Cookies on Invasive Species Compendium

Like most websites we use cookies. This is to ensure that we give you the best experience possible.

Continuing to use www.cabi.org means you agree to our use of cookies. If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use.

Datasheet

Clidemia hirta (Koster's curse)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Clidemia hirta
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Koster's curse
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. hirta is a small shrub producing vast amounts of seeds that produce a large seed bank. Although the plant can grow in relatively shaded conditions, sexual reproduction only occurs in more favourable light re...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Clidemia hirta (Koster's curse); flowers, fruit, and leaves. Waihee Ridge Trail, Maui. July, 2011.
TitleHabit on trail
CaptionClidemia hirta (Koster's curse); flowers, fruit, and leaves. Waihee Ridge Trail, Maui. July, 2011.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2011 - CC BY 3.0
Clidemia hirta (Koster's curse); flowers, fruit, and leaves. Waihee Ridge Trail, Maui. July, 2011.
Habit on trailClidemia hirta (Koster's curse); flowers, fruit, and leaves. Waihee Ridge Trail, Maui. July, 2011.©Forest & Kim Starr-2011 - CC BY 3.0
Clidemia hirta (Koster's curse); habit, showing leaves. Makamakaole, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2011.
TitleHabit, showing leaves
CaptionClidemia hirta (Koster's curse); habit, showing leaves. Makamakaole, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2011.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2011 - CC BY 3.0
Clidemia hirta (Koster's curse); habit, showing leaves. Makamakaole, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2011.
Habit, showing leavesClidemia hirta (Koster's curse); habit, showing leaves. Makamakaole, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2011.©Forest & Kim Starr-2011 - CC BY 3.0
Clidemia hirta (Koster's curse); flowers, fruit and leaves. West Poelua West Maui, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May, 2009.
TitleFlowers, fruit and leaves
CaptionClidemia hirta (Koster's curse); flowers, fruit and leaves. West Poelua West Maui, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May, 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 3.0
Clidemia hirta (Koster's curse); flowers, fruit and leaves. West Poelua West Maui, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May, 2009.
Flowers, fruit and leavesClidemia hirta (Koster's curse); flowers, fruit and leaves. West Poelua West Maui, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May, 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 3.0
Clidemia hirta (Koster's curse); fruit and leaves. Hamakua Coast, Hawaii, USA. July, 2012.
TitleFruit and leaves
CaptionClidemia hirta (Koster's curse); fruit and leaves. Hamakua Coast, Hawaii, USA. July, 2012.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2012 - CC BY 3.0
Clidemia hirta (Koster's curse); fruit and leaves. Hamakua Coast, Hawaii, USA. July, 2012.
Fruit and leavesClidemia hirta (Koster's curse); fruit and leaves. Hamakua Coast, Hawaii, USA. July, 2012.©Forest & Kim Starr-2012 - CC BY 3.0
Clidemia hirta (Koster's curse); habit, note tall stems on left. Makamakaole, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2011.
TitleHabit
CaptionClidemia hirta (Koster's curse); habit, note tall stems on left. Makamakaole, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2011.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2011 - CC BY 3.0
Clidemia hirta (Koster's curse); habit, note tall stems on left. Makamakaole, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2011.
HabitClidemia hirta (Koster's curse); habit, note tall stems on left. Makamakaole, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2011.©Forest & Kim Starr-2011 - CC BY 3.0
Clidemia hirta (Kostner's curse); opposite leaves (up to 15 cm long x 8 cm wide) have prominent veins and are dark green. Most plant parts, including stems, leaves and calyx, are hairy. Several small white or pink flowers are borne on axillary or terminal cymes.
TitleLeaf and flower
CaptionClidemia hirta (Kostner's curse); opposite leaves (up to 15 cm long x 8 cm wide) have prominent veins and are dark green. Most plant parts, including stems, leaves and calyx, are hairy. Several small white or pink flowers are borne on axillary or terminal cymes.
Copyright©Colin Wilson
Clidemia hirta (Kostner's curse); opposite leaves (up to 15 cm long x 8 cm wide) have prominent veins and are dark green. Most plant parts, including stems, leaves and calyx, are hairy. Several small white or pink flowers are borne on axillary or terminal cymes.
Leaf and flowerClidemia hirta (Kostner's curse); opposite leaves (up to 15 cm long x 8 cm wide) have prominent veins and are dark green. Most plant parts, including stems, leaves and calyx, are hairy. Several small white or pink flowers are borne on axillary or terminal cymes. ©Colin Wilson

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Clidemia hirta (L.) D. Don

Preferred Common Name

  • Koster's curse

Other Scientific Names

  • Clidemia benthamiana Miq.
  • Clidemia elegans (Aublet) D. Don
  • Maieta hirta (L.) M. Gomez
  • Melastoma elegans Aublet
  • Melastoma hirtum L.
  • Staphidium benthamianum Naudin
  • Staphidium elegans (Aubl.) Naudin

