stems slender, to 1.5 m long, twining anticlockwise, glabrous or finely pubescent. Leaves alternate, petiolate, variable in shape, lanceolate or ovate to narrow-oblong, 1.2-5.0 cm long, acute at the apex, entire but often hastate-sagittate at the base, glabrous or pubescent with scattered crisped hairs. Flowers axillary, solitary or in cymes 2-3 on peduncles subequal to the subtending leaf; bracteoles linear, 2-4 mm long. Sepals free, obtuse, 2.5-4.5 mm long. Corolla funnel-shaped, pentamerous with 5 radial pubescent bands but not divided into distinct lobes, 10-25 mm long, 10-25 mm diameter, white or pink. Stamens 5, inserted on corolla tube. Style single with two oblong stigmas. Ovary two-celled. Fruit a capsule, globular to ovoid with a persistent style base, breaking open irregularly. Seeds usually 4, compressed-globose, 3-5 mm diameter; testa granular, dark-brown or black.

Distribution

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C. arvensis is native to Eurasia and is widely distributed in temperate and tropical regions throughout the world. C. arvensis may be found between 60°N and 45°S (Discover Life, 2016). It should be noted that its non-appearance in the accompanying "Distribution Table" is not a firm indication of its absence in a country. Rather, it is an indication that the literature that has been surveyed for this Compendium has not revealed a record of its presence.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

CountryDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferencesNotes

ASIA

AfghanistanRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014
ArmeniaPresentIvanova et al., 1975
ChinaWidespreadWang & Kok, 1985; Hongyuan et al., 1989
Georgia (Republic of)PresentGiorgadze et al., 1988
IndiaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-Andhra PradeshPresentChandra et al., 1973
-Jammu and KashmirPresentKaul, 1983
IndonesiaRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014
IranRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; Gharabadiyan et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014
IraqRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014
IsraelRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014
JapanRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014
JordanRestricted distributionSaghir, 1977; EPPO, 2014
KazakhstanPresentTyurebaev, 1981
LebanonRestricted distributionMuhammad-Da'u & Al-Saghir, 1986; EPPO, 2014
MalaysiaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
MyanmarPresentHolm et al., 1977
PakistanPresentHolm et al., 1977; Kamran et al., 2015
PhilippinesRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014
Saudi ArabiaPresentHolm et al., 1977
Sri LankaRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014
SyriaPresentHolm et al., 1977
TajikistanPresentTurakulov, 1972
ThailandPresentHolm et al., 1977
TurkeyRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014
United Arab EmiratesPresentSaghir et al., 1993
UzbekistanPresentEgamberdiev & Suleimanov, 1985
YemenPresentWalter, 1981

AFRICA

Congo Democratic RepublicRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014
EgyptRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014
EthiopiaPresentKinfe & Unger, 1985
KenyaPresentMulamula et al., 1980
MoroccoRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014
NigeriaPresentSalawu & Afolabi, 1994
South AfricaRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014
SpainStace, 1972; EPPO, 2014
-Canary IslandsPresentStace, 1972
SwazilandPresentHolm et al., 1979
TunisiaRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014
UgandaRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014

NORTH AMERICA

CanadaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-AlbertaPresentHolm et al., 1977
-British ColumbiaPresentHolm et al., 1977
-ManitobaPresentHolm et al., 1977
-OntarioPresentHolm et al., 1977
-QuebecPresentHolm et al., 1977
-SaskatchewanPresentHolm et al., 1977
MexicoRestricted distributionTamayo-Esquer & Gaillardon, 1989; EPPO, 2014
USAWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-AlabamaPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-ArizonaPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-ArkansasPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-CaliforniaPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-ColoradoPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-ConnecticutPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-DelawarePresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-GeorgiaPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-HawaiiPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; EPPO, 2014
-IdahoPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-IllinoisPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-IndianaPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-IowaPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-KansasPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-KentuckyPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-LouisianaPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-MainePresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-MarylandPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-MassachusettsPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-MichiganPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-MinnesotaPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-MississippiPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-MissouriPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-MontanaPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-NebraskaPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-NevadaPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-New HampshirePresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-New JerseyPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-New MexicoPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-New YorkPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-North CarolinaPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-North DakotaPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-OhioPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-OklahomaPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-OregonPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-PennsylvaniaPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-Rhode IslandPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-South CarolinaPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-South DakotaPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-TennesseePresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-TexasPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-UtahPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-VermontPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-VirginiaPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-WashingtonPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-West VirginiaPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-WisconsinPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
-WyomingPresentLorenzi & Jeffery, 1987

