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Datasheet

Tanacetum vulgare (tansy)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 January 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Tanacetum vulgare
  • Preferred Common Name
  • tansy
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • T. vulgare is an aromatic perennial herb native to much of Europe and parts of Asia. It has been introduced into Argentina, Australia, Canada, Chile, Guadeloupe, Martinique, New Zealand, Peru and the USA. In many parts of its exotic range, T. vulg...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Tanacetum vulgare as an element of a natural Tanaceto-Artemisietum society (e.g. associated species: Artemisia vulgaris, Arctium lappa) on the bank of the Ahr river, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
TitleHabit and habitat
CaptionTanacetum vulgare as an element of a natural Tanaceto-Artemisietum society (e.g. associated species: Artemisia vulgaris, Arctium lappa) on the bank of the Ahr river, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
CopyrightGregor Schmitz
Tanacetum vulgare as an element of a natural Tanaceto-Artemisietum society (e.g. associated species: Artemisia vulgaris, Arctium lappa) on the bank of the Ahr river, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Habit and habitatTanacetum vulgare as an element of a natural Tanaceto-Artemisietum society (e.g. associated species: Artemisia vulgaris, Arctium lappa) on the bank of the Ahr river, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.Gregor Schmitz
Different phenological stages of tansy inflorescences.
TitleDifferent phenological stages
CaptionDifferent phenological stages of tansy inflorescences.
CopyrightGregor Schmitz
Different phenological stages of tansy inflorescences.
Different phenological stagesDifferent phenological stages of tansy inflorescences.Gregor Schmitz
Colony of Uroleucon tanaceti (Hom., Aphididae) on the under-side of a tansy stem leaf.
TitleNatural enemy
CaptionColony of Uroleucon tanaceti (Hom., Aphididae) on the under-side of a tansy stem leaf.
CopyrightGregor Schmitz
Colony of Uroleucon tanaceti (Hom., Aphididae) on the under-side of a tansy stem leaf.
Natural enemyColony of Uroleucon tanaceti (Hom., Aphididae) on the under-side of a tansy stem leaf.Gregor Schmitz

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Tanacetum vulgare L.

Preferred Common Name

  • tansy

Other Scientific Names

  • Chrysanthemum asiaticum Vorosch.
  • Chrysanthemum tanacetum (Vis.) E.H.L.Krause
  • Chrysanthemum vulgare var. boreale (Fisch. ex DC.) Makino ex Makino & Nemoto
  • Dendranthema lavandulifolium var. tomentellum (Hand.-Mazz.) Y.Ling & C.Shih
  • Pyrethrum vulgare (L.) Boiss.
  • Tanacetum boreale Fisch. ex DC.
  • Tanacetum crispum Steud.
  • Tanacetum vulgare f. vulgare
  • Tanacetum vulgare subsp. boreale (Fisch. ex DC.) A
  • Tanacetum vulgare subsp. boreale (Fisch. ex DC.) Á.Löve & D.Löve
  • Tanacetum vulgare subsp. boreale (Fisch. ex DC.) Kuvaev
  • Tanacetum vulgare subsp. vulgare
  • Tanacetum vulgare var. boreale (Fisch. ex DC.) Trautv. & C.A.Mey.
  • Tanacetum vulgare var. crispum DC.
  • Tanacetum vulgare var. vulgare

International Common Names

  • English: common tansy; English fern; golden buttons; hindheal; parsley fern; scented fern
  • Spanish: tanaceto; tanarida
  • French: tanaisie; tanaisie commune
  • Portuguese: erva-de-San-Marcos

Local Common Names

  • France: tanacée
  • Germany: Rainfarn; Wurmkraut
  • Italy: tanaceto
  • Netherlands: boerenwormkruid
  • Sweden: renfana
  • UK: bitter buttons

EPPO code

  • CHYVU (Tanacetum vulgare)

Summary of Invasiveness

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T. vulgare is an aromatic perennial herb native to much of Europe and parts of Asia. It has been introduced into Argentina, Australia, Canada, Chile, Guadeloupe, Martinique, New Zealand, Peru and the USA. In many parts of its exotic range, T. vulgare is neither an ecological nor an economical problem. In the northern temperate zone of North America (in particular in Canada), T. vulgare has become a noxious dominant weed in pastures, hay fields, riparian habitats and wastelands. Here, the perennial competes with both biennial and perennial herbs, as well as with grasses. It can displace native habitats and reduce the diversity of plants and insects. Due to its toxicity to livestock, particularly cattle, positive selection can be observed when T. vulgare grows under the conditions of grazing.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Tanacetum
  •                                 Species: Tanacetum vulgare

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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T. vulgare is part of the subtribe Tanacetinae within the tribe Anthemideae in the family Asteraceae. The Tanacetinae comprise Tanacetum and a number of genera apparently closely related to it and possibly having their sister groups within the genus. Resolution of the Tanacetum phylogeny requires extensive studies on the Asian taxa. There is no synapomorphy for the Tanacetinae. The subtribe is a provisional unit; it is paraphyletic and represents an unresolved and poorly understood complex within the Anthemideae (Bremer, 1995). A currently widespread hypothesis states that Tanacetum is closely related to Ophistopappus (sister group) and related to Tanacetopsis and others. Depending on taxonomic opinion, the genus Tanacetum comprises about 50 to 150 herbaceous plants and subshrubs, both annual and perennial (Mitich, 1992; Bremer and Humphries, 1993). Due to ongoing taxonomic revisions within the Asteraceae (e.g., Arriagada. 2003), the Tanacetinae may be subject to changes in the future.

