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Datasheet

Tapinoma minutum (dwarf pedicel ant)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 04 October 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Documented Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Tapinoma minutum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • dwarf pedicel ant
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • T. minutum is a very small (1.5 mm), inconspicuous, drab brown, soft-bodied ant that occurs in Australia and Oceania. The species is widely considered native across this region, but it is pos...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Tapinoma minutum; adult, lateral view. Museum set specimen. Note scale.
TitleAdult
CaptionTapinoma minutum; adult, lateral view. Museum set specimen. Note scale.
Copyright©AntWeb 2002-2016 - CC BY-SA 3.0. Original image by Evan P. Economo - https://www.antweb.org/bigPicture.do?name=casent0177147&shot=p&number=1
Tapinoma minutum; adult, lateral view. Museum set specimen. Note scale.
AdultTapinoma minutum; adult, lateral view. Museum set specimen. Note scale.©AntWeb 2002-2016 - CC BY-SA 3.0. Original image by Evan P. Economo - https://www.antweb.org/bigPicture.do?name=casent0177147&shot=p&number=1
Tapinoma minutum; adult, dorsal view. Museum set specimen. Note scale.
TitleAdult
CaptionTapinoma minutum; adult, dorsal view. Museum set specimen. Note scale.
Copyright©AntWeb 2002-2016 - CC BY-SA 3.0. Original image by Evan P. Economo - https://www.antweb.org/bigPicture.do?name=casent0177147&shot=p&number=1
Tapinoma minutum; adult, dorsal view. Museum set specimen. Note scale.
AdultTapinoma minutum; adult, dorsal view. Museum set specimen. Note scale.©AntWeb 2002-2016 - CC BY-SA 3.0. Original image by Evan P. Economo - https://www.antweb.org/bigPicture.do?name=casent0177147&shot=p&number=1
Tapinoma minutum; adult, anterior view, showing head capsule and antennae. Museum set specimen. Note scale.
TitleAdult
CaptionTapinoma minutum; adult, anterior view, showing head capsule and antennae. Museum set specimen. Note scale.
Copyright©AntWeb 2002-2016 - CC BY-SA 3.0. Original image by Evan P. Economo - https://www.antweb.org/bigPicture.do?name=casent0177147&shot=p&number=1
Tapinoma minutum; adult, anterior view, showing head capsule and antennae. Museum set specimen. Note scale.
AdultTapinoma minutum; adult, anterior view, showing head capsule and antennae. Museum set specimen. Note scale.©AntWeb 2002-2016 - CC BY-SA 3.0. Original image by Evan P. Economo - https://www.antweb.org/bigPicture.do?name=casent0177147&shot=p&number=1

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Tapinoma minutum Mayr

Preferred Common Name

  • dwarf pedicel ant

Summary of Invasiveness

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T. minutum is a very small (1.5 mm), inconspicuous, drab brown, soft-bodied ant that occurs in Australia and Oceania. The species is widely considered native across this region, but it is possible that part of its current range resulted from anthropogenic dispersal. The species is most commonly found foraging and nesting in disturbed forest vegetation, but is also known to occur on the ground and in primary forest. Although little is known about the biology of T. minutum and it is not on any alert or pest lists, the species has been implicated in the decline of two endangered butterfly species endemic to Micronesia, primarily through the predation of eggs and larvae. T. minutum belongs to a taxonomically difficult species-complex that requires additional study before any of the known populations can be conclusively considered invasive. The species is rarely reported from quarantine interceptions and is unlikely to pose a significant invasion risk.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hymenoptera
  •                         Family: Formicidae
  •                             Genus: Tapinoma
  •                                 Species: Tapinoma minutum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The genus Tapinoma contains a total of 74 different species distributed in both tropical and temperate regions of the world. T. minutum was first described by Gustav Mayr in 1862 and belongs to the subfamily Dolichoderinae.

T. minutum belongs to a complex of closely related described and undescribed species, including three subspecies (Clouse, 2007). Current subspecies include T. minutum var. broomense Forel, T.minutumvar. cephalicum Santschi and T. minutum var. integrum Forel.