International Common Names

  • Portuguese: caiuia; pixirica
  • Spanish: camasey; camasey peludo; cordoban; nigua; sietecueros
  • French: canot-macaque; herbe-côtelletes; herbecrécré; Mélastome élégant; Mélastome poilu
  • English: curse; hairy clidemia; soap bush; soapbush

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: caiuia
  • Cuba: cordobán; cordobán peludo
  • Dominican Republic: friega platos; pega-pollo
  • Fiji: bona na bulamakau; kaurasinga; kauresinga; Koster's curse; mara na bulumakau; mbona na mbulamakau; ndraunisinga; roinisinga; vuti
  • Germany: Hirten-Schwarzmundgewaechs
  • Haiti: guéri vite; jau-jau
  • Lesser Antilles: bon bon mél; bonbon bleu; kak mél
  • Madagascar: manzana; mazambôdy
  • Martinique: bonbon bleu; herbe à cré cré
  • Micronesia, Federated states of: riahpen rot (Pohnpei)
  • Palau: kui
  • Samoa: la'au lau mamoe
  • Singapore: hairy Clidemia

EPPO code

  • CXAHI (Clidemia hirta)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

C. hirta is a small shrub producing vast amounts of seeds that produce a large seed bank. Although the plant can grow in relatively shaded conditions, sexual reproduction only occurs in more favourable light regimes such as tree fall gaps. Formerly, it was only considered as a pasture or crop weed but in recent decades it has become a major weed of natural forest communities. It may produce large quantities of seedlings with low mortality and is now viewed as a threat to native biodiversity in much of the tropics, but on the oceanic islands in particular.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Myrtales
  •                         Family: Melastomataceae
  •                             Genus: Clidemia
  •                                 Species: Clidemia hirta

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Varieties of C. hirta have been described, with var. hirta and var. elegans introduced to Hawaii and the Seychelles, respectively.

Description

Top of page

C. hirta forms a densely-branched perennial shrub up to 5 m tall but normally between 0.5 and 3 m. In windy areas, it is scrambling and is less than 1 m tall. The opposite leaves (up to 15 cm long and 8 cm wide) have prominent veins and are dark green. Most plant parts, including stems, leaves and calyx, are hairy. The flowers, 0.5-1 cm across, have white or pink petals and are borne on short pedicels in axillary or terminal cymes of 6-20 flowers. The fruits (berries) are borne in clusters and turn from green to blue-black or deep purple as they mature. Fresh fruits in Puerto Rico weighed about 0.2 g each and 1000 air-dried seeds weighed 3.83 g (Mune and Parham, 1967; Wickens, 1975; Francis, 2004).

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Woody

Distribution

Top of page

C. hirta originated in Central and South America, where it is still widely distributed. It is also native to the Caribbean islands (Wester and Wood, 1977). However, limits to the native range remain unclear, with USDA-ARS (2007) noting nativity from Mexico to Paraguay, though not including a number of countries such as El Salvador, Argentina and Brazil where it is clearly native (e.g. Missouri Botanical Garden, 2007). It is now found in a large number of tropical countries and particularly oceanic islands, and it is likely to be under-recorded.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

Brunei DarussalamPresentIntroduced Invasive Waterhouse, 1993; PIER, 2007
IndiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Wester and Wood, 1977
-Arunachal PradeshPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
-AssamPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
-Himachal PradeshPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
-Jammu and KashmirPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
-ManipurPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
-MeghalayaPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
-MizoramPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
-NagalandPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
-SikkimPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroduced Invasive Manickam et al., 2000
-TripuraPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
-UttarakhandPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
-West BengalPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
Indonesia
-JavaPresentIntroduced Invasive Wester and Wood, 1977
JapanPresentIntroduced Invasive Mito and Uesugi, 2004
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Holm et al., 1979; Peters, 2001
-SabahPresentIntroducedWester and Wood, 1977
SingaporeRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Wee and Corlett, 1986
Sri LankaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Wester and Wood, 1977; Bremer, 1987
TaiwanRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive ,
ThailandPresentIntroduced Invasive Renner et al., 2001
VietnamPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007

Africa

ComorosWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Wester and Wood, 1977; Roby and Dossar, 2000; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2007
MadagascarWidespreadIntroduced1914 Invasive Holm et al., 1979; Binggeli, 2003; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2007
MauritiusRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Holm et al., 1979; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2007
MayottePresentIntroduced Invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2007
RéunionRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Macdonald et al., 1991
Rodriguez IslandPresentIntroduced Invasive
Saint Helena
-AscensionRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Duffey, 1964
SeychellesWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Gerlach, 1993
TanzaniaRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Sheil, 1994; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2007

North America

MexicoPresentNativeWester and Wood, 1977; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2007
USA
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2007; Englberger, 2009Naturalized; highly invasive in the mountain rainforests

