Cookies on Invasive Species Compendium

Like most websites we use cookies. This is to ensure that we give you the best experience possible.

Continuing to use www.cabi.org means you agree to our use of cookies. If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use.

Datasheet

Maize lethal necrosis disease

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 29 March 2016
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Maize lethal necrosis disease
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             no rank: Maize lethal necrosis disease

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Maize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012
TitleSymptoms
CaptionMaize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012
Copyright©CABI/Rob Reeder-2012
Maize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012
SymptomsMaize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012©CABI/Rob Reeder-2012
Maize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012
TitleSymptoms
CaptionMaize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012
Copyright©CABI/Rob Reeder-2012
Maize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012
SymptomsMaize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012©CABI/Rob Reeder-2012
Maize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012
TitleSymptoms
CaptionMaize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012
Copyright©CABI/Rob Reeder-2012
Maize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012
SymptomsMaize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012©CABI/Rob Reeder-2012
Maize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012
TitleSymptoms
CaptionMaize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012
Copyright©CABI/Rob Reeder-2012
Maize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012
SymptomsMaize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012©CABI/Rob Reeder-2012
Maize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012
TitleSymptoms
CaptionMaize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012
Copyright©CABI/Rob Reeder-2012
Maize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012
SymptomsMaize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012©CABI/Rob Reeder-2012
Maize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012
TitleSymptoms
CaptionMaize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012
Copyright©CABI/Rob Reeder-2012
Maize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012
SymptomsMaize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012©CABI/Rob Reeder-2012
Maize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012
TitleSymptoms
CaptionMaize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012
Copyright©CABI/Rob Reeder-2012
Maize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012
SymptomsMaize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012©CABI/Rob Reeder-2012
Maize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012
TitleSymptoms
CaptionMaize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012
Copyright©CABI/Rob Reeder-2012
Maize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012
SymptomsMaize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012©CABI/Rob Reeder-2012
Maize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012
TitleSymptoms
CaptionMaize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012
Copyright©CABI/Rob Reeder-2012
Maize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012
SymptomsMaize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Naivasha, Kenya. March 2012©CABI/Rob Reeder-2012

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Maize lethal necrosis disease

Other Scientific Names

  • Corn lethal necrosis disease
  • Maize chlorotic mottle virus
  • Sugarcane mosaic virus

English acronym

  • MLND

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             no rank: Maize lethal necrosis disease

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Maize lethal necrosis disease is caused by co-infection of maize by Maize chlorotic mottle virus (Machlomovirus: Tombusviridae) and Sugarcane mosaic virus (Potyvirus: Potyviridae) or sometimes another cereal virus of the Potyviridae group.

Distribution

Top of page

There is a preliminary report of the disease in Uganda (IPPC, 2014).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

CountryDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferencesNotes

ASIA

China
-YunnanPresentIntroduced2010Xie et al., 2011

AFRICA

EthiopiaPresentMahuku et al., 2015
KenyaWidespreadIntroduced2011Wangai et al., 2012; Kusia et al., 2015First reported in September 2011, at lower elevations (1900 masl) in the Longisa Division of Bomet County, Southern Rift Valley of Kenya. Later the disease was noted in Bomet Central Division, spreading into the neighbouring Chepalungu and Narok South and North Districts and Naivasha. By April 2012, the disease was reported in altitudes up to 2100 masl and in various parts of the country. Currently the disease has been reported in all provinces in Kenya except North Eastern.
RwandaPresentAdams et al., 2014
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced2012Makumbi & Wangai, 2013Mwanza and Arusha regions

NORTH AMERICA

MexicoPresentCarrera-Martinez et al., 1989
USA
-HawaiiPresent1990Jensen et al., 1990; Jiang et al., 1990; Ooka et al., 1990The disease appeared in Kaua’i in early 1990. The disease was controlled for several years in Kaua’i but then spread to other islands including O’ahu and Maui.
-KansasPresent1976Niblett & Claflin, 1978First discovered in a corn field in North Central Kansas then in Almena Kansas. The disease is now endemic in North Central Kansas.
-NebraskaPresent1976Doupnik, 1979; Uyemoto, 1983Endemic in South Central Nebraska where affected fields are located in small river valleys and irrigation districts.