In Corsica (France), Sardinia and Sicily (Italy), plants occur with finely dissected leaves that are sometimes regarded as separate species or varieties. The real status of these plants is unknown (Heywood, 1976). Hegi (1923) distinguishes forma typicum Beck (= forma latisectum Pospichal), forma tenuisectum Beck and forma crispum DC. for the European flora. According to Iwatsuki (1995), the plants in Japan are smaller than those in Central Europe. Lee (1996) states the same for Korea.

T. vulgare was first named in 1758 by Carl Linnaeus, and renamed Chrysanthemum vulgare in 1800 by Bernhardi. Today, both names are widespread, although there is extensive evidence of considerable differences between Tanacetum and Chrysanthemum. The common name 'tansy' is derived from the Greek 'athanasia' meaning immortality (Haughton, 1978; Quattrocchi, 2000). The English common names 'parsley fern' and 'scented fern' refer to the strong scent of the herb and its fern-like appearance. The name 'hindheal' indicates the use as a medicinal herb for various complaints. In the USA, T. vulgare is often named 'English fern' due to its introduction from the UK in the early sixteenth century. 'Tansy' is quite often confused with 'tansy ragwort' (Senecio jacobaea), even though there are significant differences between the two Asteraceae.

Description

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T. vulgare is an aromatic perennial hemicryptophyte, patch-forming herb (30-)40-120(-160) cm high. The deep green leaves are 15-25 cm long, pinnatipartite to pinnatisect, glabrous to sparsely hairy and glandular-punctate. The lower cauline leaves are more than 5 cm long, petiolate, oblong to oblong-ovate and the segments pinnatisect to pinnatilobed. They are linear-lanceolate to oblong-elliptical. The upper cauline leaves are similar but sessile. The (5-)10-70(-l00) capitula, each showing an involucre of 5-8 mm in diameter, are arranged in dense, compound corymbs. In the outer ring, the florets are tubular, mostly female and zygomorphic, bright yellow. They are 3-toothed, rarely shortly ligulate, or actinomorphic (some flowers are 5-toothed and hermaphroditic). The inner florets are tubular and 5-toothed. The achenes are 1.2-1.8 mm long, 5-ribbed, possessing scattered epicarpic, sessile, transparent, non-mucilaginous glands; the pappus is a short unevenly toothed membranous cup, 0.2-0.4 mm wide (Clapham et al., 1952; Heywood, 1976).

In Corsica (France), Sardinia and Sicily (Italy), plants occur with finely dissected leaves; these are regarded by some as separate species or varieties.

Plant Type

Top of pageHerbaceous
Perennial

Distribution

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T. vulgare is native to Eastern and Central Europe, as far as temperate Asia and was introduced by humans throughout America, Australia and New Zealand.

Except for the Mediterranean Islands and Greenland, T. vulgare occurs in every European country. Whether it is truly native to Western Europe is a subject of debate. While some botanists assume it was introduced prior to the Middle Ages (i.e. archeophyte) (Kopecky, 1978; Ellenberg et al., 1992; Lohmeyer and Sukopp, 1992), others believe that it grew naturally in wide parts of Europe (Sebald, 1996).

The distribution in Asia is localised in the boreal zone, encompassing Russia, the Northern Provinces of China (Heilongjiang and Xinjiang), Mongolia, Japan and Korea. T. vulgare is not listed in the diverse floras of the Near East (Rechinger and Aellen, 1964; Abu-Irmaileh, 1979; Davis, 1988; Wood 1997), the Middle East/India (Kitamura 1960; Koba et al., 1994; Hajra et al., 1995) or tropical Southeast Asia (Merrill, 1912; Martin, 1971; Kress et al., 2003).

In Canada, the USA, Australia and New Zealand, the plant escaped from garden cultivation and now grows wild in the natural and secondary vegetation. Only a few records of naturalization exist for parts of South America, where the plant is cultivated for medicinal and ornamental uses. There are no records for Central America (Standley, 1928; Seymour, 1980) the Caribbean Islands (Alain and Leon, 1957; Liogier, 1997) or the tropical parts of South America (Gentry 1993; Jørgensen and Leon-Yanez 1999; Mori, 2002).