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentNativeFrancis et al., 1994
BelizePresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007
British Virgin IslandsPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007Tortola
Costa RicaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2004; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2007
CubaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007
DominicaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007
Dominican RepublicPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007
El SalvadorPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007
GrenadaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007
GuadeloupePresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007
GuatemalaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007; USDA-ARS, 2007
HaitiPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
HondurasPresentNativeWester and Wood, 1977; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2007
JamaicaWidespreadNativeAdams, 1976; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2007
MartiniquePresentNativeAnon, 2004; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2007
NicaraguaPresentNativeWester and Wood, 1977; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2007
PanamaPresentNativeWester and Wood, 1977; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2007
Puerto RicoWidespreadNativeHolm et al., 1979; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2007
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
Saint LuciaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007; Graveson, 2012
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007
Trinidad and TobagoWidespreadNativeHolm et al., 1979; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2007
United States Virgin IslandsPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007St. Thomas

South America

ArgentinaPresentNativeWester and Wood, 1977; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2007
BoliviaPresentNativeWester and Wood, 1977; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2007
BrazilPresentNativeWester and Wood, 1977
-AcrePresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007
-AlagoasPresentNativeMichelangeli and Reginato, 2014
-AmapaPresentNativeMichelangeli and Reginato, 2014
-AmazonasWidespreadNativeDesjardins et al., 2000; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2007
-BahiaPresentNativeFranca et al., 1996; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2007
-CearaPresentNativeMichelangeli and Reginato, 2014
-Espirito SantoPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007
-GoiasPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007
-MaranhaoPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007
-Mato GrossoPresentNativeMichelangeli and Reginato, 2014
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNative,
-Minas GeraisPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007
-ParaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007
-ParaibaPresentNativeMichelangeli and Reginato, 2014
-ParanaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007
-PernambucoPresentNativeMelo et al., 1999; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2007
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007
-RondoniaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007
-RoraimaPresentNativeMichelangeli and Reginato, 2014
-Santa CatarinaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007
-Sao PauloPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007
-SergipePresentNativeMichelangeli and Reginato, 2014
ColombiaPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979; PIER, 2007
EcuadorPresentNativeWester and Wood, 1977; PIER, 2007
French GuianaPresentNativeMune and Parham, 1967
GuyanaPresentNativeMune and Parham, 1967
ParaguayPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007
PeruPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2007
SurinamePresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007
VenezuelaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroduced Invasive Wester and Wood, 1977; PIER, 2007; Englberger, 2009Naturalized
Australia
-Australian Northern TerritoryRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Anon, 2003
-QueenslandRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2007; IPPC, 2010Subject to eradication
FijiPresentIntroduced Invasive Mune and Parham, 1967; PIER, 2007; Englberger, 2009Naturalized; highly invasive in the mountain rainforests
GuamWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Mune and Parham, 1967
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroduced Invasive Englberger, 2009Pohnpei
PalauPresentIntroduced Invasive Wester and Wood, 1977; PIER, 2007; Englberger, 2009Naturalized
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2007
SamoaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2007; Englberger, 2009Naturalized; highly invasive in the mountain rainforests
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Wester and Wood, 1977; PIER, 2007
TongaPresentIntroducedWester and Wood, 1977
VanuatuPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2007
Wallis and Futuna IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2007; Englberger, 2009Naturalized; highly invasive in the mountain rainforests

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

C. hirta is a serious weed on many tropical oceanic islands, and in South-East Asia, India and East Africa. The date of introduction to the Hawaiian Islands is unknown, but it was first recorded in 1941. It was grown in the Wahiawa Botanic Garden and was thought to be “very promising because it won't be spread by birds”. It was first noted as escaping in 1949 on the island of O'ahu and by 1952 covered at least 100 hectares. By the late 1990s it had invaded all suitable habitats covering over 100,000 hectares. In the 1970s and 1980s it was accidentally introduced to five other Hawaiian islands (Smith, 1992). On Fiji, C. hirta was probably accidentally introduced prior to 1890 with coffee plants imported from Guyana, and it became a pest by 1920 (Mune and Parham, 1967). Only 4 years elapsed between the first record of C. hirta in the Seychelles and the realisation that the species could not be controlled by conventional methods (Gerlach, 1993). In Madagascar, it was a non-intentional introduction in 1914 as a seed contaminant (Binggeli, 2003). The first records for India, in Tamil Nadu were noted in 2000 (Manickam et al., 2000), in Taiwan, China in 2001 (Yang, 2001), and in 2001 it was reported that C. hirta had been discovered in Australia for the first time (Queensland Government, 2013). Further spread is thus expected, especially to other humid tropical areas especially in Asia and Africa where invasion would also be likely.

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

C. hirta is a declared noxious weed in Hawaii, USA, Fiji and Australia. It is also not yet present in many countries and islands with suitable climates, thus the risks for further accidental introduction remain high.