SOUTH AMERICA

ArgentinaRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; Istilart, 2005; EPPO, 2014
BrazilRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014
ChileRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014
PeruRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014
UruguayRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014

EUROPE

AlbaniaPresentStace, 1972
AndorraPresentStace, 1972
AustriaPresentStace, 1972
BelarusPresentStace, 1972
BelgiumRestricted distributionStace, 1972; EPPO, 2014
Bosnia-HercegovinaPresentStace, 1972
BulgariaWidespread****Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014
CroatiaPresentStace, 1972
CyprusPresentAmericanos, 1982
Czech RepublicPresentStace, 1972; EPPO, 2014
Czechoslovakia (former)Widespread****Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014
DenmarkPresentStace, 1972
EstoniaPresentStace, 1972
FinlandRestricted distributionStace, 1972; EPPO, 2014
FranceRestricted distributionStace, 1972; EPPO, 2014
-CorsicaPresentStace, 1972
GermanyWidespread****Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014
GreeceRestricted distributionStace, 1972; EPPO, 2014
HungaryWidespread****Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014
IcelandRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
IrelandPresentStace, 1972
ItalyPresentStace, 1972
LatviaPresentStace, 1972
LiechtensteinPresentStace, 1972
LithuaniaPresentStace, 1972
LuxembourgPresentStace, 1972
MacedoniaPresentStace, 1972
MaltaPresentStace, 1972
MoldovaPresentStace, 1972
MonacoPresentStace, 1972
NetherlandsPresentStace, 1972
NorwayPresentStace, 1972
PolandRestricted distributionStace, 1972; EPPO, 2014
PortugalWidespreadStace, 1972; EPPO, 2014
-AzoresPresentStace, 1972
-MadeiraPresentStace, 1972
RomaniaRestricted distributionStace, 1972; EPPO, 2014
Russian FederationRestricted distributionStace, 1972; EPPO, 2014
-Russia (Europe)PresentHolm et al., 1977
-SiberiaPresentNesterova & Chukanova, 1981
San MarinoPresentStace, 1972
SerbiaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
SlovakiaPresentStace, 1972
SloveniaPresentStace, 1972
SpainRestricted distributionStace, 1972; EPPO, 2014
-Balearic IslandsPresentStace, 1972
SwedenPresentStace, 1972
SwitzerlandWidespreadStace, 1972; EPPO, 2014
UKWidespread****Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014
-Channel IslandsPresentStace, 1972
UkrainePresentStace, 1972
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Restricted distributionStace, 1972

OCEANIA

AustraliaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-New South WalesWidespreadParsons & Cuthbertson, 1992
-QueenslandRestricted distributionParsons & Cuthbertson, 1992
-South AustraliaWidespreadParsons & Cuthbertson, 1992
-TasmaniaWidespreadParsons & Cuthbertson, 1992
-VictoriaWidespreadParsons & Cuthbertson, 1992
-Western AustraliaWidespreadParsons & Cuthbertson, 1992
New ZealandRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014

History of Introduction and Spread

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There are very few reports detailing the introduction of C. arvensis outside of its native range. However, it has been suggested that it was most likely introduced into the USA as a contaminant of seeds (both agricultural and horticultural) (National Park Service, 2016).

Risk of Introduction

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C. arvensis is generally present all over the world, but it is not a major weed in most of these areas (Holm et al., 1977). C. arvensis produced a large number of seed which can remain viable for up to 20 years. These seeds are dispersed locally by water but they may also accidentally be introduced with the movement of seedstocks in commerce, and by clinging to mud on farm vehicles. As such, it is likely that the distribution of this species is likely to increase.

Habitat

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C. arvensis occupies disturbed and cleared ground. It is a major weed of field crops, (e.g. in wheat, barley, maize, legumes and sugar beet), of pastures and of horticulture (in vegetables, vineyards, and tree crops).