T. vulgare is not present in Africa or the countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea (Humbert 1960; Hepper, 1963; Arnold and de Wet, 1993; Leistner, 2000; Beentje, 2002).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

CountryDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferencesNotes

ASIA

ArmeniaPresentNativeNot invasiveCzerepanov, 1995
AzerbaijanPresentNativeNot invasiveCzerepanov, 1995
China
-HeilongjiangPresentNativeNot invasiveShi et al., 1983
-XinjiangPresentNativeNot invasiveShi et al., 1983
Georgia (Republic of)PresentNativeNot invasiveCzerepanov, 1995
Japan
-HokkaidoPresentNativeNot invasiveOhwi, 1965; Iwatsuki et al., 1995
KazakhstanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
Korea, DPRPresentNativeNot invasiveOhwi, 1965
Korea, Republic ofPresentNativeNot invasiveOhwi, 1965
KyrgyzstanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
MongoliaWidespreadNativeNot invasiveGrubov, 2001
TurkeyPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016

NORTH AMERICA

BermudaAbsent, formerly presentIntroducedNot invasiveBritton, 1918
Canada
-AlbertaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCrompton et al., 1988
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroducedNot invasiveCrompton et al., 1988
-ManitobaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCrompton et al., 1988
-New BrunswickPresentIntroducedNot invasiveCrompton et al., 1988
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentIntroducedNot invasiveCrompton et al., 1988
-Nova ScotiaPresentIntroducedNot invasiveCrompton et al., 1988
-OntarioPresentIntroducedNot invasiveCrompton et al., 1988
-Prince Edward IslandPresentIntroducedNot invasiveCrompton et al., 1988
-QuebecPresentIntroducedNot invasiveCrompton et al., 1988
-SaskatchewanPresentIntroducedInvasiveCrompton et al., 1988
USAPresentIntroducedpre-1600USDA-NRCS, 2016
-AlaskaPresentIntroducedNot invasiveHulten, 1968; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-ArizonaPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-ColoradoPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-ConnecticutPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-IdahoPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-IllinoisPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-IndianaPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-IowaPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-KansasPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-KentuckyPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-MainePresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-MarylandPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-MassachusettsPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-MichiganPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-MinnesotaPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-MissouriPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-MontanaPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-NebraskaPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-NevadaPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-New HampshirePresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-New MexicoPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-New YorkPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-North DakotaPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-OhioPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-OklahomaPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-OregonPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-Rhode IslandPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-South DakotaPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-TennesseePresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-UtahPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-VermontPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-WashingtonPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-West VirginiaPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-WisconsinPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-WyomingPresentIntroducedNot invasiveUSDA-NRCS, 2016

CENTRAL AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

GuadeloupeAbsent, formerly presentIntroducedNot invasiveFournet, 1978; Howard & Bornstein, 1989
MartiniqueAbsent, formerly presentIntroducedNot invasiveFournet, 1978; Howard & Bornstein, 1989

SOUTH AMERICA

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedNot invasiveZuloaga & Morrone, 1999
ChilePresentIntroducedNot invasivePizarro, 1966
PeruPresentIntroducedNot invasiveDillon, 1981

EUROPE

AlbaniaWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
AndorraWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
AustriaWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
BelarusWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
BelgiumWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
Bosnia-HercegovinaWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
BulgariaPresentNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
CroatiaWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
CyprusWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
Czech RepublicWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
DenmarkWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
EstoniaWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
Faroe IslandsWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
FinlandWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
FranceWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
-CorsicaWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
GermanyWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
GibraltarWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
GreeceWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
HungaryWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
IcelandWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
IrelandWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
ItalyWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
LatviaWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
LiechtensteinWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
LithuaniaWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
LuxembourgWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
MacedoniaWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
MaltaWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
MoldovaWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
MonacoWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
NetherlandsWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
NorwayWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
PolandWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
PortugalWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
-MadeiraWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
RomaniaWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
Russian FederationWidespreadNativeNot invasiveCzerepanov, 1995
-Central RussiaWidespreadNativeNot invasiveCzerepanov, 1995
-Eastern SiberiaWidespreadNativeNot invasiveCzerepanov, 1995
-Northern RussiaWidespreadNativeNot invasiveCzerepanov, 1995
-Russian Far EastWidespreadIntroducedNot invasiveCzerepanov, 1995
-Southern RussiaWidespreadNativeNot invasiveCzerepanov, 1995
-Western SiberiaWidespreadNativeNot invasiveCzerepanov, 1995
San MarinoWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
SerbiaWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
SlovakiaWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
SloveniaWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
SpainWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
SwedenWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
SwitzerlandWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
UKWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
-Channel IslandsWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
UkraineWidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976
Yugoslavia (former)WidespreadNativeNot invasiveHeywood, 1976

