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Datasheet

Kalanchoe daigremontiana (devil's backbone)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 September 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Kalanchoe daigremontiana
  • Preferred Common Name
  • devil's backbone
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • K. daigremontiana is a short-lived succulent plant which is becoming invasive and having impacts principally in dry and arid environments (...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Kalanchoe daigremontiana (mother of millions, devil's backbone); small infestation growing in Guánica, Puerto Rico. May, 2011.
TitleHabit
CaptionKalanchoe daigremontiana (mother of millions, devil's backbone); small infestation growing in Guánica, Puerto Rico. May, 2011.
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Julissa Rojas-Sandoval
Kalanchoe daigremontiana (mother of millions, devil's backbone); small infestation growing in Guánica, Puerto Rico. May, 2011.
HabitKalanchoe daigremontiana (mother of millions, devil's backbone); small infestation growing in Guánica, Puerto Rico. May, 2011.©Smithsonian Institution/Julissa Rojas-Sandoval
Kalanchoe daigremontiana (Mother of millions, devil's backbone); growing in the dry forest of Guánica, Puerto Rico. May, 2011.
TitleHabit
CaptionKalanchoe daigremontiana (Mother of millions, devil's backbone); growing in the dry forest of Guánica, Puerto Rico. May, 2011.
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Julissa Rojas-Sandoval
Kalanchoe daigremontiana (Mother of millions, devil's backbone); growing in the dry forest of Guánica, Puerto Rico. May, 2011.
HabitKalanchoe daigremontiana (Mother of millions, devil's backbone); growing in the dry forest of Guánica, Puerto Rico. May, 2011.©Smithsonian Institution/Julissa Rojas-Sandoval
Kalanchoe daigremontiana (Mother of millions, devil's backbone); flowers. Old Kaumalapau Hwy, Lanai. April, 2007.
TitleFlowers
CaptionKalanchoe daigremontiana (Mother of millions, devil's backbone); flowers. Old Kaumalapau Hwy, Lanai. April, 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 3.0
Kalanchoe daigremontiana (Mother of millions, devil's backbone); flowers. Old Kaumalapau Hwy, Lanai. April, 2007.
FlowersKalanchoe daigremontiana (Mother of millions, devil's backbone); flowers. Old Kaumalapau Hwy, Lanai. April, 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 3.0
Kalanchoe daigremontiana (Mother of millions, devil's backbone); habit, spreading along road. Note, flowering stems. Old Kaumalapau Hwy, Lanai. April, 2007.
TitleHabit
CaptionKalanchoe daigremontiana (Mother of millions, devil's backbone); habit, spreading along road. Note, flowering stems. Old Kaumalapau Hwy, Lanai. April, 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 3.0
Kalanchoe daigremontiana (Mother of millions, devil's backbone); habit, spreading along road. Note, flowering stems. Old Kaumalapau Hwy, Lanai. April, 2007.
HabitKalanchoe daigremontiana (Mother of millions, devil's backbone); habit, spreading along road. Note, flowering stems. Old Kaumalapau Hwy, Lanai. April, 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 3.0
Kalanchoe daigremontiana (Mother of millions, devil's backbone); habit, spreading along road. Note old, dry, flowering stems. Old Kaumalapau Hwy, Lanai. April, 2007.
TitleHabit
CaptionKalanchoe daigremontiana (Mother of millions, devil's backbone); habit, spreading along road. Note old, dry, flowering stems. Old Kaumalapau Hwy, Lanai. April, 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 3.0
Kalanchoe daigremontiana (Mother of millions, devil's backbone); habit, spreading along road. Note old, dry, flowering stems. Old Kaumalapau Hwy, Lanai. April, 2007.
HabitKalanchoe daigremontiana (Mother of millions, devil's backbone); habit, spreading along road. Note old, dry, flowering stems. Old Kaumalapau Hwy, Lanai. April, 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Kalanchoe daigremontiana Raym.-Hamet & H. Perrier

Preferred Common Name

  • devil's backbone

Other Scientific Names

  • Bryophyphyllum daigremontianum (Raym.-Hamet & H. Perrier) A. Berger

International Common Names

  • English: Mexican hat plant; mother of millions; mother of thousands
  • Spanish: amaranto; dulcamara; espinazo del diablo; siempreviva