Hosts/Species Affected

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Annual crops such as cereals and grain legumes are particularly susceptible, and it is also widely reported as a troublesome weed in vineyards. Holm et al. (1977) also list C. arvensis as a weed of sugarbeet, cotton, tobacco, tea, potato, orchards, pineapples, vegetables, flax and lucerne.

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

C. arvensis has been reported as having a chromosome number of 2n=24, 48, 50, 78 (IPCN Chromosome Reports, 2015).

Reproductive Biology

C. arvensis reproduces by producing seeds which may remain dormant in the soil for longer periods of time (20 years or more) (Holm et al., 1977; Americanos, 1994). It has been suggested that one plant may produce up to 500 seeds (Texas Invasives, 2016). Plants can also spread vegetatively from underground rhizome. It has been reported that a single plant may spread outward more than three meters in one growing season (National Parks Service, 2016). It is possible for root fragments as small as 5 cm to regenerate and produce new shoots (Texas Invasives, 2016).

Physiology and Phenology

Seeds germinate throughout the year if moisture is adequate but there are peaks of germination in spring, early summer and autumn. Plants grow rapidly as the weather becomes warmer, developing 15-20 leaves in the first month and an extensive root system (to a depth of 2 m) within about 7 months, which enables plants to persist despite cultivation and moisture stress. Plants may not flower in the first year but develop numerous lateral roots. Aerial growth dies off in autumn with the onset of cold weather and new growth from roots and crowns occurs in spring, with plants flowering from late spring through summer and sometimes into autumn. Seed set is variable and favoured by dry, sunny conditions; in cool weather or on waterlogged soil flowering is restricted and fruit often contain no viable seed (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992). C. arvensis has 'hard' seeds which, when fresh, require scarification and later require alternating temperatures. A large proportion of seeds will remain dormant in the soil seed bank (Texas Invasives, 2016).

C. arvensis produces a deep perennial root system with the ability to compete vigorously with crops for moisture and nutrients.

Environmental Requirements

C. arvensis has been reported to grow best in areas with moderate to good rainfall, with well drained soils, however, it can also tolerate periods of drought (Texas Invasives, 2016).

Soil Tolerances

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Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Natural Enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aceria chondrillaeHerbivore
Aceria malherbaeHerbivoreStems/Leavesto speciesUSA and Canada
Chelymorpha cassideaHerbivoreLeavesnot specificspecific to Convolvulaceae
Chiridea gutataHerbivoreLeavesnot specificspecific to Convolvulaceae
Erisyphe convolvuliPathogen
Fusarium pallidoroseumPathogen
Galeruca rufaHerbivoreLeavesto speciesSpecific to C arvensis and Calystegia sepium
Helcystogramma lamprostomaHerbivore
Hypocassida subferrugineaHerbivoreLeavesto genusSpecific to Convolvulus spp. and Calystegia spp.
Longitarsus pellucidusHerbivoreLeaves/Rootsto genus
Melanagromyza albociliaHerbivoreStems/Rootsto speciesPotentially specific
Melanagromyza convollvuliHerbivoreStemsnot specific
Metriona purpurataHerbivore
Phoma proboscisPathogen
Phoma sepium f.sp. arvensiPathogen
Phomopsis convolvulusPathogenLeaves
Sharpia bellaHerbivore
Spermophagus sericeusHerbivoreSeeds/Inflorescenceto speciesSpecific to Convolvulus spp. And Calystegia spp.
Tyta luctuosaHerbivoreLeavesto species
Xanthomonas campestris pv. convolvuliPathogen
Zenodoxus brosiformisHerbivore

Notes on Natural Enemies

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A considerable range of species are hosted by C. arvensis, many of them highly polyphagous (Mohyuddin, 1969a; Mohyuddin, 1969b; Baloch, 1974). This range of natural enemies must have some effect on control of the weed species within the original range of C. arvensis but their effect in controlling the competitiveness of the species does not appear to be well documented. There are several lists of European natural enemies of C. arvensis and evaluations of their potential as biological control agents (Rosenthal, 1980; Rosenthal and Buckingham, 1982; Wang and Kok, 1985). Toth and Cagan (2005) established an extensive list of organisms associated with the family Convolvulaceae worldwide and their potential as biological control agents. The List of Natural Enemies comprises species specialized on Convolvulaceae, but is not exhaustive.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Seeds of C. arvensis naturally fall from the plant to the ground below. They may then be dispersed greater distances by water. It is also possible for plants to spread locally from underground rhizomes.