Description

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T. minutum is an extremely small, inconspicuous, drab brown, soft-bodied ant in the subfamily Dolichoderinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The following characters can be used to diagnose it from all known invasive and introduced ants. Total length ca. 1.5 mm. Head width ≤0.45 mm. Antenna 12-segmented. Antennal scape length less than 1.5x head length. Eyes medium to large (greater than 5 facets), do not break outline of head in full-face view. Antennal sockets and posterior clypeal margin separated by a distance less than the minimum width of antennal scape. Anterior margin of clypeus distinctly concave. Mandible with distinct break in tooth size after fourth tooth dorsum of mesosoma with metanotal groove, but never with a deep and broad concavity; lacking erect hairs. Propodeum with dorsal surface distinctly shorter than posterior face; lacking posteriorly projecting protrusion. Waist 1-segmented (may be hidden by gaster). Petiolar node appearing flattened. Gaster armed with ventral slit; with four plates on its dorsal surface and with the fifth plate on the ventral surface. Distinct constriction not visible between abdominal segments 3+4. Hairs not long, thick and produced in pairs. Uniformly light to dark brown, often with paler brownish yellow appendages.

Distribution

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The current consensus among ant specialists is that T. minutum is native across its current range in Australia and Oceania (Wilson and Hunt, 1967; Wilson and Taylor, 1967; Wetterer, 2002; Wetterer, 2006; Clouse, 2007; Sarnat and Economo, 2012; Ramage, 2014). It has been reported as present in mangroves and forests of the Cook Islands where it has been introduced and naturalized (Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, 2016).

Although the species is reported as occurring in Hawaii (Nishida and Evenhuis, 2000), there is no primary literature or known specimen records validating this claim (Krushelnycky et al., 2005). The putative occurrence in Hawaii is important because the archipelago never supported an ant fauna prior to human settlement. Hawaii has since been colonized by over 60 commonly introduced ant species. 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Oceania

American SamoaPresentSavage et al., 2009
Australia
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentNative Not invasive Crawley, 1915; Taylor et al., 1985
-New South WalesPresentNative Not invasive Forel, 1907; Viehmeyer, 1912; Emery, 1913; Briese and Macauley, 1977; Briese and Macauley, 1980; Taylor et al., 1985; Taylor, 1987
-QueenslandPresentNativeForel, 1915; Taylor et al., 1985; Lowery and Taylor, 1994; Blüthgen et al., 2003
-TasmaniaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Lowery and Taylor, 1994
-VictoriaPresentNativeBorgelt and New, 2006
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedCook Islands Biodiversity Database, 2016
FijiPresentNative Not invasive Wilson and Hunt, 1967; Dlussky, 1994; Ward and Wetterer, 2006; Ward and Beggs, 2007; Ward, 2008; Sarnat et al., 2013Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, Yasawa Islands, Taveuni, Lakeba
French PolynesiaPresentNative Not invasive Morrison, 1996; Morrison, 1997; Morrison, 2008; Ramage, 2014Tahiti, Moorea, Huahine, Raiatea, Bora Bora, Fatu Hiva
GuamPresentNative Not invasive Shattuck, 1994; Clouse, 2007
KiribatiPresentClouse, 2007
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentClouse, 2007
New CaledoniaPresentNativeBreton et al., 2003
NiuePresentNative Not invasive Taylor, 1967; Collingwood and Harten, 2001; Wetterer, 2006
PalauPresentNative Not invasive Clouse, 2007
Papua New GuineaPresentNative Not invasive Viehmeyer, 1912; Room, 1975
SamoaPresentNative Not invasive Wilson and Taylor, 1967Upolu Island, Savaii Island
Solomon IslandsPresentNative Not invasive Sarnat et al., 2013
TokelauPresentNative Not invasive Abbott et al., 2006Nukunonu Atoll, Atafu Atoll
TongaPresentNative Not invasive Dlussky, 1994; Wetterer, 2002
Wallis and Futuna IslandsPresentNative Not invasive Wilson and Hunt, 1967Wallis Island, Futuna Island

History of Introduction and Spread

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There are no reported records of T. minutum establishing populations outside what is generally considered to be its native range across Oceania. If the species has spread via anthropogenic dispersal in recent history, such introductions would likely go unnoticed as the ant is very inconspicuous, occurs at relatively low densities and is not known to be a nuisance or pest.

Risk of Introduction

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The most likely pathway by which T. minutum can be spread accidentally is through the overseas trade of either agricultural or ornamental plant material. It appears unlikely that T. minutum will significantly expand its range through anthropogenic dispersal. The only confirmed record of T. minutum being intercepted in quarantine is a single occurrence in New Zealand. The species is not considered a quarantine pest in any region. However the closely related species T. melanocephalum has been unintentionally introduced into new areas this way.