SOUTH AMERICA

ArgentinaGordon et al., 1984
PeruPresent1974Castillo & Hebert, 1974

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

The experimental host range is restricted to the Poaceae with maize as the main a natural host (Gordon et al., 1984). The following species have been infected by mechanical inoculation: Bromus spp., Digitaria sanguinalis, Eragrostis trichodes, Hordeum spp., Panicum spp., Setaria spp., Sorghum spp. and Triticum aestivum (Castillo and Hebert, 1974; Niblett and Claflin, 1978; Bockelman et al., 1982) and Zea mays subsp. mays and mexicana (Castillo and Hebert, 1974; Nault et al., 1982). The Kansas serotype 1 also infected Zea mays subsp. parviglumis and Zea luxurians (Nault et al., 1982).

Host Plants/Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContext
Eleusine coracana (finger millet)PoaceaeOther
Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeMain

Growth Stages

Top of pageFlowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page

Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) causes a variety of symptoms in maize depending upon genotype, age of infection and environmental conditions. They range from a relatively mild chlorotic mottle to severe stunting, leaf necrosis, premature plant death, shortened male inflorescences with few spikes, and/or shortened, malformed, partially filled ears (Castillo and Herbert, 1974; Castillo Loayza, 1977; Niblett and Caflin, 1978; Uyemoto et al., 1981).

When MCMV co-infects maize with a potyvirus, the infected plants in the field show a diverse range of symptoms. Diseased plants develop symptoms characteristic of virus diseases. There is chlorotic mottling of the leaves, usually starting from the base of the young leaves in the whorl and extending upwards toward the leaf tips. The leaves can experience necrosis at the leaf margins that progress to the mid-rib resulting in drying of the whole leaf. If there is necrosis of young leaves in the whorl before expansion, then 'dead heart' symptoms will be visible. Other symptoms include premature aging of the plants and mild to severe leaf mottling. Severely affected plants form small cobs with little or no grain set. The entire crop can frequently be killed before tasseling (Niblett and Claflin, 1978; Uyemoto et al., 1980, 1981; Wangai et al., 2012).

Symptoms List

Top of page
SignLife StagesType

Growing point

dead heart

Leaves

abnormal colours
abnormal patterns
necrotic areas
yellowed or dead

Seeds

mould

Stems

dead heart
dieback
stunting or rosetting

Whole plant

dead heart
early senescence
plant dead; dieback

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Maize lethal necrosis was first identified in the USA in 1976 (Niblett and Caflin, 1978). The disease is caused by a combination of two viruses, Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), a pathogen prevalent in many parts of Kenya affecting cereal crops. The double infection of MCMV and SCMV or any of the cereal viruses in the Potyviridae group (e.g. Maize dwarf mosaic virus or Wheat streak mosaic virus) gives rise to what is known as maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND), also referred to as corn lethal necrosis disease (CLND) (Niblett and Caflin, 1978; Uyemoto et al., 1980, 1981; Wangai et al., 2012).

MCMV is transmitted mechanically and spread by several insect vectors including maize thrips (Frankliniella williamsi) (Jiang et al., 1990), maize rootworms (Diabrotica undecimpunctata, Diabrotica longicornis and Diabrotica virgifera), cereal leaf beetles (Oulema melanopus), corn flea beetle (Systena frontalis) and Chaetocnema pulicaria (Nault et al., 1978; Jensen, 1985; Reyes and Castillo, 1988). SCMV is spread by maize aphids (Brandes, 1920). Seed transmission of MCMV has been reported by Jensen et al. (1991).

Infection of maize by any of the viruses alone does not cause MLND. Symptoms of MLND are more severe than the additive symptoms of either MCMV or the potyvirus virus alone. The virus complex causes a severe systemic necrosis which culminates in the death of the plant (Niblett and Caflin, 1978; Uyemoto et al., 1980, 1981; Wangai et al., 2012).

 

Economic Impact

Top of page

Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) is a serious threat to maize production. In Kansas, crop losses due to MLND have been estimated to be 50-90% (Niblett and Claflin, 1978; Uyemoto et al., 1980) depending on the variety of maize and the year. In Peru, losses in floury and sweet maize varieties due to Maize chlorotic mottle virus have been reported to average between 10 and 15%.

In Kenya, in areas where MLND was very serious, farmers experienced extensive or complete crop loss (Wangai et al., 2012). The infected plants are frequently barren; the ears formed are small, deformed and set little or no seeds, drastically reducing the yield. The areas affected constitute major maize production acreage and given the recorded loss of up to 100%, it has become an important food security issue in Kenya.

