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Datasheet

Nelsonia canescens

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 02 April 2014
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Nelsonia canescens
  • Preferred Common Name
  • blue pussyleaf
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Within and outside its native distribution range, N. canescens is an herbaceous species that often grows in disturbed and open habitats where it can be weedy (Daniel, 2001). This species is also an agricultural weed (i.e., rice and oil palm planta...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Nelsonia canescens (blue pussyleaf); habit. Barrio Colón, La Chorrera, Panamá. March, 2012.
TitleHabit
CaptionNelsonia canescens (blue pussyleaf); habit. Barrio Colón, La Chorrera, Panamá. March, 2012.
Copyright©Andres Hernandez-2012/CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
Nelsonia canescens (blue pussyleaf); habit. Barrio Colón, La Chorrera, Panamá. March, 2012.
HabitNelsonia canescens (blue pussyleaf); habit. Barrio Colón, La Chorrera, Panamá. March, 2012.©Andres Hernandez-2012/CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng.

Preferred Common Name

  • blue pussyleaf

Other Scientific Names

  • Acanthodium spicatum Nees
  • Dianthera tomentosa Roxb. ex C.B. Clarke
  • Hemigraphis brunelloides (Lam.) Bremek.
  • Justicia bengalensis Spreng.
  • Justicia brunelloides Lam.
  • Justicia canescens Lam.
  • Justicia hirsuta Vahl
  • Justicia lamiifolia Roxb.
  • Justicia nummulariifolia Vahl
  • Justicia origanoides Vahl
  • Justicia vestita Roem. & Schult.
  • Nelsonia albicans Kunth
  • Nelsonia brunelloides (Lam.) Kuntze
  • Nelsonia brunelloides var. canescens (Lam.) Kuntze
  • Nelsonia campestris R.Br.
  • Nelsonia campestris var. vestita (Roem. & Schult.) C.B. Clarke
  • Nelsonia hirsuta (Vahl) Roem. & Schult.
  • Nelsonia lamiifolia (Roxb.) Spreng.
  • Nelsonia nummulariaefolia (Vahl) Roem. & Schult.
  • Nelsonia origanoides (Vahl) Roem. & Schult.
  • Nelsonia pohlii Nees
  • Nelsonia senegalensis Oerst.
  • Nelsonia tomentosa A. Dietr.
  • Nelsonia villosa Oerst.
  • Origanum lanatum Bojer ex Nees

International Common Names

  • Chinese: liu zi cao

Local Common Names

  • Bangladesh: paramul
  • Gambia: cow's knee, ninsikumbalin, rice-farm grass
  • India: bada rasna
  • Nigeria: baali, damdun makiyaya, ítúmba bùá, manda mbaala, sheep's salt, tsaamiyar makiyaayaa
  • Senegal: bukobatané, ékolingéol, ékolinko, ganány, konikadlo, mbodahâ, nokoto

Summary of Invasiveness

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Within and outside its native distribution range, N. canescens is an herbaceous species that often grows in disturbed and open habitats where it can be weedy (Daniel, 2001). This species is also an agricultural weed (i.e., rice and oil palm plantations) reducing crop yield by competing with crop plants for common resources such as water, mineral nutrients, space and light (Ekeleme and Chikoye, 2003; Essandoh et al., 2011; Mahbubur, 2013). Considering that N. canescens plants are not especially attractive and are not used in the horticultural trade, their wide geographic distribution across the tropics show that this species is a very agile disperser (McDade et al., 2012).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Scrophulariales
  •                         Family: Acanthaceae
  •                             Genus: Nelsonia (plants)
  •                                 Species: Nelsonia canescens

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Acanthaceae includes about 221 genera and 4000 species widespread in both New and Old World Tropics (Scotland and Vollesen, 2000; Stevens, 2012). Species within this family are herbs or woody shrubs, lianas and trees. Member of the Acanthaceae may be recognized by their fruit: a few-seeded, explosively dehiscent capsule within which seeds are borne on hook-like structures called retinacula (the lignified derivatives of the funiculus) (McDade et al., 2008).