Habitat

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Although capable of living in primary forest habitat, T. minutum is most often associated with disturbed habitats such as secondary forests, mangrove forests and beach strands (Clouse, 2007; Sarnat and Economo, 2012). Collections in Fiji were made across a variety of elevations and disturbance levels, from sea level in a port city to ca. 1200 m in primary interior forest (Sarnat and Economo, 2012). The species is an opportunistic cavity dweller. It is known to nest under coconut tree leaf bases, arboreally in dead twigs, dead wood and even in Hydnophytum ant-plants. In Micronesia it is was collected nesting under coconut tree leaf bases, foraging on roadside grasses, in ginger flowers, on Wedelia biflora at the edge of mangroves, on rotten logs in mangroves, in rotten logs, on tree trunks, on taro leafs and on buildings (Clouse, 2007). Wilson and Taylor (1967) recorded it in Samoa as occurring in dry forest, disturbed rainforest and coastal mangroves. They found stray workers on foliage, on the ground, under the bark of logs and nesting in dead twigs. In Australia it is reported as a very common inhabitant of mesic forests and nest sites include branches, wood chunks, bark, sticks, palm frond interior, twigs and rolled leaves (Herbers, 1991).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural
Mangroves Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial-managed
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Reproductive Biology

Wilson and Taylor (1967) reported finding a nest in a dead twig with multiple queens. A population study of the species in Australia reported T. minutum as being facultatively polygynous and might possibly have been polydomous (Herbers, 1991). Nest sizes ranged from fewer than a dozen workers to over 750 workers. In Australia the average number of workers per nest was lowest in spring, then rose in summer and again in autumn (Herbers, 1991). The same study found T. minutum has a pronounced annual brood cycle. Spring nests contained all developmental stages; several also contained adult sexuals (males and alate queens) and many had sexual pupae. By summer, all sexual pupae are enclosed and alates have typically left. Summer nests have large complements of eggs, larvae and worker pupae, but by fall the only immature stages in nests are larvae.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Tolerated > 60mm precipitation per month
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
16.5 42

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

T. minutum is a mobile species and will disperse itself locally.

Accidental Introduction

Accidental introduction of T. minutum associated with trade and transport is possible and has occurred for the closely related and invasive species, T. melanocephalum

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Impact: Environmental

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T. minutum is believed to have a negative impact on the Mariana eight-spot butterfly, Hypolimnas octocula marianensis and the Mariana wandering butterfly, Vagrans egistina (Schreiner and Nafus, 1996). Both of these species are endemic to the Mariana Islands (Micronesia) and are on the endangered status list of the US Fish and Wildlife Service (2015). The ants are implicated in predating on the eggs and possibly larva of the native butterflies of Micronesia, including the aforementioned two species (Nafus, 1993; Schreiner and Nafus, 1996; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2015). Schreiner and Nafus (1996) reported predation by four ant species, including T. minutum,to be one of the primary causes of mortality (more than 90 %) in the Mariana eight-spot butterfly.

It is also quite possible that T. minutumhas a beneficial impact on biodiversity, such as by keeping heterospecific populations (including non-threatened Lepidoptera) under control.

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Hypolimnas octocula marianensis (Mariana eight-spot butterfly)National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesGuamPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2015
Vagrans egistina (Mariana wandering butterfly)National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesGuamPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2015

Risk and Impact Factors

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Impact mechanisms

  • Predation

Impact outcomes

  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species

Invasiveness

  • Abundant in its native range
  • Gregarious
  • Has a broad native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerant of shade

Likelihood of entry/control

  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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T. minutum belongs to a complex of closely related described and undescribed species, including three subspecies (Clouse, 2007). A taxonomic revision of this species complex is required before T. minutum can be reliably diagnosed. T. minutum is easily confused with the highly invasive and widespread T. melanocephalum, which is considered introduced in the Pacific. T. melanocephalum is distinguished from T. minutum by the following two characters: (1) head dark and sharply contrasting with pale gaster, appearing bicoloured without magnification; (2) antennal scapes surpassing posterior margin of head by at least length of first funicular segment. In contrast, the head and gaster of T. minutum are both uniformly brownish and the antennal scapes rarely surpass the posterior margin of head and never by more than the length of the first funicular segment.