The impact of the disease can been felt in the whole maize value chain. To help control MLND, the maize seeds have to be dressed with an insecticide in addition to a fungicide seed dressing. Seed producers have incurred an extra cost in the production of seed maize.

Environmental Impact

Top of page

One of the management options for the disease is vector control by the use of insecticides. Maize is planted by a large number of farmers so the increased use of pesticides in the production of maize may have a negative impact on the environment.

Social Impact

Top of page

Maize is grown as both a food crop and a cash crop. Without adequate quantity and quality of the preferred food, there will be increased incidences of theft and general insecurity in the farming community. Lower incomes could increase stress and make school fees unaffordable, preventing children from completing their education.

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Prevention

Seed Inspectors can check for Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) in seed farms. A plant health inspectorate organization can test for Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) in all seed coming into the country including the material for breeding. Domestic regulation can be put in place to prevent the movement of maize products from affected areas to disease-free regions.

The public can be informed about the disease through press releases, posters, brochures, sensitization workshops and radio programmes. Information on the disease could be passed on to the public during field days and Bazaras in churches. Awareness of the disease will help farmers to take it upon themselves to avoid the movement of diseased plant material from one area to another by destroying affected crops, rouging and practicing general field hygiene.

Control

The best approach for the management of MLND is to employ integrated pest management practices encompassing cultural control such as closed season, crop rotation and crop diversification, vector control using seed treatment followed by foliar sprays, and host-plant resistance.

Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

Crop rotation can effectively control MCMV (Uyemoto, 1983). Producers are advised to practice crop rotation for at least two seasons with alternative non-cereal crops such as potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava, beans, bulb onions, spring onions, vegetables and garlic. Planting different crops each season will diversify farm enterprises. Manure and basal/top dressing fertilizers can be applied to boost plant vigour.

It is necessary to use good field sanitation methods, including weed control measures to eliminate alternate hosts for potential vectors (Wangai et al., 2012b). Infected foliar material should be removed from the field to reduce pathogen and vector populations. This material can be fed to livestock, but grain and cobs that are rotten should not be fed to humans or animals. These should be destroyed by burning.

Seed should not be recycled; farmers should plant certified seed only.

To create a break in maize planting seasons, plant maize on the onset of the main rainy season and not during the short rain season. This will reduce the population of vectors.

Before MCMV had spread to other islands in Hawaii, it had been controlled for several years in the island of Kaua’i. (Nelson et al., 2011).

Movement Control

There is need to have regulation by governments to impose quarantine on the movement of maize materials from affected areas within a country. Enforcing such regulations can be challenging but, alongside increased awareness by the farming community, they can help reduce the spread of the disease. 

Chemical Control

Vector control should target soilborne and early season vectors and combine long residual and fast-acting control agents to achieve faster knockdown and longer protection. Imidacloprid is applied as a seed dressing in combination with foliar sprays. In Hawaii producers of maize seed spray regularly after planting to control insects that spread the virus (Nelson et al., 2011).

Host-Plant Resistance

Use of tolerant or resistant varieties ultimately would be the most effective means of managing MLND. Superior resistance to MCMV is widely available in tropical maize seed stocks and provides the best control for this disease. According to Nelson et al. (2011), trials performed in Hawaii in 2011 found many tropical inbred lines and varieties to be highly resistant to MCMV. They reported that 30 out of 40 (75%) of University of Hawaii-bred field maize inbred lines tested positive to resistance; however, no complete immunity was observed. Almost all temperate climate inbred lines and hybrids are highly susceptible to the virus (Nelson et al., 2011).

The level of MCMV resistance varies widely among pure lines that have been tested in Hawaii, so it is considered a quantitative trait (Nelson et al., 2011).Preliminary inheritance studies on the inheritance of traits suggest a polygenic control of the disease, with resistance being partially dominant. This encourages the commercial production of hybrids only if both parents are resistant to the pathogen.

In Kenya, varieties are being screened for resistance/tolerance by KARI and CIMMYT in two sites Naivasha and Bomet. Preliminary data from 43 pre-commercial maize hybrids and seven commercial hybrids at Bomet, Chepkitwal and Naivasha, and of 200 elite inbred lines at Naivasha, during one season of screening under natural disease pressure, suggest that MLN-resistant maize germplasm can be identified and developed quickly. KARI, CIMMYT and other partners will reconfirm the potential resistance of pre-commercial hybrids and inbred lines that show the lowest susceptibility to MLN and work urgently to develop resistant varieties (Makumbi and Wangai, 2012). As MLND is due to the co-infection of two viruses, resistance against any one of the viruses would substantially reduce the damage due to the disease. Results of a trial of elite CIMMYT inbred lines under artificial SCMV inoculation showed several highly-resistant lines (Makumbi and Wangai, 2012).

