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Datasheet

Galinsoga quadriradiata (shaggy soldier)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 September 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Galinsoga quadriradiata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • shaggy soldier
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • G. quadriradiata is a fast-growing annual herb with the capacity to invade agricultural and other disturbed areas in most temperate and subtropical regions of the world (...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Galinsoga quadriradiata (shaggy soldier, friinged quickweed, botão-de-ouro); flowers.
TitleFlowers
CaptionGalinsoga quadriradiata (shaggy soldier, friinged quickweed, botão-de-ouro); flowers.
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
Galinsoga quadriradiata (shaggy soldier, friinged quickweed, botão-de-ouro); flowers.
FlowersGalinsoga quadriradiata (shaggy soldier, friinged quickweed, botão-de-ouro); flowers.©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
Galinsoga quadriradiata (shaggy soldier, friinged quickweed, botão-de-ouro); habit.
TitleHabit
CaptionGalinsoga quadriradiata (shaggy soldier, friinged quickweed, botão-de-ouro); habit.
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
Galinsoga quadriradiata (shaggy soldier, friinged quickweed, botão-de-ouro); habit.
HabitGalinsoga quadriradiata (shaggy soldier, friinged quickweed, botão-de-ouro); habit.©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
Galinsoga quadriradiata (shaggy soldier, friinged quickweed, botão-de-ouro); close-up of flowers.
TitleFlowers
CaptionGalinsoga quadriradiata (shaggy soldier, friinged quickweed, botão-de-ouro); close-up of flowers.
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
Galinsoga quadriradiata (shaggy soldier, friinged quickweed, botão-de-ouro); close-up of flowers.
FlowersGalinsoga quadriradiata (shaggy soldier, friinged quickweed, botão-de-ouro); close-up of flowers.©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav.

Preferred Common Name

  • shaggy soldier

Other Scientific Names

  • Adventina ciliata Raf.
  • Ageratum perplexans M.F. Johnson
  • Baziasa urticifolia (Kunth) Steud
  • Galinsoga aristulata E. P. Bicknell
  • Galinsoga bicolorata St. John & D. White
  • Galinsoga brachystephana Regel
  • Galinsoga caracasana (DC.) Sch.Bip.
  • Galinsoga ciliata (Raf.) S.F. Blake
  • Galinsoga eligulata Cuatrec.
  • Galinsoga hispida Benth.
  • Galinsoga humboldtii Hieron.
  • Galinsoga urticifolia (Kunth) Benth.
  • Jaegeria urticifolia (Kunth) Spreng.
  • Sabazia urticifolia (Kunth) DC.
  • Stemmatella urticifolia (Kunth) O.Hoffm. ex Hieron.
  • Vargasia caracasana DC.
  • Wilborgia urticifolia Kunth

International Common Names

  • English: hairy galinsoga
  • Spanish: aceitilla; cominillo; hoja nueva; manzanilla
  • French: galinsoga cilié
  • Chinese: cu mao niu xi ju

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: fazendeiro; picão-branco
  • Denmark: almindelig timian; malbladet timian
  • Ecuador: hierba de cuy
  • Estonia: karvane võõrkakar
  • Finland: kangasajuruoho; kirjopikarililja
  • Germany: Behaartes Franzosenkraut
  • Guatemala: San Nicolas
  • Honduras: cominillo rosado
  • Hungary: borzas gombvirág
  • Lithuania: blakstienotoji galinsoga
  • Mexico: aceitilla chica; chía real; estrellita
  • Netherlands: harig knopkruid
  • Norway: kryddertimian; rutelilje; smaltimian
  • Sweden: backtimjan; kryddtimjan; kungsängslilja
  • USA: quickweed