Habitat

Top of page

Most tropical island forest areas appear to be susceptible to C. hirta invasion regardless of their floristic composition, as long as some form of disturbance affects them. In Hawaii, all new instances of C. hirta occur in disturbed areas such as roadsides and following disturbance by storms, pigs, landslides and fire. In the East Usambaras (Tanzania) the shrub is found not only along roadsides but also in many parts of the undisturbed montane forest (Binggeli, 2003). Natural forest gaps are also prone to invasion; however, long-term studies of succession are required. In Australia, C. hirta prefers humid tropical lowlands and may invade both disturbed and undisturbed habitats. It is a weed of pastures, open grasslands, plantations, roadsides, open woodlands, waterways, riparian vegetation, forest margins and rainforests in the Northern Territory, north-eastern Queensland and the coast to northern New South Wales (Queensland Government, 2013). 

Habitat List

Top of page
CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Principal habitat Natural
Natural grasslands Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Principal habitat Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
semi-natural/Scrub / shrublands Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
semi-natural/Scrub / shrublands Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContext
Cocos nucifera (coconut)ArecaceaeMain
Hevea brasiliensis (rubber)EuphorbiaceaeMain
pasturesOther
Theobroma cacao (cocoa)SterculiaceaeMain

Biology and Ecology

Top of page
Genetics

A small study of genetic variation within and between invasive exotic populations in Hawaii and native populations in Costa Rica found that variation was low throughout, also concluding that genetic variation was unrelated to invasiveness in C. hirta (DeWalt and Hamrick, 2004). Some variation in shade tolerance, however, cannot be excluded (Binggeli, 2003), though this was not confirmed in studies by DeWalt et al. (2004), who found that genetic shifts in resource use, resource allocation, or plasticity do not contribute to differences in habitat distribution and abundance between the native and introduced ranges of C. hirta. The chromosome number reported for C. hirta is n = 17 (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2007).

Physiology and Phenology

In Hawaii, flowering and fruiting occurs all year round where there is no dry season and rainfall exceeds 2500 mm per year. In Brazil, the plant flowers throughout the year (Melo et al., 1999). In Mexico and Central America, flowering and fruiting may occur throughout the year (DeWalt et al. 2004). However, flowing and fruiting is periodic with annual rainfall down to 1000 mm.

Reproductive Biology

A mature plant can produce over 500 blue-black berries (6-9 mm long) per year, each containing over 100 seeds (0.5-0.75 mm long). Seeds form a very large seed bank where they remain viable for up to 4 years. In Hawaii, long-distance dispersal is carried out by human means, such as shoes and vehicle wheels, and seeds are locally disseminated by birds and feral pigs which can also carry seeds in their fur. In the Mascarene it is dispersed by the introduced bird Pycnonotus jocosus (Clergeau and Mandon-Dalger, 2001).

C. hirta is visited by Augochloropsis sp. of bee and pollinated by the bees Bombus transversalis, Euglossa sp., Melipona fulva, Trigona sp. and three genera of halictids (Ferreira et al., 1994; Melo et al., 1999). The plant is agamospermous and exhibits a high level of male sterility, as indicated by its low pollen viability (Melo et al., 1999), and Ferreira et al. (1994) have stated that it is preferentially allogamous, but shows no genetic autoincompatibility.

In Malaysia's Pasoh Forest Reserve a demographic survey by Peters (2001) located 1002 C. hirta individuals, 69 of which were reproductive at the time of the study, and all but eight individuals were situated in high light gaps or gap edges; see also Teo et al. (2003). There was no mortality over 2 months. Observations supported the view that establishment is largely assisted by light availability and disturbance by wild pigs.

C. hirta has a large seed bank but these seeds germinate better under partial shade than full light. Up to over 6000 germinants per m² of forest soil was obtained in trials and this figure was much greater than for any of the native species (Singhakumara et al., 2000). Similarly, in the submontane forest of the East Usambaras, Tanzania, C. hirta is the commonest germinant in the soil seed bank of the natural forest but is rare in Maesopsis eminii plantations where the species dominates the shrub layer (Binggeli et al., 1989). In undisturbed forest, the seedlings are common and in disturbed stands they can constitute up to 80% of the shrub layer (Pocs, 1989). Seedling densities can be extremely high, Ashton et al. (2001) in Sri Lanka reported 350/m² beneath a 20-year-old Pinus caribaea plantation and 500/m² on fernland after clearance and soil scarification.

Environmental Requirements

In the native range, C. hirta has broad climatic requirements ranging from dry to wet tropics. Similarly, in the naturalized range C. hirta tolerates widely differing tropical climatic conditions including a wide range of rainfall <1000 to >2500 mm). On the Seychelles the shrub is absent from drier areas. In areas where a dry season occurs flowering ceases. C. hirta is resistant to droughts lasting up to 6 months, although some shoot tips die back during the dry season. In Jamaica its altitudinal distribution ranges between 30 and 1200 m. In the Comoros it is more commonly found between 600 and 1200 m (Roby and Dossar, 2000). It does not appear to tolerate salt spray.