OCEANIA

Australia
-New South WalesPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedNot invasiveHarden, 1990
-QueenslandPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedNot invasiveHarden, 1990
-South AustraliaPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedNot invasiveHarden, 1990
-TasmaniaPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedNot invasiveWalsh & Entwisle, 1999
-VictoriaPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedNot invasiveHarden, 1990
New ZealandPresentIntroduced1883Not invasiveWebb et al., 1988

History of Introduction and Spread

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As mentioned above, it is not clear in which parts of Europe Tanacetum is truly indigenous. By the fifteenth century, T. vulgare was commonly used as a medicinal herb in France and England. Consequently, it had been introduced into the English colonies even before the seventeenth century, like so many other plant species. By 1785, T. vulgare was listed as a naturalized plant throughout the north eastern USA (Mitich, 1992), where it spread along roadsides, fences and hedgerows (Sievers, 1930). In 1912, T. vulgare was known as far west as Iowa and Kansas (Mitich,1992). Robbins et al. (1951) report the first occurrence in California. Today, T. vulgare can be found in almost all states and provinces of the USA and Canada, except Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, Texas, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (USDA-NRCS, 2004).

In the late sixteenth century, T. vulgare was introduced into South America by the Spanish conquerors. Today, it is commonly grown in parts of Peru and Argentina (Dillon, 1981; Zuloaga and Morrone, 1999).

As in North America, T. vulgare was brought to Australia and New Zealand as an ornamental and medicinal herb. According to Webb et al. (1988), the plant was introduced into New Zealand for the first time in 1883, by which time it had already naturalized in Australia.

Risk of Introduction

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T. vulgare is still sold as an ornamental plant in the USA and many parts of the world, so that further spread is likely. Its broad ecological amplitude may support further spread.

Habitat

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In Europe and North America, T. vulgare commonly grows along roadsides, on grassy areas, rough ground, meadows, urban areas, riverside gravel banks and wastelands. Grubov (2001) states that, in Mongolia, T. vulgare occurs in larch forests and their fringes, dwarf birch and willow thickets, birch and pine groves, forest meadows in forest belts, meadow plots and soddy rock fields in alpine belts. This may indicate a difference in habitat choice between eastern and western populations of T. vulgare. In Scandinavia, T. vulgare occurs from the coast all the way up to the birch zone and 70°N (Korsmo, 1930). As an ornamental plant, this species can be found as far north as Gamvik, Norway, 71°03'N (Jalas, 1991). In the northern hemispheric temperate zone T. vulgare can be found up to an altitude of 1500 m whereas in South America, it is grown up to 3580 m (Dillon, 1981).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Disturbed areasPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchardsPresent, no further details
Managed grasslands (grazing systems)Present, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsidesPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areasPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
RiverbanksPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
WetlandsPresent, no further details

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

T. vulgare has a chromosome number of 2n=18 (Tischler, 1950) which is stable (Heywood and Humphries, 1977), even though cytomictic disturbances occur (Virrankoski and Sorsa, 1968) and a wide variation in the content of nuclear DNA has been reported (Keskitalo et al., 1998).

Physiology and Phenology

At least 50 different chemotypes exist (Berberich, 1961) which probably differ also in physiological features. Fresh T. vulgare contains 0.12-0.18% volatile oil of highly variable chemical composition. Some races contain the ketone beta-thujone as the major constituent (to 95%) of the poisonous essential oil; others are devoid of it. Artemisia ketone, borneol, camphor, 18-cineole, cis-chrysanthenyl acetate, isopinocamphone, isothujone, piperitone, gamma-terpinene, umbellulone and some unidentified terpenes have also been reported as major ingredients of the essential oil. Citric acid, tartaric acid, gallic acid, gum, mucilage, resin and tannins are also reported (Duke, 1987). Appendino et al. (1982) report a hydroperoxysesquiterpene lactone, crispolide. Amines were sought but undetected in the flowers. Dry seeds contain 28.9% protein and 26.5% fat (Duke, 1987).

Reproductive Biology

T. vulgare usually germinates in the spring, developing a single rosette in the first vegetation period. The plant starts flowering and fruiting in late summer of the second year. In Central Europe, the flowering period usually takes place in August and September (Korsmo, 1930). According to White (2002), a small percentage of plants flowering in July produce viable seed, with a germination rate of 10-20% by mid-August. Overwintering seeds germinate at a rate of 70-90%. If the plant is cut off from a water supply, the biomass reduces up to 62% and flowering ceases (Cornelius and Haug, 1991).

T. vulgare reproduces sexually as well as vegetatively. According to Korsmo (1930), an individual plant produces 12,500 achenes (10 million per kg). Due to the elasticity of the dry stems, the fruits are catapulted by wind or animals (Düll and Kutzelnigg, 1988). The seeds need open soil for germination. Once established, the plant spreads by rhizomes (blastautochore) and can outcompete other herbs. Under optimum growing conditions, polycormones build up dense stands that can persist for many years. Seed banks in the soil persist for only a limited time (Oberdorfer, 2001).