Summary of Invasiveness

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G. quadriradiata is a fast-growing annual herb with the capacity to invade agricultural and other disturbed areas in most temperate and subtropical regions of the world (Kagima 2000; Vibrans, 2009; Kabuce and Priede, 2010; Madsen and Wersal, 2014). It is highly competitive and can spread quickly, often being the dominant species in a field. It is causing considerable economic impact in cropping systems, greenhouses, gardens and nurseries (Madsen and Wersal, 2014). In Europe, this species is recognized as a significant problem for many growers and farmers, including in commercial greenhouses, and its presence may reduce yields up to 10-50% in fields planted with vegetables and crops (Kabuce and Priede, 2010; Madsen and Wersal, 2014).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Galinsoga
  •                                 Species: Galinsoga quadriradiata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Asteraceae is one of the most diverse groups among flowering plants, including 1620 genera and about 23,600 species (Stevens, 2012). Species in the Asteraceae are very variable vegetatively, but may be recognized by their “capitulate” and involucrate inflorescences in which numerous small flowers open first on the outside and are infrequently subtended by bracts. The anthers in this family are usually fused and form a tube through which the style extends before the two stigmatic lobes separate and become recurved. The rather small, single-seeded fruits usually have a plumose “pappus” and are frequently dispersed by wind (Stevens, 2012).

The genus Galinsoga includes approximately 14 species native to the New World (Pruski, 2014). This genus is closely related to genera Sabazia (Mexico and South America) and Alloispermum (South America), and some botanists believe that all these genera might best be treated as a single large Galinsoga genus (Canne, 1977, 1978). G. quadriradiata (native to Mexico) is a common weed in most temperate and subtropical regions of the world and is morphologically the most variable species within this genus (Canne, 1977).

Description

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G. quadriradiata is an annual herb, 8–62 cm tall. Leaf blades 20–60 × 15–45 mm. Peduncles 5–20 mm. Involucres hemispheric to campanulate, 3–6 mm diameter. Phyllaries deciduous, outer paleae deciduous, broadly elliptic to obovate, 2–3 mm; inner deciduous, linear to lanceolate, 2–3 mm, entire or 2- or 3-lobed, lobes to 1/3 total lengths, blunt. Ray florets (4 or) 5 (to 8); corollas usually white, sometimes pink, laminae 0.9–2.5 × 0.9–2 mm. Disk florets 15–35. Ray achenes 1.5–2 mm; pappus of 6–15 fimbriate scales 0.5–1 mm; pappus absent or of usually 14–20, rarely 1–5, white, lanceolate to oblanceolate, fimbriate, sometimes aristate, scales 0.2–1.7 mm (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2014).

Plant Type

Top of page Annual
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

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G. quadriradiata is native to Mexico (Pruski, 2014), but has become widely distributed in temperate and subtropical regions of the world where it is one of the most common weeds in gardens, greenhouses, and arable land (DAISIE, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

CambodiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Martin and Pol, 2009
China
-JiangxiPresentIntroduced Invasive Xu et al., 2012
-SichuanPresentIntroduced Invasive Xu et al., 2012
Georgia (Republic of)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
IndiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Sekar, 2012
-Arunachal PradeshPresentIntroduced Invasive Kosaka et al., 2010
-AssamPresentIntroduced Invasive Sekar, 2012
-Himachal PradeshPresentIntroduced Invasive Sekar, 2012
-Jammu and KashmirPresentIntroduced Invasive Sekar, 2012
-ManipurPresentIntroduced Invasive Sekar, 2012
-MeghalayaPresentIntroduced Invasive Sekar, 2012
-MizoramPresentIntroduced Invasive Sekar, 2012
-NagalandPresentIntroduced Invasive Sekar, 2012
-SikkimPresentIntroduced Invasive Sekar, 2012
-TripuraPresentIntroduced Invasive Sekar, 2012
-UttarakhandPresentIntroduced Invasive Sekar, 2012
JapanPresentIntroduced Invasive Mito and Uesugi, 2004
NepalPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
PhilippinesPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2014
TaiwanPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2014
TurkeyPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014

Africa

CameroonPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
EritreaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
KenyaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
MoroccoPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Not established
NigeriaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
South AfricaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
SwazilandPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
UgandaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
ZambiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014