Local Common Names

  • Haiti: tope-tope
  • Portugal: mãe de milhares

Summary of Invasiveness

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K. daigremontiana is a short-lived succulent plant which is becoming invasive and having impacts principally in dry and arid environments (Herrera and Nassar, 2009). K. daigremontiana is autogamous, produces a high number of seeds (more than 16,000 seeds per fruit), reproduces vegetatively (plantlets), has the capability of forming large seed banks, and grows forming dense thickets (Herrera and Nassar, 2009). This species is listed as invasive in Puerto Rico, Cuba, Venezuela, Spain (i.e., Balearic Islands), Australia, Hawaii and New Caledonia (Liogier, 1988; Hannan-Jones and Playford 2002; DAISIE, 2012; González-Torres et al., 2012; PIER 2013).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Rosales
  •                         Family: Crassulaceae
  •                             Genus: Kalanchoe
  •                                 Species: Kalanchoe daigremontiana

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Crassulaceae includes about 34 genera and 1370 species distributed mostly in arid and dry regions in Mexico, Africa (Cape region), South America and Australia (Stevens, 2012). Plants within this family can be recognized by their succulent herbaceous or soft-stemmed habit, and by their flowers, which have the same number of sepals, petals and carpels (Stevens, 2012). The genus Kalanchoe includes about 145 species native to the Old World, especially southern Africa, Arabia, and South East Asia. Some species of Kalanchoe are characterized by the capability to produce plantlets in notches along leaf margins.

Classification within this family is difficult mainly because many of the species hybridize in both the wild and in cultivation. While many botanists have adopted the APG III system of classification for the orders and families of flowering plants which places the Crassulaceae family in the order Saxifragales, the CAB Thesaurus continues to use the Cronquist system which places it under Rosales.

Description

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Perennial, succulent, monocarpic, purple-mottled, and glaucous herbs. Stems are mostly simple, 5–25 dm × 0.5–2 cm. Leaves are opposite, evenly spaced, simple, largest subpeltate; petiole subterete, 1–5 cm; blade purple-blotched abaxially, triangular to lanceolate, 5–25 cm × 3–12 cm, margins serrate, apex acute, surfaces glaucous; bulbils borne in notches of leaf margins, spurs spoon-shaped. Inflorescence is a compound cyme, paniculate, 1.5–3 dm diameter; branches up to 15 cm. Pedicels 5–15 mm. Flowers pendulous, large, bisexual, calyx green or purplish, not inflated, 6–10 mm, tube 3–4 mm, lobes triangular, 3–7 mm, equaling or longer than tube, apex acute; corolla pink or lavender, 20–30 mm, not contracted basally, lobes obovate, 6–12 mm, apex rounded, apiculate. Nectar scales oblong, 1.5-2 x 0.3-1 mm. Follicles, 7-10 x 2-4 mm. Seed 0.6-1 x 0.2-0.3 mm, oblong with longitudinal striae (Moran, 2009; PIER, 2013).

Plant Type

Top of page Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Succulent
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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K. daigremontiana is native to dry zones in Madagascar. It has been introduced in many regions as an ornamental and a house-plant and it can now be found growing in arid and semiarid habitats in Mexico, Florida, the West Indies, Venezuela, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Australia, South Africa, and on several islands in the Pacific.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

China
-Hong KongPresentIntroducedWu, 2001Cultivated

Africa

MadagascarPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
South AfricaPresentIntroduced Invasive Foxcroft et al., 2008
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedAcebes et al., 2001

North America

MexicoPresentIntroducedVillaseñor and Espinosa-Garcia, 2004
USA
-FloridaPresentIntroducedWunderlin and Hansen, 2008
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive Lorence et al., 1995

Central America and Caribbean

BahamasPresentIntroducedCorrell and Correll, 1982
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive González-Torres et al., 2012
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Potentially invasive

South America

Ecuador
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedCharles Darwin Foundation, 2008Cultivated on Galapagos Islands
VenezuelaPresentIntroduced Invasive Herrera and Nassar, 2009Lara

Europe

Italy
-SardiniaPresentIntroducedCelesti-Grapow et al., 2009
-SicilyPresentIntroducedCelesti-Grapow et al., 2009
PortugalPresentIntroducedAlmeida and Freitas, 2006
-MadeiraPresentIntroducedSilva Vieria RMda, 2002; Silva Vieria RMda, 2002
SpainPresentIntroducedDana et al., 2005; DAISIE, 2013
-Balearic IslandsPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2013