Vector Transmission

C. arvensis seeds are consumed by birds and may then be dispersed to new locations.

Accidental Introduction

It is possible for the seeds of C. arvensis to be dispersed accidentally as a result of agricultural practices, the movement of vehicles, equipment and seeds (both agricultural crops or horticultural).

Economic Impact

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C. arvensis can cause economic losses by decreasing yield of agricultural and horticultural crops. This is done by competing for light and nutrients and even choking crops as it rapidly grows. Annual crops such as cereals and grain legumes appear particularly susceptible to yield loss from C. arvensis with yield reductions of 20-80% recorded (Phillips and Timmons, 1954; Black et al., 1994). It is also widely reported as a troublesome weed in vineyards. C. arvensis has the ability to seriously impede harvesting of annual crops, because the crop becomes entangled with the twining stems. In addition, C. arvensis plants can harbour the viruses that cause potato virus X disease, tomato spotted wilt and vaccinium false bottom (DiTomaso and Healy, 2006).

Environmental Impact

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C. arvensis grows rapidly and will compete with native vegetation for nutrients, moisture, space and light. Plants will climb neighbouring plants and as a result alter habitats and decrease the biodiversity of an area (Bio-EAFRINET, 2016).

The foliage of C. arvensis contains alkaloids that can cause intestinal problems in horses grazing on heavily infested pastures (Todd et al., 1995).

Uses

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C. arvensis has a number of medicinal properties and resins from the root may act as a diuretic and a laxative and tea made from leaves may be used to treat fevers and wounds (PFAF, 2016). The plant is also used as a flavouring in a liqueur (PFAF, 2016). 

Uses List

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Human food and beverage

  • Leaves (for beverage)

Materials

  • Dyestuffs

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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C. arvensis is similar in appearance to a number of species within the same genus. However, they can be distinguished from them fairly easily. For example, Convolvulus siculus has flower petals which are white or tinged bluish-lilac, about 6 mm long, C. farinosus has shorter petals 11-16 mm long, white in colour and tinged pinkish purple (the petals of C. arvensis grow to 20 mm) whilst C. sagittatus has much shorter petals 9mm long, white in colour to pink with purple centre (Bio-EAFRINET, 2016).

In the USA, Polygonum convolvulus may also be mistaken for C. arvensis however, its leaves are more pointed (National Park Service, 2016).

Prevention and Control

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Prevention

SPS Measures

C. arvensis is the subject of legislative control in several countries, which can include prohibitions on movement of the plant or produce contaminated by propagules of the plant (Genn, 1987). Parsons and Cuthbertson (1992) report that C. arvensis is declared as a proclaimed weed under legislation in several states in Australia. Depending on the legislation and category of declaration, the weed is subject to prohibition of sale and of movement of propagules (either on its own or as a contaminant of agricultural produce). It is also a weed banned from importation into Australia under national legislation. C. arvensis is considered a noxious weed in most of US states where it is prohibited in some of them (USDA-NRCS, 2016). It is also reported as a noxious weed in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda (BioNET-EAFRINET, 2016).

Control

Cultural Control

Sheep and cattle (Sa'ad, 1967) readily graze C. arvensis. The weed does not generally appear to be a problem in areas frequently grazed by ruminants. If animals constantly remove the foliage, and thus the source of photosynthates for the perennial root system, it follows that the weed will be controlled in the longer term. However, there are reports that feeding on C. arvensis can adversely affect the health of stock (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992) but these appear to be very sporadic.

Cultivation / Mechanical Control

Phillips and Timmons (1954) carried out research which showed that C. arvensis could be eliminated within two seasons with careful cultivation practices, provided all aerial shoots were cut completely within 12 days of emergence. The weed could be eliminated with an average of 16 cultivations. Timmons and Bruns (1951) showed no practical advantage in cultivating deeper than 7.5-10 cm, but that the interval between cultivations could be lengthened to three weeks with deeper compared to shallow cultivation. Again, excellent control was obtained after two seasons (Holm et al., 1977). Shallow cultivation implements using normal cropping practices (one to two cultivations in autumn) do little but spread C. arvensis and increase the density of shoots emerging in spring (Schweitzer et al., 1988). Fragments of roots as small as 5 cm can regenerate (Swan and Chancellor, 1976). Therefore, if cultivation is to be used to successfully control the weed, it has to be frequent, thorough and persistent during the time that stems emerge. A minimum of two seasons appear to be necessary for a satisfactory outcome.