The genus Nelsonia is usually treated in the subfamily Nelsonioideae within the Acanthaceae. This subfamily has been repeatedly shown to be monophyletic and to comprise the basal lineage among clades of Acanthaceae (McDade et al., 2008). In a recent molecular phylogenetic study McDade et al. (2012) suggest that only a single species of N. canescens should be recognized. According to these authors, the variation in vegetative traits likely reflected plasticity rather than distinct species and they doubted the validity of recognizing more than one highly variable species (McDade et al., 2012).

Description

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Herbs 10-20 cm tall, annual or perennial, creeping, sprawling, prostrate, or decumbent. Stems villous, often rooting at nodes. Petioles 0.2-3 (-4) cm, villous; leaf blade elliptic to ovate, 1-2 × 0.4-1.2 cm but basal ones sometimes 6-12 × 3.5-5 cm, both surfaces villous, base cuneate, margin entire, apex acute. Spikes 1.5-4 cm long; bracts elliptic, overlapping, 6-7.5 × 3-4 mm, 5-7 veined. Calyx abaxial lobe approximately 2 × 0.6 mm, apex 2-lobed; adaxial lobe approximately 3 × 1 mm; lateral lobes approximately 2 × 0.5 mm. Corolla bluish purple or white, externally glabrous; tube cylindric for approximately 1.5 mm, contracted near midpoint then expanded into throat; lower lip approximately 2.3 mm; upper lip approximately 2 mm. Stamens inserted at base of throat; filaments 0.5 mm, glabrous. Ovary glabrous with 4-8 ovules per locule. Fruit a capsule of approximately 5 × 2 mm, 8 to 16 seeds. Seeds broadly ellipsoid and granulate (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014).

Plant Type

Top of pageAnnual
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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Although the genus Nelsonia appears to be native to Africa, Asia, and Australia (Daniel, 2001; 2005), the origin of the species N. canescens is uncertain. It is not known with confidence whether this species is native or introduced to the New World (Daniel 2001). Currently N. canescens occurs in tropical Africa, Madagascar, southern Asia, Australia, southern North America, Central America, tropical South America, and Puerto Rico (McDade et al., 2012; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; PROTA, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014). Some authors consider that until additional data is presented on the taxonomy and distribution of this species, it should be treated as native in the American tropics (Daniel, 2001, 2005; Profice et al., 2014).

Distribution Table

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CountryDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferencesNotes

ASIA

BangladeshPresentNativeMahbubur, 2013Weed
BhutanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
CambodiaPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
China
-GuangxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-YunnanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
IndiaPresentNativeRabinarayan et al., 2012
IndonesiaPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
LaosPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
MalaysiaPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
MyanmarPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
NepalPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
PhilippinesPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
ThailandPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
VietnamPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014

AFRICA

AngolaPresentNativePickering & Roe, 2009
BotswanaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
BurundiPresentNativeVollesen, 1994
CameroonPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
Central African RepublicPresentNativeVollesen, 1994
Côte d'IvoirePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
Equatorial GuineaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
EthiopiaPresentNativeVollesen, 1994
GambiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
GhanaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
GuineaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
LiberiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
MadagascarPresentNativeMadagascar Catalogue, 2014Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara
MaliPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
MozambiquePresentNativePickering & Roe, 2009
NamibiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
NigeriaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
SenegalPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
Sierra LeonePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
South AfricaPresentNativeRussell et al., 1987
SudanPresentNativePROTA, 2014
TanzaniaPresentNativeVollesen, 1994
UgandaPresentNativeVollesen, 1994
ZambiaPresentNativePickering & Roe, 2009
ZimbabwePresentNativePickering & Roe, 2009

NORTH AMERICA

MexicoPresentDaniel, 2005
USA
-FloridaPresentIntroduced2011Franck & Daniel, 2011Naturalized

CENTRAL AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

Costa RicaPresentDurkee, 1986
El SalvadorPresentDaniel, 2001
HondurasPresentDaniel, 2005
PanamaPresentDaniel, 2005
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedInvasiveAcevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012Weed

SOUTH AMERICA

Brazil
-AcrePresentProfice et al., 2014
-AmazonasPresentProfice et al., 2014
-BahiaPresentProfice et al., 2014
-GoiasPresentProfice et al., 2014
-MaranhaoPresentProfice et al., 2014
-Minas GeraisPresentProfice et al., 2014
-ParaPresentProfice et al., 2014
ColombiaPresentDaniel, 2005
French GuianaPresentFunk et al., 2007Reported as N. campestris

OCEANIA

Australia
-QueenslandPresentAtlas of Living Australia, 2014Reported as Nelsonia campestris R.Br.
-Western AustraliaPresentAtlas of Living Australia, 2014Reported as Nelsonia campestris R.Br.