The flowers are visited by numerous, mostly unspecialised insects, including Diptera, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera. In Central Europe, some Colletes spp. (Hymenoptera, Colletidae) are somewhat specialised visitors of flowers of T. vulgare (Westrich, 1990).

Environmental Requirements

In the Northern Hemisphere, T. vulgare mainly grows under planar to colline conditions and does not normally occur above 1500 m (in Austria, some cultivated forms are found above 1700 m). In Cuzco, Peru, however, cultivated plants grow up to 3580 m (Dillon, 1981).

T. vulgare is photophillic (Ellenberg et al., 1992) and prefers sandy, moderately moist, neutral to slightly basic, loamy soils (Oberdorfer, 2001). The plant is sensitive to salt (Ellenberg et al., 1992).

Air Temperature

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ParameterLower limitUpper limit
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC)1025
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC)0-30

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration06number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall3003200mm; lower/upper limits

Rain Regime

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Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Natural Enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aceria calathinusHerbivoreInflorescence
Aceria tuberculataHerbivoreInflorescence
Cassida stigmaticaHerbivoreLeavesnot specific
Chrysolina eurinaHerbivoreLeaves/Rootsto genus
Depressaria emiritellaHerbivoreLeaves
DichroramphaHerbivoreStems/Roots
Gillmeria tetradactylaHerbivoreGrowing point/Rootsto species
Isophrictis striatellaHerbivoreStems/Inflorescenceto species
Longitarsus noricusHerbivoreLeaves/Rootsnot specific
Macrosiphoniella tanacetariaHerbivoreStems/Leaves
Microplontus millefoliiHerbivoreStemsto genus
Ozirhincus tanacetiHerbivoreFruits/pods
Phytoecia nigricornis juliiHerbivoreStemsto genus
Puccinia tanacetiPathogenLeaves
Rhopalomyia tanaceticolaHerbivoreStems/Leaves/Inflorescenceto genus
Uroleucon tanacetiHerbivoreLeaves

Notes on Natural Enemies

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The phytophagous arthropod complex of Central Europe is thought to consist of 143 species, of which 13% are believed to be monophagous (restricted to the genus Tanacetum) and 45% oligophagous (restricted to the family Asteraceae). Larval development has been recorded for 135 species (Schmitz, 1998). The phytophagous fauna of T. vulgare in Alberta, Canada, includes only one monophagous species, Aceria calathinus, which is an introduced gall mite from Europe (White, 1997). The species mentioned as 'monophagous' are reported to live exclusively on T. vulgare. However, some of these species may also occur on other Tanacetum species. For instance, the second Tanacetum species indigenous to Central Europe, T. corymbosum, is rare, and data on its natural enemies are insufficient.

Potential biocontrol agents have been selected on their potential host specificity, damage to the target plant and availability in their native European area. A number of potentially monophagous herbivore species considered for biological control of T. vulgare are the flower and seed-feeding moths Coleophora bornicensis and C. tanaceti (Coleophoridae), the flower gall midge Contarinia tanaceti (Cecidomyiidae), the flower feeding mite Aceria tuberculata (Eriophyiidae), the sap sucking bug Megalocoleus chrysotricus (Miridae) and the root and stem boring weevil Meliboeus graminoides (Buprestidae). A dozen of root-boring moths in the genus Dichrorampha have been recorded on T. vulgare of which Dicrorampha ambrosiana appears to be also potentially host specific.

Brandenburger (1985) reports of 23 fungal species on Tanacetum. One of the most appropriate candidates for biological control of T. vulgare is Puccinia tanaceti (Gäumann, 1959; Newcombe, 2003). This pathogen was recently recorded for the first time from the USA (Idaho: Newcombe, 2003).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Wind and flowing water disperse the fruits of T. vulgare. Rhizomes may also be transported by water and as such T. vulgare is often found along rivers (Oberdorfer, 2001).

Vector Transmission

Animals can be responsible for catapulting the fruit which assists dispersal and cattle may carry seeds on their legs.

Intentional Introduction

T. vulgare is grown as an ornamental plant in gardens from which it may escape. The attractive flowers may also be transported as cut flowers.

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Soil, sand, gravel etc.Tansy is often found along rivers.Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers, Inflorescences, Cones, CalyxNo
Fruits (inc. pods)No
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs, Tubers, Corms, Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings, Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground), Shoots, Trunks, Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collectionsNone
Animal/plant productsNone
Biodiversity (generally)Negative
Crop productionNone
Environment (generally)None
Fisheries / aquacultureNone
Forestry productionNone
Human healthNone
Livestock productionNone
Native faunaNone
Native floraNegative
Rare/protected speciesNone
TourismNone
Trade/international relationsNone
Transport/travelNone

Economic Impact

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T. vulgare has almost no impact as a weed of field or plantation crops. It occasionally has negative effects on meadows due to avoidance by cattle. The north-central region of Canada is heavily infested by T. vulgare. A 1993 survey estimated that 26,384 ha, in 58 municipal districts were infested and that the total estimated annual cost to municipalities and private landowners for controlling tansy was CAN$ 256,617 (= CAN$ 9.70/ha; White, 1997).