Oceania

Australia
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced Invasive Queensland Goverment, 2011
FijiPresentIntroducedSmith, 1985
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2013
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced Invasive MacKee, 1994
New ZealandPresentIntroducedWebb et al., 1988Cultivated
NiuePresentIntroducedSykes, 1970

History of Introduction and Spread

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K. daigremontiana has been introduced as an ornamental and houseplant in tropical and subtropical regions. The year of introduction of this species is very difficult to determine, but it seems to be a plant of recent introduction. At the Smithsonian Herbarium, the first record of this species for the West Indies comes from a collection made in 1995 in Guánica, Puerto Rico (Smithsonian Herbarium Collection). In areas along roadsides in Guánica this species is spreading and displacing native vegetation (Acevedo-Rodríguez, pers. observation).

Risk of Introduction

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K. daigremontiana has been introduced as an ornamental mostly in dry and arid environments in tropical and subtropical regions. It produces large numbers of minute seeds which can be easily dispersed by wind. It has a high invasive potential and its likelihood of invading new habitats remains high, mainly in water-stressed environments.

Habitat

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K. daigremontiana is well adapted to dry areas because of its succulent features. Thus, this species can be found growing in xeric environments including deserts, dry forests, grasslands, cactus thickets, spiny scrubs, thorny forests, disturbed forests, and roadsides (Hannan-Jones and Playford 2002; Herrerea and Nassar, 2009; Moran, 2009; Herrera et al., 2011).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Arid regions Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Arid regions Present, no further details Natural
Deserts Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Deserts Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
semi-natural/Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
semi-natural/Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number in K. daigremontiana is 2n = 38 (Moran, 2009).

Physiology and Phenology

K. daigremontiana is a perennial monocarpic plant with the capacity for completing its life cycle in 2 years. The life cycle has two distinct phases (Herrera and Nassar, 2009; Herrera et al., 2011):

  1. Vegetative phase: During this phase, seeds germinate and grow into seedlings that later become juveniles and adults capable of producing plantlets asexually.
  2. Flowering phase: During this phase, adult plants produce fruits, seeds, and then die.

K. daigremontiana does not seem to flower annually as it has only been recorded flowering sporadically. In Florida, this species has been recorded flowering during winter (Moran, 2009). In habitats with high seasonality in temperatures and rainfall, plants have been observed flowering at the beginning of the warm season (Moran, 2009; Queensland Government, 2011; PIER, 2013).

A very short time after seed production (approximately 1 month) some seeds germinate to produce seedlings, and the rest of the viable seeds form the seed bank. The vegetative phase usually lasts 2 years, but some individuals occasionally delay the flowering phase further (Groner, 1975; Hannan-Jones and Playford, 2002; Herrera et al., 2011). 

Environmental Requirements

K. daigremontiana grows in warm climates in dry, arid and semiarid environments. As a succulent plant, K. daigremontiana can survive prolonged periods of drought with little or no water. It does not tolerate frost and typically dies if subjected to temperatures below freezing (Moran, 2009; Herrera and Nassar, 2009; Herrera et al., 2011).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -1
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 40

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • shallow

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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K. daigremontiana spreads by seeds and vegetatively. Each plant is able to produce thousands of minute seeds (more than 1000 seeds per fruit) which are dispersed by wind. The species also reproduce asexually by plantlets produced in the margin of the leaves (Herrera and Nassar, 2009; Herrera et al., 2011).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Escape from confinement or garden escapePlanted as ornamental Yes Yes Moran, 2009
Garden waste disposalPlanted as ornamental Yes Yes Moran, 2009
Internet salesPlant sold online (http://davesgarden.com) Yes Yes
Ornamental purposesPlanted as ornamental Yes Yes Moran, 2009

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
MailPlants sold online (http://davesgarden.com) Yes Yes
WindSeeds Yes Yes Herrera and Nassar, 2009