There are several putatively heterospecific Tapinoma in Fiji that are similar in colour to T. minutum, but T. minutum can be distinguished from these by the following characters: (1) anterior margin of clypeus distinctly concave, (2) mandible with distinct break in tooth size after fourth tooth, (3) smaller species (head width ≤0.45 mm). T. minutum also resembles several other invasive species. It can be differentiated from Brachymyrmex species by the 12-segmented (versus 9-segmented) antenna and by the presence of a ventral slit (versus acidopore) on the gaster tip. It can be differentiated from Technomyrmex species by the absence (versus presence) of erect hairs on the mesosoma and by the gaster which has four plates on the dorsal surface and six on the ventral surface (versus five plates on both surfaces). It is most easily differentiated from T. sessile by the bicoloured dark head and light body, gaster and appendages (versus uniform brown colour). 

Prevention and Control

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Detection and Inspection Methods

T. minutum may be present under the bark of trees, in leaf rolls, on cut flowers and in hollow twigs/branches. Only reproductive females (queen ants) are of serious quarantine concern as worker ants are sterile.

Diagnosis

T. minutum can be identified using a stereoscopic microscope with at least 40x magnification. The species is included in the identification keys of Clouse (2007); Sarnat and Economo (2012) and Wilson and Taylor (1967).

Control

There is limited information available on the control of T. minutum. Control methods for the closely related T. melanocephalum include using bait with a high sugar concentration and a toxicant (Stanley, 2004; Harris et al., 2005). Ants will carry the bait back to the nest and distribute the toxicant to colony members, including the queen.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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There is very little information available with regards to this species. A taxonomic revision of this species complex is required before T. minutum can be reliably diagnosed and studied further.

References

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Abbott KL, Sarty M, Lester PJ, 2006. The ants of Tokelau. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 33(2):157-164. http://www.rsnz.org/publish/nzjz

Blüthgen N, Gebauer G, Fiedler K, 2003. Disentangling a rainforest food web using stable isotopes: dietary diversity in a species-rich ant community. Oecologia, 137(3):426-435.

Borgelt A, New TR, 2006. Pitfall trapping for ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in mesic Australia: what is the best trapping period? Journal of Insect Conservation, 10(1):75-77. http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=100177

Breton J Le, Chazeau J, Jourdan H, 2003. Immediate impacts of invasion by Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on native litter ant fauna in a New Caledonian rainforest. Austral Ecology, 28(2):204-209.

Briese DT, Macauley BJ, 1977. Physical structure of an ant community in semi-arid Australia. Australian Journal of Ecology, 2(1):107-120.

Briese DT, Macauley BJ, 1980. Temporal structure of an ant community in semi-arid Australia. Australian Journal of Ecology, 5(2):121-134.

Clouse RM, 2007. The ants of Micronesia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Micronesica: Journal of the University of Guam, 39:171-295.

Collingwood CA, Harten Avan, 2001. The ants (Hym., Formicidae) of Niue, South West Pacific. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 137(1644/1647):139-143.

Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, 2016. Tapinoma minutum, tiny ghost-ant. The Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust. http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org/species.asp?id=9329

Crawley WC, 1915. Ants from north and south-west Australia (G. Hill, Rowland Turner) and Christmas Island, Straits Settlements. - Part II. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 8(15):232-239.

Dlussky GM, 1994. Animal populations of the islands of southwestern Oceania (ecogeographic studies) [in Russian] [ed. by Puzatchenko, Y. G. \Golovatch, S. M. \Dlussky, G. M. \Diakonov, K. N. \Zakharov, A. A. \Korganova, G. A.]. Moscow, Russia: Nauka Press, 48-93.

Emery C, 1913. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Dolichoderinae. Genera Insectorum 137. 50 pp.

Forel A, 1902. [English title not available] Fourmis nouvelles d'Australie. Revue Suisse de Zoologie, 10. 405-548.

Forel A, 1907. [English title not available] Formicides du Musée National Hongrois. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici, 5. 1-42.

Forel A, 1915. Results of Dr. Mjöbergs Swedish scientific expeditions to australia 1910-13. Arkiv för Zoologi, 9(16):1-119.

Harris R, Abbott K, Barton K, Berry J, Don W, Gunawardana D, Lester P, Rees J, Stanley M, Sutherland A, Toft R, 2005. Invasive ant pest risk assessment project for Biosecurity New Zealand. Series of unpublished Landcare Research contract reports to Biosecurity New Zealand, BAH/35/2004-1.

Herbers JM, 1991. The population biology of <i>Tapinoma minutum </i>(Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Australia. Insectes Sociaux, 38(2):195-204.

Krushelnycky PD, Loope LL, Reimer NJ, 2005. The ecology, policy, and management of ants in Hawaii. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, 37. 1-22.

Lowery BB, Taylor RJ, 1994. Occurrence of ant species in a range of sclerophyll forest communities at Old Chum Dam, north-eastern Tasmania. Australian Entomologist, 21(1):11-14.