Although the plant thrives in full sunlight, it is also shade tolerant and is found in low densities in open forested areas, forest plantations and roadsides. Most tropical island forest areas appear to be susceptible to C. hirta invasion regardless of their floristic composition, as long as some form of disturbance affects them. In Hawaii all new instances of C. hirta occur in disturbed areas such as roadsides and landslides and following disturbance by windstorm, pigs, landslides and fire. If seeds are present they germinate rapidly and within 2 years the disturbed area can become smothered. However, on the steep slopes of the Seychelles enough light reaches the ground for C. hirta regeneration to take place without forest canopy disturbance (Gerlach, 1993). In many parts of the invaded range the species regenerates readily in treefall gaps (Ashton et al., 2001) but in Tanzania it becomes established without canopy disturbance (Binggeli, 2003).

Associations

In the West Indies, C. hirta is an early colonizer of open areas, including slash-and-burn agricultural grounds, where it becomes dominant 12 months after disturbance, before being smothered by vines. Myster (2003) reported that in Puerto Rico on an abandoned pasture it was still increasing in cover and dominating after 5 years after abandonment. It is also subject to strong competition from other Melastomataceae. However, in parts of the Seychelles, numbers of exotic C. hirta were found to be in decline 10 years after invasion, assumed to be due to competition from well-adapted native shrubs (Gerlach, 2004).

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Tolerated Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall10004000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral
  • very acid

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • medium

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Ategumia ebulealis Herbivore Leaves
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. clidemiae Pathogen
Colletotrichum gloesporioides f.sp. clidemiae Herbivore Leaves/Stems
Liothrips urichi Herbivore Leaves Hawaii
Lius poseidon Herbivore Stems

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

In the New World all plants show signs of heavy herbivory, whereas in its naturalized range it appears to be only affected by insects introduced as biocontrol agents. Biological control, using the thrip Liothrips urichi, was initiated in Fiji in the early 1930s and two decades later in Hawaii (Mune and Parham, 1967; Wester and Wood, 1977). L. urichi seriously affects the growth of C. hirta in open sunny areas whereas in shaded areas (forest or frequent cloud cover) it is not effective. The thrips failed to establish following their introduction to the Solomon Islands (Julien, 1987). Over the past four decades extensive searches of biological control agents have been made to control C. hirta in Hawaiian forests (Nakahara et al., 1992). A pyralid moth, Blepharomastix ebulealis [Ategumia ebulealis], released in 1970 has been heavily parasitized and has been ineffective in controlling C. hirta. Several of 14 species of insects, recently evaluated in Trinidad, can be considered for introduction into Hawaii and the release of four pathogens is envisaged. A leaf spot fungus, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. clidemiae, introduced from Panama to Hawaii for host-range studies, shows promise as a biocontrol agent.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

C. hirta may be transported over long distances in soil or as a seed contaminant (Binggeli, 2003).

The primary means of inter-island transfer in the Pacific is believed to be as seeds in mud stuck to boots, and people, including walkers and hunters, are thought to be at least partially responsible for local dispersal on Hawaii and elsewhere.

Animals, particularly frugivorous birds, are considered an important means of seed dispersal, also as birds will remove the fleshy parts of the fruit and increase seed germination (Mandon-Dalger et al., 2004). In Reunion, sites with year-round fruiting species such as C. hirta were found to maintain higher levels of bird populations that other sites, increasing dispersal opportunities (Mandon-Dalger et al., 2004).

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Digestion and excretionMainly birds Yes Mandon-Dalger et al., 2004
DisturbanceLandslides etc. Yes Peters, 2001
People foragingMud on footware Yes Peters, 2001

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsIn mud on boots Yes Yes Peters, 2001
Plants or parts of plantsWith coffee plants for planting in one case and as a seed contaminant in another Yes Binggeli, 2003; Mune and Parham, 1967
Soil, sand and gravel Yes Yes Binggeli, 2003

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Crop production Negative
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health None
Livestock production Negative
Native fauna None
Native flora Negative
Rare/protected species Negative
Tourism Negative
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Economic Impact

Top of page

C. hirta is common in the New World. It is found in cocoa plantations but is not considered to be a serious pest. In Fiji, prior to its control, C. hirta rendered large areas of grazing land useless and interfered with the development of plantations such as rubber and cocoa. The plant has no fodder value and no known uses. Hydrolysable tannins of C. hirta leaves are toxic to goat’s livers and kidneys and cause gastroenteritis (Murdiati et al., 1990). When fed the plant, goats suffer toxicity from hydrolysable tannin (Francis, 2004).

Environmental Impact

Top of page

Under heavy infestations of C. hirta most plants, including most mosses and liverworts normally found in shaded habitats and subcanopy species, are displaced. In disturbed stands of Tanzanian forests it is reported as suppressing all native ground plants (Pocs, 1989).