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Negative

Environmental Impact

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K. daigremontiana is an aggressive invasive plant. Studies have demonstrated that K. daigremontiana produces root exudates that can inhibit the germination of seeds and the development of seedlings of nearby plants. These effects have been observed in areas where K. daigremontiana plants either had grown or are still growing. In addition, extracts from K. daigremontiana shoots are also effective in inducing allelopathic responses (Groner, 1975; McKenzie et al., 1987). This species also produces large numbers of seeds and plantlets which can grow forming dense monospecific thickets. K. daigremontiana can be toxic to domestic animals and wildlife (Mckenzie et al., 1987). It also has the potential to alter soil properties (Chacón et al., 2009), and inhibit the recruitment of native vegetation (Groner 1975; Herrera et al., 2011). In Australia, K. daigremontiana has hybridized with the species Kalanchoe delagoensis and the resulting hybrid is widespread in Queensland where it is consider a pest (Queensland Government, 2011).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Impact mechanisms

  • Allelopathic
  • Antagonistic (micro-organisms)
  • Causes allergic responses
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Hybridization
  • Induces hypersensitivity
  • Poisoning
  • Rapid growth

Impact outcomes

  • Altered trophic level
  • Damages animal/plant products
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Negatively impacts animal/plant collections
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species

Invasiveness

  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Reproduces asexually

Likelihood of entry/control

  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity

Ornamental

  • Potted plant
  • Propagation material
  • Seed trade

Prevention and Control

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Physical/Mechanical control

Small infestations may be removed by hand pulling. Because this species forms seed banks, follow-up treatments are recommended until control is completed (Queensland Government, 2011).  

Biological Control

In Australia, the South African citrus thrip (Scirtothrips aurantii) has been used for biological control of Kalanchoe species. Thrips damage the outer tissue of Kalanchoe plants and also lay their eggs under the outer tissue (Queensland Government, 2011). Garms et al. (2013) suggest that due to polyphagy of the thrips under laboratory conditions, caution is needed before promoting use for biological control. However, Rafter and Walter (2013) demonstrated that in the field the realized host range of S. aurantii in Australia is restricted to Crassulaceae.

Chemical Control

Herbicides registered in Queensland for control of Kalanchoe spp. include 2,4-D: 70 ml/10 L water or 7L / 1000L per ha; and fluroxypyr: 600 ml /100 L water. Follow-up treatments are recommended until control is completed (Queensland Government, 2011).

References

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Acebes JR; Arco Mdel; García-Gallo A; León MC; Pérez PL; Rodríguez O; Wildpret Torre Wde la; Martín VE; Marrero MC; Rodríguez ML, 2001. Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta. (Pteridophyta y Spermatophyta.) In: Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) [ed. by Izquierdo, I. \Martín, J. L. \Zurita, N. \Arechavaleta, M.]., Spain: Consejería de Medio Ambiente y Ordenación Territorial, Gobierno de Canarias, 96-143.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Almeida JD; Freitas H, 2006. Exotic naturalized flora of continental Portugal - A reassessment. Botanica Complutensis, 30:117-130 pp.

Celesti-Grapow L; Alessandrini A; Arrigoni PV; Banfi E; Bernardo L; Bovio M; Brundu G; Cagiotti MR; Camarda I; Carli E; Conti F; Fascetti S; Galasso G; Gubellini L; Valva Vla; Lucchese F; Marchiori S; Mazzola P; Peccenini S; Poldini L; Pretto F; Prosser F; Siniscalco C; Villani MC; Viegi L; Wilhalm T(et al), 2009. Inventory of the non-native flora of Italy. Plant Biosystems, 143(2):386-430.

Chacón N; Herrera I; Flores S; González JA; Nassar JM, 2009. Chemical, physical, and biochemical soil properties and plant roots as affected by native and exotic plants in Neotropical arid zones. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 45(3):321-328. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100400

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation.

Correll DS; Correll HB, 1982. Flora of the Bahama Archipelago. Vaduz, Germany: J. Cramer, 1692 pp.

DAISIE, 2013. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. DAISIE (online). www.europe-aliens.org

Dana ED; Sanz-Elorza M; Vivas S; Sobrino E, 2005. Invasive plant species in Andalucia. Technical Report (Especies Vegetales Invasoras en Andalucía. Reporte Técnico)., Spain: Junta de Andalucía.