North America

Canada
-AlbertaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2014Weed
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2014Weed
-ManitobaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2014Weed
-New BrunswickPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2014Weed
-Nova ScotiaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2014Weed
-OntarioPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2014Weed
-Prince Edward IslandPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2014Weed
-QuebecPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2014Weed
-SaskatchewanPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2014Weed
MexicoPresentNative Invasive USDA-ARS, 2014Listed as a native weed
USA
-AlabamaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-ArkansasPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-ColoradoPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-ConnecticutPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-DelawarePresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-District of ColumbiaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-GeorgiaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive Wagner et al., 1999
-IllinoisPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-IndianaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-IowaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-KansasPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-KentuckyPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-MainePresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-MarylandPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-MassachusettsPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-MichiganPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-MinnesotaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-MissouriPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-MontanaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-NebraskaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-New HampshirePresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-New JerseyPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-New YorkPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-North CarolinaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-North DakotaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-OhioPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-OregonPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-Rhode IslandPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-South CarolinaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-TennesseePresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-VermontPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-VirginiaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-WashingtonPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-West VirginiaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive
-WisconsinPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Weedy/invasive

Central America and Caribbean

BahamasPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Weed
DominicaWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Weed
GuadeloupeWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Weed
HondurasPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Weed
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
MartiniqueWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Weed
PanamaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Weed
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Weed
BoliviaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Weed
Brazil
-ParanaPresentIntroducedMondin, 2014Naturalized
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroducedMondin, 2014Naturalized
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroducedMondin, 2014Naturalized
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedMondin, 2014Naturalized
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedMondin, 2014Naturalized
ChilePresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Weed
ColombiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Weed
EcuadorPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Weed
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008
ParaguayPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Weed
PeruPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Weed
UruguayPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Weed
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Weed

Europe

AustriaPresentIntroducedKabuce and Priede, 2010Very common
BelgiumPresentIntroduced Invasive Kabuce and Priede, 2010Very common
BulgariaPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014
CroatiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Borsic et al., 2008
CyprusPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Not established
Czech RepublicPresentIntroduced Invasive Moravcová et al., 2010Common
DenmarkPresentIntroduced Invasive Kabuce and Priede, 2010Common
EstoniaPresentIntroducedKabuce and Priede, 2010Locally abundant
FinlandPresentIntroducedKabuce and Priede, 2010Rare
FrancePresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014Naturalized
GermanyPresentIntroduced Invasive Kabuce and Priede, 2010Very common
GreecePresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014
HungaryPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014Naturalized
IrelandPresentIntroducedKabuce and Priede, 2010Not established
ItalyPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014Naturalized
LatviaPresentIntroducedKabuce and Priede, 2010Common
LiechtensteinPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014
LithuaniaPresentIntroducedKabuce and Priede, 2010Common
LuxembourgPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014
MacedoniaPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014Not established
MoldovaPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014
NetherlandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Kabuce and Priede, 2010Very common
NorwayPresentIntroducedKabuce and Priede, 2010Locally abundant
PolandPresentIntroduced Invasive Kabuce and Priede, 2010Very common
PortugalPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014Naturalized
-AzoresPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014Naturalized
-MadeiraPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014Naturalized
RomaniaPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014Naturalized
Russian Federation
-Central RussiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Kabuce and Priede, 2010Common
-Southern RussiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Kabuce and Priede, 2010Common
SloveniaPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014
SpainPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014Naturalized
SwedenPresentIntroducedKabuce and Priede, 2010Common
SwitzerlandPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014
UKPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014England, Scotland, Wales
-Channel IslandsPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014
UkrainePresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014

History of Introduction and Spread

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G. quadriradiata was reported in North America in the 1830s. It was recorded as “naturalized” in 1836 in Philadelphia, where it was growing in the Bartram Botanical Garden (Kagima 2000; Madsen and Wersal, 2014). In Europe, G. quadriradiata was first recorded at the end of the nineteenth century, and it is now established in many European countries (Kabuce and Priede, 2010). In Germany, G. quadriradiata was first found in Hamburg in 1892, and it was first reported in 1925 in the Netherlands (Reinhardt et al., 2003). In the Baltic countries, G. quadriradiata was first found in Estonia in 1921 and in Lithuania in 1924 (Kuusk et al., 2003). In the Nordic countries the first reports of G. quadriradiata are from Norway in 1900, Sweden in 1926, Denmark in 1927, and Finland in 1928 (Kabuce and Priede, 2010). In Russia, G. quadriradiata was found in 1842 as escaped from the St-Petersburg Botanical Garden and occasionally it has been found in the European part of Russia since the 1920s.