C. hirta has already caused significant environmental damage in the montane rainforests and cloud forests of Samoa, Fiji and the Hawaiian Islands. In Hawaii it is replacing the endemic species that formerly dominated native forests and it is threatens their extinction. The impact of C. hirta on native species and ecosystems is devastating and the rate at which it has spread throughout the Hawaiian Islands is alarming. C. hirta also outcompetes native plants in gaps in undisturbed forests and is altering the regeneration of native forests in Hawaii, Comoros, Seychelles, Mauritius and Reunion Islands. 

Social Impact

Top of page

In Hawaii, C. hirta is despised because of its dense growth. By spreading along trails and roadsides it increases maintenance costs as well as reducing the aesthetic, educational and recreational value of forest lands.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page

Impact mechanisms

  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Interaction with other invasive species
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting

Impact outcomes

  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts forestry
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species

Invasiveness

  • Fast growing
  • Has a broad native range
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Reproduces asexually
  • Tolerant of shade

Likelihood of entry/control

  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally

Uses

Top of page

The fruits are edible but insipid (Anon., 2004). C. hirta is used in Brazil to treat Leishmania braziliensis skin infections (Franca et al., 1996). Otherwise, there are no uses for this plant.

Uses List

Top of page

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical

Detection and Inspection

Top of page

Although C. hirta is rarely recorded until it forms monotypic stands, the more recent Hawaiian introductions suggest that it starts to spread as soon as it is introduced to new suitable habitats subjected to regular disturbance. The only hope of controlling an invading population of C. hirta is to identify the problem at a very early stage and eradicate all potential seed sources prior to the first fruit set.

Prevention and Control

Top of page
Control

Although C. hirta is rarely recorded until it forms monotypic stands, the more recent Hawaiian introductions suggest that it starts to spread as soon as it is introduced to new suitable habitats subjected to regular disturbance. The only hope of controlling an invading population of C. hirta is to identify the problem at a very early stage and eradicate all potential seed sources prior to the first fruit set. However, repeated efforts to control seedlings in expanding Hawaiian populations have failed. This is the result of a large seed bank and the rooting ability of detached leaves in forested areas (Smith, 1992).

Mechanical control

Hand pulling of seedlings and digging up mature plants, inclusive of roots, is possible. On arable land, traditional cultivation methods prevent the establishment of C. hirta.

Cultural control

Controlling feral pig populations (Sus scrofa) has been widely suggested as an effective means to reduce the spread of C. hirta, as ground disturbance by these exotic mammals is strongly linked to the successful establishment of C. hirta, as well as a number of other invasive plants such as Morella faya. Although sheep have been shown to control most weeds in plantations, they will not eat C. hirta (Francis, 2004).

Biological control

Biological control using the thrip Liothrips urichi was initiated in Fiji in the early 1930s and two decades later in Hawaii (Mune and Parham, 1967; Wester and Wood, 1977). L. urichi seriously affects the growth of C. hirta in open, sunny areas, whereas in shaded areas (forest or frequent cloud cover) it is not effective. The thrips failed to establish following their introduction to the Solomon Islands (Julien, 1987). Over the past four decades extensive searches of biological control agents have been made to control C. hirta in Hawaiian forests (Nakahara et al., 1992). A pyralid moth, Blepharomastix ebulealis [Ategumia ebulealis], released in 1970 has been heavily parasitized and has been ineffective in controlling C. hirta. Several of 14 species of insects, recently evaluated in Trinidad, can be considered for introduction into Hawaii and the release of four pathogens is envisaged. A leaf spot fungus, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. clidemiae, introduced from Panama to Hawaii for range studies shows promise as a biocontrol agent. The introduction of effective biological control agents into Hawaii must be considered with care. The potential sudden death of large monotypic stands of C. hirta, found on steep mountain sides, could result in either severe soil erosion or the establishment of other invasive species such as Psidium cattleianum (Smith, 1992).

Chemical control

According to Mune and Parham (1967), no effective chemical control for C. hirta exists. However, Teoh et al. (1982) reports that C. hirta may be killed by applications of triclopyr. Norman and Trujillo (1995) have found that a mycoherbicide containing Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. clidemiae as the active ingredient was effective against C. hirta.

References

Top of page

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Adams CD, 1976. Flowering plants of Jamaica. Mona: University of the West Indies.

Anon, 2003. New Northern nasties. Feral Herald - Newsletter of the Invasive Species Council 1(3):11. World Wide Web page at http://home.vicnet.net.au/~invasive/downloads/feralherald3.pdf.

Anon, 2004. Clidemia hirta. Web page at http://www-peda.ac-martinique.fr/svt/flor2c.html.

Ashmole P; Ashmole M, 2000. St Helena and Ascension Island: a natural history. Oswestry, UK: A. Nelson.