Biological Control

Rosenthal and Buckingham (1982) state that a European survey indicates that 140 species of insects, three mites and three fungi are associated with C. arvensis.

The pathogen Phomopsis convolvulus has been found to have some potential as a mycoherbicide for control of C. arvensis (Ormeno-Nunez et al., 1988; Vogelsgang et al., 1998; Morin et al., 1989).

In the 1970s, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) initiated a programme for the biological control of field bindweed; two biological control agents have been released in North America so far. The gall mite Aceria malherbae (Acari: Eriophyidae) was released in Texas in 1989 and has been redistributed since in several US states and in Canada (Boldt and Sobhian, 1993; McClay et al., 1999). In heavily infested plants, the shoots are distorted and growth is severely stunted. However, establishment and impact under field conditions are variable and appear to depend on moisture levels. Effective control of C. arvensis with A. malherbae also requires additional management such as regular mowing and redistribution of mites. The bindweed moth Tyta luctuosa (Lep.: Noctuidae) was released in 1987. Establishment was reported from Colorado, Oregon, Utah and Washington (McClay and De Clerck-Floate, 2013; Pacific Northwest Moths, 2015) and reports from Oregon suggest that it has had a low impact (Andreas et al., 2015).

In 2008 a new programme was initiated and additional potential agents were selected for screening at CABI in Switzerland. Experiment found the flea beetle Longitarsus rubiginosus (Col.: Chrysomelidae) and Longitarsus pellucidus not suitable as a biocontrol agents and the agromyzid fly Melanagromyza albocilia (Dipt.: Agromyzidae) proved difficult to rear in the lab (open-field tests are necessary to further assess the host specificity of this fly). The defoliating moth Emmelia trabealis (Lep.: Noctuidae) and the tortoise beetle Hypocassida subferruginea (Col.: Chrysomelidae) were selected for preliminary open-field tests. However, results were of such study were inconclusive and need to be repeated and additional tests in the lab with critical test species (e.g. sweet potato) would be necessary. Given the presence of other defoliating herbivores on C. arvensis in North America, investigations on natural enemies that attack other parts of the plant would be more fruitful. Attacking the root system will be critical to the successful control of the plant.

Chemical Control

Control of seedling C. arvensis and shoots emerged from perennial rootstock is quite effective using a number of widely available herbicides at normal rates. For example picloram, 2,4-D, MCPA, dicamba and glyphosate (Wiese and Lavake, 1985; Westra et al., 1992; Matic and Black, 1994; USDA-FS, 2016). Trifluralin at relatively high rates also gives short-term control (Warner et al., 1974). Longer-term control of the perennial root system is much more difficult and only appears possible with high rates of herbicides such as glyphosate (Wiese and Lavake, 1985), imazapyr (Schoenhals et al., 1990; Heering and Peeper, 1991; Matic and Black, 1994) and picloram plus 2,4-D (Humburg et al., 1981; Alcock and Dickinson, 1974). Application of the latter two chemicals results in persistent soil residues over a considerable period, which restricts cropping. Personal communications and literature references indicate that programmes based on persistent use of 2,4-D or MCPA for at least 5 years also appears to have controlled the perennial root system. Herbicide efficacy appears to vary from region to region and may be due to differences in the relative susceptibility of clones of C. arvensis (Whitworth and Muzik, 1967; DeGennaro and Weller, 1984) or variations in climate between regions (Meyer, 1978; Sherrick et al., 1986). It also varies according to the timing of application of the herbicide (Davison and Bailey, 1974).