History of Introduction and Spread

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It remains uncertain whether N. canescens is native or introduced in the New World (Daniel, 2001; McDade et al., 2012). In 1994, K. Vollesen suggested that N. canescens was introduced in the New World (Vollesen, 1994). On the other hand, there are collections made by Humboldt and Bonpland from northern South America in the early nineteenth century, suggesting an extended presence of the species within this continent (Daniel, 2001). Therefore, if N. canescens was introduced into the New World by human activities, it must have been at a relatively early time (Daniel 2001, 2005). In the West Indies, N. canescens is only recorded for Puerto Rico since 1899 (US National Herbarium). This late record (by the 1880s the flora of Puerto Rico was well collected) and its isolated distribution within the West Indies suggest N. canescens has been introduced in this area. In the United States, N. canescens was first collected in the wild in 2011 in the state of Florida where it was considered weedy (Frank and Daniel, 2011).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of N. canescens is high. It commonly grows as a weed in disturbed and open habitats as well as in agricultural lands (Ekeleme and Chikoye, 2003; Essandoh et al., 2011; Mahbubur, 2013). N. canescens has high dispersal ability (i.e., spreads by seeds and ramets) and can grow in a wide range of habitats (McDade et al., 2012). Therefore, the potential of this species to spread much further than it has to date is high.

Habitat

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N. canescens can be found growing in secondary wet evergreen forests, savannah woodlands, grassy places, and open and disturbed habitats, especially in moist areas along roadsides, trails, and streambeds (Durkee, 1986; Daniel 2001; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; PROTA, 2014). It also grows as a weed in agricultural lands (Daniel, 2001; Randall, 2012).  

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural landPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural landPresent, no further detailsNatural
Disturbed areasPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areasPresent, no further detailsNatural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems)Present, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems)Present, no further detailsNatural
Rail / roadsidesPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsidesPresent, no further detailsNatural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Arid regionsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Arid regionsPresent, no further detailsNatural
Natural forestsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forestsPresent, no further detailsNatural
Natural grasslandsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslandsPresent, no further detailsNatural
RiverbanksPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
RiverbanksPresent, no further detailsNatural
Scrub / shrublandsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublandsPresent, no further detailsNatural

Hosts/Species Affected

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N. canescens has been recorded growing as a weed in rice, maize, melon, and oil palm plantations (Ekeleme and Chikoye, 2003; Essandoh et al., 2011; Mahbubur, 2013).

Growth Stages

Top of pageFlowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for N. canescens is 2n = 34 or 2n = 36 (Daniel and Chuang, 1993). 

Reproductive Biology and Phenology

In Asia, within its native distribution ranges, N. canescens has been recorded flowering from October to March and fruiting from March to May (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). In Costa Rica, it has been recorded flowering from February through May (Durkee, 1986). 

Environmental Requirements

N. canescens grows best in moist and warm habitats. In China, this species has been recorded growing in wet and open forests in elevations from 400 to 2000 m (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). In Madagascar, N. canescens grows in dry, semiarid, and subhumid places from sea level to 1499 m (Madagascar Catalogue, 2014). In Africa, N. canescens grows in habitats including dark sandy soil with rocks, in savannas and forests, and on rocks (PROTA, 2014).