After 1945, this species has expanded to Ukraine, Belarus and to the north-western and central districts of Russia where it was registered in the 1970s. In 1991 it was recorded in Siberia (Schultz, 1984; Kabuce and Priede, 2010). For most of the European countries where G. quadriradiata is now naturalized, it has been hypothesized that this species was introduced unintentionally, probably transported as a contaminant in imported seeds and seedlings of ornamental plants, soil, grains, crop seeds, or other agricultural products (Reinhardt et al., 2003; Kabuce and Priede, 2010). In the Caribbean, G. quadriradiata was first collected in Jamaica in 1903, in Bermuda in 1908, and in Puerto Rico in 1915 (US National Herbarium).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of G. quadriradiata is very high. It is a cosmopolitan weed in gardens, agricultural and waste areas and its seeds can be easily dispersed by wind and as a contaminant in soil, crop seeds, machinery, and adhered to animal fur and human clothes (Kagima 2000; Vibrans, 2009; Kabuce and Priede, 2010; Madsen and Wersal, 2014). Consequently, the species has the potential to spread much further and colonize more territories than it has to date.

Habitat

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G. quadriradiata is listed as a weed even in its native range. It grows in gardens, greenhouses, agricultural land, roadsides, railways, open fields, and other disturbed areas, essentially in association with any form of human development.

It also has been found in natural riparian habitats, mountain slopes, margins in mixed coniferous and deciduous woodlands, and pine-oak forests (Wagner et al., 1999; Kagima 2000; Vibrans, 2009; Kabuce and Priede, 2010; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; Madsen and Wersal, 2014).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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G. quadriradiata is considered to be a common weed in several crops of major importance, such as wheat, maize, coffee, cotton, tobacco, sugarbeet, tomato, pepper, potato, beans, onions, cabbages, garlic, citrus, banana, apple, and strawberry. It is also a common weed in gardens, greenhouses, and nurseries (Damalas, 2008; Vibrans, 2009; Kabuce and Priede, 2010; Madsen and Wersal, 2014).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Allium cepa (onion)LiliaceaeMain
Allium sativum (garlic)LiliaceaeMain
Beta vulgaris var. saccharifera (sugarbeet)ChenopodiaceaeMain
Brassica oleracea (cabbages, cauliflowers)BrassicaceaeMain
Capsicum spp.SolanaceaeMain
CitrusRutaceaeMain
Coffea arabica (arabica coffee)RubiaceaeMain
Fragaria (strawberry)RosaceaeMain
Gossypium (cotton)MalvaceaeMain
Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeMain
Musa (banana)MusaceaeMain
NicotianaSolanaceaeMain
Phaseolus (beans)FabaceaeMain
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeMain
Triticum spp.PoaceaeMain
Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeMain

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for G. quadriradiata is 2n = 32 (Strother and Panero, 2001). However, it is a tetraploid species and can hybridize with G. parviflora (Gopinathan and Babu, 1982). 

Reproductive Biology

G. quadriradiata has been described as either self- or insect-pollinated (Reinhardt et al., 2003). Flower anthesis is diurnal and flowers can be cross-pollinated by insects, otherwise they are self-fertile. Both the disk and ray florets are fertile, producing oblanceoloid achenes. At the apex of each achene, there is a pappus of several membranous scales which spread outward as the achenes mature and assist in their distribution by wind and water (Kabuce and Priede, 2010, Hilty, 2013). 

Physiology and Phenology

G. quadriradiata is an annual fast growing herb. An 8- to 9-week-old plant can produce 3000 flower heads and up to 7500 seeds (Kagima, 2000). Seeds are able to germinate immediately upon contact with warm moist soil; therefore plants can achieve 2-3 generations each growing season (Reinhardt et al., 2003). 

In Mexico (within its native distribution range), G. quadriradiata flowers and fruits all year long (Vibrans, 2009). It has been reported flowering from June until late autumn in Europe (Kabuce and Priede, 2010) and from December to May in India (Bhatt et al., 2012). 