Ashton MS; Gunatilleke CVS; Singhakumara BMP; Gunatilleke IAUN, 2001. Restoration pathways for rain forest in southwest Sri Lanka: a review of concepts and models. Forest Ecology and Management, 154:409-430.

Binggeli P, 2003. Introduced and invasive plants In: Goodman SM, Benstead JP, eds. The Natural History of Madagascar. Chicago, USA: University of Chicago Press, 257-268.

Binggeli P; Ruffo CK; Hamilton AC; Taylor D, 1989. Seed banks in the forest soils. In: Hamilton AC, Bensted-Smith R, eds. Forest conservation in the East Usambara mountains, Tanzania. Gland, IUCN, 307-311.

Breaden RC; Brooks SJ; Murphy HT, 2012. The biology of Australia weeds: 59. Clidemia hirta (L.) D. Don. Plant Protection Quarterly, 27(1):3-18. http://www.weedinfo.com.au

Bremer K, 1987. Melastomataceae. In: Dassanayake MD, Fosberg FR, eds. A revised handbook to the flora of Ceylon. Volume V. New Delhi: Amerind Publishing Co., 157-240.

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Chandra SK, 2012. Invasive Alien Plants of Indian Himalayan Region- Diversity and Implication. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 3:177-184.

Clergeau P; Mandon-Dalger I, 2001. Fast colonization of an introduced bird: the case of Pycnonotus jocosus on the Mascarene Islands. Biotropica, 33:542-546.

Desjardins T; Lavelle P; Barros E; Brossard M; Chapuis-Lardy L; Chauvel A; Grimaldi M; Guimarães F; Martins P; Mitja D; Müller M; Sarrazin M; Tavares Filho J; Topall O, 2000. Dégradation des pâturages amazoniens: Descriptions d’un syndrome et de ses déterminants. Etude et Gestion des Sols, 7:353-378.

DeWalt SJ, 2003. The invasive tropical shrub Clidemia hirta (Melastomataceae) in its native and introduced ranges: tests of hypotheses of invasion. PhD Thesis, Louisiana State University.

DeWalt SJ; Denslow JS; Hamrick JL, 2004. Biomass allocation, growth, and photosynthesis of genotypes from native and introduced ranges of the tropical shrub Clidemia hirta. Oecologia, 138(4):521-531.

DeWalt SJ; Hamrick JL, 2004. Genetic variation of introduced Hawaiian and native Costa Rican populations of an invasive tropical shrub, Clidemia hirta (Melastomataceae). American Journal of Botany, 91(8):1155-1163.

Duffey E, 1964. The terrestrial ecology of Ascension Island. Journal of Applied Ecology, 1:219-251.

Englberger K, 2009. Invasive weeds of Pohnpei: A guide for identification and public awareness. Kolonia, Federated States of Micronesia: Conservation Society of Pohnpei, 29 pp.

Ferreira SAN; Cohen Antonio I; Jansen MRA, 1994. Biologia reprodutiva de Clidemia hirta (L.) D. Don (Melastomataceae). Acta Amazonica, 24:183-188.

Franca F; Lago EL; Marsden PD, 1996. Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Vannia) braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, 29(3):229-232.

Francis JK, 2004. Clidemia hirta (L.) D. Don - Koster’s curse - Melastomataceae. World Wide Web page at http://www.fs.fed.us/global/iitf/pdf/shrubs/Clidemia%20hirta.pdf.

Francis JK; Rivera C; Figureroa J, 1994. Toward a woody plant list for Antigua and Barbuda: past and present. General Technical Report - Southern Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service, SO-102:1-28.

Gerlach J, 1993. Invasive Melastomataceae in Seychelles. Oryx, 27:23-26.

Gerlach J, 2004. A 10-year study of changes in forest vegetation on Silhouette island, Seychelles. Journal for Nature Conservation, 12(3):149-155.

Graveson R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). http://www.saintlucianplants.com

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp.

IPPC, 2010. Koster's curse in Julatten, Queensland. IPPC Official Pest Report, AUS-32/1. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/index.php?id=72&tx_pestreport_pi1[showUid]=216929&frompage=72&type=pest_report&subtype=&L=0#item

Julien MH, ed. , 1987. Biological control of weeds. A world catalogue of agents and their target weeds, 2nd edn. CAB International: Wallingford, UK.

Macdonald IAW; Thebaud C; Strahm WA; Strasberg D, 1991. Effects of alien plant invasions on native vegetation remnants on La Reunion (Mascarene Islands, Indian Ocean). Environmental Conservation, 18(1):51-61.

Mandon-Dalger I; Clergeau P; Tassin J; Rivière JN; Gatti S, 2004. Relationships between alien plants and an alien bird species on Reunion Island. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 20(6):635-642. http://www.journals.cup.org/owa_dba/owa/issues_in_journal?jid=TRO

Manickam VS; Murugan C; Sundaresan V; Jothi GJ, 2000. Genus Clidemia D. Don (Melastomataceae) - a new record of a naturalized taxon for Tamil Nadu. Indian Journal of Forestry, 23(4):442-443; 3 ref.