Environmental Impact

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The spreading of T. vulgare in areas where the plant is introduced affects the diversity of herbaceous plants and, consequently, the entomofauna. In North America (especially Quebec, Manitoba, British Columbia, Alberta), T. vulgare may compete with the native flora in pastures, hay fields, riparian habitats, roadsides and waste areas (McClay, 1989; White, 2002). Thus, plant diversity may be reduced in places were T. vulgare becomes dominant.

By outcompeting native plants with a rich entomofauna, T. vulgare may reduce the phytophagous insect diversity on a local level. On the other hand, the flowers may serve as an important nectar source for pollinating insects however the corresponding investigations are so far not available.

Social Impact

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The possibility of T. vulgare causing health problems cannot be ruled out, e.g. poisoning, contact dermatitis, allergic reactions, including anaphylactic shock, and others.

T. vulgare can become a problem in pastures due to its toxicity for livestock, especially cattle (Roth, 1987; McClay, 1989; White, 2002).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Impact mechanisms

  • Competition - monopolizing resources

Impact outcomes

  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Negatively impacts tourism
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity

Invasiveness

  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc

Likelihood of entry/control

  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Social Benefit

The attractive flowers of T. vulgare are grown in gardens and often cut for ornamental purposes (cut flowers).

In Central Europe, T. vulgare plays an important role as a reserve for aphidophagous insect fauna in agricultural landscapes (Aphidiidae, Coccinellidae, Syrphidae, etc.; e.g. Klausnitzer, 1968). The oil of T. vulgare may be rubbed on the skin and used as an insect-repellent (against flies and mosquitoes); in Russia, powdered T. vulgare is used as an insecticide. An extract of T. vulgare in distilled water supposedly deters the feeding of some Lepidoptera larvae, and T. vulgare grown under fruit trees is believed to repel insects such as flies and ants (Duke, 1987).

Although T. vulgare is quite poisonous, it found its way into omelettes, puddings, salads, pot-herbs, cheeses, dressings and especially herbal teas (Ranson, 1949; Mabey, 1996). Fresh young leaves are used to spice omelettes, fish or meat pies. Teas made of T. vulgare are bitter beverages brewed from fresh or dried leaves and tops. The tea is said to have a calming effect.

Leaf tips are still used today in the preparation of cosmetics and ointments. The essential oil is used in perfumery.

Medicinally, leaves and flowers of T. vulgare have stimulating and tonic properties. An oil obtained from the flowers is used primarily as an anthelmintic. The unguent made from the leaves is said to be a folk remedy for tumours in the tendons; it has shown some effect in the National Institutes of Health (NIH) cancer programme in the USA. T. vulgare may be used to treat stomach and duodenal ulcers, ague (leaves put into the shoes), amenorrhoea, bruises, burns, cholecystosis, cold, dropsy, epilepsy, fever, freckles, gout, hepatosis, hysteria, kidney problems, nerves, rheumatism, sores, spasms, sprains, swellings, tuberculosis; it is considered to be abortifacient, antibiotic, anthelmintic, antioxidant, antiseptic, ascaricide, bactericide, cordial, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, narcotic, nervine, pediculicide, poison, pulicide, sedative, stimulant, stomachic, sudorific, tonic, vermifuge and vulnerary. Hot fomentations are recommended for bruises, freckles, inflammation, leucorrhea, palpitations, sciatica, stomach ache, sunburn, swellings, toothache and tumours. Homeopathic doctors prescribe tinctures for abortion, amenorrhoea, chorea, dysmenorrhoea, epilepsy, eyes, hydrophobia, labial abscess, paralysis, strabismus and worms (Duke, 1987).

Mordujovich-Buschiazzo et al. (1996) report a rather strong anti-inflammatory effect that leads to significant reduction of oedema in rats. But they indicate the high toxicity, the LD50-ratio (for rats) is approximately 285 mg/kg body weight. Oil from T. vulgare is much more toxic and should be used only with extreme caution. Ten drops of the oil are supposed to be lethal (Duke, 1987). Symptoms of poisoning include rapid and feeble pulse, severe gastritis, violent spasms and convulsions (Duke, 1987). Keindorf and Keindorf (1978) report hyperoestrogenism in cattle. Holetz et al. (2002) stated activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, but no significant antifungal activity against yeasts.

Uses List

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General

  • Ornamental

Human food and beverage

  • Spices and culinary herbs

Materials

  • Essential oils
  • Poisonous to mammals

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Similarities to common species are not known. T. vulgare may be confused with some of the Asian species, but their distribution is so localised that it is most unlikely to encounter them in the field.

Prevention and Control

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Cultural Control

While extensive grazing may promote seedling establishment on bare ground, heavy grazing results in a reduction in population of T. vulgare (White, 1997).