References

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Contributors

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19/12/2016 Updated by:

Ghislaine Cortat, CABI-CH, Switzerland

Distribution Maps

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Distribution map Andorra: Present
Stace, 1972United Arab Emirates: Present
Saghir et al., 1993United Arab Emirates: Present
Saghir et al., 1993Afghanistan: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Albania: Present
Stace, 1972Armenia: Present
Ivanova et al., 1975Armenia: Present
Ivanova et al., 1975Argentina: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; Istilart, 2005; EPPO, 2014Austria: Present
Stace, 1972Australia: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014Australia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryBosnia-Hercegovina: Present
Stace, 1972Belgium: Restricted distribution
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014Bulgaria: Widespread
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014Brazil: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Belarus: Present
Stace, 1972Canada: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014Canada
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada
See regional map for distribution within the countrySwitzerland: Widespread
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014Chile: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014China: Widespread
Wang & Kok, 1985; Hongyuan et al., 1989China: Widespread
Wang & Kok, 1985; Hongyuan et al., 1989Czechoslovakia (former): Widespread
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014Cyprus: Present
Americanos, 1982Cyprus: Present
Americanos, 1982Czech Republic: Present
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014Germany: Widespread
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014Denmark: Present
Stace, 1972Estonia: Present
Stace, 1972Egypt: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Spain: Restricted distribution
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014Spain: Restricted distribution
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014Spain
See regional map for distribution within the countrySpain
See regional map for distribution within the countryEthiopia: Present
Kinfe & Unger, 1985Finland: Restricted distribution
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014France: Restricted distribution
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014France
See regional map for distribution within the countryUK: Widespread
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014UK
See regional map for distribution within the countryGeorgia (Republic of): Present
Giorgadze et al., 1988Georgia (Republic of): Present
Giorgadze et al., 1988Greece: Restricted distribution
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014Greece: Restricted distribution
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014Croatia: Present
Stace, 1972Hungary: Widespread
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014Indonesia: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Indonesia: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Ireland: Present
Stace, 1972Israel: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Israel: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014India: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014India
See regional map for distribution within the countryIndia
See regional map for distribution within the countryIraq: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Iraq: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Iraq: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Iran: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; Gharabadiyan et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014Iran: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; Gharabadiyan et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014Iran: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; Gharabadiyan et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014Iceland: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014Iceland: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014Italy: Present
Stace, 1972Jordan: Restricted distribution
Saghir, 1977; EPPO, 2014Jordan: Restricted distribution
Saghir, 1977; EPPO, 2014Japan: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Kenya: Present
Mulamula et al., 1980Kazakhstan: Present
Tyurebaev, 1981Kazakhstan: Present
Tyurebaev, 1981Lebanon: Restricted distribution
Muhammad-Da'u & Al-Saghir, 1986; EPPO, 2014Lebanon: Restricted distribution
Muhammad-Da'u & Al-Saghir, 1986; EPPO, 2014Lebanon: Restricted distribution
Muhammad-Da'u & Al-Saghir, 1986; EPPO, 2014Liechtenstein: Present
Stace, 1972Sri Lanka: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Lithuania: Present
Stace, 1972Luxembourg: Present
Stace, 1972Latvia: Present
Stace, 1972Morocco: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Morocco: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Monaco: Present
Stace, 1972Moldova: Present
Stace, 1972Macedonia: Present
Stace, 1972Myanmar: Present
Holm et al., 1977Malta: Present
Stace, 1972Malta: Present
Stace, 1972Mexico: Restricted distribution
Tamayo-Esquer & Gaillardon, 1989; EPPO, 2014Mexico: Restricted distribution
Tamayo-Esquer & Gaillardon, 1989; EPPO, 2014Malaysia: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014Nigeria: Present
Salawu & Afolabi, 1994Netherlands: Present
Stace, 1972Norway: Present
Stace, 1972New Zealand: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Peru: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Philippines: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Philippines: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Pakistan: Present
Holm et al., 1977; Kamran et al., 2015Poland: Restricted distribution
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014Portugal: Widespread
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014Portugal
See regional map for distribution within the countryPortugal
See regional map for distribution within the countryPortugal
See regional map for distribution within the countryRomania: Restricted distribution
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014Serbia: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014Russian Federation: Restricted distribution
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014Russian Federation: Restricted distribution