Foxcroft LC; Richardson DM; Wilson JRU, 2008. Ornamental plants as invasive aliens: problems and solutions in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Environmental Management, 41(1):32-51. http://www.springerlink.com/content/4t141834077205r7/?p=a7991ef465134e6885054af1f7117adf&pi=3

Garms BW; Mound LA; Schellhorn NA, 2013. Polyphagy in the Australian population of South African citrus thrips (Scirtothrips aurantii Faure). Australian Journal of Entomology, 52(3):282-289. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1440-6055

González-Torres LR; Rankin R; Palmarola A (eds), 2012. Invasive plants in Cuba. (Plantas Invasoras en Cuba.) Bissea: Boletin sobre Conservacion de Plantad del Jardin Botanico Nacional, 6:1-140.

Groner MG, 1975. Allelopathic influence of Kalanchoe daigremontiana on other species of plants. Botanical Gazette, 136(2):207-211.

Hannan-Jones MA; Playford J, 2002. The biology of Australian weeds 40. Bryophyllum Salisb. species. Plant Protection Quarterly, 17(2):42-57.

Herrera I; Hernandez MJ; Lampo M; Nassar JM, 2011. Plantlet recruitment is the key demographic transition in invasion by Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Population Ecology, 54:225-237.

Herrera I; Nassar JM, 2009. Reproductive and recruitment traits as indicators of the invasive potential of Kalanchoe daigremontiana (Crassulaceae) and Stapelia gigantea (Apocynaceae) in a Neotropical arid zone. Journal of Arid Environments, 73(11):978-986. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WH9-4WHH764-1&_user=10&_coverDate=11%2F30%2F2009&_rdoc=3&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%236845%232009%23999269988%231347080%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=6845&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=11&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=c2d04d9e6627399ea0f376b3f8491cce

Liogier AH, 1988. Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: A Systematic Synopsis. Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico: Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico.

Lorence DH; Flynn TW; Wagner WL, 1995. Contributions to the flora of Hawai'i. III. New additions, range extensions, and rediscoveries of flowering plants. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers [Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 1994. Part 1: articles.], No. 41:19-58.

MacKee HS, 1994. Catalogue of introduced and cultivated plants in New Caledonia. (Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie.) Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, unpaginated.

McKenzie RA; Franke FP; Dunster PJ, 1987. The toxicity to cattle and bufadienolide content of six Bryophyllum species. Australian Veterinary Journal, 64(10):298-301.

Moran RV, 2009. Crassulaceae. In: Flora of North America North of Mexico, Vol. 8 [ed. by Flora of North America Editorial Committee]. 147-230.

PIER, 2013. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Queensland Goverment, 2011. Fact Sheet Declared Class 2 Pest Plant: Mother-of-millions: Bryophyllum delagoense (syn. tubiflorum, Kalanchoe delagoensis), Bryophyllum × houghtonii (syn. daigremontianum × B. delagoense, Kalanchoe × houghtonii). http://www.daff.qld.gov.au/documents/Biosecurity_EnvironmentalPests/IPA-Mother-Millions-PP33.pdf

Rafter MA; Walter GH, 2013. Post hoc assessment of host plant use in a generalist invader: implications for understanding insect-plant interactions and weed biocontrol. Arthropod - Plant Interactions, 7(4):379-388. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11829-013-9251-6

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Silva Vieria RM da, 2002. [English title not available]. (Flora da Madeira. Plantas vasculares naturalizadas no arquipélago da Madeira.) Boletim do Museu Municipal do Funchal (História Natural), supplement 8:281 pp.

Smith AC, 1985. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii, USA: National Tropical Botanic Gardens, 758 pp.

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Sykes WR, 1970. Contributions to the Flora of Niue. Bulletin. Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Zealand, 200:321 pp.

USDA-ARS, 2013. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Villaseñor JL; Espinosa-Garcia FJ, 2004. The alien flowering plants of Mexico. Diversity and Distributions, 10(2):113-123.

Webb CJ; Sykes WR; Garnock-Jones PJ, 1988. Flora of New Zealand, Volume IV: Naturalised pteridophytes, gymnosperms, dicotyledons. Christchurch, New Zealand: Botany Division, DSIR, 1365 pp.

Wu TL, 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised):384 pp.

Wunderlin RP; Hansen BF, 2008. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. Tampa, Florida, USA: University of South Florida. http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/

Contributors

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04/07/13 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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