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Morrison LW, 1996. Community organization in a recently assembled fauna: the case of Polynesian ants. Oecologia, 107(2):243-256.

Morrison LW, 1996. The ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Polynesia revisited: species numbers and the importance of sampling intensity. Ecography, 19:73-84.

Morrison LW, 1997. Polynesian ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) species richness and distribution: a regional survey. Acta Oecologica, 18:685-695.

Morrison LW, 2008. Patterns of nestedness in remote Polynesian ant faunas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Pacific Science, 62(1):117-127. http://www.uhpress.hawaii.edu/journals

Nafus DM, 1993. Movement of introduced biological control agents onto nontarget butterflies, Hypolimnas spp. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Environmental Entomology, 22(2):265-272

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Ramage T, 2014. Ants from French Polynesia (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). (Les fourmis de Polynésie Française (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).) Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 119(2):145-176.

Room PM, 1975. Diversity and organization of the ground foraging ant faunas of forest, grassland and tree crops in Papua New Guinea. Australian Journal of Zoology, 23(1):71-89

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Sarnat EM, Blanchard B, Guénard B, Fasi J, Economo EP, 2013. Checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the Solomon Islands and a new survey of Makira Island. ZooKeys, No.257:47-88. http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/4156/checklist-of-the-ants-hymenoptera-formicidae-of-the-solomon-islands-and-a-new-survey-of-makira-island

Sarnat EM, Economo EP, 2012. Ants of Fiji. University of California Publications in Entomology, 132:1-398.

Savage AM, Rudgers JA, Whitney KD, 2009. Elevated dominance of extrafloral nectary-bearing plants is associated with increased abundances of an invasive ant and reduced native ant richness. Diversity and Distributions, 15(5):751-761. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ddi

Schreiner I, Nafus D, 1996. Survey of rare butterflies in the Mariana Islands. Unpublished report submitted to USFWS. 13 pp.

Shattuck SO, 1994. University of California Publications in Entomology, 112. Berkeley, California, USA: University of California Press, xix + 241 pp.

Stanley MC, 2004. Review of the efficacy of baits used for ant control and eradication. Unpublished Landcare Research Contract Report: LC0405/044 to Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Auckland, New Zealand: Landcare Research, 74pp.

Taylor RW, 1967. Entomological survey of the Cook Islands and Niue. 1 - Hymenoptera-Formicidae. New Zealand Journal of Science, 10:1092-1095.

Taylor RW, 1987. A checklist of the ants of Australia, New Caledonia and New Zealand (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), 41., Australia: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation.

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US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2015. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; endangered status for 16 species and threatened status for 7 species in Micronesia; final rule. Federal Register, 80(190). Manoa, Hawaii, USA: US Fish and Wildlife Service, 59424-59497.

Viehmeyer H, 1912. [English title not available]. Ameisen aus Deutsch Neuguinea gesammelt von Dr. O. Schlaginhaufen. Abhandlungen und Berichte des Königlichen Zoologischen und Anthropologisch-Ethnographischen Museums zu Dresden, 14:1-26.

Ward D, 2008. Ecological partitioning and invasive ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a tropical rain forest ant community from Fiji. Pacific Science, 62(4):473-482. http://www.uhpress.hawaii.edu/journals

Ward DF, Beggs JR, 2007. Coexistence, habitat patterns and the assembly of ant communities in the Yasawa islands, Fiji. Acta Oecologica, 32:215-223.

Ward DF, Beggs JR, Clout MN, Harris RJ, O'Connor S, 2006. The diversity and origin of exotic ants arriving in New Zealand via human-mediated dispersal. Diversity and Distributions, 12(5):601-609. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=ddi

Ward DF, Wetterer JK, 2006. Checklist of the Ants of Fiji (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, 85:23-47.

Wetterer JK, 2002. Ants of Tonga. Pacific Science, 56:125-135.

Wetterer JK, 2006. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Niue, Polynesia. Pacific Science, 60:413-416.

Wheeler WM, 1909. A small collection of ants from Victoria, Australia. Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 17:25-29.

Wilson EO, Hunt GL, 1967. Ant fauna of Futuna and Wallis Islands, stepping stones to Polynesia. Pacific Insects, 9:563-584.

Wilson EO, Taylor RW, 1967. The ants of Polynesia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Pacific Insects Monograph, 14:1-109.

Contributors

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11/02/2016 Original text by;

Eli Sarnat, Consultant, California, USA

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