 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climatePreferred> 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climatePreferredTropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savannah climate with dry summerPreferred< 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climatePreferred< 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summerToleratedWarm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winterToleratedWarm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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N. canescens spreads by seeds and vegetatively by producing ramets (Daniel, 2001; Chidumayo, 2006). Seeds are small (2-5 mm) and can be dispersed by wind and water (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). Ramets can remain dormant and buried and resprout when environmental conditions are suitable for establishment (Chidumayo, 2006).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
AgricultureWeed in agricultural landYesYesRandall, 2012
DisturbanceCommon weed in open and disturbed placesYesYesDaniel, 2001
Medicinal useUsed in African traditional medicineYesYesPROTA, 2014

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds and rametsYesYesChidumayo, 2006
Land vehiclesSeeds and rootsYesYesMahbubur, 2013
Machinery/equipmentSeeds and rootsYesYesMahbubur, 2013
Soil, sand, gravel etc.Seeds and rootsYesYesMahbubur, 2013
WaterSeedsYesDaniel, 2001
WindSeedsYesDaniel, 2001

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenityPositive
Economic/livelihoodPositive and negative
Environment (generally)Positive and negative
Human healthPositive

Environmental Impact

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N. canescens is a fast-growing species that can grow as a weed in native and secondary wet forests as well as in agricultural land (Daniel, 2001; Ekeleme and Chikoye, 2003; Essandoh et al., 2011; Randall, 2012; Mahbubur, 2013). Consequently, it is outcompeting native and crop plants for common resources such as water, mineral nutrients, space and light (Ekeleme and Chikoye, 2003; Essandoh et al., 2011). In Puerto Rico, N. canescens is listed as invasive in riparian forests, secondary wet forests and disturbed grassy areas (US National Herbarium; Rojas-Sandoval and Acevedo, unpublished data).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Impact mechanisms

  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - other
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting

Impact outcomes

  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Reduced native biodiversity

Invasiveness

  • Abundant in its native range
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has a broad native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Reproduces asexually
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc

Likelihood of entry/control

  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally

Uses

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N. canescens is used in African and Asian traditional medicine. In Africa, it is used to reduce fever and as an analgesic in a wide range of conditions including colds, flu, and viral infections (PROTA, 2014). In India, it is called “Bada Rasna” and it is used in traditional medicine to treat pain and inflammation (Acharya et al., 2012; Mohaddesi et al., 2013). N. canescens is also reported to be used as a cover crop to suppress the growth of weeds in banana plantations. Here this species can invade large areas of the plantation with no visible adverse effects on the banana crop but limiting the possibility of other weeds to invade (Fongod et al., 2010).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. Online version at http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Atlas of Living Australia, 2014. Atlas of Living Australia. http://www.ala.org.au

Behzad Mohaddesi, Ravindra Dwivedi, Ashok BK, Hetal Aghera, Rabinarayan Acharya, Shukla VJ, 2013. Analgesic activity of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng. root in albino rats. AYU, 34(2):226-228. http://www.ayujournal.org/article.asp?issn=0974-8520;year=2013;volume=34;issue=2;spage=226;epage=228;aulast=Mohaddesi

Chidumayo EN, 2006. Fitness implications of clonal integration and leaf dynamics in a stoloniferous herb, Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng (Nelsoniaceae). Evolutionary Ecology, 20(1):59-73. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100160

Daniel TF, 2001. Catalog of Acanthaceae in El Salvador. Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium, 23:115-137.

Daniel TF, 2005. Catalog of Honduran Acanthaceae with taxonomic and phytogeographic notes. Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium, 24:51-108.

Daniel TF, Chuang TI, 1993. Chromosome Numbers of New World Acanthaceae. Systematic Botany, 18:283-289.

Durkee LH, 1986. Family Acanthaceae. Fieldiana, 18:1-87. [Flora Costaricensis.]

Ekeleme F, Chikoye D, 2003. A survey of weed flora of arable fields in the moist savanna zone of Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment, 5(2):228-240.

Essandoh PK, Armah FA, Odoi JO, Yawson DO, Afrifa EKA, 2011. Floristic composition and abundance of weeds in an oil palm plantation in Ghana. Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science, 6(1):20-31. http://www.arpnjournals.com/jabs/research_papers/rp_2011/jabs_0111_229.pdf

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Fongod AGN, Focho DA, Mih AM, Fonge BA, Lang PS, 2010. Weed management in banana production: the use of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng as a non-leguminous cover crop. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 4(3):167-173. http://www.academicjournals.org/ajest/PDF/pdf%202010/Mar/Fongod%20et%20al.pdf

Franck AR, Daniel TF, 2011. Florida Nelsonia canescens, a Genus and Species New to the Adventive Flora of the United States. Castanea, 76:429-431.

Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 55:584 pp.

Madagascar Catalogue, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Madagascar. St. Louis, Missouri, USA and Antananarivo, Madagascar: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/project/mada

Mahbubur RAHM, 2013. A Checklist of Common Angiosperm Weeds of Rajshahi District, Bangladesh. International Journal of Agricultural and Soil Science, 1:1-6. http://internationalinventjournals.org/journals/IJASS/Archive/2013/December_vol-1-issue-1/Fulltext/Rahman.pdf

McDade LA, Daniel TF, Kiel CA, 2008. Toward a comprehensive understanding of phylogenetic relationships among lineages of Acanthaceae S.L. (Lamiales). American Journal of Botany, 95(9):1136-1152. http://www.amjbot.org/

McDade LA, Daniel TF, Kiel CA, Borg AJ, 2012. Phylogenetic placement, delimitation, and relationships among genera of the enigmatic Nelsonioideae (Lamiales: Acanthaceae). Taxon, 61(3):637-651. http://www.botanik.univie.ac.at/iapt/s_taxon.php

Pickering H, Roe E, 2009. Wild Flowers of the Victoria Falls Area. London, UK: Helen Pickering, 128 pp.

Profice SR, Kameyama C, Côrtes ALA, Braz DM, Indriunas A, Vilar T, Pessoa C, Ezcurra C, Wasshausen D, 2014. Acanthaceae. (Acanthaceae.) Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB21673

PROTA, 2014. PROTA4U web database. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.info

Rabinarayan Acharya, Padiya RH, Patel ED, Rudrapa HC, Shukla VJ, Chauhan MG, 2012. Pharmacognostical evaluation of leaf of Bada Rasna [Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng.; Acanthaceae]. Ancient Science of Life, 31(4):194-197. http://www.ancientscienceoflife.org/article.asp?issn=0257-7941;year=2012;volume=31;issue=4;spage=194;epage=197;aulast=Acharya

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.agric.wa.gov.au/objtwr/imported_assets/content/pw/weed/global-compendium-weeds.pdf

Russell Gibbs GE, Welman WG, Reitief E, Immelman KL, Germishuizen G, Pienaar BJ, Wyk Mvan , Nicholas A, 1987. List of species of southern African plants. Memoirs of the Botanical Survey of South Africa, 2(1 & 2):1-152 & 1-270.

Scotland RW, Vollesen K, 2000. Classification of Acanthaceae. Kew Bulletin, 55:513-589.

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

Vollesen K, 1994. Taxonomy, ecology and distribution of Nelsonia (Acanthaceae) in Africa. Zomba, Malawi. In: Proceedings of the XIII Meeting AETFAT, 1 [ed. by Seyani, J. H. \Chikuni, A. C.]. Zomba, Malawi: Association for the Taxonomic Study of the Flora of Tropical Africa, 315-325.

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
Tropicoshttp://www.tropicos.org/
Plant Resources of Tropical Africahttp://www.prota.org
JSTOR Global Plantshttp://plants.jstor.org/

Contributors

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05/03/14 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Distribution Maps