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014Russian Federation
See regional map for distribution within the countryRussian Federation
See regional map for distribution within the countrySaudi Arabia: Present
Holm et al., 1977Saudi Arabia: Present
Holm et al., 1977Sweden: Present
Stace, 1972Slovenia: Present
Stace, 1972Slovakia: Present
Stace, 1972San Marino: Present
Stace, 1972Syria: Present
Holm et al., 1977Syria: Present
Holm et al., 1977Syria: Present
Holm et al., 1977Swaziland: Present
Holm et al., 1979Thailand: Present
Holm et al., 1977Tajikistan: Present
Turakulov, 1972Tunisia: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Tunisia: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Turkey: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Turkey: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Turkey: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Ukraine: Present
Stace, 1972Ukraine: Present
Stace, 1972Uganda: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014USA: Widespread
EPPO, 2014USA: Widespread
EPPO, 2014USA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUruguay: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Uzbekistan: Present
Egamberdiev & Suleimanov, 1985Yemen: Present
Walter, 1981Yemen: Present
Walter, 1981Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro): Restricted distribution
Stace, 1972South Africa: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Congo Democratic Republic: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014
  • = Present, no further details
  • = Evidence of pathogen
  • = Widespread
  • = Last reported
  • = Localised
  • = Presence unconfirmed
  • = Confined and subject to quarantine
  • = See regional map for distribution within the country
  • = Occasional or few reports
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Distribution map (asia) United Arab Emirates: Present
Saghir et al., 1993Afghanistan: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Armenia: Present
Ivanova et al., 1975China: Widespread
Wang & Kok, 1985; Hongyuan et al., 1989Georgia (Republic of): Present
Giorgadze et al., 1988Indonesia: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Israel: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014India: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014Andhra Pradesh: Present
Chandra et al., 1973Jammu and Kashmir: Present
Kaul, 1983Iraq: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Iran: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; Gharabadiyan et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014Jordan: Restricted distribution
Saghir, 1977; EPPO, 2014Japan: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Kazakhstan: Present
Tyurebaev, 1981Lebanon: Restricted distribution
Muhammad-Da'u & Al-Saghir, 1986; EPPO, 2014Sri Lanka: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Myanmar: Present
Holm et al., 1977Malaysia: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014Philippines: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Pakistan: Present
Holm et al., 1977; Kamran et al., 2015Russian Federation: Restricted distribution
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014Saudi Arabia: Present
Holm et al., 1977Syria: Present
Holm et al., 1977Thailand: Present
Holm et al., 1977Tajikistan: Present
Turakulov, 1972Turkey: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Ukraine: Present
Stace, 1972Uzbekistan: Present
Egamberdiev & Suleimanov, 1985Yemen: Present
Walter, 1981
Distribution map (europe) Andorra: Present
Stace, 1972Albania: Present
Stace, 1972Armenia: Present
Ivanova et al., 1975Austria: Present
Stace, 1972Bosnia-Hercegovina: Present
Stace, 1972Belgium: Restricted distribution
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014Bulgaria: Widespread
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014Belarus: Present
Stace, 1972Switzerland: Widespread
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014Czechoslovakia (former): Widespread
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014Cyprus: Present
Americanos, 1982Czech Republic: Present
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014Germany: Widespread
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014Denmark: Present
Stace, 1972Estonia: Present
Stace, 1972Spain: Restricted distribution
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014Balearic Islands: Present
Stace, 1972Finland: Restricted distribution
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014France: Restricted distribution
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014Corsica: Present
Stace, 1972UK: Widespread
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014Channel Islands: Present
Stace, 1972Georgia (Republic of): Present
Giorgadze et al., 1988Greece: Restricted distribution
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014Croatia: Present
Stace, 1972Hungary: Widespread
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014Ireland: Present
Stace, 1972Iraq: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Iran: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; Gharabadiyan et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014Iceland: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014Italy: Present
Stace, 1972Kazakhstan: Present
Tyurebaev, 1981Lebanon: Restricted distribution
Muhammad-Da'u & Al-Saghir, 1986; EPPO, 2014Liechtenstein: Present
Stace, 1972Lithuania: Present
Stace, 1972Luxembourg: Present
Stace, 1972Latvia: Present
Stace, 1972Morocco: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Monaco: Present
Stace, 1972Moldova: Present
Stace, 1972Macedonia: Present
Stace, 1972Malta: Present
Stace, 1972Netherlands: Present
Stace, 1972Norway: Present
Stace, 1972Poland: Restricted distribution
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014Portugal: Widespread
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014Azores: Present
Stace, 1972Madeira: Present
Stace, 1972Romania: Restricted distribution
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014Serbia: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014Russian Federation: Restricted distribution
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014Russia (Europe): Present
Holm et al., 1977Siberia: Present
Nesterova & Chukanova, 1981Sweden: Present
Stace, 1972Slovenia: Present
Stace, 1972Slovakia: Present