Mechanical Control

T. vulgare is sensitive to cutting and root-extraction (Korsmo, 1930; Briemle and Ellenberg, 1994).

Chemical Control

In comparative experiments on the efficacy of different herbicides/combinations (using metsulfuron, tribenuron, clopyralid, glyphosate, dicamba, 2,4-D, picloram), metsulfuron was found to be the most effective (Lass et al., 1987, 1988; Miller and Callihan, 1992).

Biological Control

Despite a biological control programme, no agent has been released for the control of T. vulgare (Winston et al., 2014). Host-specificity tests have indicated that the host range of the shoot-boring beetle Phytoecia nigricornis is not restricted to the target plant. Another potential candidate, the root-feeding beetle Longitarsus noricus, was found to be oligophagous on several genera in the tribe Anthemideae. The leaf-feeding beetle Cassida stigmatica and the flower, stem and leaf galling midge Rhopalomyia tanaceticola also seems to lack specificity on a few critical plant species in different genera. In addition, the efficacy of the flower-feeding moth Isophrictis striatella is questionable. None of the above species are therefore further considered for the biological control of T. vulgare. The following European herbivore species are currently being studied as candidate biocontrol agents: the shoot and root mining Plume moth Platyptilia ochrodactyla [Gillmeria tetradactyla], the stem mining weevil Microplontus millefolii and the leaf feeding chrysomelid beetle Chrysolina eurina (Gassmann et al., 2016).

References

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Contributors

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13/12/2016 Updated by:

André Gassmann, CABI-CH, Switzerland

Distribution Maps

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Distribution map Andorra: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Albania: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Armenia: Present, native, not invasive
Czerepanov, 1995Armenia: Present, native, not invasive
Czerepanov, 1995Argentina: Present, introduced, not invasive
Zuloaga & Morrone, 1999Austria: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Australia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAzerbaijan: Present, native, not invasive
Czerepanov, 1995Azerbaijan: Present, native, not invasive
Czerepanov, 1995Bosnia-Hercegovina: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Belgium: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Bulgaria: Present, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Belarus: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Canada
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada
See regional map for distribution within the countryCanada
See regional map for distribution within the countrySwitzerland: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Chile: Present, introduced, not invasive
Pizarro, 1966China
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryCyprus: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Cyprus: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Czech Republic: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Germany: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Denmark: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Estonia: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Spain: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Spain: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Finland: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Faroe Islands: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976France: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976France
See regional map for distribution within the countryUK: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976UK
See regional map for distribution within the countryGeorgia (Republic of): Present, native, not invasive
Czerepanov, 1995Georgia (Republic of): Present, native, not invasive
Czerepanov, 1995Gibraltar: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Greece: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Greece: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Croatia: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Hungary: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Ireland: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Iceland: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Iceland: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Italy: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Japan
See regional map for distribution within the countryKyrgyzstan: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2016Korea, DPR: Present, native, not invasive
Ohwi, 1965Korea, Republic of: Present, native, not invasive
Ohwi, 1965Kazakhstan: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2016Kazakhstan: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2016Liechtenstein: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Lithuania: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Luxembourg: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Latvia: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Monaco: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Moldova: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Macedonia: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Mongolia: Widespread, native, not invasive
Grubov, 2001Malta: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Malta: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Netherlands: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Norway: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976New Zealand: Present, introduced, not invasive
Webb et al., 1988Peru: Present, introduced, not invasive
Dillon, 1981Poland: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Portugal: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Portugal
See regional map for distribution within the countryPortugal
See regional map for distribution within the countryRomania: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Serbia: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Russian Federation: Widespread, native, not invasive
Czerepanov, 1995Russian Federation: Widespread, native, not invasive
Czerepanov, 1995Russian Federation
See regional map for distribution within the countryRussian Federation
See regional map for distribution within the countryRussian Federation
See regional map for distribution within the countryRussian Federation
See regional map for distribution within the countryRussian Federation
See regional map for distribution within the countryRussian Federation
See regional map for distribution within the countrySweden: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Slovenia: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Slovakia: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976San Marino: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Turkey: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2016Turkey: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2016Turkey: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2016Ukraine: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Ukraine: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976USA: Present, introduced
USDA-NRCS, 2016USA: Present, introduced
USDA-NRCS, 2016USA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryYugoslavia (former): Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976
  • = Present, no further details
  • = Evidence of pathogen
  • = Widespread
  • = Last reported
  • = Localised
  • = Presence unconfirmed
  • = Confined and subject to quarantine
  • = See regional map for distribution within the country
  • = Occasional or few reports
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Distribution map (asia) Armenia: Present, native, not invasive
Czerepanov, 1995Azerbaijan: Present, native, not invasive
Czerepanov, 1995Heilongjiang: Present, native, not invasive
Shi et al., 1983Xinjiang: Present, native, not invasive
Shi et al., 1983Georgia (Republic of): Present, native, not invasive
Czerepanov, 1995Hokkaido: Present, native, not invasive
Ohwi, 1965; Iwatsuki et al., 1995Kyrgyzstan: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2016Korea, DPR: Present, native, not invasive
Ohwi, 1965Korea, Republic of: Present, native, not invasive
Ohwi, 1965Kazakhstan: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2016Mongolia: Widespread, native, not invasive
Grubov, 2001Russian Federation: Widespread, native, not invasive
Czerepanov, 1995Turkey: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2016Ukraine: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976
Distribution map (europe) Andorra: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Albania: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Armenia: Present, native, not invasive
Czerepanov, 1995Austria: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Azerbaijan: Present, native, not invasive
Czerepanov, 1995Bosnia-Hercegovina: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Belgium: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Bulgaria: Present, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Belarus: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Switzerland: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Cyprus: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Czech Republic: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Germany: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Denmark: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Estonia: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Spain: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Finland: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Faroe Islands: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976France: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Corsica: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976UK: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Channel Islands: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Georgia (Republic of): Present, native, not invasive
Czerepanov, 1995Gibraltar: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Greece: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Croatia: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Hungary: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Ireland: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Iceland: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Italy: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Kazakhstan: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2016Liechtenstein: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Lithuania: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Luxembourg: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Latvia: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Monaco: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Moldova: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Macedonia: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Malta: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Netherlands: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Norway: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Poland: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Portugal: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Madeira: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Romania: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Serbia: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Russian Federation: Widespread, native, not invasive
Czerepanov, 1995Central Russia: Widespread, native, not invasive
Czerepanov, 1995Eastern Siberia: Widespread, native, not invasive
Czerepanov, 1995Russian Far East: Widespread, introduced, not invasive
Czerepanov, 1995Northern Russia: Widespread, native, not invasive
Czerepanov, 1995Southern Russia: Widespread, native, not invasive
Czerepanov, 1995Western Siberia: Widespread, native, not invasive
Czerepanov, 1995Sweden: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Slovenia: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Slovakia: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976San Marino: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Turkey: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2016Ukraine: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Yugoslavia (former): Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976
Distribution map (africa) Cyprus: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Spain: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Greece: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Malta: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Madeira: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976Turkey: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2016
Distribution map (north america) Alberta: Present, introduced, invasive
Crompton et al., 1988British Columbia: Present, introduced, not invasive
Crompton et al., 1988Manitoba: Present, introduced, invasive
Crompton et al., 1988New Brunswick: Present, introduced, not invasive
Crompton et al., 1988Newfoundland and Labrador: Present, introduced, not invasive
Crompton et al., 1988Nova Scotia: Present, introduced, not invasive
Crompton et al., 1988Ontario: Present, introduced, not invasive
Crompton et al., 1988Prince Edward Island: Present, introduced, not invasive
Crompton et al., 1988Quebec: Present, introduced, not invasive
Crompton et al., 1988Saskatchewan: Present, introduced, invasive
Crompton et al., 1988Iceland: Widespread, native, not invasive
Heywood, 1976USA: Present, introduced
USDA-NRCS, 2016Alaska: Present, introduced, not invasive
Hulten, 1968; USDA-NRCS, 2016Arkansas: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016Arizona: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016California: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016Colorado: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016Connecticut: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016Hawaii: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016Iowa: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016Idaho: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016Illinois: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016Indiana: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016Kansas: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016Kentucky: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016Louisiana: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016Massachusetts: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016Maryland: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016Maine: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016Michigan: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016Minnesota: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016Missouri: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016Montana: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016North Carolina: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016North Dakota: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016Nebraska: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016New Hampshire: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016New Jersey: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016New Mexico: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016Nevada: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016New York: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016Ohio: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016Oklahoma: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016Oregon: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016Pennsylvania: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016Rhode Island: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016South Dakota: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016Tennessee: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016Utah: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016Virginia: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016Vermont: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016Washington: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016Wisconsin: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016West Virginia: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016Wyoming: Present, introduced, not invasive
USDA-NRCS, 2016
Distribution map (central america) USA: Present, introduced
USDA-NRCS, 2016
Distribution map (south america) Argentina: Present, introduced, not invasive
Zuloaga & Morrone, 1999Chile: Present, introduced, not invasive
Pizarro, 1966Peru: Present, introduced, not invasive
Dillon, 1981
Distribution map (pacific) New South Wales: Present, few occurrences, introduced, not invasive
Harden, 1990Queensland: Present, few occurrences, introduced, not invasive
Harden, 1990South Australia: Present, few occurrences, introduced, not invasive
Harden, 1990Tasmania: Present, few occurrences, introduced, not invasive
Walsh & Entwisle, 1999Victoria: Present, few occurrences, introduced, not invasive
Harden, 1990New Zealand: Present, introduced, not invasive
Webb et al., 1988