Environmental Requirements

G. quadriradiata is adapted to warm climates and can grow in heavy, nitrogen-rich and clayey soils (Bhatt et al., 2012). It is sensitive to frost, and its seeds require high temperatures to germinate (Reinhardt et al., 2003; Kabuce and Priede, 2010, Hilty, 2013).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Tolerated > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tolerated Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Tolerated Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
60 34

Soil Tolerances

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Soil reaction

  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • medium

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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G. quadriradiata spreads by seeds. Seeds are enclosed in an achene and are small (1.5 mm long) and adapted to wind-dispersal. Seeds may also be secondarily dispersed as a contaminant in imported seeds and seedlings of ornamental plants, soil, grains, crop seeds, agricultural machinery or adhered to cattle, animal fur and human clothes (Reinhardt et al., 2003; Kabuce and Priede, 2010). Seeds are viable for only a few years under field conditions (Huffman, 2004).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoosPlanted in botanical gardens Yes Yes Kabuce and Priede, 2010
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes Yes Kabuce and Priede, 2010
Garden waste disposalCommon weed in gardens Yes Yes Kabuce and Priede, 2010
Nursery tradeCommon weed in nurseries Yes Yes Kabuce and Priede, 2010

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesCommon weed in gardens and arable lands Yes Yes Kabuce and Priede, 2010
Land vehiclesSeeds as a contaminant Yes Yes Kabuce and Priede, 2010
LivestockSeeds can be dispersed adhered to fur Yes Yes Kabuce and Priede, 2010
Machinery and equipmentSeeds as a contaminant Yes Yes Kabuce and Priede, 2010
Soil, sand and gravelSeeds as a contaminant Yes Yes Kabuce and Priede, 2010

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Economic Impact

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G. quadriradiata is one of the most common weeds in North America and Europe where it causes important economic damage to agriculture and the nursery trade. The species is a strong competitor in weedy plant communities and it is a permanent problem for many farmers including commercial greenhouses. G. quadriradiata may reduce yields by up to 10-50% in fields planted with vegetables and crops (Kabuce and Priede, 2010; Madsen and Wersal, 2014). It has the potential to outcompete other plants in taking up nutrients and it may also shade out cultivated and native plants (Reinhardt et al., 2003).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Impact mechanisms

  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Rapid growth

Impact outcomes

  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species

Invasiveness

  • Abundant in its native range
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc

Likelihood of entry/control

  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally

Uses

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In Africa and Southeast Asia, the young stems and leaves of G. quadriradiata are cooked and eaten as a vegetable. In America, dried leaves are used as an essential flavouring for certain dishes (Kagima 2000; Kabuce and Priede, 2010). In Mexico, it is used as animal forage (Vibrans, 2009).

Uses List

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General

  • Botanical garden/zoo

Human food and beverage

  • Food additive
  • Spices and culinary herbs
  • Vegetable

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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G. quadriradiata can be confused with Galinsoga parviflora. These two species can be distinguished by the following taxonomic characters (Pruski, 2014):

  1. G. quadriradiata: inner paleae subentire to moderately trifid, usually deciduous after fruit fall; ray and disk cypselae typically with a more or less isomorphic pappus or similarly epappose; outer sterile phyllaries 1-2(-3); phyllaries often stipitate-glandular, usually all deciduous after fruit fall
     
  2. G. parviflora: inner paleae usually deeply trifid and persistent after fruit fall; ray and disk cypselae with obviously heteromorphic pappus; outer sterile phyllaries 2-4; phyllaries nearly always glabrous, a few usually persistent after fruit fall.

Prevention and Control

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Infestations of G. quadriradiata outside cultivation can be treated using the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid (2,4-D). When this species grows as a weed with vegetables and intercrops, herbicide use has to be limited and will depend upon the crop planted (Madsen and Wersal, 2014). No biological control methods are currently recommended.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Bhatt JR; Singh JS; Singh SP; Tripathi RS; Kohli RK, 2012. Invasive alien plants: an ecological appraisal for the Indian subcontinent [ed. by Bhatt, J. R.\Singh, J. S.\Singh, S. P.\Tripathi, R. S.\Kohli, R. K.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI, ix + 314 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20113382165

Borsic I; Milovic M; Dujmovic I; Bogdanovic S; Cigic P; Resetnik I; Nikolic T; Mitic B, 2008. Preliminary check-list of invasive alien plant species (IAS) in Croatia. Natura Croatica, 17(2):55-71. http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=casopis&id_casopis=51

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Canne JM, 1977. A revision of the genus Galinsoga (Compositae: Heliantheae). Rhodora, 79(819):319-389

Canne JM, 1978. Circumscription and generic relationships of Galinsoga (Compositae: Heliantheae). Madroño, 25:81-93.