Stace, 1972San Marino: Present
Stace, 1972Syria: Present
Holm et al., 1977Tunisia: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Turkey: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Ukraine: Present
Stace, 1972Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro): Restricted distribution
Stace, 1972
Distribution map (africa) United Arab Emirates: Present
Saghir et al., 1993Cyprus: Present
Americanos, 1982Egypt: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Spain: Restricted distribution
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014Canary Islands: Present
Stace, 1972Ethiopia: Present
Kinfe & Unger, 1985Greece: Restricted distribution
Stace, 1972; EPPO, 2014Israel: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Iraq: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Iran: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; Gharabadiyan et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014Jordan: Restricted distribution
Saghir, 1977; EPPO, 2014Kenya: Present
Mulamula et al., 1980Lebanon: Restricted distribution
Muhammad-Da'u & Al-Saghir, 1986; EPPO, 2014Morocco: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Malta: Present
Stace, 1972Nigeria: Present
Salawu & Afolabi, 1994Madeira: Present
Stace, 1972Saudi Arabia: Present
Holm et al., 1977Syria: Present
Holm et al., 1977Swaziland: Present
Holm et al., 1979Tunisia: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Turkey: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Uganda: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Yemen: Present
Walter, 1981South Africa: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Congo Democratic Republic: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014
Distribution map (north america) Canada: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014Alberta: Present
Holm et al., 1977British Columbia: Present
Holm et al., 1977Manitoba: Present
Holm et al., 1977Ontario: Present
Holm et al., 1977Quebec: Present
Holm et al., 1977Saskatchewan: Present
Holm et al., 1977Iceland: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014Mexico: Restricted distribution
Tamayo-Esquer & Gaillardon, 1989; EPPO, 2014USA: Widespread
EPPO, 2014Alabama: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Arkansas: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Arizona: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987California: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Colorado: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Connecticut: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Delaware: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Georgia: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Hawaii: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987; EPPO, 2014Iowa: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Idaho: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Illinois: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Indiana: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Kansas: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Kentucky: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Louisiana: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Massachusetts: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Maryland: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Maine: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Michigan: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Minnesota: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Missouri: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Mississippi: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Montana: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987North Carolina: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987North Dakota: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Nebraska: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987New Hampshire: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987New Jersey: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987New Mexico: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Nevada: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987New York: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Ohio: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Oklahoma: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Oregon: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Pennsylvania: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Rhode Island: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987South Carolina: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987South Dakota: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Tennessee: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Texas: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Utah: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Virginia: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Vermont: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Washington: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Wisconsin: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987West Virginia: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987Wyoming: Present
Lorenzi & Jeffery, 1987
Distribution map (central america) Mexico: Restricted distribution
Tamayo-Esquer & Gaillardon, 1989; EPPO, 2014USA: Widespread
EPPO, 2014
Distribution map (south america) Argentina: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; Istilart, 2005; EPPO, 2014Brazil: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Chile: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Peru: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Uruguay: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014
Distribution map (pacific) Australia: Restricted distribution
EPPO, 2014New South Wales: Widespread
Parsons & Cuthbertson, 1992Queensland: Restricted distribution
Parsons & Cuthbertson, 1992South Australia: Widespread
Parsons & Cuthbertson, 1992Tasmania: Widespread
Parsons & Cuthbertson, 1992Victoria: Widespread
Parsons & Cuthbertson, 1992Western Australia: Widespread
Parsons & Cuthbertson, 1992China: Widespread
Wang & Kok, 1985; Hongyuan et al., 1989Indonesia: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014New Zealand: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014Philippines: Restricted distribution
Holm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014