Melo GF; Machado IC; Luceno M, 1999. Reproducion de tres especies de Clidemia (Melastomataceae) en Brasil. Revista de Biologia Tropical, 47:359-363.

Michelangeli FA; Reginato M, 2014. Clidemia in the list of species of the flora of Brazil. (Clidemia in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil.) Clidemia in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB9450

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2007. Tropicos database. St Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Mito T; Uesugi T, 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research, 8(2):171-191.

Mune TL; Parham JW, 1967. The declared noxious weeds of Fiji and their control, 3rd edn. Fiji Department of Agriculture Bulletin, 48:1-87.

Murdiati TB; McSweeney CS; Campbell RSF; Stoltz DS, 1990. Prevention of hydrolysable tannin toxicity in goats fed Clidemia hirta by calcium hydroxide supplementation. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 10(5):325-331; 28 ref.

Myster RW, 2003. Vegetation dynamics of a permanent pasture plot in Puerto Rico. Biotropica, 35:422-428.

Nakahara LM; Burkhart RM; Funasaki GY, 1992. Review and status of biological control of clidemia in Hawai'i. In: Stone CP, Smith CW, Tunison JT, eds. Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawai'i: management and research. Honolulu, USA: University of Hawaii Press, 452-465.

Norman DJ; Trujillo EE, 1995. Development of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. clidemiae and Septoria passiflorae into two mycoherbicides with extended viability. Plant Disease, 79(10):1029-1032

Peters HA, 2001. Clidemia hirta invasion of the Pasoh Forest Reserve: an unexpected plant invasion in an undisturbed tropical forest. Biotropica, 33:60-68.

PIER, 2007. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Pocs T, 1989. A preliminary study of the undergrowth of primary and secondary submontane rainforests in the East Usambara Mountains, with notes on epiphytes. In: Hamilton AC, Bensted-Smith R, eds. Forest conservation in the East Usambara mountains, Tanzania. Gland, IUCN, 301-306.

Queensland Government, 2013. Biosecurity Queensland. Fact sheet for Clidemia hirta: Declared Class 1 Pest Plant. http://www.daff.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/76748/IPA-Kosters-Curse-PP140.pdf

Renner SS; Clausing G; Cellinese N; Meyer K, 2001. Melastomataceae. In Flora of Thailand. World Wide Web page at http://www.umsl.edu/~biosrenn/Thailand%20Oct%202001.pdf.

Roby D; Dossar MB, 2000. Strategie nationale et plan d'action pour la conservation de la diversite biologique. Moroni, Comoros: Republique Federale Islamique des Comores. http://www.biodiv.org/doc/world/km/km-nbsap-01-fr.pdf.

Sheil D, 1994. Naturalized and invasive plants in the evergreen forests of the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology, 32:66-71.

Singhakumara BMP; Uduporuwa RSJP; Ashton PMS, 2000. Soil seed banks in relation to light and topographic position of a hill dipterocarp forest in Sri Lanka. Biotropica, 32:190-196.

Smith CW, 1992. Distribution, status, phenology, rate of spread, and management of Clidemia in Hawai'i. In: Stone CP, Smith CW, Tunison JT, eds. Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawai'i: management and research. Honolulu, USA: University of Hawaii Press, 241-253.

Teo DHL; Tan HTW; Corlett RT; Wong ChoongMin; Lum SKY, 2003. Continental rain forest fragments in Singapore resist invasion by exotic plants. Journal of Biogeography, 30(2):305-310.

Teoh CH; Toh PY; Khairudin H, 1982. Chemical control of Asystasia intrusa (Bl), Clidemia hirta (Don.) and Elettariopsis curtisii (Bak.) in rubber and oil palm plantations. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Plant Protection in the Tropics [ed. by Heong, K.L.\Lee, B.S.\Lim, T.M.\Teoh, C.H.\Ibrahim, Y.]. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Malaysian Plant Protection Society, 497-510.

USDA-ARS, 2004. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-ARS, 2007. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

Wee YC; Corlett R, 1986. The city and the forest. Singapore, China: Singapore University Press.

Wester LL; Wood HB, 1977. Koster's curse (Clidemia hirta), a weed pest in Hawaiian forests. Environmental Conservation, 4(1):35-42

Wickens GE, 1975. Melastomataceae. In: Polhill RM, ed. Flora of tropical East Africa. Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations: London, UK.

Yang ShengZehn, 2001. A new record and invasive species in Taiwan - Clidemia hirta (L.) D. Don. Taiwania, 46(3):232-237; 8 ref.

Contributors

Top of page

27/06/14 Updated by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

16/11/2007 Updated by:

Nick Pasiecznik, Consultant, France

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map