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation.

DAISIE, 2014. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

Damalas CA, 2008. Distribution, biology, and agricultural importance of Galinsoga parviflora (Asteraceae). Weed Biology and Management, 8(3):147-153. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/wbm

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of North America North of Mexico. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1

Gopinathan MC; Babu CR, 1982. Cytogenetics of Galinsoga parviflora Cav. and Galinsoga ciliata (Raf.) Blake, and their natural hydrids (Asteraceae). New Phytologist, 91:531-539.

Hilty J, 2013. Illinois Wildflowers. http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/index.htm

Huffman L, 2004. Problem Weed of the Month: Hairy Galinsoga., Canada: Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs.

Kabuce N; Priede N, 2010. NOBANIS - Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheet - Galinsoga quadriradiata. http://www.nobanis.org/

Kagima D, 2000. Bibliography and Biology of Galinsoga spp. USA: The ISU Weed Biology Library, Iowa State University.

Kosaka Y; Bhaskar Saikia; Tasong Mingki; Tag H; Tomo Riba; Ando K, 2010. Roadside distribution patterns of invasive alien plants along an altitudinal gradient in Arunachal Himalaya, India. Mountain Research and Development, 30(3):252-258.

Kuusk V; Tabaka L; Jankeviciene R, 2003. Flora of the Baltic countries 3. Tartu, Estonia.

Madsen JD; Wersal RM, 2014. Datasheet: Galinsoga quadriradiata Cav. Invasive Plant Atlas of the MidSouth., USA: Geosystems Research Institute, Mississippi State University. http://www.gri.msstate.edu/ipams/species.php?CName=Hairy%20galinsoga

Martin R; Pol C, 2009. Weeds of upland crops in Cambodia. Commonwealth of Australia, 81. [ACIAR Monograph No. 141.]

Mito T; Uesugi T, 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research, 8(2):171-191.

Mondin CA, 2014. Galinsoga in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil (Galinosoga in the list of species of the flora of Brazil). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB104151

Moravcová L; Pysek P; Jarosík V; Havlícková V; Zákravský P, 2010. Reproductive characteristics of neophytes in the Czech Republic: traits of invasive and non-invasive species. Preslia, 82(4):365-390. http://www.ibot.cas.cz/preslia/2010.html#moravcova

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Pruski JF, 2014. Asteraceae. Flora Mesoamericana [ed. by Davidse, G. \Sousa Sánchez, M. \Knapp, S. \Chiang Cabrera, F.]., Mexico: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. http://www.tropicos.org/docs/meso/asteraceae.pdf

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Reinhardt F; Herle M; Bastiansen F; Streit B, 2003. Economic impact of the spread of alien species in Germany. Federal Environmental Agency, Research Report: 201 86 211 UBA-FB 000441e. Germany: Federal Environmental Agency.

Schultz DL, 1984. [English title not available]. (Zur Aubreitungsgeschichte der Galinsoga-Arten in Europa.) Acta Botanica Slov. Acad. Sci. Slocacae, 1:285-296.

Sekar KC, 2012. Invasive alien plants of Indian Himalayan Region - diversity and implication. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 3(2):177-184. http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=17533

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Strother JL; Panero JL, 2001. Chromosome studies: Mexican Compositae. American Journal of Botany, 88:499-502.

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Vibrans H, 2009. Malezas de México. Listado alfabético de las especies, ordenadas por género (Weeds of Mexico. Alphabetical list of species, ordered by genera). http://www.conabio.gob.mx/malezasdemexico/2inicio/paginas/lista-plantas-generos.htm

Wagner WI; Herbst DR; Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii, revised edition. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press.

Xu HaiGen; Qiang Sheng; Genovesi P; Ding Hui; Wu Jun; Meng Ling; Han ZhengMin; Miao JinLai; Hu BaiShi; Guo JiangYing; Sun HongYing; Huang Cheng; Lei JunCheng; Le ZhiFang; Zhang XiaoPing; He ShunPing; Wu Yi; Zheng Zhou; Chen Lian; Jarosík V; Pysek P, 2012. An inventory of invasive alien species in China. NeoBiota, 15:1-26.

Contributors

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07/03/14 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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