In the long run, deployment of varieties that are resistant to both MCMV and SCMV will be the best means of managing MLND. Through breeding, both conventional and transgenic maize seeds, resistance to MCMV can be incorporated into the susceptible maize varieties within a 4-year period.

References

Top of page

Adams IP, Harju VA, Hodges T, Hany U, Skelton A, Rai S, Deka MK, Smith J, Fox A, Uzayisenga B, Ngaboyisonga C, Uwumukiza B, Rutikanga A, Rutherford M, Ricthis B, Phiri N, Boonham N, 2014. First report of maize lethal necrosis disease in Rwanda. New Disease Reports, 29:22. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=029022

Bockelman DL, Claflin LE, Uyemoto JK, 1982. Host range and seed-transmission studies of maize chlorotic mottle virus in grasses and corn. Plant Disease, 66(3):216-218

Brandes EW, 1920. Artificial and insect transmission of sugarcane mosaic. Journal of Agricultural Research, 9:131-138.

Carrera-Martinez H, Lozoya-Saldana H, Mendoza-Zamora C, Alvizo-Villasana H, 1989. Enzyme immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the identification and distribution of maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) in the state of Mexico. (Immunoabsorcion enzimatica (ELISA) en la identificacion y distribucion del virus moteado clorotico del maiz (VMCM) en el estado de Mexico.) Revista Mexicana de Fitopatología, 7:20-25.

Castillo J, Hebert TT, 1974. New virus disease affecting maize in Peru. (Nueva enfermedad virosa afectando al maiz en el Peru.) Fitopatologia, 9:79-84.

Doupnik Jr B, 1979. Status of corn lethal necrosis- 1979 update. In: Proceedings of the 34th Annual Corn and Sorghum Research Conference. Chicago, USA 16-34.

Gordon DT, Bradfute OE, Gingery RE, Nault LR, Uyemoto JK, 1984. Maize chlorotic mottle virus. Description of Plant Viruses, 284 [ed. by Association of Applied Biologists]. http://www.dpvweb.net/dpv/showdpv.php?dpvno=284

Hebert TT, Castillo J, 1973. A new virus disease of maize in Peru. In: 2nd International Congress of Plant Pathology, 72. Minneapolis, USA.

IPPC, 2014. New pest of maize: maize lethal necrosis in Uganda. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. UGA-01/2, No. UGA-01/2. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

Jensen SG, 1985. Laboratory transmission of maize chlorotic mottle virus by three species of corn rootworms. Plant Disease, 69(10):864-868

Jensen SG, Ooka JJ, Lockhart BE, Lommel SA, Lane LC, Wysong DS, Doupnik Jr B, 1990. Corn lethal necrosis in Hawaii. Phytopathology, 80:1022.

Jensen SG, Wysong DS, Ball EM, Higley PM, 1991. Seed transmission of maize chlorotic mottle virus. Plant Disease, 75(5):497-498

Jiang XQ, Meinke LJ, Wright RJ, Wilkinson DR, Campbell JE, 1992. Maize chlorotic mottle virus in Hawaiian-grown maize: vector relations, host range and associated viruses. Crop Protection, 11(3):248-254.

Jiang XQ, Wilkinson DR, Berry JA, 1990. An outbreak of maize chlorotic mottle virus in Hawaii and possible association with thrips. Phytopathology, 80:1060.