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Distribution map Angola: Present, native
Pickering & Roe, 2009Australia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryBangladesh: Present, native
Mahbubur, 2013Burundi: Present, native
Vollesen, 1994Brazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBhutan: Present, native
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Botswana: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2014Central African Republic: Present, native
Vollesen, 1994Côte d'Ivoire: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2014Cameroon: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2014China
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryColombia: Present
Daniel, 2005Colombia: Present
Daniel, 2005Costa Rica: Present
Durkee, 1986Costa Rica: Present
Durkee, 1986Ethiopia: Present, native
Vollesen, 1994French Guiana: Present
Funk et al., 2007Ghana: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2014Gambia: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2014Guinea: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2014Equatorial Guinea: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2014Honduras: Present
Daniel, 2005Honduras: Present
Daniel, 2005Indonesia: Present, native
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Indonesia: Present, native
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014India: Present, native
Rabinarayan et al., 2012Cambodia: Present, native
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Laos: Present, native
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Liberia: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2014Madagascar: Present, native
Madagascar Catalogue, 2014Mali: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2014Myanmar: Present, native
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Mexico: Present
Daniel, 2005Mexico: Present
Daniel, 2005Malaysia: Present, native
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Mozambique: Present, native
Pickering & Roe, 2009Namibia: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2014Nigeria: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2014Nepal: Present, native
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Panama: Present
Daniel, 2005Panama: Present
Daniel, 2005Philippines: Present, native
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Philippines: Present, native
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Puerto Rico: Present, introduced, invasive
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012Puerto Rico: Present, introduced, invasive
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012Sudan: Present, native
PROTA, 2014Sierra Leone: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2014Senegal: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2014El Salvador: Present
Daniel, 2001El Salvador: Present
Daniel, 2001Thailand: Present, native
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Tanzania: Present, native
Vollesen, 1994Uganda: Present, native
Vollesen, 1994USA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryVietnam: Present, native
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014South Africa: Present, native
Russell et al., 1987Zambia: Present, native
Pickering & Roe, 2009Zimbabwe: Present, native
Pickering & Roe, 2009
  • = Present, no further details
  • = Evidence of pathogen
  • = Widespread
  • = Last reported
  • = Localised
  • = Presence unconfirmed
  • = Confined and subject to quarantine
  • = See regional map for distribution within the country
  • = Occasional or few reports
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Distribution map (asia) Bangladesh: Present, native
Mahbubur, 2013Bhutan: Present, native
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Guangxi: Present, native
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Yunnan: Present, native
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Indonesia: Present, native
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014India: Present, native
Rabinarayan et al., 2012Cambodia: Present, native
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Laos: Present, native
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Myanmar: Present, native
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Malaysia: Present, native
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Nepal: Present, native
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Philippines: Present, native
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Thailand: Present, native
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Vietnam: Present, native
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
Distribution map (europe)
Distribution map (africa) Angola: Present, native
Pickering & Roe, 2009Burundi: Present, native
Vollesen, 1994Botswana: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2014Central African Republic: Present, native
Vollesen, 1994Côte d'Ivoire: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2014Cameroon: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2014Ethiopia: Present, native
Vollesen, 1994Ghana: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2014Gambia: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2014Guinea: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2014Equatorial Guinea: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2014Liberia: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2014Madagascar: Present, native
Madagascar Catalogue, 2014Mali: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2014Mozambique: Present, native
Pickering & Roe, 2009Namibia: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2014Nigeria: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2014Sudan: Present, native
PROTA, 2014Sierra Leone: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2014Senegal: Present, native
USDA-ARS, 2014Tanzania: Present, native
Vollesen, 1994Uganda: Present, native
Vollesen, 1994South Africa: Present, native
Russell et al., 1987Zambia: Present, native
Pickering & Roe, 2009Zimbabwe: Present, native
Pickering & Roe, 2009
Distribution map (north america) Honduras: Present
Daniel, 2005Mexico: Present
Daniel, 2005Puerto Rico: Present, introduced, invasive
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012El Salvador: Present
Daniel, 2001Florida: Present, introduced
Franck & Daniel, 2011
Distribution map (central america) Colombia: Present
Daniel, 2005Costa Rica: Present
Durkee, 1986Honduras: Present
Daniel, 2005Mexico: Present
Daniel, 2005Panama: Present
Daniel, 2005Puerto Rico: Present, introduced, invasive
Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012El Salvador: Present
Daniel, 2001Florida: Present, introduced
Franck & Daniel, 2011
Distribution map (south america) Acre: Present
Profice et al., 2014Amazonas: Present
Profice et al., 2014Bahia: Present
Profice et al., 2014Goias: Present
Profice et al., 2014Maranhao: Present
Profice et al., 2014Minas Gerais: Present
Profice et al., 2014Para: Present
Profice et al., 2014Colombia: Present
Daniel, 2005Costa Rica: Present
Durkee, 1986French Guiana: Present
Funk et al., 2007Panama: Present
Daniel, 2005
Distribution map (pacific) Queensland: Present
Atlas of Living Australia, 2014Western Australia: Present
Atlas of Living Australia, 2014Indonesia: Present, native
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Philippines: Present, native
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014