Kusia ES, Subramanian S, Nyasani JO, Khamis F, Villinger J, Ateka EM, Pappu HR, 2015. First report of lethal necrosis disease associated with co-infection of finger millet with Maize chlorotic mottle virus and Sugarcane mosaic virus in Kenya. Plant Disease, 99(6):899-900. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Mahuku G, Wangai A, Sadessa K, Teklewold A, Wegary D, Ayalneh D, Adams I, Smith J, Bottomley E, Bryce S, Braidwood L, Feyissa B, Regassa B, Wanjala B, Kimunye JN, Mugambi C, Monjero K, Prasanna BM, 2015. First report of Maize chlorotic mottle virus and maize lethal necrosis on maize in Ethiopia. Plant Disease, 99(12):1870. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Makumbi D, Wangai A, 2013. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) disease in Kenya and Tanzania: Facts and actions. CIMMYT- KARI. http://www.cimmyt.org/en/where-we-work/africa/item/maize-lethal-necrosis-mln-disease-in-kenya-and-tanzania-facts-and-actions

Nault LR, Styer WE, Coffey ME, Gordon DT, Negi LS, Niblett CL, 1978. Transmission of maize chlorotic mottle virus by chrysomelid beetles. Phytopathology, 68(7):1071-1074

Nelson S, Brewbaker J, Hu J, 2011. Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus. Plant Disease, 79:1-6.

Niblett CL, Claflin LE, 1978. Corn lethal necrosis - a new virus disease of corn in Kansas. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(1):15-19

Ooka JJ, Lockhart BE, Zeyen RJ, 1990. New maize virus disease in Hawaii. Phytopathology, 80:892.

Uyemoto JK, 1983. Biology and control of maize chlorotic mottle virus. Plant Disease, 67(1):7-10

Uyemoto JK, Bockelman DL, Claflin LE, 1980. Severe outbreak of corn lethal necrosis disease in Kansas. Plant Disease (formerly Plant Disease Reporter), 64(1):99-100

Uyemoto JK, Claflin LE, Wilson DL, Raney RJ, 1981. Maize chlorotic mottle and maize dwarf mosaic viruses; effect of single and double inoculations on symptomatology and yield. Plant Disease, 65(1):39-41

Wangai A, Kinyua ZM, Otipa MJ, Miano DW, Kasina JM, Leley Mwangi PKTN, 2012. Maize (Corn) Lethal Necrosis Disease. KARI Information Brochure [ed. by Ministry Of Agriculture].

Wangai AW, Redinbaugh MG, Kinyua ZM, Miano DW, Leley PK, Kasina M, Mahuku G, Scheets K, Jeffers D, 2012. First report of Maize chlorotic mottle virus and maize lethal necrosis in Kenya. Plant Disease, 96(10):1582-1583. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Xie L, Zhang J, Wang Q, Meng C, Hong J, Zhou X, 2011. Characterization of maize chlorotic mottle virus associated with maize lethal necrosis disease in China. Journal of Phytopathology, 159:191-193.

Contributors

Top of page

Original text by:

Hannah Achieng Chore Oduor, Ministry Of Agriculture, PO Box 12168 Nakuru, Kenya.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
Distribution map China
See regional map for distribution within the countryEthiopia: Present
Mahuku et al., 2015Kenya: Widespread, introduced
Wangai et al., 2012; Kusia et al., 2015Mexico: Present
Carrera-Martinez et al., 1989Mexico: Present
Carrera-Martinez et al., 1989Peru: Present
Castillo & Hebert, 1974Rwanda: Present
Adams et al., 2014Tanzania: Present, introduced
Makumbi & Wangai, 2013USA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the country
  • = Present, no further details
  • = Evidence of pathogen
  • = Widespread
  • = Last reported
  • = Localised
  • = Presence unconfirmed
  • = Confined and subject to quarantine
  • = See regional map for distribution within the country
  • = Occasional or few reports
Download KML file Download CSV file
Creative Commons Licence
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Please click OK to ACCEPT or Cancel to REJECT

Creative Commons Licence
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Please click OK to ACCEPT or Cancel to REJECT

Distribution map (asia) Yunnan: Present, introduced
Xie et al., 2011
Distribution map (europe)
Distribution map (africa) Ethiopia: Present
Mahuku et al., 2015Kenya: Widespread, introduced
Wangai et al., 2012; Kusia et al., 2015Rwanda: Present
Adams et al., 2014Tanzania: Present, introduced
Makumbi & Wangai, 2013
Distribution map (north america) Mexico: Present
Carrera-Martinez et al., 1989Hawaii: Present
Jensen et al., 1990; Jiang et al., 1990; Ooka et al., 1990Kansas: Present
Niblett & Claflin, 1978Nebraska: Present
Doupnik, 1979; Uyemoto, 1983
Distribution map (central america) Mexico: Present
Carrera-Martinez et al., 1989
Distribution map (south america) Peru: Present
Castillo & Hebert, 1974
Distribution map (pacific)